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An investigation into the UBC Pharmaceutical Sciences Impact Media Wall Ceravolo, Eduardo; Simon, Nico; Tariq, Razana; Kazemi, Riza Nov 28, 2013

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 UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student ReportEduardo Ceravolo, Nico Simon, Razana Tariq, Riza KazemiAN INVESTIGATION INTO THE UBC PHARMACEUTICAL SCIENCES IMPACT MEDIA WALLAPSC 261December 17, 20139851487University of British Columbia Disclaimer: “UBC SEEDS provides students with the opportunity to share the findings of their studies, as well as their opinions, conclusions and recommendations with the UBC community. The reader should bear in mind that this is a student project/report and is not an official document of UBC. Furthermore readers should bear in mind that these reports may not reflect the current status of activities at UBC. We urge you to contact the research persons mentioned in a report or the SEEDS Coordinator about the current status of the subject matter of a project/report”.  ! 1!!!AN!INVESTIGATION!INTO!THE!UBC!PHARMACEUTICAL!SCIENCES!IMPACT!MEDIA!WALL!by!!Eduardo!Ceravolo,!Nico!Simon,!!Razana!Tariq!and!Riza!Kazemi!For!APSC!261!!Tutorial!Instructor:!Dr.!Xiaotao!Tony!Bi!Instructor:!Dr.!Carla!Patterson!28!November!2013!!!!!! 2!!Abstract!!The!Impact!Media!Wall!(IMW)!is!a!rearWprojection!based!exhibit!designed!to!be!a!prestigious!part!of!the!recently!built!stateWofWtheWart!Pharmaceutical!Sciences!building.!The!sixWprojector!design,!accompanied!with!incapable!graphics!hardware!reduces!user!experience,!consumes!high!energy!and!is!expensive!to!maintain.!This!report!proposes!two!solutions!to!the!currently!flawed!implementation!by!considering!social,!economic!and!environmental!indicators!to!investigate!alternative!Media!Wall!configurations.!The!first!solution!reduces!the!number!of!required!projectors!by!utilizing!shortWthrow!projectors.!Having!only!two!projectors!instead!of!six!increases!the!performance!while!reducing!the!cost!of!maintenance.!The!second!solution!replaces!the!projectors!with!an!array!of!eighteen!55”!LED!displays.!With!the!implementation!of!LED!displays!the!visual!quality!improves!greatly.!In!addition,!LED!displays!are!more!energy!efficient!than!the!current!setup.!With!the!presence!of!two!options,!the!stakeholders!are!able!to!decide!between!paying!the!premium!for!high!quality!LED!displays!and!decreasing!the!number!of!projectors!for!economic!benefit.!!!!!!!!! 3!Table+of+Contents+!LIST!OF!ILLUSTRATIONS!........................................................................................................................!i!GLOSSARY!.....................................................................................................................................................!ii!LIST!OF!ABBREVIATIONS!.....................................................................................................................!iii!1.0! INTRODUCTION!..............................................................................................................................!1!2.0!INVESTIGATION!..................................................................................................................................!2!2.1!Primary!Investigation!..................................................................................................................!2!2.2!Secondary!Investigation!.............................................................................................................!3!3.0!INDICATORS!.........................................................................................................................................!3!3.1!Social!Indicator!...............................................................................................................................!3!3.2!Economic!Indicators!.....................................................................................................................!4!3.3!Environmental!Indicators!..........................................................................................................!4!4.0!CURRENT!SETUP!................................................................................................................................!5!4.1!Description!.......................................................................................................................................!5!4.2!Problems!...........................................................................................................................................!6!4.2.1!Edge!Blending!Artifacts!......................................................................................................!6!4.2.2!High!Maintenance!Costs!.....................................................................................................!7!4.2.3!High!Power!Consumption!.................................................................................................!9!4.3.4!Image!Quality!.......................................................................................................................!10!5.0!IDEA1:!SHORT!THROW!PROJECTORS!....................................................................................!10!5.1!Viewsonic!PJD8633WS!.............................................................................................................!12!5.2!Eiki!LCWHDT700!