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An investigation into evaluating laptop PCs using TBL : an economic view Zhang, Haochen; Naseem, Zuhair; Jarvis, Gordon; Meng, Yangqiao; Tian, Anthony Apr 10, 2014

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 UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student ReportHaochen Zhang, Zuhair Naseem, Anthony Yuan Xin Tian, Caroline Fei Ya Meng, Gordon John JarvisAn Investigation into Evaluating Laptop PCs using TBL: An Economic ViewAPSC 262April 10, 201410371626University of British Columbia Disclaimer: “UBC SEEDS provides students with the opportunity to share the findings of their studies, as well as their opinions, conclusions and recommendations with the UBC community. The reader should bear in mind that this is a student project/report and is not an official document of UBC. Furthermore readers should bear in mind that these reports may not reflect the current status of activities at UBC. We urge you to contact the research persons mentioned in a report or the SEEDS Coordinator about the current status of the subject matter of a project/report”.  Running Head: AN INVESTIGATION INTO EVALUATING LAPTOPS                                       1       An Investigation into Evaluating Laptop PCs using TBL:  An Economic View     Haochen Zhang Zuhair Naseem Gordon Jarvis Yangqiao Meng Anthony Tian      Courses: APSC 262 201 Instructor: Dr. Dawn Mills Date of Submission: April 10, 2014    AN INVESTIGATION INTO EVALUATING LAPTOPS                                                           2 ABSTRACT  The following report is an investigation into the laptop computer usage by faculty and staff at UBC including an evaluation using the accounting concept of the triple bottom line (TBL) assessment. The TBL assessment consists of evaluations of social, environmental and economic impacts on the purchase of laptop PCs to replace the existing ones currently in use at the university. This portion of the report examines the economic view of the TBL and will be considered alongside separate reports on the social and environmental aspects. Based on data provided by the stakeholders regarding the current laptop use on campus, a sample set of laptops to be examined was researched into as part of constructing a price vs. performance ratio. The ratio would simplify the process of evaluation for the user to make more informed decisions when purchasing a laptop PC incorporated into an easy-to-understand scoring index. This index addresses the various performance and functionality components of a laptop PC that should be considered when evaluating the relevance of a laptop PC to meet the needs of a particular user. Constructing the scoring index began with research into methods previously used to evaluate laptop PCs based on performance and benchmark ratings. Next, a database of possible laptop PCs that may be adopted on campus was created with detailed technical information for each model type. Next, after further research, an equation resulting in an overall rating for a particular model was created considering the various components that affect the purchase of a laptop PC depending on the user such as benchmark rating, screen size and memory size, among others.  Although the department purchases the laptops from on campus vendors, the information collected to prepare a price vs. performance ratio was collected directly from the manufacturers. The index is created with two specific users in mind: a basic user and a power user; where the power user is expected to have higher performance demands than the basic user.    AN INVESTIGATION INTO EVALUATING LAPTOPS                                                            TABLE O)  CONTENTS ABSTRACT..................................................................................................................................  2 LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS...........................................................................................................  4  GLOSSARY..................................................................................................................................  5 LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS.........................................................................................................   6 1.0 INTRODUCTION...................................................................................................................   7 2.0 BACKGROUND DETAILS.....................................................................................................  9 2.1 CURRENT PROBLEMS AND TBL ANALYSIS........................................................   9 2.2 CLIENT’S REQUEST...............................................................................................  