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Sustainable food systems : not in the plan : the incorporation of food systems into campus planning… Adlparvar, Emily; Bruchet, Marie; Dodd, Danielle; Irvine, Joanna; Leung, Tim; Powell, Julien; Vogt, Kara Apr 6, 2005

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UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report       Sustainable Food Systems: Not in the Plan The Incorporation of Food Systems into Campus Planning at UBC Emily Adlparvar, Marie Bruchet, Danielle Dodd, Joanna Irvine, Tim Leung, Julien Powell, Kara Vogt  University of British Columbia AGSC 450 April 6, 2005           Disclaimer: “UBC SEEDS provides students with the opportunity to share the findings of their studies, as well as their opinions, conclusions and recommendations with the UBC community. The reader should bear in mind that this is a student project/report and is not an official document of UBC. Furthermore readers should bear in mind that these reports may not reflect the current status of activities at UBC. We urge you to contact the research persons mentioned in a report or the SEEDS Coordinator about the current status of the subject matter of a project/report”.               Sustainable Food Systems: Not in the Plan The Incorpo rati on of Foo d S ystems into Campus Planning at UBC  AGSC 450 Food S ystem s Project 2005 – Scenario 4  Group 14 : Emil y  Adlpa r var, Marie Br uchet, Danielle Dodd, J oanna Irvine,  Tim Leun g, J uli en Powell and Kara Vo gt  April 6, 2005                         2  Abstract  Sustainable systems such as the food s ystem need to be consi dered in camp us planning. The importance of a sust ainable food s ystem at UBC has be en ackno wled ged.  Howev er, as of yet, no concr ete plan ex ist s to integrate food s yst e ms in to campus planning at the universit y.  Before food systems can be included in campus planning, a clear outline of the university’s visi on of a sust ainable fo od s ystem is necessar y. We propose a set of obje cti ves as our visi on. These objecti ves are not i den ti cal to thos e decided by pr evious coll ea gu es in AGSC 450 and the differen ces are discuss ed . This paper outli nes the reasons and importanc e fo r integrati n g food s ystems into campus pla nning and provides reco mm endati ons in two key forms: 1) Mech anism s of ad dressi n g food s yste ms in the Main Campus Plan (MC P ) – the plan for inst it uti onal developm ent at UBC, an d 2) The dev elopm ent of a Supplementar y Food S ys tem Plan. The go als and purpose of th e MCP displ a y inher ent lim it ati ons to the ex tent that food s ystems c an be included at this level. The MCP is intended to be a more gen eral plan, which provides ultim ate objecti ves but no specific mechanism s for achievi ng these goals. Howev er, as these speci fic mechanism s are fundame ntal components of fulfill ing objecti ves for a sust ai nable campus food s ystem, we propose a sup plementar y plan fo r food s ystems. This plan would be suppl ementar y to the MCP and can provide specific acti ons needed en route to a sust ainable food s ystem. Even though we provide a list of wa ys to atta in sus taina bil it y in food s ystems at UBC, ther e ar e evidentl y missi ng pi eces and a need for fu rther detail and developm ent of th is plan. Consequentl y, we conclu de with sever al recomm e ndati ons for campus le ad ers of sust ainabili t y and for futur e AGS C 450 stu dents.     3  Table of Contents Introduction ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ....4P roblem sta tement ................................................................ ................................ ...................... 4The Purpose a nd Go als of the Main Campus Plan (MC P ) ................................ ........................ 5  Rati onale for the In clusi on of Food S yst ems in Campus Planning ................................ ........... 6   Our Reflections on the 7 Guiding Principles ................................ ............................................... 7   Our Vision of a Sustainable UBC Food System ................................ ................................ ..........7 1.  In cre ase the ph ysic al cap acit y of the UBC campus to support the gro wing of food  ..........8 2.  In cre ase the amount of fo od consum ed at UBC that is produced both or gani call y and locall y ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ...83.  Encoura ge Practi c es for mana ging waste flows in a more sust ainable mann er ................... 9  4.  Encoura ge the celebrati o n of food and the loc al fo od s ystem at UBC .............................. 10 5.  Encoura ge food consum e d at UBC that is produc e d in other re gions or cou ntries to be produced throu gh ethi cal and environmentall y sus tainable pra cti ces ................................ 10 6.  In cre ase the capa cit y of UBC to provide or suppo rt basic food se curit y ini t iatives for the local communi t y................................ ................................................................ ................. 11 7.  Ensure that ther e is an ad equate dist ributi on of foo d service facil it ies on campus ........... 12  Evaluation of the MCP in Relation to our Vision ................................ ................................ .....13 Rati ona le for the In clusi on of the Food S ystem in the UBC Main Campus Plan .................... 14 The Integration of the Food System into Campus Planning ................................ .................... 15R ecomm e ndati ons for th e Inclusi on of the Food s ys tem in the MCP ................................ ..... 16   Recommendations for Action: A Supplementary Food System Plan ................................ .....17  1.  In cre ase the ph ysic al cap acit y of the UBC campus to support the gro wing of food .........19 2.  In cre ase the amount of fo od consum ed at UBC that is produced both or gani call y and locall y ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ .193.  Encoura ge Practi c es for mana ging waste flows in a more sust ainable mann er ................. 20  4.  Encoura ge the celebrati o n of food and the loc al fo od s ystem at UBC .............................. 21 5.  Encoura ge food consum e d at UBC that is produc e d in other re gions or cou ntries to be produced throu gh ethi cal and environmentall y sus tainable pra cti ces ................................ 