+!Eiki!AHW32013!Fixed!Lens!................................................................!17!6.0!IDEA!2:!LCD/LED!Video!Wall!.....................................................................................................!19!7.0!COMPARISON!....................................................................................................................................!24!7.1!Environmental!Index!................................................................................................................!24!7.2!Economical!Index!.......................................................................................................................!26!7.3!Social!Index!...................................................................................................................................!28!8!CONCLUSIONS!AND!PROPOSED!SOLUTION!............................................................................!29!REFERENCES!............................................................................................................................................!31!! i!LIST+OF+ILLUSTRATIONS+!Figure!1:!!Impact!Media!Wall!................................................................................................................!2!Figure!2:!Edge!Blending!Errors!...........................................................................................................!7!Figure!3:!Throw!ratio!is!defined!as!D/W.!.....................................................................................!11!Figure!4:!Viewsonic!short!throw!projectors!are!able!to!occupy!80%!of!Media!Wall!13!Figure!5:!As!distance!from!the!screen!increases!higher!resolutions!become!indistinguishable.!..........................................................................................................................!16!Figure!6:!Eiki!Projector!costs!$10,500.!..........................................................................................!17!Figure!7:!!Paneled!Video!Wall.!...........................................................................................................!19!Figure!9:!Display!structure!mount.!……………………………………………………………………..20!Figure!8:!LED!backlight.!.......................................................................................................................!20!Figure!10:!Environmental!index!comparison.!............................................................................!24!Figure!11:!Long!term!financial!analysis.!.......................................................................................!26!Figure!12:!Economic!index!comparison.!.......................................................................................!27!Figure!13:!Social!index!comparison.!...............................................................................................!28!+! +! ii!GLOSSARY+!!Aesthetics:!set!of!rules!concerned!about!the!appreciation!and!role!of!beauty.!Back?mail:!product!returned!to!the!manufacturer.!Bezel:!rim!that!holds!a!lens!or!screen.!Configurations:!Arrangements!of!parts.!Edge+blending:!reWcomposition!of!the!projected!images!to!adjust!light!intensity!at!the!intersections.!!Frames+per+second:!number!of!distinct!images!produced!in!one!second.!Graphics+Card:!external!expansion!card!which!outputs!images!to!a!display.!Graphic+Rendering:!generating!images!from!models!using!computer!programs.!High+gain+films:!rear!projection!films.!Lumens:!amount!of!light!emitted!per!second!in!a!unit!solid!angle.!Mirror+Assemblies:!used!to!reflect!image!on!mirror!surfaces!and!subassemblies!about!a!plane.!Peer?reviewed:!evaluation!of!work!by!one!or!more!people!of!equivalent!ability!as!the!producer!of!the!work.!Rear?projection:++combines!preWfilmed!backgrounds!with!foreground!performances.!Short+throw+projector:!a!type!of!projector!that!is!able!to!produce!relatively!large!projections!from!short!distances.!Sustainable:+able!to!maintain!something!at!a!particular!level.!Throw+ratio:!ratio!of!distance!from!the!screen!and!the!width!of!the!projection!Triple+bottom+line:!a!method!of!investigation!considering!social,!economic!and!environmental!aspects.!Vector+Images:!images!that!are!defined!by!geometrical!primitives.!+! +! iii!LIST+OF+ABBREVIATIONS+!!FPS:!frames!per!second!HGF:!high!gain!films!IMW:!Impact!Media!Wall!LCD:!Liquid!Crystal!Display!LED:!Light!Emitting!Diode!TBL:!triple!bottom!line!!!!!!! +! 1!1.0 +INTRODUCTION+!!The!Impact!Media!Wall!is!a!large!7WbyW26!foot!projection!wall,!as!shown!in!Figure!1,!located!in!the!University!of!British!Columbia’s!Pharmaceutical!Sciences!building,!which!was!inaugurated!on!18!September!2012.!It!is!a!stateWofWtheWart!learning!and!research!facility!designed!with!the!latest!sustainable!technology.!The!building!showcases!a!digital!exhibition,!spanning!from!the!first!to!the!second!floor.!The!Impact!Media!Wall!is!a!part!of!this!exhibition,!and!is!located!on!the!entrance!level.!!!!Designed!by!a!Vancouver!based!company!named!NGX!Interactive,!the!IMW!is!comprised!of!six!large!rear!projection!screens,!each!with!its!own!projector.!Even!though!the!IMW!is!the!key!element!of!the!building,!over!the!past!year!its!maintenance!has!become!overwhelming!and!unanticipated!problems!have!arisen!(Shaw,!2012).!!The!objective!of!this!project!is!to!utilize!the!triple'bottom'line!(TBL)!analysis!to!compare!the!existing!Media!Wall!with!possible!alternatives.!Considering!the!social,!economical!and!environmental!indicators!to!investigate!alternative!configurations,!this!report!aims!to!assist!the!faculty!of!Pharmacy!in!resolving!the!current!problems!with!the!IMW.!! 2!!Figure!1:!!Impact!Media!Wall!!