10 2.3 REPORT COLLABORATION................................................................................... 11 3.0 RESEARCH FINDINGS........................................................................................................  12 3.1 BENCHMARKING.....................................................................................................  12 3.2 SAMPLING................................................................................................................. 13 3.3 MODELING................................................................................................................ 13 4.0 METHODOLOGY.................................................................................................................. 15 4.1 ASSUMPTIONS AND EXCLUSIONS......................................................................   15 4.2 VARIABLES CONSIDERED..................................................................................... 15 4.3 EQUATION.................................................................................................................16 4.4 INTRODUCTION OF PREFERENCE VARIABLES .................................................19 5.0 CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS........................................................................ 22 5.1 RESULTS...................................................................................................................22 5.2 RECOMMENDATIONS..............................................................................................24 5.3 CONCLUSION……………………………………….....……………………………...  25 REFERENCES............................................................................................................................28 APPENDIX A SAMPLE AND EQUATION DATASHEET....................................................29     AN INVESTIGATION INTO EVALUATING LAPTOPS                                                           4 LIST O)  ) IGURES AND ILLUSTRATIONS Page Figure 1: PassMark - Price Performance Benchmark Screenshot…………………….12 Figure 2: Components of A Laptop (Macbook Air).........................................................16 Figure 3: Performance Equation………………………………………………….…….…19 Figure 4: Performance V.S.. Price Graph…………………………………………..….....21 Figure 5: Performance equation including preference variables……...……………..….19 Figure 6: Values assigned to multiplier variables……………………….……………..…20 Figure 7: Average user performance-fit graph…………………………….…….…….… 22 Figure 8: Power user performance-fit graph………………………………….….…...… 23 Figure 9: GeChic On-Lap 13.3in Portable Monitor Illustrations ……………...………....25      AN INVESTIGATION INTO EVALUATING LAPTOPS                                                            GLOSSARY  Benchmark:  the act of assessing the relative performance of an object.  CPU: the hardware within a computer that carries out the instructions of a computer program by performing the basic arithmetical, logical, and input/output operations of the system.   Intel: an American semiconductor chip corporation, one of the major CPU manufacturers.   AMD: Advanced Micro Devices, Inc, an american semiconductor company, one of the major CPU manufacturers  Memory: The physical devices used to store programs and data.  Transfer rate: the rate at which digital interface of computer peripheral equipment and network devices can communicate over buses and networks.  SSD: solid state driver, a data storage device using integrated circuit assemblies as memory to store data.  HDD: hard disk drive, a data storage device using rapidly rotating disks with magnetic material to store data  Hybrid:a hybrid type of hard drive mixes SSD and HDD  CPU Speed: the frequency of the CPU processing clock  Capacity: how much disk space the computer storage can provide.  Screen resolution: the number of distinct pixels in each dimension that can be displayed.  GPU: a specialized electronic circuit designed to rapidly manipulate and alter memory to accelerate the creation of images in a frame buffer intended for output to a display.  Ultrabook: a specification and trademarked brand by Intel for a class of high-end subnotebooks which are designed to feature reduced bulk without compromising performance and battery life.  Tablet:  a mobile computer with display, circuitry and battery in a single unit.   