UBC Undergraduate Research

Education, awareness, and re-localization Vititpong, Isabel; Primea, Shawna; Poon, Winnie; McLennan, Abby; Ireland, Shawna; Leung, Emily; Ding, Junyan; Brown, Courtenay 2005-04-06

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UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report       UBC FOOD SYSTEM PROJECT 2005 SCENARIO 3: EDUCATION, AWARENESS AND RE-LOCALIZATION Isabel Vititpong, Shawna Primeau, Winnie Poon, Abby McLennan, Shawna Ireland, Emily Leung, Junyan Ding, Courtenay Brown  University of British Columbia AGSC 450 April 6, 2005           Disclaimer: “UBC SEEDS provides students with the opportunity to share the findings of their studies, as well as their opinions, conclusions and recommendations with the UBC community. The reader should bear in mind that this is a student project/report and is not an official document of UBC. Furthermore readers should bear in mind that these reports may not reflect the current status of activities at UBC. We urge you to contact the research persons mentioned in a report or the SEEDS Coordinator about the current status of the subject matter of a project/report”.           UBC FOOD SYSTEM PROJECT 2005 SCENARIO 3:  EDUCATION, AWARENESS AND RE-LOCALIZATION           Group 13: Isabel Vititpong, Shawna Primeau, Winnie Poon, Abby McLennan, Shawna Ireland, Emily Leung,  Junyan Ding, Courtenay Brown  AGSC 450 Land, Food and Community III University of British Columbia  April 6, 2005              Acknowledgements: Group 13 would like to acknowledge the help and support of numerous individuals who assisted us during this six-week study.  The AGSC 450 teaching team 2005:  Dr. Alejandro Rojas, Course Instructor and Integrator, and Principal Investigator of the UBCFSP, Agroecology  Julia Wagner, Course Coordinator, M.Sc. student, FAS  Catherine Jacobson, M.A. Student, School of Community and Regional Planning  Liska Richer, M.Sc. Student, FAS  Lorenzo Magzul, M.Sc. Student, FAS  The principal UBCFSP stakeholders:   UBC Food Services, AMS Food and Beverage Department, UBC Waste Management, UBC Farm, UBC Campus Sustainability Office, and its Social Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) program and the Faculty of Agricultural Science.  Special thanks to:  Nancy Toogood, AMS Food and Beverage Manager, for her enthusiasm, positive feedback and constant commitment to sustainability.  Many students, faculty and community members who provided feedback on our campaign ideas, logos and educational pamphlet.             TABLE OF CONTENTS Abstract         Page 1 1.0 Introduction         1.1 What is a local food system?     Page 1  1.2 Addressing the problem statement    Page 2  1.3 The need for consumer awareness    Page 3 1.4 Reflections on the UBCFSP vision statement  Page 4 2.0 Literature review 2.1 Buy BC campaign      Page 6 2.2 Summer 2004-Group 3     Page 6 3.0 2005/2006 Campaign 3.1 Introduction       Page 7 3.2 Target of campaign      Page 8 3.3 Logo and slogan       Page 10 3.4 Outline and summary of educational pamphlet  Page 10 3.5 Outline and summary of resource binder   Page 12 3.6 Location and distribution     Page 15 3.7 Timeline        Page 15 3.8 Budget        Page 17 4.0 Conclusion 4.1 Recommendations      Page 17 4.2 Final reflections       Page 18 Appendices  Appendix A:  Logo and slogan     Page 20  Appendix B:  Pamphlet      Page 21 Appendix C:  “Food for Thought” card    Page 23  Appendix D:  Budget tables     Page 24 References         Page 25- 1 - Abstract The loss of control over our food system has progressed steadily over the last few decades as people have become increasingly psychologically and physically distanced from their food.  One answer to this predicament is the re-localization of the food system, which is the concept of buying food grown or produced as close to your home as possible.  The principal problem is that consumers and food providers lack awareness to support local food producers. Thus, there is a need to increase the education and awareness regarding the benefits of local food systems. Our working team has prepared an educational campaign in association with the AMS Food and Beverage Department in an effort to increase the awareness of the benefits of re-localization on the UBC campus.  As part of this campaign, we have created an educational pamphlet and a resource binder, which will directly target AMS Food and Beverage staff and indirectly target UBC food consumers.  Our ultimate goal is to increase interest in the sustainable food movement; especially among food workers in the hope of encouraging them to participate and take a personal stand to spread awareness. 1.0 INTRODUCTION 1.1 What is a Local Food System?  The concept of buying locally is to buy food produced or grown as close to your home as possible.  It becomes very difficult to simply define local food because so many factors come into play, most importantly the motives for defining local food.  