(Source:!http://www.flickr.com/photos/ubcpharmsci/8675583287)!!!2.0+INVESTIGATION+!2.1+Primary+Investigation+!The!primary!research!is!based!on!information!collected!from!the!stakeholders!of!the!project,!Phil!Chatterton!(Director!of!Digital!Media!Technologies,!UBC!IT)!and!Mike!Coughtrie!(Dean!of!Faculty!of!Pharmaceutical!Sciences).!!The!stakeholders!provided!information!regarding!the!current!installation!of!the!IMW,!such!as!a!list!of!hardware!and!the!purpose!of!the!exhibit.!This!information!is!! 3!used!to!compare!alternative!solutions!to!the!current!setup.!As!a!part!of!the!primary!investigation,!a!visit!to!Pharmaceutical!Sciences!building!and!observation!of!the!IMW!revealed!the!current!technical!problems!such!poor!edge'blending,!low!fps'and!distracting!reflections!due!to!ambient!lighting.!These!problems!significantly!deteriorated!the!user!experience.!!+2.2+Secondary+Investigation+!The!secondary!research!for!this!investigation!include!peer!reviewed!articles,!user!manuals,!scholarly!papers!on!power!saving!and!technology!reviews!were!consulted.!These!findings!are!used!to!compare!display!technologies!such!as!power!consumption,!initial!costs,!maintenance!costs!and!performance,!in!a!manner!that!satisfies!the!requirements!of!TBL!analysis.!!3.0+INDICATORS+!The!TBL!analysis!requires!investigations!on!social,!economic!and!environmental!grounds.!The!impact!of!these!indicators!forms!the!basis!of!this!investigation.!!+3.1+Social+Indicator+!The!UBC!Faculty!of!Pharmaceutical!Sciences!intends!to!implement!a!technology!that!would!appeal!to!the!public!and!focus!on!the!contribution!of!Medicine!to!human!health!and!the!community.!This!initiative!for!sustainable!healthcare!provides!! 4!evidence!for!ongoing!research!and!dialogue!on!economic!principles!of!healthcare,!focusing!on!the!role!of!Pharmacy!in!bringing!changes.!The!digital!exhibits!should!attract!the!community!and!enhance!their!knowledge!of!and!interest!towards!pharmacy.!!The!aesthetics!of!the!media!wall!should!comply!with!the!visual!standards!of!a!modern!building.!The!interest!factor!examines!whether!the!media!wall!will!add!any!value!to!the!Story!of!Medicine!exhibition.!!3.2+Economic+Indicators+!The!economic!indicators!are!the!financial!factors!of!this!investigation.!Economic!indicators!used!for!comparison!include!the!initial!production,!maintenance!and!the!power!consumption!costs.!The!motive!of!this!investigation!is!to!reduce!these!costs.!Comparison!of!costs!will!help!evaluate!which!solution!is!the!cheapest!to!implement!and!maintain.!!Although!the!Faculty!of!Pharmacy!is!able!to!cover!the!costs,!it!does!not!want!to!keep!replacing!the!parts!on!a!frequent!basis!as!it!hinders!the!functioning!of!the!media!wall!and!could!result!in!the!media!wall!being!inactive!for!longer!periods!of!time.!!+3.3+Environmental+Indicators+++!This!type!of!indicator!relates!to!the!impact!of!the!media!wall!on!the!environment.!The!environmental!indicators!are!production!materials,!recyclability!and!power!! 5!consumption.!The!materials!used!in!the!production!of!the!media!wall!should!have!little!impact!on!the!environment!during!their!production!and!at!the!end!of!their!lifespan.!The!chosen!devices!should!also!consume!power!conservatively!to!have!minimum!effect!on!environment.!4.0+CURRENT+SETUP+++4.1+Description+!The!setup!designed!by!NGX!Interactive!is!based!on!a!rear!projection!system!with!mirror!assemblies.!It!consists!of!the!hardware!shown!in!Table!1!below.!Line+ Hardware! Model+Number! Quantity! Estimated+Cost+!(per+line)!1! DLP!Projectors! PT!W!DW6300ULS! 6! $!23,394!2! Mirror!assemblies! Millennium! 6! $!26,664!3! Rear!projection!films! EOSWprocured!film! 6! Unable!to!find!4! Computer! Dell!T3500! 1! $!525!5! Video!card! Maxtron!M9188! 1! $!2,700!6! Edge!blending!device! TVWOne!C2W2450A! 4! $!7,980!7! AV!rack! Toten!TOC22UD! 1! $!837!! 6!8! AV!rack!drawer! Toten!TODWR2U! 1! $!58!Table!1:!List!of!Hardware!!The!total!hardware!cost!of!the!current!setup!is!estimated!to!be:!$!62,150.!This!does!not!include!construction!of!the!outer!wall!or!the!glass!panel!in!front!of!the!projection!screens.!The!cost!of!the!projection!film!was!not!found;!therefore,!it!had!to!be!omitted!from!the!calculation.!The!power!consumption!of!the!current!system!in!operation:!●!!! Projectors!6!x!790!W!=!4740!W!●!!! Computer!=!520!W!●!!! Edge!Blending!=!4!x!25!W!=!100!W!The!total!power!consumption!of!the!system!is!estimated!to!be!5360!W,!dominated!by!the!projectors.!+4.2+Problems+!The!current!Impact!Media!wall!has!some!problems!that!inhibit!its!ability!to!serve!its!intended!purpose.!The!problems!range!from!aesthetics!to!maintenance!costs.!+4.2.1+Edge+Blending+Artifacts+!The!IMW!wall!was!designed!to!be!a!seamless!display!by!integrating!the!6!projectors!with!appropriate!edge!blending!units.!The!system!is,!however,!not!displaying!as!a!single!entity!but!rather!is!segmented!into!6!distinct!sections!that!slightly!overlap!! 7!one!another.!This!problem!is!visually!unappealing!and!hinders!the!effectiveness!of!portraying!the!Story!of!Medicines!to!the!public.!Figure!2!below!shows!the!edge!blending!errors.!The!problem!is!suspected!to!be!due!to!incorrect!calibration!or!implementation!of!the!edge!blending!units!and!could!possibly!be!fixed!through!software!on!the!computer!or!through!adjusting!the!edge!blending!units!themselves.!!Figure!2:!Edge!Blending!Errors!