AN INVESTIGATION INTO EVALUATING LAPTOPS                                                           6 LIST O)  ABBREVIATIONS  ● CPU: Central Processing Unit ● GPU: Graphics Processing Unit ● HDD: Hard Disk Drive ● SSD: Solid State Drive ● TBL: Triple Bottom Line             AN INVESTIGATION INTO EVALUATING LAPTOPS                                                            1.0 INTRODUCTION The UBC Information technology IT department is crucial for the daily operation of UBC campus as all campus electronic systems such as campus networN s, student web services, security services and laptop computer services are managed and operated by the IT department. This year, the IT department is requesting an evaluation report of on campus laptop computer usage based on the triple bottom line assessment TBL from the APSC 262 group. The triple bottom line assessment is made up of three general factors: ³social, economic and environmental.´ Technically speaN ing, the triple bottom line can be phrased as ³people, planet, and profit´ to accomplish the goal of sustainability. ³People´ refers to the way a corporation operates its business that it¶s fair and beneficial toward the labour, the community and the region. Such operations follow a reciprocal social structure in which the well being of corporate, labour and other staN eholder interests are interdependent. ³Planet´ refers to sustainable environmental practices to minimi]e any harmful environmental impact and to benefit the natural order as much as possible. ³Profit´ simply means the net economic value generated by a corporation after deducting the cost of all inputs, including the cost of the capital tied up.  This report will focus only on the economic view of the triple bottom line assessment, it will e[ amine different laptop brands based on their price and performance to come up with an optimal performance rating dependent on the user¶s specific needs. This report along with the social and environmental reports from other APSC 262 groups will act as a reference in future campus laptop updates in order to achieve ma[ imum sustainability and profit in terms of the economy, the society and the environment.  AN INVESTIGATION INTO EVALUATING LAPTOPS                                                             This report begins by e[ plaining the bacN ground details such as current problems, requests of the client and collaboration. Then, the report will  proceed on introducing the research findings based on triple bottom line taN ing into account of benchmarN ing and sampling. Lastly, the report will describe the methodology used in deriving the final performance equation which contains detailed e[ planation of any assumptions, e[ clusions and factors considered along the way as well as the final results.     AN INVESTIGATION INTO EVALUATING LAPTOPS                                                            2.0 BAC. GROUND DETAILS Laptop computers are e[ tensively used across the UBC campus by faculty, staff and students each with their individual demands for their respective laptop PCs. The purchase of laptop PCs by UBC IT is done through various information technology IT vendors. The functionality requirements of faculty and staff vary across a wide spectrum of needs, but the maM ority will only require word processing, email and web browsing. 2.1 CURRENT PROBLEMS AND TBL ANALYSIS As informed by the staN eholder, the most common brands used across campus include Dell, HP, Lenovo and Apple. A list of Dell laptops currently used at UBC was also made available through the staN eholder with a brief description of features: Average user ± 12.´ screen, 2.lbs E240 ± 4th gen Intel Core I4010U processor 1.gh], M cache 4GB ram 1600MH] DDRL memory, 12GB Mobility solid state drive 12.´ HD166[ 6 anti glare : LEDbacN lit  Power user ± 12.´ screen, 2. lbs E240 ± 4th gen Intel Core I4600U processor 2.1gh], 4M cache GB ram 1600MH] DDRL memory, 26GB Mobility solid state drive 12.´ HD166[ 6 anti glare : LEDbacN lit    AN INVESTIGATION INTO EVALUATING LAPTOPS                                                           10 Average user ± 14¶ screen, .6 lbs E440 ± 4th gen Intel Core I4010U processor 1.gh], M cache 4GB ram 1600MH] DDRL memory, 12GB Mobility solid state drive 14´ HD166[ 6 wide angle anti glare : LEDbacN lit  Power user ± 14´ screen, .6 lbs E440 ± 4th gen Intel Core I4600U processor 2.1gh], 4M cache GB ram 1600MH] DDRL memory, 26GB Mobility solid state drive 14´ HD166[ 6 wide angle anti glare : LEDbacN lit These samples presented an outline for the range of specifications that should be considered in the sample of laptops. The range included i, i, i intel processors and their AMD equivalents. The samples also include a wide variety in price range, style and performance to incorporate the needs of both, an average user and a power user.  2.2 CLIENT¶S RE4 UEST It is the request of the client to create a laptop evaluation inde[  that taN es the features of a TBL assessment into account. This report provides the economic view of the TBL and thus the inde[  solely reflects the economics portion of the assessment focusing on the price vs. performance ratio. A complete set of data was taN en into account when establishing such a ratio ensuring to taN e outliers into consideration to create a fair and accurate evaluation inde[ .  