21 6.  In cre ase the capa cit y of UBC to provide or suppo rt basic food se curit y ini t iatives for the local communi t y................................ ................................................................ ................. 22 7.  Ensure that ther e is an ad equate dist ributi on of foo d service facil it ies on campus ........... 22  Recommendations and Conclusion ................................ ................................ ............................ 23 Recomm e ndati ons for AGSC 450 2006 Coll eagu es ................................ ................................ 23  Conclu sion ................................ ................................ ................................ ............................... 24   Works sited ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ...25   4  Introduction  Problem Statement   C ivi liz ati on has recentl y been faced with the crud e awak enin g that there ar e limi ts to resourc e consum pti on an d that natural s yst ems are in rapid decli ne. Th e importance of a ch an ge in atti tude towards more sust ainable uses of our land and resour ces is now apparent.  Sustainability ref er s to the physi ca l devel opment and insti t ut i onal oper ati ng practice s that meet the needs of present user s wit hout compr omi si ng the abil it y of fut ure gene r ati ons to me et their own needs, par ti cul arl y with regar d to use and wast e of nat ural res our ces . Sust ai nabl e practi ces support ecologi ca l , human and economi c heal t h and viabil it y. Sust ai nabi lit y pres umes that res our ces are fini te, and shoul d be used conse r vati vel y and wisel y with a view to long -t er m pri or it ies and conse quences of the ways in whi ch resour ce s are used (UCSC, 2004) .  The chall en ges accompa n yin g thi s chan ge in out l ook come wit h opportuni ti es for much need ed leadership and posi ti ve change. Universiti es wo rld wide have sta rted to tak e ini ti ati ve and have become le aders in the su pport of an equit able and sust ainable future fo r all life forms (UCS C , 2004). The Unive rsit y of Britis h Col umbi a (UBC ) has indi cated its devoti on to environmental leadership and a sust ai na ble future (U BC , 1992).  An aspect of sust ain abil it y that is gaini n g att enti on is the importance of foo d s ystems to the sustainabil it y of a co mm unit y. Food s ystems encompass the social, ec ological and economi c aspects of the producti on , consum pti on and dispos al of food produ cts. Furt her, campus food s ystems hav e been ta r get ed as a means to improve the sustainabil it y of the comm unit y throu gh improved awa reness and acc ess to ecolo gicall y an d sociall y- just food. “Campus food systems focus on sust ainable food acquisition and distribution that benefits the local economy,” and are therefor e a n int e gral part of campus sust ainabili t y (UCS C , 2004). Although the importance of campus food s ystems is gaining reco gnit ion, its exact inte grati on int o camp us developm ent h as not yet mate riali z ed. We feel that the most ef fecti v e wa y to incorpo rate foo d s ystems into developm ent at UBC is through th eir inclusi on in campus planning. Spe cifi call y, th e Main  5  Campus Plan (MC P ), which provides a guide fo r insti tut ional developm ent o n campus , can be used to secure the importance of campus food s yst ems in planning at UBC. The MCP is due for revisi on in the nex t few years and thi s provides a window of opportuni t y for the food s ystem to be included in campus pl anning. Th rou gh the inte gr a ti on of ke y food s yste m principles at a hi gh level of plannin g, the pat h can be enabled fo r spec ific objecti ves of a sust ai nable food s ystem to be address ed and implem ented on campus . The Purpose and Goals of the Main Campus Plan (MCP)  The UBC Main Campus Plan of 1992 is a set of fort y plannin g strat e gies for mana gin g the university’s growth of institutional infrastructure. In this strategy framework, the university mission is contextualized through a discussion of the campus’ physical image, its past, pre sent and future (UBC , 1992, p. 32). The MCP stresses flex ibili t y and compr ehensiven ess, and addr esses fun cti onal, aestheti c and contex tual issues (UBC , 1992, p. 4). Fo r ex ampl e, it plans to lim it campus sprawl and to enhanc e the spirit of the place (usin g the te rm genius loci ) (UBC , 1992, p. 38-40). It plans for mixing land uses (inst it uti onal, residenti al, retail comm ercial, etc.) and en c oura ging alt ern ati ve modes of transportati on l ike c ycli n g and publi c tra nsit (UBC , 1992, p.  69, 77 -93). Another theme of th e pla n is that the whole camp us is greater than th e sum of its parts (UBC , 1992, p. 2). Strat e gies like creati ng a sense of place, improvin g buil d ing si gna ge, promot ing campus cult ure and enh ancin g ped estrian circulation colle cti vel y aim to incr ease s y ne r geti c int er acti ons be tween campus users and add vit ali t y to the buil t landscape (UBC , 1992, p. 38, 64-66). Finall y, th e MCP priorit iz es environmental respon sibi li t y and le ade rship an d the need to creat e a mor e perman ent sense of comm unit y (UBC , 1992, p. 31-34). The former shall be  6  enacted b y const ructi n g gr een buil dings and redu cing reli anc e upon autom obil es. The latter highli ghts the need fo r mix ed land uses, increased buil ding densit y, and improved sepa rati on of transportati on modes (li ke walki n g, c ycl in g, bussi ng, and driving) (U BC , 1992, p.  69 -70, 77-93). It must be noted that the last priority implies the need for a university “Town Centre” (a comm ercial zone alon g Universit y Bouleva rd) as a means of facil it ati ng a place fo r comm unit y (UBC . 