+4.2.2+High+Maintenance+Costs+!!The!Panasonic!projectors!used!within!the!current!IMW!require!frequent!replacement!of!the!projector!bulbs.!Each!projector!uses!two!bulbs!to!achieve!the!high!brightness!required!in!the!rearWprojection!setup!(Panasonic!PTWDW6300ULS!! 8!User!Manual,!p28).!It!is!recommended!that!the!lamps!be!replaced!after!1800!hours!of!use.!NGX!Interactive!designed!the!wall!to!be!operational!for!8!–!15!hours!a!day.!This!results!in!2,900!to!5,475!hours!per!year.!Each!projector!will!require!1!–!3!lamp!replacements!each!year.!The!cost!of!one!lamp!is!$240!(“Replacement!Lamp!Module!for!Panasonic!ETWLAD60!Projectors”,!2013).!The!average!bulb!replacement!cost!per!year!is!calculated!below:!! !"#$ = 2!!"#$%1!!"#$ ∗ 2!!"#$%1!!"#$%&'#" ∗ $2401!!"#$ ∗ 6!!"#$%&'#"( = $!5760!!The!average!bulb!replacement!cost,!when!the!system!is!running!the!designed!amount!of!hours,!is!almost!10%!of!the!initial!cost!of!the!entire!IMW’s!hardware!costs.!This!is!a!large!maintenance!cost.!If!the!lamps!are!not!replaced!then!the!image!quality!will!deteriorate!rapidly,!and!the!lamps!could!explode!and!release!gas!(Panasonic!PTWDW6300ULS!User!Manual,!p10).!!The!projectors!themselves!will!need!to!be!replaced!after!some!time.!They!are!warrantied!for!3!years!("Panasonic!Projectors:!Panasonic!PTWDW6300ULS!DLP!projector",!n.d)!and!therefore!3!years!will!be!the!minimum!replacement!time.!The!cost!of!replacing!the!6!projectors!would!be!about!$!23,000!as!calculated!before.!The!projectors!account!for!almost!40%!of!the!hardware!costs!of!the!IMW!and!therefore!the!replacement!costs!are!very!large.!! 9!+4.2.3+High+Power+Consumption+!!The!power!consumption!of!the!IMW!was!estimated!to!be!5360!W!in!the!description!above.!If!the!media!wall!operates!for!11.5h!each!day,!which!is!the!average!of!the!designed!system,!then!the!resulting!power!consumption!per!day!is:!! 11.5!ℎ ∗ 5236! = 62!"ℎ!!The!energy!consumption!per!month!results!in!1800kWh.!The!average!commercial!energy!charge!is!about!$0.0942!per!kWh!("BC!Hydro!W!Business!Rates!Prices",!n.d.).!The!cost!of!operating!the!IMW!per!year!is!therefore:!! $0.0942 ∗ 1850!"ℎ ∗ 12!"#$ℎ! = $2091!!!The!cost!of!running!the!media!wall!may!not!be!too!shocking;!nevertheless,!the!focus!should!not!be!on!the!monetary!value,!but!rather!the!environmental!aspect.!UBC!is!striving!to!become!a!greener!campus!("sustain.ubc.ca",!n.d.)!and!it!is!important!to!minimize!power!consumption!on!campus!as!a!whole.!+! +! 10!4.3.4+Image+Quality+!!The!IMW!is!next!to!a!large!window!that!allows!sunlight!to!shine!onto!it.!The!additional!light!causes!reflections!to!appear!on!the!glass!encasing!the!projection!screens.!These!reflections!degrade!the!overall!appearance.!These!artifacts!could!be!eliminated!by!replacing!the!current!glass!with!an!antiWreflective!counterpart,!such!as!made!by!SCHOTT!("Indoor!AntiWreflective!Glass!&!MuseumWQuality!Glass",!n.d.).!The!display!also!suffers!from!a!low!frame!rate,!causing!the!content!to!appear!lagged.!This!could!be!caused!due!to!the!high!resolution!of!the!final!system!and!the!hardware!limitations!of!the!Maxtron!M9188!graphics!card.!5.0+IDEA+1:+SHORT+THROW+PROJECTORS+!Many!of!the!problems!found!in!the!current!system!are!due!to!using!many!projectors.!For!example,!edge'blending!becomes!computationally!more!difficult!as!the!number!of!intersections!increases.!Other!problems!such!as!energy!consumption!and!maintenance!costs!are!directly!related!to!the!number!of!projectors!as!well.!!There!are!two!main!advantages!of!utilizing!as!much!as!six!projectors.!Firstly,!throw'distance!is!allowed!to!be!minimal!for!a!given!total!screen!size!and!this!make!a!small!room!suitable!for!storage!of!projectors.!This!can!be!explained!by!the!rule!that!size!of!projection!is!dependent!on!throw'distance.'Secondly,!total!resolutions!of!multiple!projectors!provide!a!highWresolution!composition.!This!increases!visual!quality.!!! 11!As!it!is!not!practical!to!extend!the!projector!room!with!construction,!using!less!number!of!projectors!from!greater!distance!for!the!same!size!of!screen!is!not!an!option.!However,!there!is!a!special!type!of!projector!used!for!larger!projections!from!smaller!distances!named!short'throw!(ST)'projectors.!Replacing!current!projectors!by!these!will!reduce!the!total!number!of!projectors!down!to!two.!!!Figure!3:!Throw!ratio!is!defined!as!D/W.!(Source:!http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Throw_(projector)!)!!!The!distance!from!the!projectors!to!the!wall!is!found!to!be!approximately!4.5m(14.76ft)!using!the!data!sheet!for!the!current!projectors!provided!by!the!stakeholder!(Chatterton,!2013).!The!goal!for!the!replacement!system!being!2!projectors,!we!require!a!minimum!of!1.13:1!throw'ratio'(TR)!as!compared!to!2.1:1!! 12!ratio!of!current!projectors.!This!can!be!calculated!using!the!fact!that!the!screen!is!26ft!wide!and!7ft!long!and!the!throw!distance!is!14.76ft.!! !" = !!"#$%&!!"!!"#$%&'#"( ∗ !ℎ!"#!!"!"#$%&!"!#$! "#$ℎ = 2 ∗ 14.7626 = 1.13!With!the!addition!of!a!wideWangle!lens!such!as!Panasonic!ETWDLE150,!throw!ratio!of!current!projectors!can!be!improved!down!only!to!1.3:1!("Panasonic!ETWDLE150!Power!Zoom!Lens",!n.d.).!Since!it!is!above!the!requirement,!projector!replacement!is!necessary.!One!being!economical!and!other!being!of!higher!quality,!two!possible!replacement!options!are!explained!below.!!5.1+Viewsonic+PJD8633WS+!Being!in!the!ST!projector!class,!this!device!is!able!to!project!a!250''!image!from!two!meters.!It!is!possible!to!form!a!screen!sized!eight!tenth!of!the!current!Media!Wall!with!two!of!such!projectors.!The!setup!for!this!configuration!can!be!seen!in!Figure!4.!One!of!this!brand!and!model!projector!costs!