UBC Undergraduate Research

A 'fresh' image for The Barn : incorporating local and seasonal foods into campus menus Westman, Alexandra de Jong; Bendickson, Cynthia; Poon, Linda; Lo, Queeny Shuk Shan; Zhou, Wen Chuan Apr 12, 2006

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UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report       A ‘Fresh’ Image for The Barn: Incorporating Local and Seasonal Foods into Campus Menus Alexandra de Jong Westman, Cynthia Bendickson, Linda Poon, Queeny Shuk Shan Lo, Wen Chuan Zhou  University of British Columbia AGSC 450 April 14, 2006           Disclaimer: “UBC SEEDS provides students with the opportunity to share the findings of their studies, as well as their opinions, conclusions and recommendations with the UBC community. The reader should bear in mind that this is a student project/report and is not an official document of UBC. Furthermore readers should bear in mind that these reports may not reflect the current status of activities at UBC. We urge you to contact the research persons mentioned in a report or the SEEDS Coordinator about the current status of the subject matter of a project/report”.       The Sustainability of the UBC Food System Collaborative Project 2006, Scenario 2 Featuring: A ‘Fresh’ Image for The Barn:  Incorporating Local and Seasonal Foods into Campus Menus  Group 8: Alexandra de Jong Westman Cynthia Bendickson Linda Poon Queeny Shuk Shan Lo Wen Chuan Zhou  AGSC 450 Professor Alejandro Rojas April 12, 2006    1     Table of Contents  Abstract……………………………………………………………………………...2  Introduction…………………………………………………………………………2  Problem Definition……………………………………………………………….....3  Our Definition of Local……………………………………..……….……..5  Vision Statement and Identification of Value Assumptions.……………….………6  Methodology………………………………………………………………………...7  Collaboration with Group 14…………………………………….…………8  Findings………………………………………………………………..……………9  Discussions………………………………………………………………………...11  Feasibility and Implementation of the Project………………………..…...11  Nutrition Analysis of the Menus…………………………………..……….12  Success Stories………………………………………………………….…13  Recommendations…………………………………………………………………14  Conclusions……………………………………………………………………… .16  Works Cited……………………………………………………………………......17  Appendix 1: Menus……...……………………………………………..………….19  Appendix 2: Nutrition Facts………………………………………..…………….  23     2 Abstract Students, staff, and faculty at the University of British Columbia have access to a wide variety of foodstuffs throughout campus because of the food service outlets provided by the Alma Mater Society and UBC Food Services.  Most of these food service outlets are representative of the global food system, where economic sustainability is of the utmost consequence, and the importance of social and environmental sustainability is lost.  Much of the food on campus has traveled many miles from where it was originally grown, causing negative environmental and social impacts in BC.  To improve the sustainability of any food system, there needs to be an increase in the amount of local and seasonal foods represented in it, thereby reversing global trends and accruing positive environmental and social impacts. The goal of Group 8 was to establish the feasibility of integrating local and seasonal foods into UBC Food Service outlets, specifically The Barn Coffee Shop.  The Barn was chosen as a demonstration of the possibilities of local and seasonal foods because of several factors: proximity to the Faculty of Land and Food Systems building, its presence on “Sustainability Street,” and the high proportion of staff and faculty patrons.  Previous research determined that much of the soil-grown food purchased by UBC Food Services comes from outside of Canada; however, much of this produce is presently being grown within BC.  Based on previous years’ research, the availability of seasonal produce was established, and our group devised menu items that incorporated these foodstuffs.  Introduction   On a global scale, agriculture is being marginalized and societal health is being degraded.  A globalized food system has led to the loss of a sustainable food system, due to the movement away from subsistence farming and towards the mass production of cash crops for export.  In BC in 2002, roughly $4.7 billion worth of produce derived from both farm and fisheries was exported to other provinces and countries (BCMAL, 2005).  Meanwhile, BC residents consumed $6.8 billion in food imports from foreign countries and other provinces annually, while only consuming $2.2 billion worth of food produced in BC  (BCMAL, 2005).  This dependency on external inputs illustrates the unsustainable nature of the Canadian food system.  The University of British Columbia has historical links to agriculture with remnants being seen in street names on campus, such as: Agricultural Boulevard, Agronomy Road and the  3 presence of the Faculty of Agriculture.  The building currently known as The Barn Coffee Shop was first built in 1920, housing a menagerie of animals (UBC Public Affairs, 2002).  Now, in 2006, the Barn is a popular eating destination for a menagerie of students, staff and faculty.  However, with the expansion of the South Campus and the development of faculty and staff housing, there comes an increased need for a food service outlet with more presence and distinction at the south end of the UBC campus.  