1992, p. 108-9 ). (This poi nt serves as a departure to other UBC pla ns like the Official Comm unit y P lan, Comprehensive Com muni t y Pla n and more spe cific Nei ghbourhood Plans which approa ch non -inst it uti onal developm ent on uni versit y lands.) The MCP’s intent is to def ine an end, but not the means. That is to sa y, it ascribes mid - and long-t erm universit y planning goals (t en and t went y ye ar ho riz ons, res pecti vel y) wit hout offerin g spe cificit y on ho w to achieve th ese goals (UBC , 1992, p. 4 -5 ). This means that the plan ai ms to avoid constraint by max im iz ing planning opti ons. Rationale for the Inclusion of Food Systems in Campus Planning   The food s ystem pla ys a central rol e in an y comm unit y. Each m ember of a comm unit y participates in the food s ys tem throu gh the consum pti o n of food products. Air, water, food and shelter ar e the essentials of life and shoul d not be discarded in plannin g. Planners hav e be en invol ved for thous ands o f years in improvin g our shelter and more recentl y our air and water, but most plans sti ll lack a co nsiderati on for food. Plan ners need to reali z e the connecti on betwe en the food s ystem and other co mm unit y s ystems (Pot hu kuchi and Kau fman, 200 0).  In man y comm unit ies a lar ge pe rc ent of residents work directl y or indir ectl y in the food sector. Thes e jobs include restaur ant, superma rket and tavern worke rs, as well as wholesalers, packa gers and farme rs. The income of thes e reside nts depends on the food s ys tem. The refo re, planners negle ct lar ge po rtions of a comm unit y if the y do not plan fo r a foo d s ystem. Ten to fo rt y  7  percent o f household inc ome is spent on food (Pothukuchi and Kaufman, 2000); the need fo r food is reco gniz ed b y ho useholds and should also be reco gniz ed b y plann er s. A lar ge portion of household waste comes from food products; plans need to account for the assi mi lation of waste products in order to me et the need of man y hous e holds . The prox im it y of food outl ets to indi viduals of a comm unit y shoul d also be include d in food system plannin g. The re is a need fo r the food s yst em to be inc orporated int o plannin g because th e food s ystem affects ev er ybod y in the comm unit y.  Our Reflections on the 7 Guiding Principles The 7 guidi n g prin cipl es (visi on statement) wer e developed b y pr evious AGSC 450 coll ea gues and th e tea ching te am   . Before lo oking at the 7 guidi n g pri ncipl es, our group agreed on a set of objecti ves to formul ate our own visi on. Although our obje cti ves are not identi c al to the 7 guidi n g principles, the y ar e con gr uent and displ a y ke y com ponents of the long -term visi on alread y set forth. Over all , our group found that the visi on of the 7 guidi n g principl es is difficult to int egr ate and implement in inst it utional planning. In contras t, we felt that our set of objecti ves could be more easil y and appropri atel y int e grated into campus planning – our visi on principl es are mo re planning orient ed.   Our Vision of a Sustainable UBC Food System Our visi on for UBC is a comm unit y that fosters t he educ ati onal needs of the inst it uti on while addressi n g the e co nomi c, environmental an d social iss ues of the foo d s ystem. A  8  sust ainable food s ystem is one that encompasses t hese thre e pil lars b y ensu ring, at each st a ge of the food s yst em (from pr oducti on to disposal), practi ces that are economi c a ll y viable, ecolo gica ll y sound and s ociall y acc eptable (Kloppenbur g et al., 2000). A sustainable food s ystem must also meet present fo od needs whil e not comp romisi ng the needs of fut ure gen e rati ons. Currentl y the proposed developm ent for inst it uti onal bui ldi ngs at UBC, as outl ined by the Main Campus Plan (MC P ), does not adequatel y inco rp orate the food s ystem. Our visi on is to have the food s ystem suf ficientl y int egr ated into the MCP and othe r aspe cts of camp us planning so that future dev elopm ent at UBC can op erate mo re sus tainabl y. Ou r objecti ves for the food s ystem, adapted from the Sout heast False Cr eek Urban Agricult ur e Plan (Holland Bar rs Planning Group, 2002) include the foll owi ng: 1. Increase the physical capacity of the UBC campus to support the growing of food  Growin g food on campus will help close the food cyc le b y returnin g food, i n the form of waste, back to the l and where it was pr oduced.  W e curr entl y count wit h co mpos ti ng facil it ie s ; however, the food consu med is brought ont o campus inst ead of bein g gro wn on the premi ses . This has lead to a system that heavily relies on transportation, which has increased UBC’s ecolo gical footprint.  The Bo ard of Gov ernors and other stakehold ers wil l be in char ge of determ ini ng what steps the UBC campus is to take in order to be a le ader in closi n g the food cyc l e. The y are to anal yz e th e diffe rent opp ortuni ti es in the creati on of new areas that can be devoted to the gro wing of food, as well as the im provement and ex pansion of alread y ex ist ing spac es, such as the UBC Farm on South Campus .   2. Increase the amount of food consumed at UBC that is produced both organically and locally  9   One of UBC’s goals is to become a world leader in the implementation of n ew sust ainabili t y str ate gies. UBC imports its food since it lacks the ph ysic al space to culti vate its own. Howeve r, this fact s hould not impede the universit y from locall y and organicall y produ cing a portion of the food it co nsum es   Fulfill ing thi s objecti ve shall encou ra ge the campus to redu ce its ecolo gical footprint, nam el y b y minim iz ing food miles. Other bene fits of relocali z ing food pro ducti on include (1) supp orti ng local empl o yment and a local econom y, (2) promoti ng the consum pti on of seaso nall y av ail able produce, and (3) fost erin g a compassionate conne cti on between consum ers , producers and the food-producin g ph ysic a l environment. 3. Encourage Practices for managing waste flows in a more sustainable manner  W aste is present at eve r y stage withi n the food s ys tem. Food producti on, pr ocessi ng, transportati on, prep arati o n, and consum ing all con tribut e to large amount s of was te in the UBC food s ystem. App rox im atel y 35% of all waste on UBC campus is food was te (UBC Waste Mana gement, 2005b). Disposal of thi s organic wa ste into landfil ls result s is the emi ssi on of methane and contribut es to other greenhous e gas emi ssi ons (UBC Was te Mana gement, 2005b).  Rather than dumping foo d waste into landfil ls, it is important that this waste be conv erted int o a useful product – compos t – which can then return valuable nutrients to the soil (UCS C , 2005).  