$1,230!making!the!initial!cost!reasonable.!! 13!!!Figure!4:!Viewsonic!short!throw!projectors!are!able!to!occupy!80%!of!Media!Wall!Projector!image:!http://www.viewsonic.com/us/projectors/shortWultraWshortWthrow/pjd8633ws.html!)!!There!are!many!advantages!of!reducing!the!number!of!projectors!as!initially!mentioned.!With!this!configuration,!edge!blending!and!graphic'rendering!will!require!less!computing!power!and!this!will!help!to!achieve!a!highWfps!seamless!composition.!This!is!a!result!of!decrease!in!total!resolution!and!the!number!of!projection!intersections.!Also,!having!a!moderate!resolution!makes!it!possible!to!work!with!standard!highWres!graphics!that!are!commercially!available!on!the!Internet!to!update!the!content!of!the!Media!Wall.!For!higher!resolutions!it!is!necessary!to!work!with!vector'images.!!!! 14!Besides!visual!advantages,!this!configuration!has!significant!economic!advantages!over!current!setup.!Because!these!projectors!use!single!lamp,!compared!to!double!lamps!used!in!each!projector!in!current!setup,!they!have!significantly!lower!energy!consumption.!Total!energy!consumption!of!Viewsonic!projectors!is!2!x!350!W!=!700W!and!that!of!current!Panasonic!projectors!is!6!x!790!W!=!4740W.!The!energy!consumption!of!the!computer!and!edge!blender!totals!for!600W!+!100!W=!700!W!for!both!systems.!!In!addition!to!energy!savings,!the!maintenance!cost!also!decreases!with!the!reduction!of!projectors.!New!projectors!need!a!lamp!replacement!per!3500!hours,!which!equals!one!year!with!current!Media!Wall!operation!hours.!Each!lamp!for!this!kind!of!projector!costs!$329!("RLCW090!W!PJD8633ws!Replacement!Lamp!Module",!n.d.).!The!expected!improvement!is!from!12!x!$231!to!2!x!$329!maintenance!cost!per!year!(Chatterton,!2013).!The!projectors!come!with!a!3Wyear!warranty!which!can!be!considered!as!the!minimum!lifespan.!!Nevertheless,!this!configuration!has!some!serious!disadvantages.!Use!of!one!lamp!per!projector!compared!to!two,!will!reduce!brightness!from!6000!Lumens!to!3000!Lumens.!The!rear!projection!film!used!on!the!current!Media!Wall!is!designed!for!a!brightness!of!6000!Lumens!and!it!will!need!being!replaced!to!support!new!configuration.!There!are!high'gain'films!produced!specifically!for!low!brightness!projectors!that!can!be!investigated!further!("Rear!Projection!Film!|!Pro!Display").!! 15!!!Within!our!recent!conversations!with!the!stakeholders,!we!have!been!informed!that!they!strongly!prefer!a!highWresolution!screen,!even!though!it!means!significantly!higher!initial!costs.!However,!suggested!configuration!provides!a!decent!image!quality!from!reasonable!distances.!As!a!result!of!physical!limits!of!human!eye,!the!perceived!resolution!is!a!function!of!distance!from!the!screen!(Westerink,!1987,!p.!113W119).!Figure!5!shows!that!for!an!average!viewing!distance!of!6!meters!and!display!size!of!approximately!100'',!human!eye!cannot!distinguish!resolutions!above!720p.!Suggested!Viewsonic!configuration!consists!of!two!160''!projected!screens!each!having!800p!of!resolution!–!slightly!below!the!limits!of!human!vision.!!! 16!!!Figure!5:!As!distance!from!the!screen!increases!higher!resolutions!become!indistinguishable.!Source:!http://www.rtings.com/info/televisionWsizeWtoWdistanceWrelationship!)!!As!a!matter!of!sustainability,!Viewsonic!provides!a!backWmail!program!where!they!receive!old!products!and!completely!("Recycle+!Program",!n.!d.).!However,!like!most!of!the!lamp!producers,!they!do!not!accept!lamps!for!recycling.!For!lamp!recycling,!free!services!such!as!the!one!provided!by!the!Canadian!company!named!'Projector!Lamp!Source'!can!be!used!("Projector!Lamp!Source",!n.d.).!The!current!computer!used!for!the!Media!Wall!is!Dell!branded!(Chatterton,!2013).!A!brief!Internet!research!shows!that!Dell!has!been!forcing!long!working!hours!to!! 17!factory!workers!with!unacceptable!conditions!("Dell!faces!scrutiny!for!alleged!labor!violations”,!2013).!We!recommend!using!a!less!known!hardware!manufacturer!with!smaller!factories!such!as!SUPER!PC!LLC!("SUPER!PC!|!Multiple!Monitor!Computers",!n.d.).!Similar!research!does!not!show!any!sign!of!poor!conditions!in!Viewsonic!factories.!!5.2+Eiki+LC?HDT700+++Eiki+AH?32013+Fixed+Lens+!!Figure!6:!Eiki!Projector!costs!$10,500.!Source:!http://www.focusedtechnology.com/eikiWlchdt700Wprojector.html!)!!!As!a!solution!for!brightness!and!resolution!shortcomings!of!Viewsonic!projectors,!this!projector!model!and!a!short!throw!lens!can!be!used.!The!device!is!equipped!! 18!with!7000!Lumens!of!brightness!and!1080p!of!resolution.!Two!of!these!projectors!can!be!setup!in!a!very!similar!manner!to!the!one!recommended!for!Viewsonic!solution.!Yet,!due!to!their!highWbrightness!projections,!the!film!replacement!is!unnecessary.!!This!kind!of!upgrade!in!visual!quality!is!relatively!expensive.!The!associated!costs!are!$10,500!for!a!projector,!$3,695!for!a!lens!and!$750!for!a!lamp!("Replacement!Lamps",!n.d.).!As!a!contrast,!the!energy!consumption!is!380W!and!similar!to!that!of!Viewsonic!solution.!!It!is!important!to!note!that!this!second!option!is!here!for!information!purposes!only!and!not!a!part!of!our!triple!bottom!line!analysis.!+! +! 19!6.0+IDEA+2:+LCD/LED+Video+Wall+!Figure!7:!!Paneled!Video!Wall.!!