In the early days of the university, agriculture was front and centre; however, over the past thirty years, agriculture at UBC has been relegated to the very margins of campus.  This change on campus epitomizes what is occurring to agriculture on a global scale.  There needs to be a shift in paradigm in order to ensure the future of the unique Barn Coffee Shop as well as agriculture both on campus and within BC.      Problem Definition  The University of British Columbia Food Systems Project (UBCFSP) is an initiative intended to serve as a localized model for the global food system.  The UBC food system is nested within larger systems and is bound by municipal, provincial, federal and international regulations.  One aspect of the project is to demonstrate the feasibility of integrating local and seasonal food into campus food outlets as a step towards a more sustainable campus.  The UBCFSP is intended to represent a working model for a sustainable food system that can act as a catalyst for positive changes within larger food systems, extending into the global food system. The current global food system is not sustainable (Heller, 2003), as shown by the problems spawned by free trade and the globalization of the food system (Lang and Heasman, 2004).  As a result, food is traveling longer distances, and requiring increased amounts of energy, consumers are disconnected from their food, and developing nations are being exploited.  Free trade and open markets associated with globalization has increased competition, which has in turn driven down  4 prices and increased consumer choice, at the cost of reduced food security and increased exploitation of human labour (Cowell & Parkinson, 2002).  The global food system persuades consumer awareness and sense of social responsibility to diffuse over the distance their food travels, leading to a further disconnect between producers and consumers (Cowell & Parkinson, 2002). Environmental sustainability relies upon local community economies (Curtis, 2002).  In short, local food production is more sustainable, with a great example being Community-Supported Agriculture (CSA).  Locality is becoming increasingly significant within the globalized food system (Winter, 2003), as these local food systems provide alternative pathways in the procurement of food.  These local systems allow food providers to be sensitive to consumer concerns in the local market.  A localized food system increases a community’s ability to feed and support itself, builds community and local networks between producers and consumers, and reconnects people with their food (Cowell & Parkinson, 2002).  There are tradeoffs involved with localization of a food system, most notably the decreased choice and increased cost of foodstuffs (Cowell & Parkinson, 2002). Our Scenario (#2) involved developing methods to incorporate seasonal BC grown products into the food outlets located on UBC campus.  Our specific tasks included the creation of menu items that would feature locally acquired seasonal foods; as well as, researching the feasibility of such menu items.   In addition, we had to adhere to UBC Food Services commitment to ethnically diverse, affordable, safe, and nutritious food produced in a socially and environmentally conscious manner. We also had to identify barriers that would prevent positive changes towards more sustainable enterprises.  We narrowed our focus to The Barn Coffee Shop because we wanted to demonstrate that on a small scale, at the restaurant level, we could evoke positive change.  We hope that these changes would facilitate discussion and act as a catalyst for changes to occur in other food outlets on campus.   5 We feel that The Barn Coffee Shop could provide the perfect centerpiece to UBC Food Services’ commitment to sustainability.  Should The Barn decide to integrate local and seasonal food stuffs, there would the potential for attracting new customers, largely due to its location on the newly proposed “Sustainability Street,” its large proportion of faculty and staff patrons, and the proximity to the Faculty of Land and Food Systems building and new faculty and staff housing. Through the integration of local and seasonal foods, The Barn could serve to demonstrate the feasibility of changing menus, consumer buying patterns, and restaurant food procurement practices. The Barn is currently operating as a fast-food service outlet; however, for people to appreciate the character and history of the Barn, as well as to improve its sustainability, there needs to be a change in its role on campus.  Many countries in Europe have moved away from fast food services and more towards a slow-food movement, encouraging patrons to order and sit down, rather than taking-out their food (Miele & Murdoch, 2002).  We feel that this is the direction in which The Barn should be headed.  UBC Food Services has proposed to incorporate dishware and cutlery and we feel that this provides an ideal window of opportunity for positive change.  The University’s commitment to creating a sustainable campus is demonstrative of what could be extended into cities, provinces, nations, and the world.  Changes to the global food system must begin with changes on the local level.  Our Definition of Local Our group echoed the sentiments of previous groups in defining ‘local’ ingredients as any product grown in BC.  In 2005, 9 out of 16 groups chose to define local on a provincial basis (Richer, 2005).  