A local food in terms of sustainability should be assessed using indicators of sustainability, such as “food miles” and methods of production, and not only encompass political borders (economic incentives).  Since sustainability is inclusive of social, environmental and - 2 - economic factors, these three aspects must be incorporated when attempting to determine a food’s locality.  An example of this would be a conventional Ontario farm versus an organic Washington State farm.  This example shows that it is not only distance that plays a role in determining the most desirable option.  The consumers’ decision will ultimately depend on their motives for trying to define local food and whether they are more concerned with the environmental, social or economic impacts.  After much discussion, our group concluded that there are basically too many factors involved to conclude on a specific definition of local food for our educational campaign.  Therefore, the choice of appropriate indicators must be utilized on a case by case basis when determining a food’s relative locality.     1.2 Addressing the Problem Statement   Loss of control over our food system has progressed steadily over the last few decades as people have become increasingly removed from their food sources by both distance and processing (Halweil 23).  Advances in technology   now allow longer storage and more distant and less costly shipping which has encouraged the food system sprawl (Halweil 23).  With food traveling long distances, extra packaging is required which adds to environmental impacts through increased waste disposal as well as fossil fuel emissions continually adding to the greenhouse gases (Food Initiatives Group).  Another issue associated with food traveling long distances is the continual decline in freshness and nutritional quality (FoodRoutes).  This trend towards large-scale industrial agricultural production  can also force small family farms out of business, thereby risking preservation of local farmland as well - 3 - as damaging the economies of rural communities (Lyson 134-145; Pretty 6-8).  As a result, the connection between consumers and the production of their food is further being eliminated (Kloppenburg 5-11; Kloppenburg 94-95.  Recognizing that food is traveling further and is controlled by a smaller number of global entities than ever before (Halweil 23), reiterates the need for assessing the desirability of re-localizing our food system here at UBC.     When food is a commodity, there is little being done to stop over-consumption and there are no checks or balances in place to address the hidden costs of certain types of food production (Pretty 1).  However, collective action of food producers, consumers and food workers can make a difference.  While the character and action of corporate power needs to be recognized and understood, it is equally as important to recognize that farmers, consumers, and local communities are not simply victims or pawns, but that they are each capable of resistance and regeneration (Kloppenburg 11).  It is possible to create new forms of relationships, trust and understanding, leading to new cognitive constructions of food and its cultures of production (Pretty 2).  Just as eating globally obscures the negative impacts of food production, eating locally can catalyze positive local transformations (Kloppenburg 95).  1.3 The Need for Consumer Awareness  Over the past four years, both students and the academic working teams of the UBCFSP have been working towards assessing the desirability of re-localization on the UBC campus.  The research and work done previously has determined that UBC students are generally aware of the economic benefits of consuming locally (Richer).  Inevitably though, there is a definite lack of awareness that consuming locally can significantly increase sustainability (Richer).  Provided with a seemingly apparent - 4 - cornucopia of continuously available food, few of these consumers at UBC have much knowledge of the biological, social, or environmental parameters and implications of food production in the global market (Richer).    Thus, an educational campaign at UBC is needed to increase awareness of the relationship between consuming locally and sustainability.  The result of this campaign is therefore intended to promote behaviours and actions of consuming locally.  Rather than feeling helpless over the problems with our food, this educational campaign has been created to celebrate the possibilities and realities of the growing consumer movement towards re-localization.  Illuminating the ways in which local food consumption is linked to global structures can help elucidate how consumption choices in one place affect natural resource use and social conditions elsewhere (Kloppenburg 95).  