Through a worN shop with the staN eholder, the team gained an understanding of the proM ect and learned that these laptops are to be used primarily for general desN  functions including emails, word processing, spreadsheets, etc. The team also got a sense of the budget designated for laptops and the  AN INVESTIGATION INTO EVALUATING LAPTOPS                                                           11 amount purchased as well as the current appro[ imate turnover rate of laptops. It was also mentioned that the inde[  could potentially be incorporated into the student body through the booN store or provided online to aid students in maN ing the right choice when purchasing a laptop. All of this information helped the team build the criteria for the inde[  and also decide what changes to  recommend to N eep the inde[  relevant in future years. 2. REPORT COLLABORATION This economic portion of the report is to be taN en into consideration alongside separate reports on the social and environmental aspects of the laptop TBL assessment which will be completed by other teams.     AN INVESTIGATION INTO EVALUATING LAPTOPS                                                           12 .0 RESEARCH ) INDINGS .1 BENCHMAR. ING BenchmarN ing is a way of testing a computer¶s performance through the use of a program that is designed to test and measure it¶s system. These can be very useful, but many e[ ist and they are all slightly different Jain, 11. A CPU benchmarN  provides an assessment of relative performance of a specific processor in comparison to others in the marN et. In researching this topic two sites were found that offer free CPU benchmarN  results. PassMarN  Software has delved into the thousands of benchmarN  results that PerformanceTest users have posted to its web site and produced five Intel vs AMD CPU charts to help compare the relative speeds of the different processors. The other site is cpubenchmarN .net which offeres similar data fora a more complete list of CPUs  source: http:www.cpubenchmarN .netcpuBvalueBalltime.html ) igure 1. PassMarN   Price Performance BenchmarN  Screenshot  AN INVESTIGATION INTO EVALUATING LAPTOPS                                                           1 .2 SAMPLING According to the clients request which focuses on the Intel i, i, i and AMD equivalents for CPU components, four laptop brands were suggested by the UBC IT department and were chosen to be sampled and ten models of each of those brands were considered as part of this proM ect. The parameters used for sampling are decided based on prior N nowledge regarding the customers¶ need, including CPU, memory, graphics, hard drive, GPU which are selected to evaluate the performance. Screen si]e and resolution, and battery duration are selected to evaluate the user e[ perience. ThicN ness and weight will determine the portability.  All data were retrieved from the official website of those companies. See Appendi[  A  . MODELING By the request of client, we designed two default models according to the description of each user¶s need: average user and power user. The average user model optimises for daily basic use such as web browsing, document processing, and operating on software that has low to medium computing power demand. It weighs speed, portability, and cost more than computing power CPU marN , storage capacity, and screen si]e. Therefore, an low end ultrabooN  or similar model with a cheaper price is the best choice.  ) or the power user model, there is a high demand on CPU performance, speed, storage capacity, and even a large screen si]e to increase productivity. Running large applications and programming should be smoother and less time consuming for power users. A high end laptop with a larger screen and  more storage should be the best option. However, high end laptop are always much  AN INVESTIGATION INTO EVALUATING LAPTOPS                                                           14 more e[ pensive, but the Laptop PC Inde[  can help the user find the laptop with lowest price and a higher price to performance ratio.         