Groups cited better access to statistical data, patriotism, consistent regulations within political borders, and local socioeconomic as reasons for defining ‘local’ within the context  6 of British Columbia.  In addition, our group felt that in order to build upon past years research, we needed to adopt the same definition of local to utilize their findings accurately.  Vision Statement The ways in which we produce and consume our food reflects upon how we value our communities, our land, and ourselves.  Generally speaking, our group shares a weak anthropocentric paradigm, defined by the priority to humankind’s well-being over all other things, while recognizing that we are inevitably responsible for maintaining and nourishing the health of our natural environment (Murdy, 1993).  Based on such a belief, we greatly appreciate the 8 Guiding Principles collaboratively developed by the project partners for a vision of a sustainable UBC Food System.  A sustainable food system should provide food security to all residents by relying on the diversity and integrity of the natural ecosystem.  Food security emphasizes the current concerns of society, which indicates that food has to be available, affordable, safe and nutritious (Barbolet et al., 2005).  Protecting the diversity and integrity of the natural ecosystem, however, will ensure that future generations have the same ability to meet their needs.  In order to meet this goal of sustainability, food systems should utilize local inputs whenever possible and enhance feelings of community belonging.  Local production and processing of food adheres to the principles of sustainability by reducing energy use and supporting the local economy.  In addition, enhancing the sense of belonging in a community will greatly increase people’s awareness of their immediate neighborhoods and thus realize and support local foods.  To complete the vision statement of a sustainable food system, our group felt that it is important to include the component of economic stability.  Although economic, ecological and  7 social sustainability have been presented as three parameters throughout the course, economic stability is not emphasized in the eight principles.  In the academic version, it mentions “long-term financial viability”, while in the plain language version, it indicates, “providers pay and receive fair prices” (Rojas, Liska, & Wagner, 2006).  These words do not correspond to the strong voice from our partners who operate businesses in a competitive environment and survive on economic profits.  We believed that the reason for the intended ignorance of short-term economic viability in the vision statement might be that it is already over-emphasized by other segments of society.  Nevertheless, since economics is the basis upon which our partners in the UBCFSP will judge our project, we think it is important to have economic stability addressed appropriately.  In addition, our group also viewed the sustainable UBC food system to be a successful model in a larger picture.  Throughout the project, our diverse backgrounds have also greatly influenced the direction our research progressed.  We have group members from Agroecology and thus stand firmly in supporting the relocalization of agriculture and the integration of seasonal foods into The Barn’s menu.  Additionally, we also have members majoring in Food and Nutrition, and thus feel strongly about increasing the nutrition content of the current menus.  We believe that the diverse perspectives within our group completed our vision of the problem and have given our project higher value.    Methodology Out of all the food service outlets suggested by the representatives of the UBC Food Services, we chose The Barn Coffee Shop to be our main focus in incorporating seasonal BC food items.  First, we obtained their current menu and we analyzed it to find out the origin of the ingredients.  Then, we decided to expand the dishes at The Barn by suggesting new seasonal items  8 for the current menus.  Each of group member took part in finding recipes with ingredients grown in different seasonal ranges: April-June, July-September, and October-March.  Within each seasonal range, each member was responsible for one category of dish: breakfasts, salads, soups, entrées, sandwiches, or dessert recipes.  Recipes were obtained from various Internet websites and personal collections (Allrecipes, 2006; Recipe Zaar, 2006).  This project was successfully accomplished with the information provided by our colleagues in past AGSC 450 classes.  Group 2 from the previous AGSC 450 class (Summer 2004) provided us with a list of produce grown in BC in different months and Group 6 (Spring 2005) provided us with a list of where UBC Food Services get their chicken, egg, beef and bread products.   In order to make our suggestions more useful to UBC Food Services, we contacted Andrew Parr, the head of the UBC Food Services, for advice on modifying The Barn’s menu and image.  As well, we contacted Laura Lowry, manager of The Barn, to find out whether they had the cooking equipment and facilities to prepare the food we had suggested.  We also contacted Dorothy Yip, UBC Food Services General Manager, for more information about the expectations of our project, and thus reached an agreement on how best to incorporate cooking instructions and the nutritional values of our new recipes into our report to UBC Food Services.    