This knowledge has been designed into an educational campaign in hopes of providing the impetus for consumers and food workers to become more sustainable eaters and food providers.      We recognize that the UBCFSP and our educational campaign are using the UBC campus as an experimental setting to test the positive and negative impacts of re-localization, with hopes of impacting the global food system.  This paper will further outline in detail the objectives, methodology and group findings of our campaign in the sections to follow as well as recommendations for future steps in implementing this campaign geared towards AMS Food and Beverage workers.      - 5 - 1.4 Reflections of the UBCFSP Vision Statement All seven guiding principles in the mission statement were consensually agreed upon and deemed relevant by our group.  Upon further critical review there seemed to be some overlap and unnecessary, excessive wording in some of the statements.  In particular, the condensation of points 3, 4, and 7 into one encompassing, comprehensive statement may be more effective.  Points 5 and 6 also address related issues; therefore, condensing these into one also seems more practical.  Another thought surrounding fewer points might convey a more effective vision statement.    Incorporating these seven statements into a functional mission statement seems to be unrealistic to most members of our group How then an organization as UBC will ever pursue them? .   Realizing that our world is economically driven, all functioning systems within this realm must then be financially and economically sustainable.  Applying these seven principles into a system today would undoubtedly fail because the economic consideration and support is missing     Taking these economic principles into account led our group to view these guiding principles as a vision to which we hope to one day achieve. The target audience of UBCFSP publications also came into question while reviewing these statements, in which current wording may need to be revised if addressing the general public, as opposed to academics who are familiar with these concepts.   - 6 -  Our group’s value assumptions come from our academic and personal experiences.  As students of nutrition, health and environmental studies, we are concerned with global humanitarian rights, such as poverty alleviation and food security, as well as global threats to the natural environment.  Having all lived in an economically driven society and being consumers in our daily lives, we recognise that for positive social and environmental change to be successful, it must be cost-effective and efficient.  We have taken a holistic approach to our task and taken care to ensure that it is financially viable. 2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1 Buy BC Campaign  The Buy BC campaign can be viewed in a positive light as it has been a great marketing tool for many BC companies and will continue to enhance demand for local foods (Buy BC).  This program has been tremendously successful at increasing consumer awareness of BC products, as well as helping consumers to identify these products in stores by using the “Buy BC” logo and stickers, which have consumer recognition of over 75% (Buy BC).  Using logos like these for UBCFSP initiatives may be an effective step in raising awareness as can be seen from the success of the Buy BC campaign.  With recent funding cuts from the government, Buy BC is now sustained through user fees to offset the costs of operating the program which indicate growing concern and support for educational campaigns in this area (Buy BC).     - 7 - 2.2 Summer 2004 - Group 3 In the summer of 2004, Group 3 proposed to have tabletop advertisements on all dining tables in the UBC Food Services and AMS Food and Beverage Department establishments as their educational campaign.  It was a cost efficient campaign ($150 for 1000 ads) that could target those who sat down at tables, and their creation of a logo and slogan was a great idea.  However, there were some drawbacks to Group 3’s tabletop advertising idea.  Their slogan, “Food from Within,” was created as a way to describe that food was not just the food we ate but the food for our souls and minds (Group 3).  This was a very important message, but it was hard to clearly see how it related to purchasing local foods.  Their logo was also unclear as to what it was representing.  According to Group 3’s explanation, it was composed of two people holding hands with their arms forming a heart and a plant growing within, as their intention was to illustrate the collaboration of people and the involvement of nature.  From a consumer’s point of view, it may be hard to interpret the message that they were trying to portray through this logo.  A new slogan and a catchy logo would have to be created to send a straightforward message so people can recognize and understand that our campaign is about supporting our local food community.  