Food product p acka gin g, including pap e r, wr apper s, containers, glass bott le s, cans, and bott le caps also contribut es sub stanti all y to campus waste (U BC Waste Mana gem ent, 2005a). Thes e materials can be found litt ered throu ghout the Student Union Buil ding, bus l oop, and campus parking lot s, and th e y ha ve a negati ve impact on the UBC campus environ ment (UBC Waste Mana gement, 2005a ). Lit tered food containers and packa ges take a ver y lon g time to decompos e,  10  reduce th e aesth eti c appe al of UBC campus , and can be haz ardous to anim a ls and humans (UBC Wa ste Mana gement, 200 5a). UBC Waste Mana ge ment spends just under $200,000 annuall y cleanin g up thi s litt er, which in man y cases could have be en rec ycled (UBC Waste Management, 2005a). UBC Waste Man agement has had su cc ess wit h compos ti ng, re c ycli ng and litt er reducti on ini ti ati ves. However, as campus develo pment conti nues at an acceler ated rate, the ex pansion of these ini ti ati ves is necessa r y. The su ccess of su ch an effort wi ll require the int egr ati on of waste man agement pra cti ces int o ca mpus planning and coll a borati on throughout the UBC comm unit y.            4. Encourage the celebration of food and the local food system at UBC  C onsi dering the importan ce of food in ou r dail y liv es and the cult ur al, social , and nutrit ious impl icati ons it has, the food s ystem rem ai ns lar gel y invi sibl e to the UBC comm unit y. Social att it udes among comm unit y memb ers must be redir ected in ord er fo r UBC campus to meet its goal of a sust ain able food s ystem. The UBC food s ystem must be made more visi ble to ex ist ing members of the campus co mm unit y, and ex pansion of progr ams and ini ti ati ves are needed to respond to the gro wing campus populati on. People must reali z e that the food the y eat is part of an int e gr ated s ystem. The y must lea rn to respect this s ystem, value it, and celebr ate it as contribut ing to a camp us that is healt hier, happi er, and mor e fulfill ing fo r humans and all life forms on campus . Com muni t y members, as indi viduals and as groups, can have a subst anti al impact on the securit y an d sust ainabili t y of the UBC food s ystem and effo rts must be made through campus plannin g and developm ent to facil it ate these acti ons.      5. Encourage food consumed at UBC that is produced in other regions or countries to be produced through ethical and environmentally sustainable practices  11  Whil e offering lo cal prod ucts wheneve r possibl e s hould be a ke y goal of th e UBC food s ystem, it is ofte n desirab le, and unavoidable, to p urchase products that can not be produced locall y. Man y ex oti c products – coffe e bein g a particularl y notable one – are in high demand and, therefor e, f ood se rvice m ana gers must look to non -local or intern ati onal pr oviders to suppl y these products. In thi s case, UBC poli c y make rs should advocate fo r the pr ocurement of int ernati onal products fro m suppli ers that promot e both environmentall y sou nd and sociall y sustainable business practices. “Sustainability – the process o f ensurin g wh at is done toda y do es not compromi se the me et ing of the needs of future gen erati ons – refers to a lot more than protecti ng th e environme nt and natural resourc e s. It also ref ers to pres ervin g cult ur es and peopl es so that they too can meet their own needs and those of their children...” (Environmental C oordinati on Office of Students, 2003). The UBC food s ystem h as made st eps toward soci al sust ainabili t y, with the recent creati on of the AMS Ethical Purchasing Policy . Other unive rsiti es across Canad a and the USA have implemented simil ar policies for their fo od s ystems. The University of Alberta’s Student’s Union has a campus -wide poli c y in place to promot e busi ness relations hips with suppliers that en ga ge in enviro nmentall y cons cious, soc iall y equit able and ethical conduct (The Student’s Union of the University of Alberta, 2003). More specifically, this poli c y mand ates for the purchase of fairl y tr aded, rec ycled, or ga nic all y pr od uced and minim all y packa ged food produ cts wheneve r the opti on is avail able. Such a poli c y at UBC would improve the sustainabil it y of its fo od s ystem. 6. Increase the capacity of UBC to provide or support basic food security initiatives for the local community  Food secu rit y is an impor tant aspect of an y sust ainable food s ystem. Food s ecurit y can be defined by “environmentally, socially, and economically sustainable food systems that produce  12  cult urall y acc eptable and nutrit ionall y adequ ate fo od for all persons to lead healt h y producti ve lives” (Cornell University, 2000). Three key components of a secure food system are afford abil it y, av ail abil it y and ac cessi bil it y – Is foo d priced reasonabl y fo r the population in the comm unit y? Are cult ur all y approp r iate and desire d foods avail able wit hin t he comm unit y? Do members of the comm un it y have a means o f acqui ring the foods avail able in the comm unit y?  All of these questi ons are necessa r y to ask when assessing the securit y of the UBC Food S ystem. Low incom e and socio - e conomi c status are comm on causes of food insecur it y; while most of the campus population would not be consi dered belo w the povert y line, ther e are subsets of th e UBC comm unit y – particula rl y students – that ma y ex pe rience financial diffi cult ies i n acquirin g food.  In te rms of av ail abil it y and acc essi bil it y, th ere is currentl y one produce m arket and few convenienc e t ype stores; the near est groce r y outl et is a Safewa y stor e, whic h is a five -mi nute bus ride from UBC. For thos e unable to trav el, food s ecurit y ma y be come an is sue. Cult ural appropriaten ess is also a consi derati on for th e UBC comm unit y. Wit h such a diverse mix of ethni cit ies at UBC, an as sessm ent must be done to evaluate the cult ural app ropriateness o f the UBC food s ystem. Food securit y is a cur rent and focal issue. Man y comm u nit ies, governm ent sectors and acad emi c inst it uti ons are en ga ged in th e iss ue of local food secu rit y. Othe r comm unit ies throughout B.C. have tak en steps to address food securit y; for ex ampl e, the Downtown Easts ide com muni t y has been a tar get for int erventi on for dec a des. At Cornell Universit y, a project enti tl ed Growing Food Security in NY Communities strives to improve food securit y throu gh the dev e lopm ent of innovative strate gies and pa rtnerships with ex isting, local ini ti ati ves (Cornell Universit y, 2000).  