Collaboration with Group 14  We collaborated with group 14 to work towards the development of an educational campaign on the benefits of local foods (Scenario #4).  We wanted to incorporate their efforts on promoting education about and awareness of local food systems in the form of a logo on our menus for The Barn.  Our menu, which features local and seasonal foods, will benefit from consumer recognition of locally grown ingredients and social responsibility, as well as allow for promotion of local foods among consumers in the UBC Food System.  We adopted the BC grown  9 logo on the cover page of all of our menus to demonstrate The Barn’s commitment to incorporating locally grown produce into its menu items.       Findings: Meetings were conducted with both Andrew Parr, head of UBC Food Services, and Laura Lowry, the manager of The Barn, while Dorothy Yip was contacted through email to obtain clarifications on several points not answered by either Mr. Parr or Ms. Lowry.   Mr. Parr mentioned that UBC Food Services was considering expanding the service at the Barn to include a sit-down service something like the popular chain restaurant the Bread Garden.  In addition, Mr. Parr stated that he would like to see an increased breakfast menu at The Barn because breakfast is one of the busiest times of the day.  We took these suggestions into consideration when designing new menus for The Barn by including a comprehensive breakfast menu filled with both hot and cold items, and by including some menu items that are more appropriate for sit-down restaurants because of their more involved preparation requirements. After meeting with the manager of The Barn, Laura Lowry, the limitations on the menu due to logistics, such as insufficient equipment came to light.  Two years ago, UBC Food Services removed the restaurant-quality grill from The Barn.  The approximate cost of the grill was $250,000 and it seems unlikely that it will be replaced at any time in the near future.  What equipment that is left for food preparation is fairly limited – a restaurant-quality convection oven, three food re-warmer drawers, a microwave, three mini-fridges, two freezers, and a 30 cm by 30 cm grill.  The Barn currently operates mostly as a reheating station for hot foods, although cold food preparation is done on-site.  We have designed the menu with the available equipment at The Barn in mind, but did not entirely constrain ourselves to work within this framework because equipment items can always be changed if deemed economically feasible.    10 Dorothy Yip stated that she would like to see recipes with cooking instructions along with nutritional information for all menu items.  We have included sample menus and nutritional information in this report (see Appendices 1 & 2), while recipe information will be provided in a separate document for UBC Food Services because of its length. While designing the project, our group members were surprised by the some of the difficulties that arose.  With increased availability of out-of-season produce throughout the developed world in recent years, many people have turned away from traditional dishes and foods, which made our project more difficult than anticipated.  For example, many in the group questioned in what form a rutabaga could be eaten.  Another obstacle that our group faced was the dearth of variety in produce in the April-June period.  Many of the local storage crops (potatoes, apples) are nearing the end of their shelf life by this time, but not much new produce is available, especially in April and May.  A pleasant surprise during the project was the ease in which supply-managed products such as poultry, eggs, and dairy products fit into the menu.  Supply-managed markets encourage local food production and show a direct contrast with the global markets that guide produce distribution.    Seasonal produce is a foundation of the new menus (see Appendix 1).  In the “spring” season, April-June, we’ve included rhubarb, spinach, new potatoes, kale, asparagus, bok choy, and strawberries.  In the “summer,” July-September, a wide range of produce is available and used in this menu, such as peppers, zucchini, lettuce, soft fruits, berries, tomatoes, cucumbers, peas, beans, broccoli, and carrots.  In the “winter” season, or October-March, produce that stores well, either in the ground or in good storage conditions predominates.  Root vegetables keep very well, so produce like potatoes, onions, sweet potatoes, beets, parsnips, rutabaga, and turnips are represented in the menus, as well as leeks, squashes, pumpkins, apples, and pears.       11 Discussion Feasibility and Implementation of the Project:  Our suggestions throughout this project have a significant amount of flexibility in the implementation.  The project was specifically designed to demonstrate the possibilities for incorporating seasonal and local foods into UBC Food Services.  Incorporation of new menu items can be introduced together, or a few at a time over several years as logistics permit.  Products such as free-range, organic poultry can be integrated as the market demands.  We encourage UBC Food Systems to seriously consider all of our recipes and the possibilities of The Barn.   To encourage UBC Food Systems to adopt our menus, we have outlined a few logistical steps that The Barn can take to further integrate our menus into current ones, splitting these steps into “easy”, “possible” and “sky’s the limit” categories.      