AN INVESTIGATION INTO EVALUATING LAPTOPS                                                           1 4.0 METHODOLOGY  4.1 ASSUMPTIONS AND E;CLUSIONS This proM ect does not consider the operating system used by each computer. This variable is e[ cluded under the assumption that : indows is the predominant operating system, especially in an office setting, and if needed an Apple machine could be set up with Boot Camp to run : indows. Also software protection is e[ cluded under the assumption that all UBC faculty and staff will be using the Sophos AntiVirus provided by UBC IT. 4.2 VARIABLES CONSIDERED  In this proM ect the technical specifications of the laptop, not benchmarN  results, are used to measure performance. : hile overall benchmarN ing of a computer can be an effective and quicN  method there will always be debate over which program will result in the most complete enduser performance evaluation Dongarra 	  Gent]sch, 1. Because of this and because benchmarN ing results are often not available to the public free of charge, this proM ect will not use an overall benchmarN . This is not a new idea, Paul Chwelos used the technical aspects of a computer to measure performance in his worN  on price inde[ es. He said that ³the variables included are technical attributes and should not be subM ect to significant measurement error neither do these variables require interpretation or M udgement in their construction´ . Other benefits of this approach are the availability of the information, much of the information can be obtained from the manufacturers website maN ing this process free and easy for a wide range of users. Also by comparing the technical aspects of one laptop against the others considered this method will not become outdated as the technology improves.  AN INVESTIGATION INTO EVALUATING LAPTOPS                                                           16 The variables considered important to the user end performance of a laptop are: Ɣ CPU performance Ɣ Memory si]e Ɣ Hard drive capacity Ɣ Screen si]e Ɣ : eight Ɣ ThicN ness Ɣ : arranty Ɣ E[ tra features of the laptop CD drive, video output, touch screen, N eyboard, Bluetooth capability, etc.  source: http:images.macrumors.comarticle20002010621242B00.M pg ) igure 2. Components of A Laptop MacbooN  Air 4. E4 UATION  In order to N eep the equation accurate with technology that is forever changing it was decided to normali]e each variable divide each variable by the ma[ imum present in that sample si]e. If a variable is directly related to performance it get added to the overall performance, variables that are  AN INVESTIGATION INTO EVALUATING LAPTOPS                                                           1 indirectly related to performance get one minus that variable added to the overall performance Triplett, 2006. Ne[ t a series of constants were introduced to weigh the variables differently depending on how much the impacted the enduser performance. This resulted in an performance equation of:  ) igure . Equation used to measure performance of a laptop based on that laptop¶s technical specifications.  The CPUMarN  value was obtained from an open sourced site that contains benchmarN  ratings of the marN et¶s current cpu. This is the most effective way to measure CPU performance because benchmarN s that pertain solely to the CPU are subM ect to less sources of variability, and the results are free to the public. CpubenchmarN .net was used in this proM ect because it contains a wider range of CPUs. Note that the data on this site changes frequently with the introduction of new CPUs, so the data for all the laptops considered must be retrieved on the same day. The last to elements, e[ tras and missing essentials, are there to account for laptops that are more highly priced because of e[ tra physical features, and laptops that are cheaper due to less physical features. The missing essentials are features of a laptop that the members of this group decided were crucial to a member of UBC faculty and staff. These features are: Ɣ : ifi Ɣ . eyboard Ɣ Camera and microphone Ɣ At least 1 USB .0 Ɣ SpeaN ers Ɣ Touchpad and or mouse button  AN INVESTIGATION INTO EVALUATING LAPTOPS                                                           1 Ɣ Some form of video output These features could potentially change in the future years.  The e[ tras element was introduced to deal with any features that could increase a laptops performance. The e[ tra features considered in this proM ect were: Ɣ SD card slot Ɣ Touch screen Ɣ Conversion to a tablet by 60 degree hinge or by removable N eyboard Ɣ Contains stylist Ɣ Bluetooth capabilities Ɣ ) ingerprint reader for security purposes Ɣ Optical Drive Ɣ E[ tension DocN  port Ɣ Robustness durable construction, spill proof N eyboard, etc. Ɣ Resolution above full HD above 100p Similar to the missing essentials list the list of e[ tras presented here is applicable to today¶s laptop marN et but is subM ect to change with the introduction of new technologies. The values of the constants are as follows: Ɣ CBcpu   6. Ɣ CBspeed   0. Ɣ CBcapacity   1.4 Ɣ CBwarranty   .2 Ɣ CBscreen si]e   2 Ɣ CBportability   6. Ɣ E;TRAS    1. ea Ɣ Missing Essentials   1. ea    AN INVESTIGATION INTO EVALUATING LAPTOPS                                                           1 This resulted in the overall graph of:  ) igure 4. Performance vs. price graph of all laptops. The constants, the weight of each variable, was set to create a graph with a linear relationship between performance and price. After much manipulation of these values the final graph has an r squared value of 0., meaning it adheres closely to a direct relationship between performance and price. 