7. Ensure that there is an adequate distribution of food service facilities on campus  13  Food is one of the primar y ne eds of the UBC com muni t y. Bein g a lar ge ca mpus , UBC needs to ensur e that all ar eas of the campus have access to food that is cons ist ent wit h the population in an y given area. In providing su fficie nt food, UBC will encour age economi c developm ent and incr eas ed revenu e, as well as de creas e the need to travel off -c ampus in order to acc ess these goods.   These seven objecti ves form the core of our visi on for a more sust ainable food s ystem at UBC. The y act as gen era l planning principl es that are bro ad enou gh to inco rporate a variet y of detailed plans gene rated now and in the future. Our visi on is to incorporate t hese sev en objecti ves int o the Main Campus Plan as well as provide a more focused Su pplementar y Food S ystem Plan. This supplement would provide strat egi c acti ons that would h elp achiev e our objecti ves and our visi on for a sust ainable UBC fo od s ystem.   Evaluation of the MCP in relation to our Vision  The Main Campus Plan fail s to adequatel y consi d er our obje cti ves outli ned in the visi on for a sust ainable UBC fo od s ystem. This is prim ar il y bec ause the food s yst em fall s be yond the scope of the MCP . That is to say, the MCP focuse s on planning fo r insti tut ional infrastructur e and not the food s ystem. Also, in 1992, no universit y plannin g literature ev en rega rded the concept of a food s ystem , or sustainabil it y for that matter. The MCP ex empl i fies how tradit ional urban plannin g is prim ari l y con cern ed with the lan d use relations hips betwe en buil t forms and the ph ysic al environment . Wit h this in mind, it is difficult to evaluate the MCP from a food s ystem pe rspecti ve.  14  Howeve r, the MCP make s five subt le acknowled gements to the system. Fir st, it references the university’s agricultural roots, which could once again be revived through more proacti ve campus int e gra ti on with UBC Farm (UBC , 1992, p. 12 -13). Seco nd, it char ges the universit y to be an env iro nmental role model for th e cit y, province and nati o n, which la ys foundati ons for cu rrent s ustainabil it y ini ti ati ves and perhaps futur e ones th at promot e the transit ion to a sust ainable campus food s ystem (U BC , 1992, p. 34). Third, it stresses the importance of valui ng an d facil it ati ng comm unit y, through consi derin g ope n pedestrian circulation patterns and publi c spaces that would foster int eracti ons, as well as places fo r celebr ati ng the lo cal food s ystem (U BC , 1992, p. 98, 101). Fourth, the MCP reco gniz es relations hips between pla nning components – acad emi c, financial, ph ysic al and comm unit y – that are sur el y relev ant to food s ystem plannin g in a universit y s ett ing sinc e enhancin g the comprehensiven ess of th e food s ystem at UBC would involve: (1) reservi n g ph ysical sp aces for cult ivation, distribut ion and consum pti on; (2) esta bli shing comm unit y pa rtnerships to sust ainabl y meet labour requirements; (3) budgeting for the food system’s shift to more sustainable protocols, and (4) inte gr a ti ng int erdiscipl inar y cu rr icula that espouse a sust a inable food s ystem ethos (UBC , 1992, p. 2). Fifth, the plan unde rstan ds the need fo r even dist r ibut ion of and acc ess to food services on camp us, which in fact refle cts acc essi bil it y as a food s e curit y indi c ator (U BC , 1992, p. 105). Most promising for enhancing the UBC food system is the plan’s drive for the university to become an environme ntal role model, a pled ge that offers hop e for inco r porati ng sust ainabili t y int o planning. In spite of these acknowl edgements, the vast ma jo rit y of the MCP fail s to address the food s ystem b y not contri buti ng compreh ensive str ate gies for s ystem sust ai nabil it y. Whil e we  15  realize this failure is a consequence of the plan’s flexible, yet limited context, there remains a critical vacuum in univer sit y pl anning in whi ch the UBC food s ystem ou gh t to be incorporated.  Rationale for the Inclusion of the Food System in the UBC Main Campus Plan   The food s ystem needs to be incorpor ated into the Main Campus Plan in order to refl ect the visi on, and the ecolo gic al and social valu es that UBC holds . UBC is m ore than the buil dings and the greenwa ys that ex ist on campus ; it also consi sts of an enti re comm unit y that works, lives and pla ys in and around t he inst it uti onal core of the campus . Bec ause food pla ys an int e gral pa rt in everybody’s life, it should also play a part in the MCP. Furthermore, the Main Campus Plan deals with the high est lev el of inst it uti onal developm ent and wit hout it mandati ng the need of a sust ainable food s ystem on campus , furthe r plans wi ll not foll ow suit .  By incorpo rati ng th e foo d s ystem into the MCP , a variet y of diff erent issue s can be addressed. B y plannin g for a sust ainable food s yst em, the long -t erm visi on of sust ainabili t y on campus can be addr essed . The long -term vision is formul ated b y reco gniz ing the MCP holi sti call y and that ev er y pa rt – even food – has i ts place withi n the broad plan.  As a leade r of envi ronme ntal sust ainabili t y, UBC can also be a model to man y oth er comm unit ies by including food in a high -level pla n such as the MCP . The UBC Campus Sustainabil it y Office rec ogniz es the need to reduc e the ecolo gic al footprint on campus . B y planning fo r a sust ainabl e food s ystem, man y iss ues deali n g with the produ cti on and deli ver y of food and assi mi lation of the waste it gene rate s can be address ed. B y pl anning fo r a sust ainable food s ystem in the MCP , UBC can also improve th e biol ogic al and structur a l diversit y of the campus environment.  