In the “easy” scenario, The Barn can integrate our suggestions for salads and sandwiches because they currently serve these items, and it would only be a matter of changing recipes and stocking a few new ingredients.     Desserts, stir-fries and pastas are a little bit more difficult, but “possible”.  With such a small grill, stir-fries, pastas, and hot breakfast items can only be served in small quantities, but to accommodate this problem, The Barn could purchase some mass-market, fairly inexpensive ($50-$60) food preparation equipment such as an electric deep-dish frying pan and/or a large electric skillet.  In addition, Laura Lowry has stated that desserts will not be purchased unless the patrons can see them in a display case, and that fresh-baked desserts are inappropriate to put in the display case because of temperature requirements.  Providing patrons with hard-copies of the menu available should help with this problem, as desserts can be kept in the re-warming drawers until purchased; we suggest as well that a small sign be placed in the display case stating “Please Inquire about our Home-Baked Desserts,” or “Fresh-Baked Pumpkin Pie Available Today.”  12 Soups and more complex entrees might be difficult for The Barn to add to their menu because of a lack of preparation space and cooking equipment, hence, these foods are classed under the “sky’s the limit” designation.  There is a possibility of making the soup in the kitchen at the Totem Park Dining Room and then transporting it to The Barn.  More complex entrees will probably require more food preparation space and larger cooking equipment, which is the reason behind our limited pastas and stir-fries in the menu.   Market research carried out in conjunction with the Sauder School of Business (SSB) would be beneficial for realizing the economic achievability of choosing between the “easy”, “possible”, and “sky’s the limit” options for long-term implementation of the new Barn menus.  The SSB should consider the possibility of targeting marketing to faculty and residents of the new faculty housing just south of the Barn to bring in more patrons that are willing to pay more to obtain high quality local food.   Nutrition Analysis of the Menus:             The nutrition facts of the new menus were analyzed (see Appendix 2) and designed to be provided along with menus to customers in future. This idea was out of the consideration that change is easier to make when there are direct and visible benefits for individuals. Along with the criteria of national nutritional label, the values of calories, total fat, saturated fat, protein, carbohydrate and dietary fiber as well as the rich vitamins and minerals (more than 10% of a 2000-calorie based diet) are provided for each seasonal menu. In addition, a brief dietary recommendation and health benefits of provided vitamins and minerals are presented for the consumer’s information.              As students from nutrition background, we believe dietetics should play a positive role in promoting seasonal and local foods as well.  While designing seasonal menus, we found that products were limited in variety in BC, especially in April and May.  Eating a more local diet  13 could then mean eating fewer fresh fruits and vegetables during certain times.  Therefore, more knowledge of using seasonal, local foods to meet nutrition requirements is recommended.  It is exciting to see that some work has already been done by experts in this field.  The Environmental Nutrition Dietetic Practice Group consists of many environmentally-conscious nutritionists dedicated to promoting safe, sustainable, healthy and local food choices that improve our personal and community health (Peters, 1997).  Additionally, a pamphlet called “BC Foods: A Rainbow of Choices” was derived from Canada’s Food Guide to Healthy Eating and prepared by BC dietitians to promote local foods, including cherries, hothouse tomatoes, triticale, lentils and other BC-grown foods (BC Foods, 1992). We believe such collaborations between dietitians and agroecologists will be a future trend in promoting sustainable food systems, and we are enthusiastic about initiating such an attempt in our project.   Success Stories: According to surveys done by the Food Circles Networking Project (FCNP), there are not a lot of restaurants currently using local products; however, there are a vast majority who has indicated interest in doing so (FCNP, no date).  The main reason for the interest is that not only will local farmers benefit, but local economies will be stimulated through the lower transport costs; as well as, the benefits to consumer health, as a result of the freshness of the local produce.  Raincity Grill, located in Downtown Vancouver, is one of the more famous restaurants that have successfully integrated local ingredients into their menu.  It is one of the first restaurants that have made use of locally grown produce such as seafood, game, poultry, and organic vegetables from areas such as British Columbia, Alberta, Washington State and Oregon.  Their menu is on the high-end side of the dining spectrum, but they also feature affordable options such as the “Early Bird” meal, priced at $25 for a three-course meal.  Raincity Grill has also won several awards in  14 recognition of their delicate menus and their uniqueness of successfully integrating seasonal and local menus (Raincity, 2006).  