UBC Undergraduate Research

The sustainability of the UBC Food System Project : a sustainable business plan for Agora Coney, David; Jacob, Sandra; Lee, Yee Wah; Soewono, Adri; Wong, Mary; Mok, Kenny; Baxter, Christina 2004-03-25

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UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report       The Sustainability of the UBC Food System Project: A Sustainable Business Plan for Agora David Coney, Sandra Jacob, Yee Wah Lee, Adri Soewono, Mary Wong, Kenny Mok, Christina Baxter  University of British Columbia AGSC 450 March 25, 2004           Disclaimer: “UBC SEEDS provides students with the opportunity to share the findings of their studies, as well as their opinions, conclusions and recommendations with the UBC community. The reader should bear in mind that this is a student project/report and is not an official document of UBC. Furthermore readers should bear in mind that these reports may not reflect the current status of activities at UBC. We urge you to contact the research persons mentioned in a report or the SEEDS Coordinator about the current status of the subject matter of a project/report”.  1            The Sustainability of the UBC Food System Project    Group 7 (2004)  General Tasks & Scenario 1:    A Sustainable Business Plan for Agora.       April 2004 David Cone y Sandra J acob Yee Wah Le e Adri Soewono Mar y Wong Kenn y Mok Christ ina Bax ter  2  Contents:  Abstract  ……………………………………….. 3   Introduction  …………………………………… 4   Value Assumptions  …………………………… 5   The Model  ……………………………………. 5   The Indicators  ………………………………… 7    Econom ic Sustainabil it y   7  S ocial Sustainabil it y    8  Ec ologic al Sustainabil it y   10  Specific Tasks  ……………………………….. 12   Assessment of Agora’s Business Model        12 Inte grati on of Ago ra wit h FAS Curriculum 15 Le ssons from Other Stud ent -R un Outlets 16  Conc lusion  …………………………………… 17   List of Recommendations  ……………………. 19   References  ……………………………………. 20   Appendices  …………………………………... 21   1) Agora’s Current Business Plan 21  2)  Questi onnaire on Food Securit y And Cust omer Demand  27 3)  Questi onnaire on Food Sys tem  Issu e Awa reness   29 4)  R e view of Othe r Student -R un Food Outlets    31 5) Inte grati on with FAS   33          3  Abstract.  The UBC Food S ystem Project is in its thi rd ye a r and aim s to ass ess and improve the sust ainabili t y of the UBC Food S ystem. Buil ding on the best of the gen eral models prepar ed fo r thi s purpos e in 2003, we ex ami ne the sust ainabili t y of on e specific part of the UBC Food S ystem, namel y Agor a, the student -run food outl et in the Facult y of Agricultural Science’s MacMillan Building. We select a total of four indi cators to repres ent and measu re economi c, social and ecologic al sust ainabili t y, and we ass ess Agora’s current business model against these indicators. While we find that Agora does well with respect to ecologic al sust ainabili t y, we find significan t room for improvement in economi c and so cial s ustainabil it y. Sever al rec omm endati ons are mad e with respect to each indi cator, and inst r uments are provided for measurin g and assessin g progr ess over time.                                       4   Introduction.  In our vie w there are two central and stron gl y int e rlinked problems with the UBC Food S ystem (UBC FS ). The first problem is that UBC FS faces a ran ge of unusuall y diverse and challenging demands, reflecting the diversity of the system’s numerous stakeholders. The s econd problem is how to prioriti z e these competing dem ands.  The UBCFS faces mul ti ple stakeholders: th e Un iversit y, its students, sta ff and facult y, the local comm unit y, gov ernment mandat ed regulators, suppl iers, the market, the union, empl o ye es, and mana gers. All have a st ake in the UBCFS , and all pres ent the s ystem with their own demands. In priorit iz ing an d respondi n g to these de mands, UBCFS ex pects above all to be fi nanciall y self -sust aini n g. At the same time, howe ver, the s ystem strives to provide a full range of food products an d services to a diverse cl ientele, at low prices, withi n a nar ro w and fluctuatin g win dow of time, while sim ult aneousl y contribut ing to campus sust ainabili t y and the s ustainabil it y of the loca l, regional a nd global ecos ystems. This is an ex tremel y chall en ging mand ate and we are pleased to be able to assi st the UBC Office of Campus Sustai nabil it y and th e SEEDS pro gramm e in meeti ng thi s chall en ge. Our spe cific rol e in thi s regard will be to revie w and ass ess the work done b y previous consul tants , and to then buil d on thi s work, concentrati n g in particular on one compo nent of the UBCFS , namel y Agor a, the student -ru n food service outl et located in the Facu lt y of Agri cult ural Scienc e ’s (FAS) MacMillan Building.   In th e final anal ysis we will find that while Ago ra is unique amon g UBC food service outl ets in terms of the const r aint s and opportunit ies it faces, it does have th e potential to contribut e in some int eresti ng and important w a ys to the overall sust ainabili t y of the UBC FS .   5  Value Assumptions.   Although as consul tants our Group is dete r mi ned to provide a balanced assessment of the s yste m and the propos als to reform it, we ar e awar e of the need to acknowled ge our own biases and the value as sump ti ons underl yin g th em. We are a diverse group, with back grounds in food sci ence, trade economi cs, nutrit ion and healt h, but we sha re a comm on comm it ment to the prin cipl e of sust ainabili t y, which we have appli ed to our ass essm en t of the UBCFS and Ago ra. To us, s ustainabil it y means that the UBCFS and its compo nent parts must be eco nomi call y viable, must contribut e in a significant wa y to the food securit y of the UBC comm unit y and to the food s ystem literac y of its members, and must , withi n these const raint s, minim iz e its impact on the campus , re gional and global ecos ystems. We acknowled ge ther efore th at our an al ysi s is informed b y a weakl y anthropocentri c value s ystem, since we are pla cing human values of eco nomi c welfar e and food securit y first, while tempering th is with the recognit ion that achieving these objecti ves dep ends to so me ex tent on the sust ain abil it y of th e ecos ystem that underpins our econom y, societ y an d indi vidual well -being.  The Model. In assessin g the 2003 m odels for th e sust ainabili t y of th e UBC FS we fou nd most resonanc e theo reti call y, and in terms of values, wi th Group 14 . We have th erefo re chosen their model as the ‘best in class’ of 2003 and propose to build on the foundation they laid last ye ar in our own, cur rent anal ysis of the UBC FS a nd Agor a. Group 14 clearl y has a ver y stron g grasp of s yst ems theor y and sust ainab il it y conc epts and thi s is refle cted in the  6  strength of the model the y pr esent. This model also reflects our own values as, for example, when Group 14 states that “we view t he liveli hood of our species as ult im atel y the most important….however we also recognize the interrelatedness of all things and believe that….the key to our survival and the health of our community is determined….also by the health of the surrounding environment” (Group 14, 2003). This is clearl y a weakl y anth r opocentric view and so corresponds with our own value s ystem. We also like the graphical tool adopted by Group 14 to measure and track sust ainabili t y, and will be retaining this rainbow ‘Sustain -O- M e ter’ in our own model. We largely support Group 14’s problem definition, namely that “there is a need to ex plore not onl y the i ndivi dual components [of the UBCFS ] but the m yri ad of interactions that take place between them” and therefore to develop a model “that will enable future gene rati ons of students to stud y t he sust ainabili t y of the UBC FS as a whole” (Group 14, 2003). We do, however, now find it necessary to modify, or update thi s problem definiti on to include the identific ati on of specific solut io ns to specific problems fac ed b y spe cific subuni ts of the UBCFS , in our cas e Agor a. We reco gniz e from the outset that these specific solut ions will need to be consi stent with our more gen eral values and go als while also bein g reali sti c withi n the const raint s faced b y Ago ra and the UBCFS .  