Another shortcoming to the tabletop campaign is that it was advertising local food rather than being an educational piece.  There needs to be more information available for the consumer about the benefits of local food as well as where they can purchase these foods, what services offer locally produced foods, and other similar information.  Finally, while the table top ad is a good way to inform those who sit at the - 8 - targeted tables while eating their meal, there must be another method to reach out to those who eat elsewhere.  3.0 2005/2006 CAMPAIGN 3.1 Introduction  Our group has created an educational campaign that is geared primarily towards the AMS Food and Beverage Department employees to increase their awareness of the sustainability of re-localizing the food system.  For the following reasons, we chose our campaign to be a pamphlet and resource binder, rather than previous groups’ suggestions or other ideas that our own group had brainstormed.  We feel that the previous suggestions, which included: providing discounts on local food items, placing stickers and labels on low food mileage items, implementing a Food Miles Goal Week, offering Food Miles Reward cards, and having a UBC Local Food Idol competition, were all great ideas, but needed to come after the initial step of education through concrete, readable materials.  Before any of these types of projects can be implemented it is necessary to increase the general awareness and interest regarding sustainability and re-localization among staff, students, and faculty at UBC. After considering the previous year’s recommendations, we came up with a number of ideas of what we thought would be effective, feasible campaigns.  After much discussion, we ultimately agreed that the idea of organizing an educational workshop for the food workers and designing a website with informative tools and resources would be the most effective choice for an educational campaign.  In an effort to determine the viability of this idea, we met with Nancy Toogood, the manager of the AMS Food and Beverage Department, to discuss our ideas.  As a result of this meeting, we decided to - 9 - reject the workshop idea as we discovered that workshops can be very costly and as there is a high turnover of staff, this may not be the most feasible option. Our group agreed that we wanted to produce the most realistic and useful tool for Nancy and the AMS, and as she thought that a pamphlet might be the most practical idea, this is what we worked to achieve over these past four weeks.  She also liked our idea to create resource binders for each of the food outlets, and she helped us guide our vision to design this valuable educational tool that could be completed by the 2006 AGSC 450 class. 3.2 Target of Campaign  The primary targets of our educational campaign are the staff members of the AMS Food and Beverage Department.  They employ professional managers and students to carry out the day-to-day workings of their food outlets, cafes and restaurants (AMS Your Student Society Online).  Our indirect target is the UBC community members who purchase food in the Student Union Building (SUB).  We have chosen this target in partnership with our colleagues in the 2005 AGSC 450 class.  For the purposes of this assignment, the four Scenario 3 teams have divided the campaigns between two demographic target markets: food consumers and food workers.  Two groups will design their campaigns to cater directly to the UBC consumer community and the third team will target the UBC Food Services.   The AMS Food and Beverage Department employs over 400 students and their food outlets include 12 restaurants and cafes in the SUB (see Figure 1 below) (AMS Your Student Society Online).  The AMS sponsored food co-op, Sprouts, is also located in the SUB and included in our target.  The SUB building gets 8,000 visitors per day and the majority of these users see the SUB as a place to “hang out”, eat, get snacks, and check - 10 - out market vendors (Homegrown Report, Team 22).  Many non-resident students regard the building as their home base while on campus and many of the university staff and faculty also use the SUB for buying food.  In addition, a significant number of commuters walk past the SUB every day en route for the bus loop (Homegrown Report, Team 22). The university setting is ideal to promote the benefits of local food systems, as educated people are more likely to be interested in environmental issues than the general population.  For this reason, the student staff of the AMS Food and Beverage Department is an ideal target for promoting awareness of sustainability and local food systems. Fig. 1 – AMS Food and Beverage Department Establishments AMS Catering    The Honour Roll Bernoulli's Bagels The Moon AMS Outdoor BBQ The Pendulum AMS Outdoor BBQ Pie R Squared Blue Chip Cookies The Pit Pub The Pit Burger Bar Snack Attack   The Gallery Lounge Sprouts (AMS Sponsored Club)  3.3 Logo and Slogan The logo we have created (see Appendix A) attempts to put the concept of buying products that have been produced locally within British Columbia, into a simple visual representation.   