The Integration of the Food System into Campus Planning  16   From our visi on of a sust ainable foo d s ystem at UBC, it is evident that several ke y components of food s yst ems need to be inte gr ated int o campus planning. However, it is also apparent that this is not a sim ple task. Food s yste ms have neve r befo re be e n included in an y campus planning; the refo re, the lan gua ge and appr oach to their inclusi on ne eds to be int ensel y contemplated. Specific all y, the fo rmat and intent of ex ist ing plans such as the MCP need to be taken int o consi derati on. As a result of such consi derati ons, we have con cl uded that the integr ati on of food s yste ms into the MCP is not sufficient to accompl ish our afor ementioned objecti ves and goals fo r food s ystems at UBC. Consequentl y, we propos e the formul ati on of a plan supplementar y to th e MCP , in which specific objecti ves and strate gi e s for their implementation can be di scussed. This plan, alon g with the MCP can help to guide the campus int o developi ng a sust ain able food s ystem. Recommendations for the Inclusion of the Food system in the MCP   Whil e we propose a supp lementar y document, the MCP sti ll pla ys a pertine nt role in the inclusi on of food s ystem s in campus planning. Th e MCP will act as an umbrell a to enable th e suppl ementar y plan, and suggesti ons discussed the re withi n, to be impl emented. There fore, th e MCP must address ke y princ ipl es of the food s yst em at a broad l evel. Thes e include:   Environmental sustainability/reducing UBC’s ecological footprint  S upport of local indust ries such as the food indus tr y  Import ance of comm unit y  C onnecti on of UBC to its agricultural roots  Import ance th at the camp us comm unit y values and understands their conn ec ti on to food These principl es appl y to other aspe cts of healt h y campus life other than th e food s ystem and, as discussed earlier, some are alread y st ated in the MCP . To reit erate, the principles that ar e  17  alread y adequat el y addre ssed in the MCP are the importance of comm unit y and the conne cti on of UBC to its agricult ural roots. In order to inte gr a te the remainin g principl es, as well as the food s ystem in gene ral, the fol lowing re comm endati ons have be en made as adde ndums to the MCP :  ACADEMIC ENDEAVORS (p. 28-29) Quality of Life Opinions – include the importance of maint aini ng acc ess and avail abil it y of qu ali t y foo d to the campus comm unit y.  (p. 31) Facilities and Services – include food as a nec essa r y compon ent of both facil it ies and services.     GENERAL STRATEGIES (p. 34) Environmental Responsibility – under this heading, add a valu e of supporting loc al products (e. g. food ) to minim iz e social, economi c and ecolo gic al costs of tr ansportati on (i.e. s upport the local econom y) . If certain loc al produc ts are unav ail able, take in it iative as an environmental lead er thr ough pur chasin g Fair Tra de products. (e. g. make Food S ystem a subheadin g of Environm ental Responsi bil it y. )  (p. 64) Signage and Orientation – include food facil it ies as an ex ampl e of improving sign a ge for buildings and “their interior facilities.” (p. 70) Respect for Land Value – include the importance of incre asin g bu il ding densit y on campus . Also, spac es in buil dings and on land sh ould be res erv ed fo r food so that access and avail abil it y of food can be maintained. This ties in with the value of comm unit y on campus .  (new) Food Waste Management – waste (or gani c and other ) must be deal t wit h in a sustainable fashion . Waste is a ke y component of a  food s yste m and must , therefor e, be addressed in the MCP . For ex ampl e, the MCP could la y the found ati on for compos ti ng all organic wast es on  18  campus .  LAND USE STRATEGIES (p. 105) Locations for Food Services – include a mention of maint aini ng choice/variet y  of food avail able. Food avail able from food servi ces shoul d be of adequ ate nutrit io nal qualit y.   (new) Locations for Green Space – include a descriptio n of the mul ti functi onal role of green space on campus . Other than open spac e (e. g. a sp orts field), gre en spac e can also include urb an forms of agric ult ure, suc h as rooftop gard ens/ gre e nhouses and comm unit y ga rdens. Thes e ar eas of urban agriculture shou ld be increas ed and impr oved, while buildi ngs sh ould be built with the infrastructur e to enable the incorp or ati on of such gr een spa ces on campus .    Recommendations for Action: A Supplementary Food System Plan:  The cr eati on of a mor e detailed plan to suppleme nt the MCP further facil it ates the inclusi on of the UBC Fo od S ystem into campus planning and developm e nt , by providi n g recomm ended avenu es fo r acti on to incorpor ate su stainable pra cti ces. Sim il ar supplementar y plans have be en devised i n the non-inst it uti onal sector of campus developm ent; for ea ch of the new UBC neighbou rhoo ds outli ned in the Officia l Comm u nit y Plan (OCP ) and the Comprehensive Com muni t y Plan (CCP ), a separ a te, more detailed Nei ghb ourhood Plan has been devised (U BC Universit y Town, 2005a). Ou r prop osal for a suppl ement ar y food s ystem plan follows thi s UBC Campus & Comm unit y Planning (C &C P ) mo del.   The Supplementar y Food S ystem Plan should take elements from the non -i nsti tut ional consul tation processes to ensure that all stakehold ers ar e invol ved. Currentl y, the developm ent approval pro cess for inst i tut ional land onl y requir e s an adviso r y desi gn pan el review and a technical review alon g wit h a publi c meeti ng (UBC Universit y Town, 2005 b). Then amendm ents  19  are mad e befo re it is sent to the Board of Gove rno rs for final ap proval. Ho wever, sinc e the food s ystem at UBC encomp a sses the whole universit y, it shoul d receive a lon ger consul tation process. For the nei ghbo urhood planning process, both a technical adviso r y comm it tee and an adviso r y pl anning comm it tee (APC ) – made up of stakeholders – are invol v ed in the process mul ti ple tim es (UBC Universit y To wn, 2005c). As well , numerous publ ic meeti ngs are held and the plan is revisi ted man y times befo re rea ching a draft for final consult ati on. The neighbou rhood planning process ensu res that publ ic opinions are he ard thro ugh the APC and publi c meeti ng. Altho u gh thi s process takes much longer, it ensu res that a plan wit h as big of an impact as the food s yste m wil l have input from all parties. Since the appro val process is len gth y, it is important to devise a working draft as soon as possi ble so that the food s ystem ma y be giv en adequate consi der ati on in campus planning as soo n as poss ibl e. In thi s suppl ementa r y pla n, each of th e objecti ves ex pressed in our visi on will be ex panded to include spec ific acti ons to be taken at UBC, as well as recomm endati ons to ex pa nd sust ainabili t y promoti ng practi ces alre ad y in place withi n the UBC Food S ystem. These strate gic acti ons suggested for incl usion in the Supplementar y Food S yst em Plan , are listed under ea ch of our previous l y stated obj ecti ves: 1. Increase the physical capacity of the UBC campus to support the growing of food  Strategic actions to meet this objective may include:  1.1  In corpor ate agricultural s paces int o future campus developm ent. Some ex ampl es are comm unit y gard ens (aro und buil dings, walkwa ys and areas such a da yc are s and schools) and roof top ga rdens.  