This is a point of depa rture fo r us from the ex ce ll ent foundati on laid b y Group 14’s work then, as we use the general model and graphical tools they provide to frame our investi gati on and ana l ysis of a subcompon ent of the UBC FS .     7  The Indicators. It is our opini on th at the indi cators sele cted b y Group 14 are in adequat e to assess the place of Agora in the ‘sustainability- unsustainability continuum’ as we define it. We have the refo re ele cted to graft diffe rent indi c ators onto Group 14’s basic model. S pecificall y, we have chosen four indi c ators, one to assess and mea sure ecologic al sust ainabili t y, one to ass ess and measur e econom ic sust ainabili t y, and two to assess and measure soci al sus tainabil it y.  Economic Sustainability.  Given our underl yin g anthropocenti c values an d the const raint s withi n which Ago ra op erates, we feel that economi c viabili t y is the ke y to economi c sust ainabili t y. This is subt l y but importantl y diff erent to profit ab il it y, since it all ows for t he ex ist en ce of economi call y viable but non -profit ope rati ons suc h as Ago ra to ex ist within the UBCFS . In fact it would even all ow for a loss -makin g Ago ra to be classified as economi call y sust ainable, as long as an y subsi dies and gr ants it obtained in return for con tribut ing to, for ex ampl e, food se cu rit y or the FAS cur ric ulum were themselves provided on a sust ainable basis .  We propose measuring Agora’s economic sustainability against traditional economi c indi cators, via an annual ex ami nati on of its profit and loss accounts , but taking int o account the sustaina bil it y of an y financial co ntribut ions it may receiv e from the FAS, the AgUS or other ex tern al sourc es. If Ago ra is un profit able in t erms of its sales then, but has gu arant eed fundin g from FAS, AgUS or UBC Food Servi ces that compensate fo r these loss es, we can sa y that Agora is economi cal l y viabl e and thus me ets our definiti on  8  of economi c sust ainabili t y. Th e len gth of time ov er which thi s fund in g is gua rante ed will be the key to determining the level of Agora’s economic sustainability.  We will deem Agora to be 100% economi call y sust ainable if it is eit her independentl y profit abl e (revenu es ex ceed costs ) in the year of ex ami nati on, or if it has gua rante ed fundin g suffi cient to meet its fix ed costs for the nex t three years. We will deem Ago ra to be 0% economi call y sust ainable if its revenues are less than its costs in the year of op er ati on and if it does not have gu arante ed fundin g suffici ent to meet its fix ed costs for eit her th at yea r or an y future ye ars. In betw een th ese tw o ex tremes we propose balan cing profit a bil it y and fundin g as foll ows. Measuring Economic Sustainability E co no mic Sustai nab ilit y (%)  Pro fitab le  Fund in g to Cover Fi xed Co st s  10 0  Yes  No t req uir ed  No  Guar anteed fo r 3 yea r s  75  Yes  No t req uir ed  No  Guar anteed For 2 Yea r s  50  Yes  No t req uir ed  No  Guar anteed For 1 Yea r  25  Yes  No t req uir ed  No  Guar anteed fo r Cur r ent Yr  0  Yes  No t req uir ed  No  No Guar anteed Fund i ng   Using a per centa ge scale to measure economi c sus tainabil it y will all ow us to easil y locate Ago ra on the Sustain -O-Meter, and to track chan ges in its economi c sustainabili t y ov er  9  time.  In thi s model 0% sust ainabili t y repres ents the left hand most edge of the re d sector of the rainbow that is the Sustain -O-Meter, while 100% sust ainabili t y repr esents the ri ght hand ed ge of sp ectrum . Social Sustainability.  Our prim ar y indi cator of social sust ainab il it y is food securit y . W e have chosen thi s indi cator for two rea sons. First, we do not beli eve that a comm unit y, or societ y, can be sust ainable as long as its basic needs are not being met, and we see food securit y as the most basic human ne ed. Second, we beli eve t hat food se curit y can act as a prox y fo r healt h, another basic nee d, al lowing us to buil d healt h int o our model of sustainabil it y. In as much as diet is a cont ributor to ph ysic al healt h , our measur ement of foo d securit y will also therefor e serv e as a prox y for healt hfulnes s. We define food secur it y here as the population of a community having access, at all times, to “nutritious, safe, personally acceptable and culturally appropriate foods” (Kalina, 2001). We propose that Agora’s contribut ion to the food securit y of the MacMi ll a n comm unit y be assesse d via a surve y that measures the ac cept abil it y, affo rdabil it y and avail abil it y of the food products and services it provides. We provide a questi onnair e for thi s purpose in Appen dix 2.  Our se condar y indi cator of so cial sust ainabili t y is the level of knowled ge held withi n a comm unit y abo ut iss ues affecti ng the fo od s yst em of which that comm unit y is a part. The rati onale fo r in cludi ng thi s indi c ator ste ms from our beli ef that i f more people understand food s yst em iss ues, these iss ues will be easier to addr ess, and sust ainabili t y will therefor e be easier to achieve. We se e a central role for Agora in both measurin g food s yst em aw aren e ss now and in incr easin g awaren ess over time, both independentl y and via its greater int e gr ati on with the FAS curriculum . We recom mend that the  10  measurement of food s ystem awaren ess be done principall y via a surve y questi onnaire, provided in Appendix 3. We also make a number of recomm endati ons, bel ow, as to how Ago ra can contribut e to raisi ng food s ystem awar e ness wit hin the MacM il lan comm unit y. We will deem Ago ra to be 100 % sociall y sust a inable if all surve y resp ondents assert that Ago ra m eets t heir food pref eren ces and if all respondents ass ert that Ago ra has influenced th eir unde rsta nding of food s yst em aw areness. We will de em Agor a to be 0% sociall y sust ainabl e if no respondents ass ert that Ago ra has m ade them th ink about food s ystem iss ues, and i f no ne assert that Agora m e ets their pra cti cal ne eds. For sit uati ons between thes e ex tremes we suggest using a sim ple aver a ge of the respons es to these two questi ons. For ex ampl e if 75% of respondents ha ve their food pr efe renc es met and 25 % have incre ased awar enes s of food s ystem iss ues, then Ago ra would be fo und to be 50% sociall y sust ainable.   Again, using simple percentage measurements will allow Agora’s level of social sust aina b il it y to be shown on th e Susta i n -O-Mete r, to ge ther with an y chan ges to this level of sustainabil it y ov er time.  