(Source:!http://www.edcom.ca/wpWcontent/uploads/2013/10/NECWVideowall.jpg)!!A!video!wall!is!a!set!of!multiple!projectors!or!displays!that,!put!together,!form!one!larger!screen.!In!this!section,!we!will!study!the!applicability!of!a!LCD/LED!television!media!wall!to!substitute!the!current!media!wall!from!pharmacy!building,!which!is!formed!by!a!set!of!6!projectors.!Because!it!is!formed!by!LED!TVs,!all!the!characteristics!of!the!video!wall!depend!on!the!characteristics!of!the!display!selected.!Most!common!displays!range!from!45”!to!55”,!but!there!are!also!smaller!and!much!larger!ones.!Regular!home!televisions!can!be!used,!but!it!is!not!recommended!for!the!following!reasons:!• They!are!not!designed!to!function!for!so!long!periods.!Excessive!use!will!significantly!decrease!the!lifespan!and!will!cause!the!product!to!lose!its!guarantee!for!misuse.!! 20!• Bezel!sizes!are!normally!much!larger,!which!means!the!video!wall!will!not!have!a!seamless!appearance,!as!they!are!supposed!to!have.!• They!are!not!designed!to!function!on!large!and!wellWlit!rooms.!To!compensate!this,!the!brightness!of!the!screen!will!constantly!have!to!be!higher!than!normal,!which!will!greatly!increase!power!consumption.!• They!normally!include!features!that!will!be!useless!to!a!video!wall!such!as!an!embedded!sound!system!on!each!display!and!3D!capability.!!Video!wall!displays!are!designed!to!work!24/7!in!larger!areas,!with!a!higher!brightness,!having!an!easier!setup!and!being!optimized!to!consume!less!energy!in!those!conditions,!but!they!cost!much!more!than!regular!home!televisions.!For!this!reason,!they!have!not!been!discarded!from!the!analysis.!!The!image!quality!can!be!very!high!because!the!individual!LED!displays!commonly!have!a!high!resolution!with!good!color!contrast.!The!LEDs!located!on!the!back!of!the!screen!increase!the!brightness!and!its!uniformity,!as!shown!in!Figure!8.!!!!Figure!8:!LED!backlight.!!(Source:!http://www.necdisplay.com/videowalls/LEDWVideoWall.jpg)!! 21!!The!problem!with!this!system,!however,!is!that!there!is!always!a!gap!between!the!screens.!The!size!of!this!gap!is!determined!by!the!bezel!size!of!the!displays!and!it!has!a!great!influence!on!their!prices.!If!the!bezel!sizes!are!not!very!small,!the!final!output!will!not!be!a!seamless!high!quality!video!wall.!!For!comparison,!we!have!selected!a!few!different!models!of!displays!and!retrieved!some!characteristics!of!them.!The!first!two!options!are!regular!home!displays!and!we!can!see!that!the!price!difference!is!very!clear.!Their!average!power!consumption!is!also!lower,!but!this!information!was!collected!based!on!normal!use!of!this!equipment!which,!for!these!displays,!mean!small!rooms!with!a!low!brightness.!The!costs!are!an!average!of!prices!found!on!online!shopping!companies!(Amazon!and!Provantage)!and!the!other!data!was!retrieved!from!technical!specification!documents!for!each!of!the!products.!!!Model+ Size+(")+ Power+consumption+(W)+ Average+Cost+ Number+of+Displays+Size+of+the+new+wall+ Total+cost+Width+(cm)+ Height+(cm)+LG!50ln5700! 49! 54! !$!!!!!!!!!!!!!1,180.00!! 21! 795.2! 198.3! !$!!!!!!!!!!!24,780.00!!Samsung!EH6000! 49.5! 53! !$!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!700.00!! 21! 800.1! 201.9! !$!!!!!!!!!!!14,700.00!!Sony!FWD55B2! 55! 130! !$!!!!!!!!!!!!!3,500.00!! 18! 746.8! 215.3! !$!!!!!!!!!!!63,000.00!!LG!55WV70! 55! 210! !$!!!!!!!!!!!!!5,300.00!! 18! 729.0! 205.8! !$!!!!!!!!!!!95,400.00!!Samsung!UE55C! 55! 103! !$!!!!!!!!!!!!!3,200.00!! 18! 733.1! 207.8! !$!!!!!!!!!!!57,600.00!!Table!2W!Displays!Comparison!!! 22!In!our!analysis,!we!have!selected!the!Samsung!UE55C!model!to!better!study!because!there!was!plenty!of!information!available!for!it,!it!was!designed!for!video!walls!and!it!appears!to!be!the!best!option!based!on!the!total!cost!and!power!consumption.!This!product!eliminates!the!need!to!buy!a!pc!or!media!player!because!there!is!an!embedded!media!platform!with!capacity!to!support!the!image!display.!The!image!quality!of!it!is!very!high!(HD1080p,!which!means!good!resolution!for!the!whole!video!wall.!The!bezel!size!of!this!model!is!only!5.5mm!between!screens,!such!small!measure!can!provide!a!great!seamless!composition.!!Regarding!the!lifespan,!most!TV!manufacturers!claim!that!LCD/LED!TVs!have!a!lifespan!of!60,000!continuous!hours!(Fredman,!n.d.),!but!Samsung!and!other!big!companies!like!Sony!claim!that!theirs!last!100.000!because!of!the!high!quality!control!of!pieces!used!in!their!products.!If!we!assume!that!it!will!last!50.000!hours!and!that!it!will!be!turned!on!for!15h!daily!and!7!days!a!week,!which!is!clearly!super!estimated,!the!lifespan!of!the!LED!screens!would!still!be!9!year.!This!means!the!TVs!will!probably!fail!because!of!another!minor!component!instead!of!the!screen!itself.!!Compared!to!the!currently!used!projectors,!there!will!be!a!great!economy!in!maintenance!cost!because!there!is!no!need!to!buy!lamps!and!the!lifespan!of!the!displays!are!about!twice!the!lifespan!of!the!projectors,!currently!estimated!in!4!years!according!to!Phil!Chatterton,!UBC!Director!of!Digital!Media!Technologies.!Although!18!displays!will!be!needed,!their!power!consumption!is!also!lower!than!the!current.!With!the!same!using!conditions!described!above!and!assuming!a!cost!of!! 23!8!cents!per!kWh,!the!total!annual!cost!of!power!consumption!would!be!around!760!dollars.!!For!the!installation!of!the!LED!display!media!wall!in!the!pharmacy!building,!it!would!be!required!to!adapt!the!current!wall!for!it.!Further!study!should!be!conducted!in!order!to!find!the!best!solution,!but!probably!some!of!the!glass!panels!will!have!to!be!removed!and!a!simple!metal!structure!will!have!to!be!constructed!behind!the!wall!to!support!the!Displays.!This!structure!can!be!build!using!products!like!the!Chief!Fusion!MicroWAdjustable!PullWOut!Mount,!displayed!in!Figure!9,!it!provides!fine!tuning!of!height,!levelling!and!plumb!adjustment!that!will!align!all!the!displays!properly!to!form!a!seamless!video!wall.!The!estimated!price!for!buying!all!the!displays!is!about!57.600!dollars,!but!as!there!are!18!of!them,!it!is!very!likely!that!there!will!be!a!great!discount,!which!can!compensate!for!the!installation!costs.!!When!the!products!reach!the!end!of!their!lifespan!they!can!be!recycled,!Samsung!currently!has!a!partnership!with!Global!Electric!Electronic!Processing!