4.4 INTRODUCTION O)  PRE) ERENCE VARIABLES  In the interest of maN ing this method applicable to a variety of users a series of preference variables were introduced into the original performance equation. These preference variables allow for different technical aspects to have different importance in respect to the overall performance. The equation with these preference variables reads:  AN INVESTIGATION INTO EVALUATING LAPTOPS                                                           20  ) igure . Performance equation with preference variables included.   In this report two sets of preference variables were considered, one for the average user and one for the power user. The average user UBC¶s faculty and staff would be using a laptop for word processing programs, emails, and presentations. ) or this type of user the preference variables were arranged so that the equation would favor laptops that were not overly powerful, did not have a large screen, had a long warranty, and were portable especially important for professors. ) or a power user the variables were arranged so that the equation would favor powerful and fast computers, with long warranties, large screens, and that were not necessarily portable. The values set to these preference variables, out of two, were as follows: Preference Variable out of 2 AVERAGE USER PO: ER USER Cpu 0. 2.0 Speed 0. 1. Capacity 1. 0. : arranty 1. 1. Screen Si]e 0. 1. Portability 2.0 0. ) igure 6. Values assigned to preference variables for the average and power users.    AN INVESTIGATION INTO EVALUATING LAPTOPS                                                           21 These variables can be changed to fit any user. : hen setting these variables it is important to reali]e that screen si]e and portability one indirectly related so setting both of these to the ma[ imum value of 2 is unadvised. The findings of the social report done by another proM ect group in the APSC 262 section T2C should also be considered when setting these variables to accurately represent UBC¶s faculty and staff.  : ith these variables the equation gives an altered graph for performance vs. price however these graphs are not that informative as the best laptop is the one that has the highest performance with relation to price. The best way to view the results is to graph  the slope of the line created when each point is M oined to the origin this is a measure of highly a computer¶s performance is rated with respect to its price.     AN INVESTIGATION INTO EVALUATING LAPTOPS                                                           22 .0 Conclusion and Recommendations .1 RESULTS This process yields the following graphs:  ) igure . Graph showing the most appropriate laptops for an average user, the laptops corresponding to   the highest points are shown below, in results   AN INVESTIGATION INTO EVALUATING LAPTOPS                                                           2 .  ) igure . Graph showing the most appropriate laptops for a power user, the laptops corresponding to the highest points are shown below, in results.  The highest points on the graph related to the average user, ) igure , are: Ɣ MacBooN  Air 11 A146, i, 4GB RAM, 12GB SSD   or  124    Ɣ ThinN Pad Twist UltrabooN , 12., i,4GB RAM, 00GB HD  4 Ɣ MacBooN  Air 1 A12, i, 4GB RAM, 12GB SSD  10 or  14    The highest points on the graph related to the power user, ) igure , are: Ɣ HP Envy 1 M 14 ca, i, 12GB RAM, 1TB  1,000 or  110  Ɣ HP Envy 1 M 10 ca, i, GB RAM, 1TB  1,000 or  110  Ɣ MacBooN  Pro 1 A1, i, GB RAM, 26GB SSD  14 or  1   Higher price is with the e[ tended warranty included Apple   years, HP  2 years   AN INVESTIGATION INTO EVALUATING LAPTOPS                                                           24 .2 RECOMMENDATIONS The Laptop PC Inde[  is customi]ed with users¶ needs and preferences in mind. Surveys conducted by the Laptop Social view team can be used to gather user preference information for better fitting recommendations. Beside the average user model and power user model, user individuals are recommended to customi]e Laptop PC Inde[  to find the laptop with their personal preference instead using the default model of average and power user. It might taN e a longer time to gather preferences for the inde[  to worN , but it would help to get the best result and