Ecological Sustainability Our chosen indi cator he r e is the percenta ge of waste gener ated b y Agora that is rec ycl ed – either through the University’s own recycling and compost in g oper ati ons or through the city’s. We recomm end that thi s indi cator be me asured via a count of the rec ycl able and compos ta ble materials enterin g Agora, and the per centa ge of these that are diverted to the rec ycli n g/compost ing s ystem. This task can be sim pli fied b y pla cing rec ycli n g bins in and aro und Ago ra and moni torin g their contents. In our vi ew Agor a will be ecolo gic all y sust ainab le in direct proportion to the perc enta ge of its rec yc l able waste that is rec ycl ed/compost ed. It would be 1 00% ecologic all y sust ainable, for ex ampl e, if  11  100% of such waste is diverted from the gen eral waste s ystem, and would be 0% sust ainable if none of thi s waste is so diverted. Ecologic al sust ainabili t y could thus be tracked via the Sustai n -O-Mete r as per our indi cators for econo mi c and social sust ainabili t y.  We have s elected thi s in dicator, rather than perh aps food miles, local pro ducti on or or gani c sourcin g as it is both more practi c al t o measur e and, cru ciall y, to chan ge . In essence thi s is bec ause it occ urs within the UBC F S and is lar gel y subj ect j ust to decisi ons made withi n the UBC comm unit y, as opposed t o being ex ternal and the refor e invol ving ex ternal decisi on maker s over whom we have l ess, if an y influenc e. Th at said, we do acknowled ge the importance of food miles as an indi cator of food and ecos ystem sustainability, and the contribution that a ‘buy local’ policy can make to the economic and social sust ainabili t y of the local food economy, and we ther efor e supp ort the gener al drive towa rds reducin g fo od miles that we see emergin g withi n the UBC Food S ystem Project’s growing body of literature.  We beli eve that these indi cators, properl y me asure d and taken together, will all ow us to go some consi de rable wa y towards lo ca ti ng Agor a withi n th e ‘sustainability-unsustainability continuum’ as represented by Group 14’s Sustain -O -Met er, and to tr ack chan ges alon g thi s conti n uum over time.       12  Specific Tasks.  1) Assess Agora’s Current Business Model. C urrent Model  A busi ness model can be described as “the method of doing business by which a company can sustain itself” (Rappa, 2004). Agora operates under a particular type of a business model, described as a “Community Model”, whereby community members have a hi gh investm ent in both time and emot ion in th e suc cess of the venture (Rappa, 2004 ). In othe r words it is a busi ness model based on lo ya lt y.  Ago ra is a non -pro fit, student -run food servic e facil it y op erati n g on the ground floor of the MacMi ll an Buil ding between 9.30 and 12.30 am Monda y to Wedne sda y. It is gove rned b y a student co mm it tee from the Food Nutriti on and Healt h (FNH) depa rtment of the FAS and is sta ffe d by volunt ee rs. Agor a currentl y sell s baked goo ds, coff ee and a variet y of convenien ce i tems such as jui ce box e s, gr anola ba rs and pack aged crack ers. Ever y second Wednesda y Agor a also sell s lunch items such as sandwiches and soups. Ago ra is comm it ted to purchasin g loc al and fair t rade products wh eneve r possi ble, and to sourcing its produce from UBC Farm, in particular, when condit ions of suppl y and demand all ow. It has a modest inventor y of equipm ent and a dail y turnov er of approx im atel y $40. Profi ts are ne gli gibl e and are reinvested in the busi nes s, to purchase new equipm ent. Ago ra currentl y has an arran ge ment with UBC Food Services wher e b y rent on the unit is waived, and is addit ionall y supported by the AgUS with a grant. Th e degree to which these arran gem ents are sust ainable over time is not clear, since the y currentl y ex tend onl y up to financial yea r 2005.   13  Ago ra produc es litt le waste, most l y post - consu mer food wrapp ers and coffe e grounds. The coff ee gr ounds are compos ted, and the food wrapp ers could be easil y captured for recycling. Agora’s prices are low, reflecting its non -pr ofit status and comm it ment to food securit y, and it sees its training and use of volunt ee rs as providi ng ex perienti al learnin g and a contribut ion to raisi ng food s ystem issue aw ar en ess.  Ago ra ope rates outsi de t he mainst ream of the UBCFS , and is not subj e c t to the same const raint s and pr e ssures as other UBC foo d se rvice outl ets. Wit hin the const raint s of its funding arran geme nts it is, in effect, free to set its own agenda and pr ioriti es, and so to make sust ainabili t y its single guidi ng principl e. This guidi n g principle is reflected i n Agora’s efforts to minimize wa ste (ecolo gic al sust ainabili t y), provide i nex pensive but nutrit ious food to its custom ers (social sust ainabili t y) and to do so whil e remaining economi call y viable (eco nomi c sust ainabili t y).    Assessm ent and Recom mendati ons. Our assessment of Agora’s busin ess model with respect to our indi cators of sust ainabili t y is that alt hough th e cu rrent model provides a stron g found a ti on, thi s is not sufficient to ensure sust ainabili t y. In short we consi der Agora to be clo se to achievin g ecolo gical sus tainabil it y but not yet economi c or social sust ainabili t y.  Specificall y with resp ect to social sust ainabili t y, we feel that Ago ra cur rentl y fail s to make a si gnific ant con tribut ion to the food secu rit y of th e MacMi ll an co mm unit y sinc e its limi ted food offerin gs and hours of servi ce are insufficient to outwei gh its low prices, and that it also fail s to make a si gnific ant contri buti on to food s ystem is sue awa ren ess. Wit h respect to economic sust ainabili t y, we feel t hat Agor a is not currentl y economi c all y viable be cause it fail s t o make a profit and has fail ed to se cure long te rm guar anteed  14  funding sufficient to mee t its fix ed costs . Wit h res pect to ecolo gical sust ain abil it y we find that Ago ra do es well , producing litt le waste an d adopti ng rec ycli n g/co mpos it ing as a poli c y goal. We do stil l feel that there is some roo m for improvement in this area thou gh.  In order to increase its economic, social and ecological sustainability, Agora’s busi ness plan ne eds to spell out how it can bett er understand and me et the demands of its custom er base, tak e acti ve steps to increas e food s ys tem iss ue aw ar eness, put its funding arran gements with Food Services and the AgUS on a more permanent fo oti ng, and more full y int e gr ate itself wit h the FAS and its cur riculum . We therefore propose that:  Ago ra surve y its custom er base with respect to their food wants, using the questi onnaire we provide as a mod el, and then int egrate a plan for th e real iz ati on of these ne eds into its broader business plan.   Ago ra provide a ph ysic al facil it y (such as m agaz ine r acks or sh elves) for the displ a y and ex chan ge of information on food s ystem iss ues, and investi gat e the feasibi li t y of host ing weekl y/bi -w eekl y int erdisci pli nar y pr esentations /di scussi on forums on food s yst em issues.   Ago ra app roach Food Se rvices, the AgUS and the FAS with proposals for longer term funding, ex ploring with these stakeholders what the y would ex pect i n return for fundin g, and how Agor a can meet th ese dem ands while remaining tru e to its core valu es.  Ago ra int roduce rec ycli ng bins for the food w r appers and other post -c onsum er wastes it gen er ates and develop plans now fo r ho w to deal with the food waste it will gene rate in the futur e as its operati ons ex pan d.   15   Ago ra take steps as detailed below to int egrat e itself more compl etel y wit h the FAS and its core curri culum .  