With a wide assortment of all the local foods grown naturally here in the Lower Mainland, it is possible for other restaurants to follow in the footsteps of the Raincity Grill and make use of local foods. Apart from restaurants, there are also local markets supporting local farmers and small business merchants.  One of these markets is the Artisans Farmers Markets, located in Ambleside, West Vancouver, and Lonsdale Quay, North Vancouver.  Their mission is to “supply, direct to the consumer, top quality locally grown, made, and baked products, in an interactive and pleasant environment”(Artisans, 2005).  Not only do they have a variety of foods grown by local farmers, they also cook and bake with their ingredients as well.  As another way to attract customers to their market, entertainment is provided in the form of shows, crafts and massage therapy (Artisans, 2005).  Artisans Farmers Market is a good model for other markets that are thinking about specializing in local produce. Apart from these two successful local food supporters, there has been increasing popularity in integrating local and seasonal foods into menus across Vancouver.  Some of these examples include the wonderful menus of Bishop's Restaurant, Lumiere, and the C-Restaurant.  These restaurants remind us that the use of locally grown goods as a basis of menu-creation is definitely an achievable goal.   Recommendations The year 2006 resulted in research that allowed us to establish a new menu for The Barn, which was in keeping with the global “slow-food” movement.  However, with the expansion of the menu comes the need for an expansion in the kitchen.  As many of the larger dishes, such as  15 breakfasts and lunch entrees,require a sizable grill, working in years to come with the Sauder School of Business to determine the economic feasibility of such an addition is needed.  Additionally, significant research must be conducted for the economic viability of purchasing BC Hot House produce for UBC Food Services to compensate for the lack of locally grown produce within April and May. Thus far, our research and recommendations have focused on the interior of The Barn; however, many students are unaware of The Barn’s existence.  To ensure that the new menu of The Barn translates into income, there needs to be the establishment of marketing strategies, perhaps in collaboration with campus newspapers, on-campus residents and the new Old Barn Community Centre.  This relationship could also be extended to UBC Public Relations in order for The Barn to gain recognition off-campus and in the University Town.   Improving The Barn Coffee Shop both inside and out requires more than just student labour; it requires the cohesive effort of UBC staff, including UBC Food Services and Campus Planners.  The rate of UBC campus expansion needs to be equaled by the rate of expansion of food outlets, especially outlets that offer a “slow-food” option.  Due to the current services provided by The Barn, specifically the pre-made sandwiches and disposable plates for both eat-in and take-out orders, patrons are more apt to order and leave, rather than sitting in the facility.  The providing of chinaware, stainless-steel cutlery and ceramic mugs would encourage patrons to stay, as well as cut down on the garbage production on campus.  The responsibility of altering the serving methods of The Barn falls to the manager of The Barn as well as UBC Food Services.  In keeping with the to-be established “Sustainability Street”, the existing waste-management practices at The Barn need to be rethought.  Currently, the waste management practices are lacking in simplicity, and are resulting high waste production.  Current take-out containers provided by The Barn consist of Styrofoam, and are not biodegradable.  Should a  16 customer choose to order for take-out, The Barn should provide the meal in biodegradable containers so that UBC Waste Management can deal with the compost-able waste accordingly.  Additionally, clearly marked recycling bins for all glass, plastic and metal recyclable containers should be provided to The Barn, as many recyclables end up in the garbage due to the inaccessibility of the current recycling bins.    Conclusion  The human economy depends on the earth’s natural capital, which provides all ecological services and natural resources (Wackernagel et al., 2002).  Through comprehensive resource monitoring, comparing human demands on the biological capacity of the globe, it should be possible to detect this depletion to help clear a path towards sustainability (Wackernagel et al., 2002).  Across North America, there arises two main trends in the food markets, the first being that the rate of population increase is not being met by an equal increased rate of food production; the second is that the increases in food market prices are not being met with the open wallets of the ever-growing human population (Alexandratos, 1999). The global trend towards higher food costs without a matched increase in income is mirrored on the campus of the University of British Columbia.  As in the global markets, the price of student living is increasing; however, student salaries and wages are not increasing accordingly.  In this way, there needs to be a method of integrating nutritional food into the lowly income of a student – perhaps achieved through the integration of local foods into the UBCFS.  