give user the best option. : hen using the Laptop PC Inde[ , conflicts occurs very often. ) or e[ ample, UBC Information Center staffs were interviewed for their opinions on their current worN ing laptop and preferences. The current laptops are slow, affects staff¶s efficiency and mood. The staff also e[ pressed the need for portability and larger worN space for carrying the laptop around offices and comparing documents and databases. After meeting the requirement of speed, the conflict of portability and screen si]e occurred since they are inverse proportional. In this case, the peripheral devices such as additional monitors, e[ ternal storages, speaN erphone and headset, and usb or wireless e[ tensions such as mouse, N eyboard, camera, etc. can be e[ plored.  As a result, the best solution for UBC Information Center staff is a cheaper high performance 11´14´ ultrabooN  that optimises speed, portability and price with the Laptop PC Inde[ , with the addition of portable USB monitor if necessary. The USB monitor has a price range of  100a 00, which is not too e[ pensive to consider. As for portability, a USB monitor such as the  200 GeChic OnLap 1.in Portable Monitor can be attached and folded on the bacN  of laptop, which does not add much to thicN ness and weight. The UltrabooN  and USB monitor combination can be easily carried around, and resolved the conflict.  AN INVESTIGATION INTO EVALUATING LAPTOPS                                                           2  source: http:www.gechic.comproductBhelpBen.asp"s  ) igure . GeChic OnLap 1.in Portable Monitor Illustrations  In the end, it is important to use the Laptop PC Inde[  with the results of the Social and Environmental group to complete the TBL evaluation. Social and environmental concerns of a laptop should be weighted equally as economical concerns.  . CONCLUSION As the request from UBC IT department, this report evaluate on campus laptop computer using TBL, and will be used for future reference to improve the sustainability. As the client¶s request, this report focus on the economy section by compare the price and performance of recent models of Apple, HP, Lenovo and Dell. The CPU benchmarN ing results are chosen from PassMarN  Software. Several parameters were introduced to evaluate their performance, such as user e[ perience and portability.  ) or  AN INVESTIGATION INTO EVALUATING LAPTOPS                                                           26 the evaluation on overall performance, an equation is created. In addition, since the demand of customers varies a lot, two sets of preference variables were used in the equation for average users and power users respectively.       AN INVESTIGATION INTO EVALUATING LAPTOPS                                                           2 RE) ERENCES Amine, L. S., Chao, M. C., 	  Arnold, M. J. 200. E[ ecutive Insights: E[ ploring The Practical Effects Of Country Of Origin, Animosity, And Price 4 uality Issues: Two Case Studies Of Taiwan And Acer In China. Journal of International MarN eting, 12, 11410.   AnandTech _ Bench   CPU. n.d.. RSS. Retrieved from    http:www.anandtech.comBenchCPU2  BenN ard, C. L., 	  BaM ari, P. 200. Hedonic Price Inde[ es with Unobserved Product Characteristics, and Application to PC¶s. National Bureau of Economic Research worN ing paper no. 0.  Chwelos, Paul. 1. Hedonic approaches to measuring price and quality change in personal computing systems Doctoral dissertation. Retrieved from Pro4 uest Dissertations and Theses database. N4 4622  CPU List. n.d.. PassMarN . Retrieved from  http:www.cpubenchmarN .netcpuBlist.php  Dongarra, J. J., 	  Gent]sch, : . Eds.. 1. Computer BenchmarN s. Amsterdam: Elsevier Science Publishers B.V..   Jones, M. E., : ei, B. : ., 	  Hung, D. L. 201. Laptop energy saving opportunities based on user behaviors. Energy Efficiency, 62, 4241. doi:10.100s12001216  Jain, R. 11. The Art of Computer System Analysis: Techniques for E[ perimental Design, Measurement, Simulation, and Modeling. New YorN : : iley.   Mahesri, A., 	  Vardan, V. 200. Power Consumption BreaN down on a Modern Laptop. In ) alsafi, B., 	  ViM ay. umar, T. N. Eds.. PowerAware Computer Systems pp. 1610. Berlin: Springer.  Triplett, J. 2006. HandbooN  on Hedonic Inde[ es and 4 uality AdM ustments in Price Inde[ es: Special Application to Information Technology Products.  Paris: OCED Publications. doi:10.164110  : ycN off, A. : . 1, The Impact of Computer Prices on International Comparisons of Labour Productivity. Economics of Innovation and New Technology,  4,  22. doi:10.1001040000000    AN INVESTIGATION INTO EVALUATING LAPTOPS                                                           2 APPENDI; A SAMPLE AND E4 UATION DATASHEET   

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