Whil e these proposals reflect our own vie ws on how Ago ra can move to a more sust ainable busi ness mod el, the y are also informe d by l essons lea rned fro m other student -run food servic e outl et s at othe r Unive rsiti es and coll e ges, whos e ca se studi es we reviewed as part of this project. A more detailed description of Agora’s current business model is provided in Appendix 1. Questi onnaires to ass ess custom er sati sfa cti on, custom er demands, food securit y and food s ystem awar eness are provided in Appendices 2 and 3. Details of the lessons learned from other student run food serv ice outl ets are provided in Appendix 4. Steps to int egrate Agora with the FAS cur riculu m are provided below, and in Appendix 5.  2) Integrating Agora into the FAS Curriculum. One of Agora’s unique advantages is its already close relationship with the FAS, a relations hip that, if pro perl y mana ged, has th e potential to mak e Agor a not onl y economi call y sust ainable but also capable of cont r ibut ing in a ver y m eanin gful wa y to th e gr eate r sust ainabili t y of the Facult y, the FAS comm unit y and the wide r UBCFS . We beli eve that the best rout e to achievin g thi s is via the greater int e grati on of Ago ra with the FAS curri culum .  Ago ra and the FAS sh ar e a numb er of co re values, including a comm it ment to sust ainabili t y, healt h, en vironment, comm unit y and ex cell ence withi n an int erdiscipl inar y framewo rk cha ra cteriz ed by first cl ass rese ar ch and ex perienti al learnin g. In addit ion there are s ever al ex ist ing FAS cou rses w h ere we see a natural fit betwe en FAS lea rnin g  16  objectives and teaching methodologies on the one hand, and Agora’s needs and capabil it ies on the othe r. These two factors co mbi ned provide si gnific ant scope for gr eate r mut uall y bene ficial int e grati on and we m ak e a numbe r of det ail ed recomm endati ons in thi s regard in App endix 5. These include:  Using Ago ra as an alt er nati ve model for the stu d y of small agri -food business mana gement in FRE 302.  Using Agor a for ex perie nti al learning in food an al ysis , nutrit ional l abeli n g, food safet y, food mark eti ng and food prepa rati on in FNH 301, 340, 341 and 440, respecti vel y.         Using Ago ra as an outl e t for raisi n g awar eness of food s ystem iss ues, from an int erdiscipl inar y perspe cti ve, via the provisi on and ex change of writ ten information, the sponsor ing of food -s ystem relat ed pres entations such as cate red “Monday night forums”, or via other innovati ve vehicles .    3) Lessons Learned from Other Student-Run Food Outlets. Other coll e ges and Uni versiti es have, over t im e, developed student -ru n food operati ons of various t ypes. It is our beli ef that lessons can be le arned from these other operati ons and appli ed t o Agora and we hav e th erefo re revie wed th e ex perienc e of these student -run food outl ets. The principal lesson s learned are that custom er demands shoul d be ascert ained via a sur ve y, that lon g term fun ding shoul d be secured from the host Universit y or Coll e ge, and that, where possi bl e, food products shoul d be purchased locall y, fo r nutrit ional, economi c and ecolo gi cal reasons (Mc Gill , 2003). These lessons largely reflect our own assessment of what Agora’s business plan should look like, as  17  enunciated abov e. Detail s of our review of other student run food outl ets are provided in Appendix 4.   Conclusion. Ago ra is a small , sli ght l y out of the wa y, non -profit food outl et providi ng a limi ted range of food pr oducts and se rvices on a limi ted basis to a limi ted cli entele. On the face of it therefor e, it seems that the contribut ion Agora might make to the overall sust ainabi li t y of the UBCFS is limi ted. We beli e ve, howev er, that Ago ra can mak e a ver y consi derable contribut ion to food s ystem sust ain abil it y and that it can, i n effe ct, punch consi derabl y abov e its weight. We base thi s ass ert ion on the foll owing obse rvati ons:  Ago ra ope rates outsi de t he mainst ream of the UBC FS and so is not subj ect to the same const r aint s and pre ssures as other UBC foo d servic e outl ets. It is, in eff ect, free to set its own agen da and prio rities and so to make sust ainabili t y it s single guidi n g prin cipl e.  Ago ra is housed withi n and run by students of agricult ur al and food sciences whose value s ystem and outl ooks differ signific an tl y from those prev ail ing in the wider UBCFS. “Sustainability is us” could be the motto of this group in fact, rather than “profitability is us”, the motto prevailing elsewhere in this system.  Ago ra has the potential to bring the full wei ght and influence of an enti re Universit y Facult y to bear on the iss ues and actors it seeks to influence and is, again, quit e unique in this. The more that Agora int egr ates itself int o the core curriculum of th e Facul t y the mor e se cure and sust ainable it will be, and the gr eate r influenc e it will wield.  18  In summ ar y th en, we beli eve that by int e gr ati ng itself with FAS, by bein g both a refle cti on of and a cha mpi on for the FAS values of sust ainabili t y an d student -led innovation, and by bein g free to ch art its own course independent of the co nstraint s faced by other UBC food outl ets, Ago ra can establi sh itself not onl y as a sust a inable subuni t withi n the UBC FS , but as an ex empl ar of sust aina bil it y on campus th at others can turn to for inspi rati on, advice an d ex ampl e.    19  List of Recommendations.   Ago ra surv e y its custom er base with respect to their food wants, using the questi onnaire provided i n Append ix 2 of thi s paper, and int e gr ate the result s of thi s surve y int o its busi ness plan.   Ago ra provide a facil it y for the displ a y and int erd iscipl inar y ex chan ge of information on food s ystem issue awa reness.   Ago ra investi gate th e possi bil it y of host in g weekl y/bi weekl y int e r discipl inar y discussi on forums and/or presentations on food s ystem issues.   Ago ra tr ack its impact on food s ystem aw ar eness using the questi onnaire provided in Appendix 3 of thi s paper.   Ago ra approa ch UBC Food Services, th e AgUS, and the F AS to discuss long t erm, sust ainable funding.   Ago ra take furthe r steps to int egr ate itself wit h FA S and its core cur riculum .    Ago ra int roduce rec ycli n g bins for the coll ecti on of post -consum er food waste in and around Agor a.   Ago ra me asure its econ o mi c, social and ecologic al sust ainabili t y usin g th e indi cators and measurements outl ined in thi s paper and locate itself accordin gl y on t he Sustain -O-Meter.                       20  References.   Kali na, L.,(2001).  Food Securit y.  Buil ding food Securit y in Can ada (pp 9-20).  Kaml oops, BC.   Group 14: Forb es, C., Smi th, K., Wong, T., Jones, L., Qu an, V., Lu, L., C ant, M. (2003).  The Sustainabil it y of the UBC Food S ystem: Coll aborati ve Proje ct II.  Retr ieved  Febru ar y 9, 2004 from the World Wide Web:  http:/ /www.webct.ubc.c a /S C R IP T/a gsc_450/s c ripts/ serve  _home  Rappa, M.  (2004). Business Models on the Web.  Mana gin g the Di git al Enterprise .   Retrieved Mar ch 26, 200 4 from the World Wide Web:  http:/ /di git alenterprise.or g/m odels/ models.ht ml  .   