The logo consists of a recycled paper grocery bag formed into the shape of British Columbia with local produce inside the bag.  Those who see the logo can envision BC as our large supermarket and us, the consumers, purchasing fresh food from our province.  We felt that this logo was more effective and more representative of our campaign message than Group 3’s Summer 2004 proposed logo of two people holding hands to form a heart and a plant - 11 - growing within, and Group 17’s Spring 2004 illustrated slogan, “Eat thoughtfully, Buy Locally”, which was decorated by two leaves on the sides of the slogan.    The slogan of our campaign is “Think Sustainable, Buy Local” because it is a simple but powerful way for staff and consumers to easily recognise and become involved in the sustainability movement by simply buying local products.  We also feel that the word “sustainable” is important because it is the main theme behind our campaign to educate everyone to think and act sustainably.  Moreover, this slogan is short and simple so it will be easy to remember.   The logo and slogan that we have created will be displayed within our pamphlet and resource binder and presented to our target, the AMS Food and Beverage Department.  If the logo is popular and successful, we recommend that it be used to represent all future UBCFSP education campaigns and initiatives. 3.4 Outline & Summary of Educational Pamphlet  Our educational pamphlet (see Appendix B) is targeted mainly to the staff in  the AMS Food and Beverage vendors in the Student Union Building in UBC.  The main objective is to raise awareness of sustainability and locality through better knowledge of the initiatives that are currently going on in the AMS and UBC campus.  It is a joint creation by the AMS Food and Beverage Department and AGSC 450 Group 13.  Our hope is that by letting the staff know that they play an important part in a larger movement, they will be motivated and committed to take actions towards the goal of sustainability and promote local food.    The logo and campaign designed by our group will be on the cover page.  The AMS mission statement will be included in the second page of the inside panels, and the - 12 - benefits of buying locally will be outlined.  All the current sustainability initiatives of the AMS, such as cup discounts and their ethical purchasing policy will be highlighted in the second panel.  The AGSC 450 UBC sustainability indicator model will be presented and explained, so that the audiences understand the need for a balance between the social, ecological, and economical factors, and how these factors interact with each other.  Moreover, since food mileage, percent of local food and production methods also impact the desirability of local food, these will also be mentioned.  Hopefully the audience will be encouraged to buy foods with low food mileage if this information is available and the benefits are acknowledged.  At last, contact information of the SEEDS project, the UBC sustainability office, the UBC Farm, Sprouts, and the AGSC 450 UBCFSP will be provided if people wish to learn more or get involved with any of these projects.  We realize that the pamphlet included in Appendix B is a working copy with a lot of text and in order for it to be effective, it will be edited to include more graphics and fewer words in the final copy produced by Nancy and her team.   3.5 Outline & Summary of Resource Binder  From our group discussions and meetings with Nancy Toogood we determined that the only way to educate the food service workers on campus is to develop a campaign closely with UBC Food Services and AMS Food and Beverage Department by working within their current business structure.  For this reason, we have developed the AMS Food and Beverage Sustainability Resource Guide.  This resource binder will be a tool for the distribution of information on sustainability, local food, and current initiatives within the AMS and UBC community.  The main purpose is to empower staff members to engage with these topics and to take an active role in - 13 - educating consumers.  It is our belief that people are more receptive to being encouraged to participate rather than being told what to think.    The resource guide is divided into five main sections.  These sections are: Introduction to AMS Sustainability Resource Guide, Get Involved, What’s New, Our Store’s Menu Items, and Communication.  These sections were discussed and developed by the members of Group 13 because they will be effective in the assimilation of information, promotion of staff participation and easy maintenance by staff in years to come.  (Please refer to the Sample Binder submitted with this report with the permission of the teaching team.) 1.  Introduction to AMS Sustainability Resource Guide This first section provides an introduction to the resource guide, goals of the AMS with regards to sustainability and information on local food systems.  With the help of AGSC 450 students in 2006, we wish to provide useful information on AMS and UBC initiatives, local food, and ways for staff to get involved with initiatives on campus.  The introduction will include introductory facts on sustainability and local food systems from the UBC Campus Sustainability Office and the UBCFSP.  This section contains the bulk of prepared informational sheets from the UBCFSP. However, staff are encouraged to support sustainability concerns that are important in their lives by participating in the remaining four sections. 2.  Get Involved!    Each food service location is encouraged to designate a store sustainability ambassador.  The role of the sustainability ambassador is to ensure all staff read the AMS Sustainability Mission and to promote awareness of the resource guide among coworkers.  This person will also challenge the staff to participate by encouraging them - 14 - to bring in pamphlets, newsletters, emails and other sustainability related materials that are important to them.  The ambassador will also assist the store manager to communicate with staff and maintain the spirit of this campaign over time.      Our group would like to provide the staff with some springboard ideas in the form of fact sheets.  Local food systems are central to the UBCFSP and can be promoted through introductory information and promotion of Sprouts.  The 2004 UBCFSP sustainability indicator is also essential to include    We have provided a list of good books, movies and courses related to sustainability, as all of the AMS food workers are UBC students that are eager to learn.  Fact sheets on the UBCFSP, SEEDS Projects, and other food related topics were also proposed.  We anticipate that the Scenario 3 groups in AGSC 450 2006 will be able to brainstorm and add equally motivating ideas.  3.  What’s New?  The resource guide also provides a place to raise awareness of local growers and businesses.  The “Farm Fresh Guide” is a large pamphlet that includes all the farms and growers in the Fraser Valley that is produced by the Fraser Valley Farm Direct Marketing Association.  We have also contacted SPUDS for promotional materials to use in this section.  Including these and other similar free publications will increase awareness of local growers and producers.  The scenario 3 groups of 2006 are also encouraged to find additional publications. 4.  Increasing Knowledge of Menu Items In this fourth section, the sustainability ambassador and manager are encouraged to add information on the origin and purchasing of menu items.  The purpose of this section is to promote staff and consumers to question, "Where do all these ingredients - 15 - come from?"  This segment will also include information on food mileage as an indicator, the new “Food for Thought” cards and other related materials. The “Food for Thought” cards are a simple visual representation of food mileage and sustainability in terms of distance and region.  Reducing distance decreases associated environmental impacts and buying in the Fraser Valley and BC ensures that socio-economic benefits remain in the local economy.  This simplified model will encourage consumers to think about the origin of their food.  Appendix C shows our group’s proposed shaded map of BC with the input of Nancy Toogood.  On each card, a map and a colour code distinguish which ingredients originate in different parts of the province and surrounding areas.  The AMS Food and Beverage Department has kindly agreed to do a pilot run of the “Food for Thought” cards this year for two entrees in the Pendulum restaurant in the SUB.   5.  Communication Log The purpose of the Communication Log is a space for staff to communicate about sustainability within their store and where the manager can record new sustainability initiatives.  These sections allow each staff member to raise issues that are important to them and participate as little or as much as they desire.  Communication and ease of use are essential to making the resource guide a success. 3.6 Location and Distribution  Our target encompasses all the restaurants and food establishments that are part of the AMS Food and Beverage Department.  More specifically, our targets are the AMS workers and therefore our pamphlets will be distributed out to all AMS Food and Beverage employees, although the pamphlets will be available to the customers as well and will be displayed at the cash register.  Resource binders will be placed at a - 16 - convenient location at each AMS Food and Beverage food outlet, and the sustainability ambassador will guide staff as to how to use the binder.  