(GEEP).!The!user!takes!the!product!to!a!specific!location!and,!once!there,!it!will!be!broken!apart!and!almost!all!parts!will!be!recycled.!!!Figure 9: Display structure mount. (Source: https://d1rztaqenlornr.cloudfront.net/chiefProducts/flatPanel/LSMVU1.jpg)  ! 24!7.0+COMPARISON+!In!this!section,!the!analysed!alternatives!will!be!compared!in!each!of!the!three!categories!of!the!Triple!Bottom!Line!analysis!using!the!indicators!mentioned!in!section!3.0.!In!order!to!facilitate!it,!the!information!was!formatted!into!tables.!!7.1+Environmental+Index+!!Figure!10:!Environmental!index!comparison.!!In!order!to!compare!two!ideas!and!the!current!setup,!energy!use,!recyclability!and!material!impacts!are!set!to!be!the!three!main!indicators.!For!the!projectors,!lamp!life!and!their!production!methods!are!compared.!For!the!LED!displays,!image!halfWlife!is!! 25!the!relevant!factor.!When!comparing!their!environmental!effects!due!to!production!processes,!it!is!assumed!that!the!large!number!of!LED!displays!(18)!compared!to!a!few!projectors!will!have!more!significant!effect!on!environment.!On!the!other!hand,!Mercury!content!of!projector!lamps!makes!it!important!to!consider!lifespan!and!recycling!options!of!the!lamps.!Energy!use!is!shown!on!maximum!power!basis!and!total!power!costs!can!be!obtained!from!Figure!11.!!!! +! 26!7.2+Economical+Index+!!Figure!11:!Long!term!financial!analysis.!! 27!On!Figure!11,!the!indicators!are!divided!into!three!main!groups!namely!initial!cost,!recurring!costs!and!product!replacement!cost.!!The!initial!cost!refers!to!the!hardware!and!installation!costs!whereas!recurring!costs!include!the!energy!costs!to!run!the!system!and!the!maintenance!costs.!Product!replacement!cost!is!the!cost!for!purchasing!new!projectors!or!displays!when!they!reach!the!end!of!their!lifespan.!The!period!analysed!is!8!years,!these!costs!are!estimates!based!on!the!data!presented!in!the!previous!sections!and!the!characteristics!of!each!option.!!!Figure!12:!Economic!index!comparison.!!! +! 28!7.3+Social+Index+!!Figure 13:!Social!index!comparison.!!As!mentioned!in!previous!sections,!stakeholders!value!image!quality!more!than!other!indicators.!This!is!reflected!in!comparison!table.!The!frame!rate!is!directly!related!to!total!resolution!and!computation!power!of!the!system.!Currently!the!configuration!has!only!one!computer!to!drive!six!projectors!whereas!only!two!projectors!are!driven!in!IDEA1.!This!results!in!higher!frame!rate.!Similarly,!each!Samsung!display!in!IDEA2!has!its!own!player,!which!also!results!in!higher!resolution.!!!! 29!Suitability!is!a!combination!of!all!factors!related!to!physical!compatibility!of!the!configurations!with!high!standards!of!the!building.!It!is!indicated!that!higher!resolution!systems!will!require!vector!graphics!whereas!lower!resolution!ones!can!use!standard!high!definition!images.!This!gives!the!advantage!of!easy!updates!of!content!with!many!online!graphic!options.!Screen!size!is!another!factor!to!consider.!The!slight!reduction!in!screen!size!seen!in!IDEA1!and!IDEA2!reduces!their!marks.!However,!the!possible!integration!of!sensors!for!interactivity!to!these!two!systems!increases!their!marks.!Finally,!wall!integration!is!here!to!reflect!the!quality!of!transition!from!screen!to!wall!and!vice!versa.!Obviously,!LED!panels!will!have!some!imperfections!on!the!surface.!For!the!third!social!indicator,!a!research!on!working!conditions!in!the!factories!of!relevant!manufacturers!shows!that!Samsung,!Panasonic!and!Dell!have!poor!conditions!(Mari,!2013).!Buying!from!these!manufacturers!will!have!overall!negative!social!impacts!and!representative!scores!of!this!fact!can!be!seen.!!8+CONCLUSIONS++ Having!analysed!the!options!in!each!of!the!three!concepts!of!the!Triple!Bottom!Line!and!comparing!their!characteristics!through!the!predefined!indicators,!it!can!be!clearly!seen!that!there!is!a!great!distinction!between!the!LED!Video!Wall!and!the!Short!Throw!Projectors.!While!the!LED!displays!an!image!of!very!high!quality,!resolution!and!brightness,!its!cost!is!higher!than!the!other!options!because!of!the!great!initial!cost!of!having!to!buy!18!displays.!In!contrast,!Short!Throw!Projectors!offer!a!very!accessible!solution!by!cutting!the!projectors!to!one!third!of!! 30!the!current!number,!but!even!though!they!are!cost!effective,!they!deliver!only!an!average!image!quality.!!Regarding!the!costs,!the!power!consumption!cost!of!the!two!projectors!will!be!low!if!compared!to!the!18!TVs,!but!they!will!still!need!replacement!for!the!lamps!while!the!LED!economizes!a!lot!on!not!having!to!buy!it.!In!the!end,!it!comes!down!to!deciding!whether!the!most!important!factor!is!the!image!quality!or!the!price.!If!either!of!the!options!is!chosen,!there!will!be!advantages!comparing!it!to!the!current!equipment,!which!has!a!very!high!maintenance!cost,!average!visual!quality!and!short!lifespan.!An!important!fact!to!note!is!that!the!projectors!are!estimated!to!last!only!4!years!and!replacement!cost!is!high.!Consequently,!the!LED!displays,!which!once!seemed!to!be!out!of!the!budget,!start!to!look!like!a!feasible!option!in!economical!terms.!!!It!is!up!to!the!stakeholders!to!decide!whether!they!want!better!quality!or!lower!costs.!In!any!of!the!cases!there!will!be!better!outcomes!compared!to!the!current!technology.!We!conclude!that!both!are!feasible!options!for!the!implementation!designs!for!the!new!sustainable!media!wall.!!!!! 31!