McGil l Tribune. (2003). Residence, campus food service to be corpor ati z ed . Retrieved March 12, 2004, from htt p:/ /www.mcgil lt ribune.com/ news/2003/ 03/24/ News/R esidence.C ampus . Food.S ervic e.To.Be.C orpo rati z ed -398 349.sht ml   Universit y of Toronto. (2 000). Food Secu rit y: A S tud y of Univ ersit y of Tor onto Students’ Attitudes and Needs Towards Food on the St. George Campus. R etrieved March 12, 2004, from htt p:/ /sgc.sa.utoronto.c a/Ar chives/Archives Food% 20 S ecurit y.htm   Feenstr a, G.W . (1997). Local food s ystems and su stainable comm unit ies . American Journal of Alternative Agriculture, Vol. 12, Nove mber. Pp 28-36.                   21  Appendix 1.  Agora’s Current Business Model.     The Agora Kitchen space: towards a locally based sustainable food system.  Business Description   1.1.1  Mission Statement  The student-run Ag ora creates a learner-centered approach to interdisciplinary education. Volunteer students wit gain an understanding of the science and management of food and nutrition in to context of to principles; of land, food and community.  Ad ditionally the operation of Agora should foster an environment of  connections and interactions between the different disciplines of the Facult y.   1. 1. 2 Key success factors   Funding support from the Facult y of Agricultural Science, the Food, Nutrition and Health (FNH) Committee, and the Agricultural Sciences Undergraduate Society ( AgU S) including rent subsidy, capital investment and securit y on kitchen equipment.   Locati on - Due to the closure of the UBC F ood Services in Agora, there wit be a lack of food and beverages provided to students and staff in the Macmillan Building.    Theme - Our menu is designed with health and affordabilit y in mind.   1.1.3 Challenges   No air ventilation system, unable to cook meals: Meals are cooked in the FNS C Kitchens Room 140 and transported to Agora. Need to ensure that food temperatures are not within the "Danger Zone".   Food Service Operation Permit by the Health Board   Dependable volunteer base    1.2 Business Goals    Year One Goal - Achieve balanced income and expenses while preventing net loss with continued co-operation with the fault y on Co - o p and volunteerism. Discuss learning opportunities with facult y members.  o Student Events: Host efficient and safe preparation of meals (i.e. Wednesday Lunches, Community Dinner, Bakesales, Wednesday Nite BBQ and ot her social events).  o Second Term:   22    Opportunit y for an AGSC 450 case stud y   If feasible: sandwich bar open twice a week. Re-write the business plan.   Continue discussion of adapting course curriculum: sustainable food production, minimizing ecological footprints, Fo od Safe, Food Q ualit y Management to be implemented next year.    Year Two Goal - Implement teaming opportu nities  o Course development: Integrate food service kitchen into FNH curriculum (Nutritional Sciences, Foo d Sciences, Dietetics) such as the production of value-added foods: pestos, jams, jellies, sausages.  o Farm Link: provision of continued supply of local, organic produce.  o Financial: Gain an annual growt h rate of 3% and begin phasing out non - organic ingredients from our menu.    Five Year Goal - Ability to pay off all investment (stovetop, fridge, oven), secure Agora to create a permanent fixture for the Facult y curriculum, while achieving an annual 5% growth in the long run.    Action Plan    1st half of the 1st year (October to December 2003)  o Negotiate co-operation with UBC F ood Services, the Facult y of Agricultural Sciences, Agricultural Sciences Undergraduate Society, and the FNH St udent Committee regarding fun ding support and equipment security.  o Acquire Foo d Permit Registration  o Partnership Agreement created with UBC Foo d Services  o Investigate marketing aspects and make necessary adjustments (price, food    choices, customer feedback, etc.)   Projected Events:   October o Week of October 14: Finalize suppliers and permit. Finalize volunteer schedule.  o Week of October 20: Grand opening --prod ucts offered are coffee & muffins,      weekly FNH bake sales. Use of 2 compartment sinks and soup holders for      "C ommunity Dinner" on October 22: begin Wednesday Hot - L unch on 22nd.  o October 27: Monit or sales of coffee and muffins (progress report). Usage of 2 compartment sinks for set-up and clean-up of Pumpkin Carving (Oct 30).    23   November o   Nove mb er 5: bi wee k l y ho t l unc h c yc le co nti nue s unti l last day of cla sse s.       Monito r sales and c usto mer fee d b ac k.    December o   Revie w e nd of yea r sale s rep o r t gro ss pro fits and as ses s cap ac it y to have a sand wic h bar (op ened t wice a wee k) fo r n ext ter m. Plan up co min g e ve nts a nd pro d uctio n sched u le fo r ne xt ter m.      2nd half of 200 4 (January to March)  o Owners meeting for viability/ direction of the business and made necessary adjustments (menu choices, hour of operations, inventory, equipments, revenue and expenses, cashflow, etc)  o If feasible; contact food supplier for sandwich bar  o Set up new volun teer schedule   Production Plan  3. 1 O verview of Operations  O perations  Descriptions  Land  2357 Main Mall, The University of British Columbia, Vancou ver, B.C.  Building  MacMillan Building 1st floor  Facilities  Agora Cafe and Loun ge  Available Equipment  Oven, microwave, display case, 2 soup holders, beverage cooler, safety box ,  steel racks, 2 compartment and I compartment sinks arid cooking - ware  Neede d Sup plies  Serving - ware, cutlery (discount for customers bringing own cutlery?), food preparation utensils     Sandwiches (if feasible, term two): o Majorit y of herb, fruits and vegetables supplies will be obtained from UBC farm and local farmers/suppliers. o Weekly In ventory turno ver ensures fresh qualit y of our products, and ensures minimum loss/wastage on expired supplies.   Agora Committee is responsible for running the whole business and implementation of food service establishment into Facult y curriculum.      24  3.2 Production cycle  October to November 2004   3.2.1 Daily Production Cycle  8:00 pm  Delivery of muffins and coffee. Chefs preparing food inside kitchen  (back of Agora)  9:00 am  Agora opens. First volunteer shift cashes in.  10:00 am - 11:00  Continue s erving coffee and muffins.  11:00 -  12:00  Cash out from first volunteer shift and change over (cash in) with second volunteer shift.  1:00 pm  Agora closes for clean up and cash out.     3.2.2 Weekly production C ycle  Monday      Monday Mu nchies (Freshly bak ed goo ds made by FN H committee Baking Crew).   Cof fee    Tuesday  Cof fee   One - day old baked goo ds   Wednesday  Cof fee   Wednesday Lunch (9 am -  11 am: food preparation, 11 am to 1: pm selling)   Wednesday BBQ ( 2 pm -  4pm Food preparation)  Use of counter and dis play case, food holders for selling (5 pm -  7pm)  Thursday  Agora closed. Meeting with Agora Committee: overview of weekly sales.  Friday  Agora closed.    (If feasible, term two) Sandwich Bar opened twice a week:  o Majorit y of herb, fruits and vegetables supplies will be obtained from UBC farm and local farmers/suppliers.  o Weekly In ventory turno ver ensure fresh quality of our products, and ensure minimum loss/wastage on expired supplies.     25  3.3 Risk Management for Production   Business Risk  o Price Risk - Fluctuation in fresh produce will be minimal due to biweekly changes in menu choices. Rent and equipment fluctuations will be controlled through contract negotiation to maintain competitive meal prices and profit margin.  