The AGSC 450 2006 students will be responsible for preparing, assembling, and delivering the resource binders based on our group’s sample prototype.  Each AMS Food and Beverage establishment will also be encouraged to add their own special features.  A follow-up of the resource binders should be done afterwards to assess their popularity, use and current status.  3.7 Timeline  In terms of a specific timeline for the AGSC 450 class in 2006, it is necessary to outline what needs to be done for each of the six to seven weeks that they will have available to actually work on their UBCFSP scenario.  We have been fortunate with the opportunity from Nancy Toogood to implement the first component of our educational campaign, our pamphlet, this year.  In addition, the “Food For Thought” cards are also being tested this year.  This means that the group working on this scenario next year, will mostly have to focus on the second half of our campaign, the resource binder, which is also already in progress. Week 1 & 2: 1. Conduct literature review on previous work done for this scenario 2. Review pamphlet to see if additions or revisions should be made for a second edition 3. Look through files and paper copy of binder to think about dividing up tasks for the group 4. Contact Nancy Toogood and assign a communication representative  Week 3: 1. Assign tasks to all group members - 17 -  3 people for Section 1: The Introduction  3 people for Section 2: Get Involved!  2 people for Section 3: Our Store’s Menu Items  Leave Section 4 & 5 to be completed by individual stores 2. Complete rough copies of all tasks by the end of the week Week 4 & 5: 1. Meet with Nancy Toogood to ensure group is on the right track of fulfilling requirements 2. Edit and refine each other’s work to accomplish high quality end product Week 6: 1. Copy and produce resource binders 2. Distribute binders to each of the AMS Food and Beverage outlets Week 7: 1. Assess the popularity and effectiveness of the pamphlet  2. Present final version of resource binder and pamphlet to the class 3.8 Budget The UBC AMS Food and Beverage Department has offered to cover all costs of the pamphlet production.  Budgets for two options, coloured and black-and-white copies, are estimated for the educational pamphlets (see Appendix D). It is estimated that photocopying fees and the labour for folding and distributing the pamphlets are the only costs.  However, the labour costs could be eliminated if volunteers can cover these tasks. - 18 - The resource binder is targeted to all 12 AMS food vendors plus Sprouts. Each two-inch binder will contain five index pocket dividers and 30 pages of colour-printed information sheets and the cost breakdown is outlined in Appendix E. 4.0 CONCLUSION 4.1 Recommendations  Based on what we did this term and what we have learned from our project, we have some recommendations for AGSC 450 2006 students who will continue with the re-localization education scenario.  Most notably, we believe that the pamphlet and resource binder should be updated next year. We realize that our pamphlet is not perfect and some categories may need to be improved and/or updated with current information.  For example, our group had many discussions regarding the best definition of local food and feel that we came to a good decision but next year’s group may completely disagree with our view and may wish to change it completely. We also feel that students should get feedback from AMS Food and Beverage staff regarding how they feel about the campaign.  They should determine whether the resource guide has been useful or not and how they think the campaign can be improved.  This information may be very helpful in updating the pamphlet and resource binder in order to make it as effective as possible.  The students may choose to do this through interviews with staff or they may choose to do a simple survey instead. The suggestion of creating a website to supplement the campaign is an idea that next year’s group may want to consider. We had initially discussed doing a website but we felt that a paper-based campaign would be a more effective first step in getting the initial word out on campus about re-localization.  But if the pamphlets begin circulation this year as planned, next year’s students may wish to take it to the next level and build a - 19 - website as a complement to the paper-based campaign. The website could contain information that is on the pamphlet, but with more detail about each part, such as a more in-depth explanation of local food and the benefits from buying it.  It would also provide links to the resources that have been mentioned in the paper campaign.    In regards to recommendations for the AMS Food and Beverage Services, we have expressed to Nancy Toogood that a Mission Statement should be a first step to creating a unified vision for any group of workers.  