1.2  Improv e ex ist ing infrastr ucture at UBC Farm to produce mor e food fo r con sump ti on on campus .   20  1.3  R eserve land for urb an agricult ur e proje cts that involve the publi c through educati onal programm ing (in sett ings such as greenhouses, aq uacult ure and bioponi cs ). 1.4  Improv e the conn ecti on t hat the UBC comm unit y has with the land throu gh creati n g outi ngs and acti vit ies aro und the Fa rm and throu gh encoura gin g the sales and prepar ati on of in-season foods on campus (Yale, 2005).  2. Increase the amount of food consumed at UBC that is produced both organically and locally    Strategic actions to meet this objective may include:  2.1  In cre ase invol vement of t he UBC Farm in campus food s ystem plannin g.  2.2  S eek partne rships with local produc ers.  2.3  S upport consumer educ ati on and awar eness of sust ainable wa ys o f shopping and   purchasin g food. 2.4  P romote local, or ganic and in -season foods.  2.5  S eek partne rships with local produc ers such as dai r y produce rs (Tona chel & Seele y, 2000 ) and ve getabl e fa rmers.  3. Encourage practices that manage waste flows in a more sustainable manner Strategic actions to meet this objective may include:  3.1  Educate students about waste mana gem ent and inc orporate it into school cu rriculum. 3.2  Encoura ge and ex pand re -usable contain er and ute nsil use in cafete rias and food outl ets. 3.3  Encoura ge UBC to make a comm it ment that refle cts the values of ECOtr e k by reducin g   ener g y and wate r in the food establi shments (redu cing their ecolo gic al footprint) as well as   by ex pandin g compos ti ng.  21  3.4  Educate diff er ent groups on campus about the importance of a sust ainable food s ystem and  how waste man a gement i s a part of that. It is hope d that thi s will promote participati on so that UBC Waste Mana ge ment (who is acti vel y loo king for be tt er wa ys to improve) can ex pand their services on campus . (Curr entl y wh at is holding back UBC Waste Mana gement is not lack of resour ces b ut lack of campus - wide participati on ) 3.5  Through educ ati on, deve lop further pa rtnerships with UBC Waste Mana g ement; curr entl y the y have pa rtnerships wit h UBC Fa rm, UBC Ca mpus Sustainabil it y Office, Facult y of Bio-R esour ce En gine erin g and Healt h, Saf et y and the Environment. 3.6  Expand UBC Waste Management’s small scale and large scale composting as well as their rec ycli n g ini ti ati ves .   4. Encourage the celebration of food and the local food system at UBC Strategic actions to meet this objective may include:  4.1  In cre ase awar eness and food s ystem lit era c y – edu cate the campu s commun it y about the value of local food s yst e ms, includi ng the ori gins of food and its disposal methods.    4.2  P romote the UBC sust ain abil it y pled ge as a wa y of educati n g the campus comm unit y. 4.3  In corpor ate food s ystem resea rch int o all educ ati onal programs o n campus , and not just   Agricultural Scienc es. 4.4  P roducts and servic es tha t cause least h arm to the environment shou ld be the least ex pensive. 4.5  Showcase foods from UBC and other local producers at a “farmer’s market” on campus,   such as in the Student Union Buil ding (SU B). 4.6  Or ganiz e acti vit ies and events to increase th e aw a reness of food s yst em sus tainabil it y  22  4.7  Introduce signs that indicate “food here” (similar to highway signs) and add these to the new buildi ng si gns on campus . This wil l improve the awar eness con ce rning which buil dings on campus con tain food facil it ies.  5. Encourage food consumed at UBC that is produced in other regions or countries to be produced under ethical and environmentally sustainable practices  Strategic actions to meet this objective may include:  5.1  Maintain current p artners hips with ethical busi ness partners. 5.2  S eek and dev elop more business relations hips with ethical busi ness partne r s. 5.3  Ex pand the AMS Ethical Purchasing Policy to include the enti re UBC campus food s ystem. 5.4  In cre ase the variet y of Fair Trade food products so ld at UBC. 5.5  In cre ase awar eness of th e UBC population about ethi cal food issues and environmental sust ainabili t y, in ord er to creat e consum er demand for sust ainable produ cts.  6. Increase the capacity of UBC to provide or support basic food security initiatives for the local community  Strategic actions to meet this objective may include:  6.1  Anal yz e the demo graphi cs of the UBC population to determi ne re asonable food prices.  6.2  Develop an on -li ne surve y to assess the curr ent le vel of sati sfacti on with th e UBC food   system’s ethnic diversity. 6.3  Use on-li ne surve y data to evaluate the feasibi li t y and demand fo r cult urall y app ropriate food products at UBC. 6.4  Ex plore the feasibi li t y of incorporati n g a loc al gro cer y outl et int o future ca mpus developm ent.  23  6.5  Ex plore the feasibi li t y an d demand for a lar ge -scal e, on-li ne groc er y deli ve r y se rvice, suc h as SPUDS , at UBC.  7. Ensure that there is adequate distribution of food facilities on campus Strategic actions to meet this objective may include:  7.1  Anal yz e curr ent develop ment plans to ensure that adequate numb ers of foo d facil it ies are included. 7.2  Anal yz e curr ent distribut ion of food fa cil it ies of campus to determine ar eas of growth. 7.3  Impl ement plannin g poli c y guid eli nes, sti pulating “x” number of food service facilities required withi n a certain land area on the UBC campus . 7.4  Develop prim ar y rese arc h on food demands on campus in order to ensure all forms of sust ainabili t y, in cludi ng economi c.  