o Production Risk: Variability in units of production (i.e. Wednesday meals prepared a night) will be adjusted accordingly to customer feedback and sales, At least one volunteer, is trained on HA CCP management or holds a Foo d Safe Certification Level 1, and Serving- It- Rig ht Certification to ensure our prod ucts comply with the Ministry of Hea lth Services safety standards     Financial Risk  o Risks will be leveraged through a combination of partnership, investment, and subsidies from the Facult y and student society. En d of term financial analysis with conservative sales estimates to reduce surprises.  Risk Strategies: Accept  o The main purpose of this business is not to make a huge profit but to provide an educational experience  for undergraduate students through provision of a food service to Agricultural Science students, facult y and staff at fair prices.  The business is anticipated to grow slowly in its first 3 years, by expanding in gradual, carefully managed steps.    Different Aspects Of Production  Political o We promote and only sell fair-trade coffee. Majorit y of our fresh food supplies will be from the UBC farm.   Community o We obtain foo d from our community (U BC farm and local suppliers) to serve our cornmunity (FA S) .   Hu man Resources Plan.  A committee consisting of the following positions will man age the student -run Ag ora Café:  Agora General Manager  -  Stocks and supplies management -  monthly       inventory and purchasing.  -  Oversees operation flow   -  Maintaining food satisfaction  Production Manager  -  Assist general manager in overseeing       produ ction and operation flow.   -  Assist in monthly inventory and purchasing.  Finance Officer  -  Financial budgeting  -  Accounting   -  Cashier float box   26  Volunteer Coordinator  -  Ensuring at least one volunteer per shift     holds a foo d safe certificate or is sign ed up     for a course.   -  Scheduling weekly volunteer shifts.      Each partner needs to report his/her responsibilities to all members in the Committee.    Since this is a row business, all members need to discuss development ideas for better mana- ging, marketing, and for keeping food qualit y and  price appropriate for the FAS community.   The revenue and net income need to be calculated daily to determine how to business works. Each member is free to give constructive inputs to make any changes for the Agora's progression.    27  Appendix 2  Questionnaire On Food Security & Customer Demand.  Intend ed Audien ce: All Visi tors or Custom ers of Ago ra  1) How often do you co me to Ago ra? a.  Never b.  Once a week c.  Two to three times a wee k d.  More than thre e times a week  2) In your percepti on, are the food opti ons avail abl e at Agora suited you r prefer enc es?  a.  Yes          b.  No   3) Would you like to see Ago ra provide mo re full - meal opt ions?       a. Yes       b. No  4) If yes, wh at meals wo uld you like to see sold at Ago ra? a.  Pasta  dishes b.  Sandwiches  c.  Gril l items d. Other – pleas e specif y  5) What convenienc e foo ds would you like to see sold at Agor a?  a.   Fruit b.  Chocolate bars c.   Bak ed goods d.   Other -  ple ase spe cif y  6) Are Agora’s operating hours suited to your nee ds?       a. Yes       b.  No c.  If no, ple ase spe cif y what hours do suit your ne eds.  7) What is your pe rcepti o n of the curr ent food pric es at Agora? a.  C heap/ Inex pensive b.  Fair c.  Ex pensive  8) How much do you spe nd to bu y food in a week ? a.  Less than $ 50 b.  $ 50 to $ 100 c.  More than $ 100  28  9) What is your dispos ab le income per month? a.  Less than $ 200 b.  $ 200 - $ 500 c.  $ 500 - $ 1000 d.   More than $ 1000  10) In your opini on, how much is the suitable cost for one nutrit ious meal? a.  $ 3 - $ 4 b.  $ 4 - $ 5 c.  $ 5 - $ 6 d.  More than $ 6  11) Would you be int er ested in pre-ord erin g lunch es from Agor a? a.  Yes, one da y in advanc e. b.  Yes, on a weekl y basis . c.  Yes, on an ad ho c basis . d.  No. e.  If yes, pleas e provide co ntact information.  12) Would you be int er ested in having Ago ra cater your meeti ngs and oth er events in MacMi ll an?       a. Yes b.  No c.   If yes, ple ase provide contact information.  13) What is your visi on for Agora?               Thank yo u for your time in completing thi s questi onnaire.     29  Appendix 3. Questionnaire on Food System Awareness Intend ed Audien ce: All Visi tors or Custom ers of Ago ra  1) How do you rat e your gen eral lev e l of awar enes s with respect to food s ys tem issues?   High    Moderate      Low  2) List the 3 issues you feel are most important wit h respect to the food s ys tem?        3) Have Agora’s existence, example and activities caused you to think or think more deepl y about food s yste m issues in the past 12 mont hs?  Several tim es   Once or twic e  Not at all   4) Do you thi nk sust ainabili t y as a food s ystem is sue is   Ver y important   Somewhat important   Not important  5) Rank the foll owing in dicators of food s ystem s ustainabil it y in terms of their importance to you   Profit abil it y   Food Securit y   Rec yc li ng/ compos ti ng               30    Other – pleas e specif y 6) Rank the foll owing iss ues in terms of their importance to you   Food miles   Producti on methods   Compos t ing/rec ycli n g  7) Rank the foll owing iss ues in terms of their importance to you   Use of ch emi cal inputs in agricultural produ cti on   Use of wat er cons ervati o n technolog y in produ cti on   Use of low/z ero tillage methods in producti on  8) Rank the foll owi ng iss ues in terms of their importance to you   Price of food at the till   Diversit y of food off erin gs av ail able   Number of outl ets and ho urs of oper ati on  9) Rank the foll owing iss ues in terms of their importance to you   Bu yi n g fair tr ade produ ct s   Reducing food miles   Supporti ng local produ ce rs                            31    Appendix 4.  Review of Other Student Run Food Outlets  Foodservic e op erati ons at other unive rsiti es and coll eges that are stud ent -r un can provide ex ampl es and guidanc e for the appropriate busi ne ss model for Agor a that will achieve the most success. Man y univ ersiti es and coll e ges th ro ughout No rth Ame rica have student - run food operati ons. Thes e ra nge from food co -ops to lar ge fin e dini ng restaur a nts.  At the Unive rsit y of Massachusetts the re are sever al student -run op erati ons. Thes e include the Earthfoods Café, an ovo -la cto ve getar ian co - op, Sweets N’ More, for baked it ems and snacks in resi dence, S ylvan Sna ck ba r , a resid enti al snack bar open late, and Greenou gh Sub, anoth er residenti al snac k bar. These oper ati ons provide a diversit y of food and dec entrali z ed lo cati ons to best serve the students at U. Massachus e tt s.  The Universit y of Toro nto has the student -run Vegetarium Caf é, which is praised for meeti ng th e ne eds of vegetarian students on campus that ar e not met elsew here. Howev er, the hours of ope rati on of the Vegeta rium Café ar e limi ted ar e the re ar e m ore acc essi ble and cheap er opti ons with more variet y off campus (Food Securit y: A stud y of Universit y of Toronto students’ Attitudes and N ee ds Toward s Food on the St. Geor ge Campus ).  At McGil l Universit y ab out 20 food operati ons were or had previous l y been student -run unti l campus foodse rvic e was privatiz ed in 200 3. Until 2000, man y ca mpus caf eterias were stud ent -run unti l a re -ne goti ati on result e d in the Universit y ta king ba ck the operati ons. This result ed in significant budgeta r y reducti ons for man y student societi es that were partiall y made up for b y grants from the Universit y. This is an ex ampl e of how a success ful student -run busi ness is not necessa ril y se cure as financi al condit ions and leases are lar gel y manipu lated by th e Universit y (McGil l Tribune).  