For this reason, we believe this should be included as a recommendation and ideally this would be created in time for the AGSC 450 2006 group to add it to the AMS Sustainability Resource Binder.  Additionally, we suggest an upgrade of the AMS Food and Beverage Department website to reflect their involvement with the re-localization project. 4.2 Final reflections We feel a local food system encompasses a more sustainable food system by: 1. Encouraging more sustainable production methods and reducing transport externalities, which offers environmental benefits. 2. Increasing incomes for farmers and generating greater financial contributions to local economies. 3. Providing social benefits through re-establishing relationships and the interconnectedness between food consumers and producers. The goal of our campaign is to help reach the above mentioned points by offering suggestions on what individuals can do, providing them with more in-depth information, which can be quickly learnt for individuals to make wiser food choices.  Participation is key to our campaign’s effectiveness and success.  Our vehicle for achieving this is through a comprehensive project including an educational pamphlet, - 20 - information resource binders, as well as a new logo and slogan.  As a result of this campaign, the promotion of increased knowledge of local food on campus should be attainable.   Our goal of increasing awareness of re-localization is ultimately to improve the overall sustainability of our planet.  We agree that a local food system is one of the more sustainable food systems but ultimately it is only part of the solution.  The material provided in our educational campaign will offer the necessary information so that consumers better understand the concept of a sustainable food system and be empowered to make the right choices on their own. - 21 - Appendix A – LOGO AND SLOGAN                              - 22 - Appendix B:  PAMPHLET  - 23 -  - 24 - Appendix C:  “FOOD FOR THOUGHT” CARDS    - 25 - Appendix D: BUDGET   Pamphlets   cost/ copy  cost/400 copies        cost/1000copies  *Colour Photocopy  $1.00   $400.00  $1000.00 (double-sided)     Labour (@ $8/hour) for folding  $0.02   $8.00   $20.00  for distributing $0.02   $8.00   $20.00    TOTAL $1.04   $416.00  $1040.00  Or  *Black/White Photocopy  $0.10   $40.00  $100.00  (double-sided)  Labour (@ $8/hour) for folding   $0.02   $8.00   $20.00  for distributing $0.02   $8.00   $20.00  TOTAL $0.12   $56.00  $140.00  Resource Binders       cost/binder       cost/20 binders   Binder (2”)            $  8.00   $160.00   Index Dividers (5/pk)         $  2.50   $  50.00   Subtotal          $10.50   $210.00   Subtotal after GST & PST        $11.97   $239.40 30 pages of Color Photocopy        $14.70   $294.00        TOTAL          $26.67   $533.40       *all photocopy fees based on prices in CopyRight          - 26 - References AMS Your Student Society Online.  Food and Beverage. 10 Feb. 2005. AMS. 5 Apr. 2005 <http://www.ams.ubc.ca/content.cfm?ID=291>  Buy BC. About Buy BC. BC Agriculture Council. 15 Mar. 2005 <http://www.bcac.bc.ca/buybc/>  Food Initiatives Group. Food Miles. 8 Mar. 2005 <http://www.groundwork.greaternottingham.org.uk/fig/local/food_miles.html>  FoodRoutes.org. Why is Buying Local Important? 2003. FoodRoutes Network.10 Mar. 2005 <http://www.foodroutes.org/doclib/faqs/faq12.htm>  Group 3. The Sustainability of the UBC Food System Collaborative Project IIIa: The Feasibility of Re-Localizing UBC’s Food System. AGSC 450 LFC IIIa, Summer 2004.  Halweil, B. (2003). The Argument for Local Food.  May 2003. World Watch. 15 Mar 2005 <http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_go1690/is_200305/ai_n7498936>  Kloppenburg, J. & Lezberg, S. “Getting it Straight Before We Eat Ourselves to Death: From the Food System to Foodshed in the 21st Century.” Society & Natural Resources 9 (1996): 93-96.  Kloppenburg, J., Hendrickson, J., & Stevenson, G. “Coming in to the Foodshed.” Agriculture and Human Values 13.3 (1996): 33-42.  Lyson, T.A., & Green, J. “The Agricultural Marketscape: A Framework for Sustaining Agriculture and Communities in the Northeast.” Journal of Sustainable Agriculture 15.2/3 (1999): 134-145.  Pretty, J. “Some Benefits and Drawbacks of Local Food Systems.” Briefing note for Sustain AgriFood Network, London. 2 Nov. 2001.   Richer, L. Making Paths Towards a Just, Sustainable and Food Secure UBC Food System: 2004 UBC Food System Project (UBCFSP) Report. 2004. UBC Office of Campus Sustainability, Vancouver <http://www.sustain.ubc.ca/pdfs/seedreport04/dec04/UBCFSP2004.pdf>  Toogood, Nancy. Personal meetings. 15 Mar. 2005 & 29 Mar. 2005  Team 22. Homegrown Report: Project 2: Business Plan. Sauder School of Business MBA Full-Time Program, 6 Dec. 2004.  


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