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Retrieved March 18, 2006 from http://www.raincitygrill.com/thegrill.html  Recipe Zaar: All Recipies. (2006). Recipe Zaar: A Cooking Community & Recipe Resource with  +100,000 Recipes & Growing. Retrieved February 20, 2006 from http://www.recipezaar.com/   Richer, L.(2005). Walking the path towards a just and sustainable food secure UBC food system:  UBC Food System Project (UBCFSP). Campus Sustainability office.   Rojas, A., Liska, R., and Wagner, J. (2006). The dreaming and the Making of a Sustainable University Food System: The University of British Columbia Food System Project. 1- 23.  University of British Columbia Public Affairs. (2002). UBC Barn Raising. Retrieved April 5, 2006 from http://www.publicaffairs.ubc.ca/media/releases/2002/mr-02-86.html   Wackernagel, M., N. B. Schulz, D. Deumling, A. C Linares, M. Jenkins, V. Kapos, C. Monfreda, J. Loh, N. Myers, R. Norgaard, and J. Randers. (2002). Tracking the Ecological Overshoot of the Human Economy. PNAS, 99, 9266-9271.  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Journal of Rural Studies, 19, 23-32                   19       Appendix 1: Electronic Copies  of the New Barn Menus       Breakfast ~~   Omelettes with Seasonal Vegetables Free-range, organic eggs with spinach and mushrooms  Big BC Breakfast Free-range, organic eggs, hash browns, and a choice of gourmet sausage or bacon  Oatmeal with Seasonal Fruit Creamy oatmeal topped with chunks of apple and rhubarb   Rhubarb Pancakes  Assorted BC Yogurts  Apple-Rhubarb Muffins          Salads ~~   Blue Cheese Potato Salad Tangy blue cheese with new potatoes  Spring Spinach-Strawberry Salad New strawberries on a bed of spinach  Dilly Potato Salad Red new potatoes with crumbled bacon and dill   Soups ~~   Kale Soup Spicy chorizo sausage, white pea beans, and kale  Creamy Asparagus Soup Fresh asparagus in a creamy dill base     Sandwiches ~~   West-Coast Panini Lemon-dill Wild BC salmon, topped with cilantro and spinach    Grilled Cheese and Pear Sweet pears and tangy blue cheese on multi-grain bread    Chicken and Apple Curry Wrap Free-range, organic chicken with Red Delicious apples and cream curry             Entrees ~~   Quiche Lorraine with Seasonal Vegetables Free-range, organic eggs and flaky pastry with fresh spinach    Asian Spring Noodles Free-range, organic chicken with fresh-picked bok choy in a ginger-hoisin sauce    Penne with Spring Vegetables Asparagus and sugar-snap peas tossed with penne, olive oil and parmesan cheese           Desserts/Snacks ~~  Dutch Babies Fluffy apple pancakes    Strawberry Shortcake Fresh strawberries with BC cream over a rich cake    Strawberry Tiramisu Fresh strawberries with mascarpone cheese and BC cream                The Barn  Eat Locally, Think Globally       April - June 2006           Breakfast ~~  Omelettes with Seasonal Vegetables Free-range, organic eggs with zucchini and sweet peppers   Big BC Breakfast Free-range, organic eggs, hash browns, and a choice of gourmet sausage or bacon   Oatmeal with Seasonal Fruit Creamy oatmeal topped with peach slices or blueberries   Blueberry Pancakes  Assorted BC Yogurts  Cranberry Muffins  Salads ~~ Tri-Pepper Salad Red, yellow, and orange peppers on a bed of romaine  Spinach and Chicken Salad Grilled chicken and fresh-picked spinach with zucchini and red pepper  Hearty Farmer’s Salad Fresh greens with crumbled bacon and a free-range, hard-boiled egg   Soups ~~  Gazpacho Spicy tomatoes with sweet peppers  Cool as a Cucumber Soup A vegan offering with field-picked cucumbers and soymilk   Sandwiches ~~   Tuscan Chicken Free-range, organic chicken with sautéed peppers and mozzarella    Grilled Red Pepper and Brie Grilled red peppers, sun-dried tomatoes and Brie with fresh greens    Italian Baguette Free-range, organic chicken with cream cheese, basil, and sun-ripened tomatoes on a freshly-baked baguette        Entrees ~~   Quiche Lorraine with Seasonal Vegetables Free-range, organic eggs and flaky pastry with fresh tomatoes and basil       Chicken Alfredo with Summer Vegetables Free-range, organic chicken with snow peas, zucchini, and sweet red peppers in a rich cream sauce    Pork or Tofu in Peanut Sauce BC pork or tofu in a spicy peanut sauce with cashew nuts, green beans, broccoli and carrots over a bed of rice          Desserts/Snacks ~~   Blackberry and Blueberry Pie Fresh-picked berries in a flaky crust   Carrot Cake Muffins Sweet, fresh carrots with a cream cheese icing   Dessert Waffles with Spiced Blueberry Sauce Fresh blueberries and cinnamon piled on top of a fluffy waffle   Potato Raspberry Delight Chocolate potato cake with a raspberry sauce         The Barn  Eat Locally, Think Globally       July - September 2006  Breakfast ~~  Omelettes with Seasonal Vegetables Free-range, organic eggs with leeks and parsnips   Big BC Breakfast Free-range, organic eggs, hash browns, and a choice of    gourmet sausage or bacon   Oatmeal with Seasonal Fruit Creamy oatmeal topped with chunks of apple and pear   Pumpkin Pancakes  Assorted BC Yogurts  Apple-Bran Muffins   Salads ~~  Blue Cheese Potato Salad Tangy blue cheese with new potatoes  Apple-Cranberry Salad Seasonal greens with apples, walnut halves, and cranberries with a raspberry vinaigrette  Super-Beet Salad Sweet, freshly-dug beets with potatoes and carrots   Soups ~~  Five-Alarm Blazing Chili Spicy BC beef in a tomato base  Cock-a-Leekie Soup Free-range, organic chicken with leeks and herbs   