Hospit ali t y s chools ofte n have student -run rest aurants that provide stu dents with the opportuni t y to lea rn cooking, se rving, and mana ge rial skil ls withi n foodservic e establi shments. Vancouv er Comm unit y Coll ege is an ex ampl e of this.  Ago ra is in a unique po sit ion as it was pr evious l y ope rated b y UBC Fo od Services i s currentl y le asin g from them. The cli entele for Ago ra is limi ted as ar e th e facil it ies avail able fo r food produ cti on, thus pre -made go ods are la r gel y requi red. Suit able case studi es to compare to Agor a ar e unav ail able, ho wever l essons can be lea rned from othe r universit ies that ma y pro vide guidan ce fo r the Agora ini ti ati ve.  Care must be taken to ensure that the needs and desires of the cli entel e are bein g met otherwise students will choose to purch ase their food elsewhe re. Th e cli e ntele of Ago ra shoul d be consul ted to determi ne what foods are most desired as well as what the hou rs of oper ati on shoul d be. Comm unicati on with UBC Food Servic es an d an app ropriate  32  lease is cru cial to ensur e that once su ccess ful, Ago ra ma y remain stud ent -run and not revert ed back to a UBC Food Servic es oper ati on.   A ke y aspe ct of a studen t -run food oper ati on in Agor a shoul d be to pu rcha se local foods. This aids in providing more nutrit ious foods and greater ties to the surrounding comm unit y as was dem onst rated by the Hendri x Coll ege students who successfull y increas ed in- count y pur c hases from 1% to 15% and in-state pu rchas es fro m 6% to 30 %. The local econom y bene f it ed gr eatl y from this ini ti ati ve (Fe enstra, 1997 ).   References:   Feenstr a, G.W . (1997). Local food s ystems and sust ainable comm unit ies . American Journal of Alternative Agriculture, Vol. 12, Nove mber. Pp 28-36.  McGil l Tribune. (2003). Residence, campus foo d servic e to be corpor ati z ed . Retrieved March 12, 2004, from htt p:/ /www.mcgil lt ribune.com/ news/2003/ 03/24/ News/R esidence.C ampus . Food.S ervic e.To.Be.C orpo rati z ed -398 349. htm l   Universit y of Toronto. (2000). Food Securit y: A Stud y of Universi t y of To ronto Studen ts’ Attitudes and Needs Towards Food on the St. George Campus. R etrieved March 12, 2004, from htt p:/ /sgc.sa.utoronto.c a/Ar chives/Archives_ Food% 20S ecurit y.htm   33  Appendix 5.  Integration with FAS  As noted, int egr ati on of Ago ra with FAS has sev eral adv anta ges. Fi rstl y t here is a alr ead y a gr eat deal of s yner g y between the two or ganiz ati ons in terms of values and principles. Secondl y Agora is a living ex ampl e of the abst ract ide as b ein g tau ght in man y FAS courses, and so off ers the potential to provide valu able ex perienti al lea rning opportuni ti es to students. Thirdl y Agora needs sust ain able fu nding, and FAS can pro vide thi s. And finall y, Agor a att ra cts cu stom ers from all parts of FAS , and so offers the opportuni t y for int erdiscipl inar y comm unicati on and learnin g.  1) Integration with FAS Courses  AgSci 100  Course Outline: Orientat ion to the progr ams and l earnin g environm ent and core valu es of the Facult y of Agric ult ural Sciences; car ee r pro gr ams; surve y of prof essi onal opportuni ti es and requirements, int roducti on to developi ng a portfol io of learning outcomes and ac compl ishm ents.   New students can be int r oduced to the MacMi ll a n buil ding and Ago ra wh en the y meet AgUS and FNH co mm it tee represent ati ves (possi bl y a field trip? ).   Ago ra can be one of th e volunt eer opportuni ti e s for students to compl ete their mandator y volunt eer hou rs wit hin the facult y.   The questionnaire on food system knowledge can be used to assess new students’ awar eness of food s yst e m iss ues when the y t ake AGS C 100, for comparis on with their knowled ge in se cond, thi rd and fourth ye ar. This will enab le the measurement of both Agora and FAS’s success in raising awareness among students of food s ystem i ssues.  FRE 302.  Small Business Management in Agri-Food Industries.  Current Learning Outcomes : busi ness plannin g process & dev elopm ent; busi ness structure opti ons; mar keti ng; accounti ng st atements and financi al anal ysis ; risk mana gement iss ues & st rate gies; and human reso urce mana gem ent basics & regul ati ons withi n the contex t of agri -food busi ness mana gement.    Ago ra can be used as a case stud y in thi s cour se, or as a busi n ess model for students to directl y ap pl y their knowled ge in human resourc e mana gem ent, accounti n g, mark et ing, etc.   34   Ago ra can be use d as a case stud y in thi s course of an alt ernati ve busi nes s model – one fo cused on so cial rather than financi al profi ts, for ex ampl e, or on e th at puts sust ainabili t y at its core.  S tudents in thi s course can be task ed with revi ewi ng Agora’s current business model and suggesti ng ch anges that improve upon thi s model without sacrificing Agora’s core values.    FNH 301. Food Analysis.  Course Outline: P rinciples of and procedur es for anal ysis of the chemi cal , ph ysical and sensor y prope rties of fo od, prox im ate anal ysis , int roducti on to inst rumental anal ysis ; int roducti on to anatom y and ph ysiol o g y of senso r y per cepti on, reportin g and anal ysis of data.   S tudents can test/anal yz e the food items produced and sold in Agora to practi ce their acquir ed anal yti cal skil ls.  R esult s from the anal ysis can be made avail able t o consum ers in Ago ra who wish to know the nutrit ion information of the food ite ms.  C onduct sensor y per ce pti on ex periments and report findings to Agor a for feedba ck about consum er prefe renc es, etc.   FNH 340.  Food Theory.  Course objectives:   Understand th e ch ara cte risti cs of the in gredients used in the prep ar ati on of foods, both their chemi cal compos it ion and ph ysical prope rties and the effe ct of vari ous factors on these aspe cts du ring th eir prepar ati on. Id enti f y approp riate qual it y standards of the food products and be able to account for th e fail ure to achieve thes e standards. Understand th e fun cti on/role of food in gredients and their int era cti on in t he pr epar ati on of foods. Understand the basic pri ncipl es and con cepts inv olved in the prep arati on, processi n g and storage of food and food products.   Instructor can use Agora’s food items as an example in discussions regarding quali t y standards of food products, students can assess the quality of Agora’s food it ems.  Knowled ge gained from thi s course can be appli e d to prep arati on, handli ng, and storage of Agora’s food items.  S tudents could be given an assi gnment to pr epa re a food handli n g man ual for Ago ra volunt ee rs for ex ampl e, and/or r un tr aini ng courses on th e subj ect for these volunt eers and other int e rested students. Working with FAS to gain accr e dit ati on by provinci al food -saf e officials for thi s manual /course would serv e to increas e  35  both social sust ainabilit y (via human resourc e de velopm ent and in creas ed awar eness) and human healt h and so food securit y.   FNH 341. Food Theory Applications.  Course Objectives: Ex perimental and pr acti cal appli cati on of scientific principles and theories to problems of food prepar ati on.    This laborato r y cou rse i nvolves the prep arati on of lar ge qu anti ti es of foo d items, can be adapted so that ex cess food items made b y students can be sold in Agor a or designed sp ecific all y for Ago ra.  