+REFERENCES+!55WV70'Special'Display'Digital'Signage'Specs.!(n.d.).!Retrieved!!2013,!from!http://www.lg.com/global/products/digitalBsignage/specialBdisplay/LGB55WV70.jsp''BC'Hydro'B'Business'Rates'Prices.!(n.d.).!Retrieved!from!https://www.bchydro.com/accountsWbilling/customerWserviceWbusiness/businessWratesWoverview/businessWratesWprices.html!'C2B2450A'Operation'Manual.!((n.d.)).!Retrieved!from!http://www.trueWcolours.net/products/manufacturer/TVWOne/documents/ManualWC2W2450W2.7.pdf!!Chatterton,!P.!(11!October!2013).!Email!Message.!'Dell'faces'scrutiny'for'alleged'labor'violations'at'factories'in'China'|'PCWorld.!(2013).!Retrieved!from!http://www.pcworld.com/article/2061780/dellBfacesBscrutinyBforBallegedBlaborBviolationsBatBfactoriesBinBchina.html''Dell'Precision'T3500'Workstation'Technical'Guide.'((n.d.)).!Retrieved!from!http://www.dell.com/downloads/emea/edb/Dell_Precision_T3500_Technical_Guide.pdf!'Exhibits'|'UBC'Pharmaceutical'Sciences.'(n.d.).'Retrieved'2013'from'http://www.pharmacy.ubc.ca/aboutus/som/exhibits'!Fredman,!J.!(n.d.).'LED'Television's'Life'Expectancy'|'eHow.!Retrieved!2013!from!http://www.ehow.com/info_12195923_ledWtelevisionsWlifeWexpectancy.html!! 32!Indoor'AntiBreflective'Glass'&'MuseumBQuality'Glass'|'SCHOTT'North'America.!(n.d.).!Retrieved!from!http://www.us.schott.com/architecture/english/applications/interior/antiWreflectiveWglass.html!!LED!display!prices!on!Amazon!online!shopping.!Retrieved!2013!from!http://www.amazon.com.!!LED!display!prices!on!Provantage!online!shopping.!Retrieved!2013!from!http://www.provantage.com!'LG'50LN5700:'50'inch'Class'TV|'LG'USA'Specs.!(n.d.).!Retrieved!2013,!from!http://www.lg.com/us/tvs/lgB50LN5700BledBtv!'LSMVU'B'Large'FUSION™'MicroBAdjustable'PullBOut'Mount.!(2013).!Retrieved!2013!from!http://www.chiefmfg.com/Series/LSMVU!!Mari,!A.!(2013,!August!16).!Samsung'is'sued'over'poor'working'conditions'in'Brazil'|'ZDNet.!Retrieved!from!http://www.zdnet.com/samsungWisWsuedWoverWpoorWworkingWconditionsWinWbrazilW7000019470/!'Matrox'MBSeries.'((n.d.)).!Retrieved!from!http://www.matrox.com/graphics/media/pdf/products/graphics_cards/m_series/en_mseries_guide.pdf!'Optional'Lenses.!(n.d.).!Retrieved!2013,!from!http://www.eiki.com/usa/products/eikiBaccessories/optionalBlenses!'Panasonic'ETBDLE150'Power'Zoom'Lens'ETBDLE150'BH'Photo'Video.!(n.d.).!Retrieved!2013,!from!www.bhphotovideo.com/c/product/629272BREG/Panasonic_ET_DLE150_ET_DLE150_Power_Zoom_Lens.html!! 33!Panasonic'Projectors:'Panasonic'PTBDW6300ULS'DLP'projector.!(n.d.).!Retrieved!from!http://www.projectorcentral.com/PanasonicWPTWDW6300ULS.htm!'Panasonic'PTWDW6300ULS!User'Manual.'((n.d.)).!Retrieved!from!ftp://ftp.panasonic.com/pub/Panasonic/business/projectors/manuals/D6Series_operatinginstructions.pdf''Projector'Lamp'Source'lowest'projector'lamp'and'bulb'prices'in'Canada'with'Free'''Rear'Projection'Film'|'Pro'Display.!(n.d.).!Retrieved!2013,!from!http://www.prodisplay.com/rearBprojectionBfilmBhighBbrightness.html!'Recycle+'Program.!(n.d.).!Retrieved!2013,!from!http://www.viewsonic.com/us/company/green/recycleBprogram/recycleBprogram!'Recycling.!(n.d.).!Retrieved!2013,!fromhttp://www.projectorlampsource.ca/projector_bulb_recycling.html!'Replacement'Lamp'Module'for'Panasonic'ETBLAD60'Projectors.!(n.d.).!Retrieved!2013!from!http://www.amazon.ca/ReplacementWPanasonicWETWLAD60WProjectorsWIncludes/dp/B00DE4H54S!'Replacement'Lamps.!(n.d.).!Retrieved!2013,!from!http://www.eiki.com/usa/products/eikiBaccessories!RLCB090'B'PJD8633ws'Replacement'Lamp'Module.!(n.d.).!Retrieved!2013,!from!http://www.viewsonic.com/us/rlcB090.html!'Samsung'Recycling'Direct.'(n.d.).'Retrieved'2013'from'http://pages.samsung.com/ca/green/English/!! 34!Shaw,!G.!(2012).!UBC's'new'faculty'building'a'showcase'for'digital'technology;'giant'video'screen'exhibit'creates'highly'personalized,'interactive'journey.!The'Vancouver'Sun,!Retrieved!from!http://search.proquest.com.ezproxy.library.ubc.ca/docview/1080590147!'Specs'B'55"'UEC'Series'DisplayBLarge'Format'DisplayBVideo'Wall'|'SAMSUNG.!(n.d.).!Retrieved!2013,!from'http://www.samsung.com/ca/business/businessBproducts/largeBformatBdisplay/videoBwall/LH55UECPLGC/ZABspec!'Specs'B'FWD55B2'55”Pro'Display.!(n.d.).!Retrieved!2013!from!http://pro.sony.com/bbsc/ssr/productBFWD55B2/''Specs'B'LED'TV'UN50EH6000F'|'Samsung'TVs.!(n.d.).!Retrieved!2013!from!http://www.samsung.com/us/video/tvs/UN50EH6000FXZABspecs!'SUPER'PC'|'Multiple'Monitor'Computers'and'Display'Solutions!!(n.d.).!Retrieved!from!http://www.multiBmonitors.com/!!Westerink,!J.!(1987).!Subjective!image!quality!as!a!function!of!viewing!distance,!resolution!and!picture!size.!SMPTE'journal,!98(2),!113W119.!!!!!!!

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