Sandwiches ~~   Lentil Chicken Wrap Free-range, organic chicken with sweet yams, carrots and lentils     Eggplant on Foccacia A BC Hot House special with eggplant, tomatoes, peppers, asiago cheese and black olive pesto     Greek Tuna Dolphin-safe tuna with red onions, basil and feta cheese            Entrees ~~   Quiche Lorraine with Seasonal Vegetables Free-range, organic eggs and flaky pastry with rutabaga and parsnips    Beef Stew with Root Vegetables Chunks of beef in a thick stewy sauce with rutabaga, parsnips, turnips, onions and carrots    Rosemary-Garlic Chicken with Roasted Sweet Potato and Beets    Herbed free-range, organic chicken with roasted sweet seasonal vegetables         Desserts/Snacks ~~   Vanilla Poached Pears Poached pears with vanilla, cinnamon and sprigs of BC mint   Pumpkin Pie Fresh pumpkin with rich spices in a flaky pastry, topped with BC whipped cream   Apple Crumble Pie Fresh-picked apples in a flaky pastry   Pear Upside-Down Gingerbread Cake A rich spicy gingerbread cake topped with fresh pears  Kiwi and Grape Drink   The Barn  Eat Locally, Think Globally         October – March 2006            Appendix 2: Nutrition Information                                      Nutrition Information: April-June Menu    Calories Fat Saturated Fat Protein Carb Dietary fiber Vitamins Minerals  Salads  Blue Cheese Potato Salad 503 37.2 9.3 7.7 36.7 4.2 Vit C Ca, Fe, K Spring Spinach Strawberry Salad 627 56.4 7.1 3.1 31.6 3.5 Vit A&C Ca, Fe, K Dilly Potato Salad 170 4.2 1.3 8.4 25 2 Vit C Ca, K  Soups Kale Soup 301 9.7 3.4 14.7 41.4 8.7 Vit A&C Ca,Fe, K Creamy Asparagus Soup 214 12.5 3.9 8.1 19 3.4 Vit A&C Fe, K  Entrées Quiche Lorraine 489 37.2 14.7 17.5 10.7 1.4 Vit A Ca, Fe Penne with Spring Vegetables 398 15.5 4.1 16.7 51.1 5.8 Vit A&C Ca, Fe, K Asian Spring Noodles 498 9.2 0.8 28 75.2 5.5 Vit A&C Fe,K   Dessert Dutch Babies 134 5.3 2.1 5.2 17 0.8  Ca Strawberry Shortcake 380 19.1 8.5 5.8 48.3 3.6 Vit A&C Ca, Fe Strawberry Tiramisu 1290 83.9 45.2 20.9 113.1 5.3 Vit A&C Ca, Fe * For vitamins & minerals, presented nutrients indicate that there is at least 10% of that nutrient (based on a 2000-calorie based diet) from the dish.   QUICK NUTRITION FACTS:  Diet should include no more than 30% of energy as fat and no more than 10% as saturated fat.  Diet should provide 55% of energy as carbohydrates from a variety of sources  Vitamin A: essential for vision health  Vitamins C & E: powerful antioxidants  Calcium: promotes bone health  Iron: prevents anemia  Potassium: balances with sodium                Nutrition Information: July-September Menu    Calories Fat Saturated Fat Protein Carb Dietary fiber Vitamins Minerals   Salads Tri-pepper Salad 35 0.5 0.2 1.6 6.8 1.3 Vit A&C  Spinach and Chicken Salad 317 11.8 5.2 36 16.3 3.7 Vit A&C Ca, Fe, K Hearty Farmer’s Salad 500 49.3 14.5 6.9 8.7 2.1 Vit A&C Fe  Soups Gazpacho 55 2.2 0.3 1.9 8.7 1.9 Vit A&C Fe, K Cucumber Soup 115 8.6 3.4 4.6 5.1 0.7 Vit A&C      Entrées Quiche Lorraine with Seasonal Vegetables n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a Chicken Alfredo with Summer Vegetables 642 42.7 24.8 28.4 39.1 3.9 Vit A&C Ca, Fe, K Pork  in Peanut Sauce 579 35.4 9.4 40.6 28.7 5.9 Vit A&C Fe, K      Dessert Blackberry and Blueberry Pie 437 20.7 6.1 4.5 60.5 4.5 Vit C Fe Carrot Cake Muffins 577 34.5 11.7 8.5 60.3 2.5 Vit A&E  Dessert Waffles with Spiced Blueberry Sauce 267 4 n/a 5 n/a 4 n/a n/a Potato Raspberry Delight 259 7 n/a 5 n/a n/a n/a n/a * For vitamins & minerals, presented nutrients indicate that there is at least 10% (based on a 2000-calorie based diet) of that nutrient from the dish. QUICK NUTRITION FACTS:  Diet should include no more than 30% of energy as fat and no more than 10% as saturated fat.  Diet should provide 55% of energy as carbohydrates from a variety of sources  Vitamin A: essential for vision health  Vitamins C & E: powerful antioxidants  Calcium: promotes bone health  Iron: prevents anemia  Potassium: balances with sodium       Nutrition Information: October-March Menu  * For vitamins & minerals, presented nutrients indicate that there is at least 10% (based on a 2000-calorie based diet) of that nutrient from the dish.  QUICK NUTRITION FACTS:  Diet should include no more than 30% of energy as fat and no more than 10% as saturated fat.  Diet should provide 55% of energy as carbohydrates from a variety of sources  Vitamin A: essential for vision health  Vitamins C & E: powerful antioxidants  Calcium: promotes bone health  Iron: prevents anemia  Potassium: balances with sodium      Cal Fat Saturated Fat Protein Carb Dietary fiber Vitamins Mineral  Salads Apple Cranberry Salad Toss n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a Best beet Salad 186 16.3 2.7 3.4 7.2 1.9   Blue Cheese Potato Salad 503 37 9.3 7.7 36.7 4.2 Vit C Ca & Fe  Soups Five-Alarm Blazing Chili 403 14.4 4.6 25.1 47.5 11.4 Via A&C Ca & Fe Cock-a-Leekie Soup 243 6.5 1.6 32.4 12.4 2.1 Vit C Fe   Entrées Quiche Lorraine 489 9.2 0.8 28 75.2 5.5 Vit A& C Fe Beef Stew with Root Vegetables 305 6 n/a 31 34 n/a n/a n/a Rosemary-Garlic Chicken with Roasted Sweet Potato and Beets 147 2 0.6 27.6 3.7 1.5 Vit C Fe   Dessert Vanilla Poached Pears 60 0.1 0 0.4 16.2 3.2   Pumpkin Pie 233 11.6 5.3 4.7 28.1 1.9 Vit A Fe Apple Crumble Pie 363 16.5 7.8 2.5 53.1 2.8  Fe Gingerbread Cake 254 6.8 4.0 3.3 46.9 2.4   Kiwi and Grape drink 286 1.5 0.2 4.1 72.1 8.8 Vit C&E  


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