OR students can volunt a ril y mak e more batch es of food that can be sold at Agora in lieu of payin g the La b fee (ie. Ago ra can rei mburse the Lab for the cost of ingredi ents and in return the students will volunt eer their se rvices)   FNH 342. Consumer Aspects of Food.  Course Outline: Econo mi c, ph ysiol o gical, soci al, cult ural, a nd enviro nmental factors influencing food choic es and consum pti on. Le gisl ati on gov ernin g food; fo od markets and merchandisi n g techniqu e s; crit eria for food sele cti on.    Ago ra can be a cas e study fo r learnin g about cons umer trends, pr efe renc es, etc.  S tudent s can appl y their knowled ge about merchandisi n g techniqu es and consum er ps ycholo g y to promot e Agora as a food outl et  Use thi s class to review, improve and moni tor que sti onnaires on food dema nd and food system issue awareness. Also on how respondent’s socio - econom ic and cult ural back grounds influence their food demand s and awa reness.   FNH 440. Food Service System Management.  Course Objectives: To int roduce students to the systems which com prise a food service ope rati on and the role of the man a ger in co ntro ll ing these s ystems. To develop skil ls in menu planning, recipe develo pment and food costi n g and     understand how the men u influences all asp ects o f food servic e s ystem ope rati ons     including labour all ocati on. To understand the importance and int er - re lation ship of these s yst ems in all areas of a food service oper ati on to mana ge dep artment reso urces effe cti vel y. To appl y the theo r y and obtain practi cal ex perien ce in a food se rvice op er ati on, through the co-ordination of a gro up special events menu at an off-sit e loc ati on.  36  To int roduce the concept s of human resou rce and labour man a gement incl uding wo rkin g in a unioniz ed environment.    S tudents can develop a menu plan, recipe costi ng & spe cificati ons, marketi n g plan, producti on schedule, and HACC P Food Safe t y plans for Ago ra as an assi gnment (thes e tasks are alr ead y pa rt of the cou rse assi gnments)   S tudents can anal yz e Ago ra in a discussi on about the human resource mana gement.    GRS 290/390.  This is a one credit “forum” course where GRS students meet every oth er Wednesda y evenin g for pres entation s on food s ystem iss ues, ex changes ab road and other topi cs of shared int er est.    Use Ago ra for informatio n displ a ys and pr esentati ons. Set up an events comm it tee of GRS students, under the Agor a Comm it tee to liaise w it h othe r FAS departments and students and to facilitate a “Monday Night Forum” whereby students get together over co ffe e and cookies to ex chan ge info rmati on and viewpoint s and for prese ntations on food -s ystem iss ues from an int erdiscipl inar y perspecti ve.   2) Faculty Core Values and Principles :   The FAS cor e values an d principles, and an asse ssm ent of how Agor a ca n contribut e to their reali z ati on are as fol lows:  Sustainable systems: balancing ecology, economy and community to provide for a positive future for society.  Ago ra of fers the oppo rtunit y to demons trate the sust ainable s ystems con cept in acti on. B y ensurin g tha t Agora me ets our criteria for economi c, social and ecolo gical sust ainabili t y we can ensur e that it not onl y con forms to thi s cor e value but is also an ex ampl e of it for others to foll ow.   Food: the necessity to provide safe, nutritious and adequate food supply .  This is analo gous to our food secu rit y indi cator. B y ensurin g that Agora provides a vari et y of safe, cult ural l y acc eptable and affor d a ble food products w e can ensure that Agor a con forms to thi s core value.   Health: focus our contributions on the determinants of health which are related directly to sustainable systems, to food supply, and to clean air, water and soil.   B y ensurin g that Agor a offers onl y sa fe, nutrit ious foods it will meet this core  37  value. B y using Agora as an outl et for the dis semi nati on of food saf e t y and nutrit ion information it can become an ev en greater contribut or to this effo rt.   E nvironment and community: Whatever the human enterprise, activities are connected to the land and have to do with individuals, their environment and community. Human interactions and issues of social justice and rights are part of the whole ecosystem and therefore are essential ingredients to sustainability. Human capital is a key resource for managing sustainable systems.   Ago ra can contribut e to human capit al b y givi n g students valuable ex perie nce in designin g and runnin g a food service op erati on t hat incorporates th e cor e values of the host inst it uti on and demons trates soc ial, ecolo gical and ec onomi c sust ainabili t y.   Excellence: All activities of the Faculty aim for excellence.   B y focusin g on food sa fet y, nutrit ion and sust a inabili t y Ago ra can refl ect thi s drive for ex cell en ce and be an ex ampl e of facult y ex cell ence in acti on.  Flexibility and responsiveness: Over time the Faculty must be able to move with changing contexts and be flexible and responsive in its evolution.   Ago ra has alre ad y demo nstrated thi s flex ibil it y – when food services deci ded to close Agora du e to its unprofitabili t y it evolved int o a student run operati on. We are now reassessin g Agora again. B y regula rl y assessing the demands of its cli entele via custom er surve ys, and b y respon ding to these demands, it can conti n ue to meet this cor e value.  Give priority to learning and learners. To develop innovative learning experiences to assist their success in meeting the challenges of the workplace   As a student -run operati on int egrat ed with FAS, Agor a clea rl y fall s under th e descriptio n of an innov ati ve, practi c al learnin g ex perienc e for thos e invol ved in its operati on and man a geme nt.  Integrate an interdisciplinary world view with a global perspective & intercultural understanding. Encourage interdisciplinary and intercultural systems approaches.  Ago ra can me et thi s goa l by ensurin g that the co mm it tee ex pands from an FNH comm it tee to an int erdisc ipl inar y comm it tee including students from agro e colog y, FRE and other depa artments, and b y acti n g as a clea ring house for info r mati on and ex chan ge betw een departments, pe er groups and discipl ines.     Emphasize problem-solving and opportunity-seeking. Organize our research, learning and administration around interdisciplinary teams as a way to generate and consolidate knowledge required to address land, food and community issues .   38   As above.  Create an environment for intellectual debate.  Agora can organize the food and agriculture equivalent of “philosophy cafes”, whereb y the y provid e a space for or ganiz ed weekl y/m onthl y debates on food s ystem iss ues with coff e e, cookies etc, and a moderator, or pan el, dr awn from or organiz ed by the Agora comm it tee.  Connect students and researchers to workplaces and experiences. Ensure that learning and research are connected to the everyday world as a context for learning and an anchor for sustainability; Provide students with numerous "connecting" strategies in their university experience.  As above.  Integrate and collaborate within the university and our own  diverse clientele .   Again, provide a ran ge of foods, use custom er surve ys to ensure we are meeti ng our cli ents needs, oragni se deb ates, invol ve all discipl ines in the comm it tee et c etc.                                                     39                                                                   


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