These re comm endati ons serve mo stl y as structural guidelines fo r the Supplementar y Food S ystem Plan, and we enc oura ge C &CP to consider the strate gies we hav e suggested, as well as incorporate oth er sustain abil it y ini ti ati ves as seen fit. Recommendations and Conclusion  Recommendations for AGSC 450 2006 Colleagues:   W ork with ke y sust ainab il it y le aders and stakehol ders on campus , in dr afting the Supplementar y Food S ys tem Plan. This includes the UBC Campus Sustainabil it y Offi ce, UBC Food Se rvices, AM S Food and Bever a ge De partment, UBC Wast e M ana gement and UBC Farm. The aim of this plan shoul d be (1) to reach conc rete solut ions to fulfil l the  24  objecti ves (visi on) propo sed in this document, and (2) support the enh ance ment and int egr ati on of cur rent sus tainabil it y ini ti ati ves on campus .  W ork together with other facult ies, such as En gin e ering and the School of Comm unit y and Regional Plannin g, to inc rease th e food sust ainabil it y on campus .  Evaluate the feasibi li t y of a more food -sust ainable UBC campus .     Anal yz e our objecti ves and strate gies for the Supp lementar y Food S ystem Plan and look for areas th at ma y need to b e improved or more det ail ed. For ex ampl e, the eco nomi c feasibi li t y of implementi ng our obje cti ves has not been ex tensivel y ass essed and could benefit from further ex ami nati on.   Conclusion  It is evident that sus taina ble food s yst ems are desirable in orde r to improve the overall sust ainabili t y and ecologi cal footprint of a comm unit y. It is also appa rent th at food syst ems ought to be included in campus planning as a resu lt of their pertinent role i n the functi oning of a comm unit y. At UBC, it i s important to int egrate food s ystems into the MCP – the highest level of inst it uti onal planning on campus . Whil e the MCP can address gen er al princ ipl es of the food s ystem, a suppl ement ar y plan is needed to ex pli cate specific obj ecti ves and mechanism s for achievin g a sust ainabl e food s ystem on campus . The implementation of our Supplementar y Food S ystem Plan wil l carr y out an important step in the dev elopm ent of a sust ainable food s ystem at UBC. The ex ecuti on of such a plan wil l also provi de a fr amework for the in clusi on of sust ainabili t y ini ti ati ves i n the planning of oth er universit y campus es and comm unit ies. Finall y, it is evident that these rec omm e ndati ons are onl y part of a preli mi nar y repo r t on the int egr ati on  25  of food s yst ems into campus planning; ther efor e, it must be foll owed by a more detailed look at the subject.         Works Cited Co r nell U niver sit y. (2 0 0 0 ) Growing Food Security in NY Communities. Retr ie ved Mar ch 26 , 200 5 fro m, http :// www. c fap . o r g/a fs te mp 3 . cf m? to p icI D= 1 8 6   Holland Bar r s Plannin g Gro up . (2 00 2 ) . Southeast False Creek Urban Agriculture Strategy . Retr ieved Mar ch 28 , 20 0 5 fro m http :// www. cit y. va nco u ver . b c. ca /co mms vc s/so ut hea st/ Ur b an Agr . p d f   Klo p p enb ur g, J., S. Lez b er g, K. De Master , G. Steve nso n a nd J. Hend r ickso n. (2 0 0 0 ) . T astin g Foo d , T a sting Sus tainab il it y: Defi ni n g the Attr ib utes of a n Alter nati ve Foo d Syste m wit h Co mp etent, Or d inar y Peo p le. Human Organization , 59 (2 ) : 17 7 -1 8 6 .   Pothuk uc hi, K. and J.L. Kau f man. (2 0 0 0 ) . T he fo o d syste m . AP A Jo ur na l, 66 , 118 - 1 2 1   Rees, W.E. (Ed . ) (2 00 1 ) . Eco lo gical fo o tp r int, co nce p t of. 2 0 0 1 Encyclo p ae d ia of Bio d iver sit y. 2: 229 -2 4 4 . San Deigo , CA: Aca d e mic Press.  The Student’s Union of the University of Alberta. (2003a). Environmental Coordination Office of Student.  Retr ieved Mar ch 26 , 20 0 5 from, http :// www. s u. ualb er ta. ca /s u/b usi nes ses a nd ser vices/eco p a ge/en vir o n me nt/et hical b u yi n g    The Student’s Union of the University of Alberta. (2003b). Operating Policy Statement.  Retr ieved Mar ch 26 , 20 0 5 from,   http :// www. s u. ualb er ta. ca /s u/s tud ent go ver n me nt/r ules/o p er atin gp o licies/ gener al/1 4 . 1 2   T onac hel, R. and K. Seele y (2 0 0 0 ) . Penn College Chooses Local Foods. Penns yl va nia Co ll ege of T ec hno lo g y Foo d Ser vices. Retr ieved on Mar ch 17 , 20 0 5 fro m, http :// www. p c t . ed u/fo o d ser v/ fs ne ws ht m# lo c al fo o d s   UB C. (1 9 92 ) . Main Ca mp u s Plan. Uni ver si t y o f British Co lu mb ia.    26  UB C Uni ver sit y T o wn (2 0 0 5 a) . Neighb o ur ho o d plannin g pro ce ss. Retr ieved Ap r il 3, 200 5, fro m http :// www. u ni ver sit yto wn. ub c. ca /p lanni n g/Mo U NP P ro cess. p d f   UB C Uni ver sit y T o wn (2 0 0 5 b) . Institu tio nal deve lo p ment. Develo p me nt ap p r o val pro ce ss Retr ie ved Ap r il 3, 200 5 , fro m  ht tp :// www. u niver sit yto wn . ub c. ca /p lan ni n g/Mo U D AP I D.p d f   UB C Uni ver sit y T o wn (2 0 0 5 c) . No n -i nstit utio nal develo p ment. Develo p ment ap p r o val pro ce ss Retr ie ved Ap r il 3, 200 5 , fro m  http :// www. u ni ve r sit yto wn . ub c. ca /p lan ni n g/Mo U DAP NI D. p d f   UB C Waste Mana ge me nt. (2 0 0 5 a) . Waste Fact Sheets Litter Reduction . Retr ieved Mar ch 25 , 20 0 5 fro m, http :// www. r ec ycle. ub c. ca / wf s litter . p d f    UBC Waste Mana ge me nt. (2 0 0 5 b ) . Waste Fact Sheets Composting . Retr ieved Mar ch 25 , 20 0 5 fro m, http :// www. r ec ycle. ub c. ca / wf s co mp o st.p d f   Uni ver sit y of Cali fo r nia Sa nta Cruz (UC SC) . (2 0 0 4 ) . Bluep rint fo r a sustai nab le ca mp us 2 0 0 4 . Wo r king gro up result s fro m t he Ann ual Ca mp us Ear th Sum mit, 1/3 0 /0 4 . Stud ent En vir o n menta l Ce nter . Retr ieved Mar ch 21 , 20 0 5 fro m http :// www. ucs csec. o r g/b luep r int a nd su m m it/B luep r int 2 0 0 4 . p d f    Uni ver sit y co mmittee fo r a sustainab le ca mp u s (UCS C) ; Ag r icult ur e and Foo d Sub co mmit tee. (2 0 05 ) . Learning about our campus food system . Michiga n Sta te Uni ver si t y. Retr ieved Mar ch 22 , 20 05 fro m, http :// www. ec o fo o t. ms u. ed u/ f iles/p d fs /fo o d . p d f    Yale (2 0 0 5) . Harvest 05’: a Yale freshman outdoor orientation trip . Retr ieved Mar ch 17 . 20 0 5 fro m http :// www. yale. ed u /ha r vest/ i nd ex. ht ml  

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