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UBC Food Systems Project 2006 : composting Yeung, Emmy; Leung, Vivian; Hinds, Shannon; Tang, Helen; Chung, Jane; Balachandran, Tharani; Patterson, Lorrie Apr 14, 2006

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UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report       UBC Food Systems Project 2006 Scenario 5: Composting Emmy Yeung, Vivian Leung, Shannon Hinds, Helen Tang, Jane Chung, Tharani Balachandran, Lorrie Patterson  University of British Columbia AGSC 450 April 14, 2006           Disclaimer: “UBC SEEDS provides students with the opportunity to share the findings of their studies, as well as their opinions, conclusions and recommendations with the UBC community. The reader should bear in mind that this is a student project/report and is not an official document of UBC. Furthermore readers should bear in mind that these reports may not reflect the current status of activities at UBC. We urge you to contact the research persons mentioned in a report or the SEEDS Coordinator about the current status of the subject matter of a project/report”.           UBC Food Systems Project 2006 Scenario 5:  Composting      Group 5:  Emm y Yeun g Vivian Leun g Shannon Hinds Helen Tan g J ane Chung Tharani Bala chandr an Lor rie Patt erson Group 5 Page i Scenario 5 Abstract:  S cenario 5, a component of the UBC Food S yste m Project (UBC FS P ), ai ms to promot e educati on, raise awa ren ess and in cre ase comp osti ng pa rticipati on wit hin the UBC comm unit y. Usin g res ear ch and mate rial dev eloped b y our coll ea gues in previous yea rs , as well as input s from prim ar y sourc e student surve ys and int e rviews with UBCF S P partners, we found cur re nt levels of campus compost ing participati on to be low. Also, the effe cti veness of cu rrent marketi ng and educ ati onal tool s wer e poor. Foll o wing anal ysis of the data coll ect ed, we derived s ever al recomm endati ons for the variou s st akeholders withi n the food s yst em; prepar ed updated mar keti ng materi als with att enti on to the theories of social mark eti ng in order to incr ea se compos ti ng aw aren e ss on campus ; outl ined a budget for the proposed campus -w ide marketi n g campai gn, which will co incide with the int roducti on of addit ional compost bins on campus ; and discussed the linkages b etween th e UBC food s ystem and that of the glob al communi t y.      Table of Contents:  Abstract  Page i  Introdu cti on  Page 1  Problem Definiti on  Page 2  Visi ons and V alues  Page 4  Evaluation of the Compos ti ng Subs ystem  ( Ou r Methodol og y )  Page 5  Current Educati onal and Marketi n g Tools  Page 7  Effecti ven ess of Curr ent Educati onal and Marketi ng Tools  Page 7  Steps of Acti on  Page 9  Recomm endati ons for UBCFS P Partners   UB C Waste Mana gemen t and UBC Food Se rvices  Page 13  UBC Sustainabil it y Offic e  Page 13  AMS Food and Beve ra ge Department  Page 14  Recomm endati ons for AGSC 450 2007 Coll eagu es  Page 14  Reflecti ons on the Li nkages betw een the UBCFS P and the Globali z ed Food S yst em  Page 15  Conclusi on  Page 17  Appendix 1: Student Questi onnaire  Page 19  Appendix 2: Findi ngs fro m Student Intervie ws  Page 20  Appendix 3: Educati on and Marketi n g Materi als   Posters for UBC Food Se rvices and UBC Waste Mana gement  Page 22  Sti cker for AMS  Food an d Beve ra ge Dep artment  Page 22  Sti cker for UBC Food Se rvices and UBC Waste Mana gement  Page 22  Brochu re fo r UBC Waste Mana gement  Page 24  Appendix 4: Budget  Sam ples  Page 25   Group 5  Scenario 5 1  Introduction:   This report’s purpose is to examine the current compostin g sit uati on at UBC an d determi ne ke y problem areas wh ere improv ement s can be mad e. This proj ect is based on a new compos ti ng scen ario that is part of the UBC Food S yst em Project (UBC FS P ); a groundb reakin g project dev eloped for AGSC 450 that incorpo rat es st udents’ knowledge of global sustainability iss ues to the food s yste m at UBC. As part of t he compos ti ng s cena rio, four groups wo rked coll aborati vel y to ensur e that a broad scope of resea rch and recomm e ndati ons for the UBC compos ti ng pro gr am cou ld be develop ed.  Our repo rt be gins with a discussi on of the scena r io problem definiti on and its relation to the global context. It contains a dialogue of our group members’ value assumptions, and how the y ma y hav e aff ected our work on thi s project. Suggested modi ficat ions of the UBCFS P 7 Guiding Principl es are al so included.   Nex t, our report outl ines the methodolog y th at was used to resea rch the problems withi n the compos ti ng pro gr a m on the UBC campus . Determi nati on of the current ma rketi ng and educati onal materi als on campus is reported as part of our rese ar ch of on -campus compos ti ng.  Further res ear ch was done that identified how eff ecti ve cu rrent m ark eti ng and educ ati onal materials are, and is also incorporated int o thi s report.  Bas ed on thi s research, steps of ac ti on that outline our group’s plan to improve the composting program at UBC are detailed. Finally, suggestions to the UBCFSP partners and next year’s AGSC 450 class are outlined in our recomm endati ons.  A discussi on on the rela ti onshi p between the UBCFS P a nd the globaliz ed food s ystem brings the report to a clo se. This discussi on articulates the learnin g that we have grasp ed over th e course of ou r degr ees an d invol vement in the AGS C series, particularl y as AGS C 450 students.   Group 5 2  Scenario 5 Problem Definition: In June 2000, in response to publi c concern ov er long -term environme ntal effe cts of increasin g waste accum ulation , UBC Waste Mana gement l aunched the UBC Compos t ing Prog r am (U BC W M, 2005). The goal of this pro gr am was to promote comp osti ng to induce waste reducti on and to increas e publi c awaren ess of compos ti ng on campus (UBC W M, 2005). Init iall y , UBC Waste Managemen t focused on small -scale compos ti ng, which invol ved the use of worm bins a nd back ya rd bins (UBC W M, 2005). In  20 04, UBC invest ed  in  a lar ge-s cale compos ti ng s ystem and buil t the first Canadian, on -campus , in -vessel compos ti ng facil it y. This facil it y is capable of compos ti ng 4 to 5 ton nes of waste per da y, includin g norm all y non - compos table waste such as me at, dair y and pape r product s (UBC W M, 2005). Once the material has decompos ed it can be us ed on the campus groun ds and at the UBC farm as top soil , making it part of a closed loop s yst em (UBC W M, 2005).  Although  UBC Waste Mana gement has a num ber of tool s to promot e compos ti ng on campus such as posters and educati onal broc hures, compo s t ing wor ksh ops, and in -vessel compos ti ng tours, compos ti ng awar eness and invol vement on campus is low (UBC W M, 2005). UBC Waste Man a geme nt would like to ex pand the compos ti ng pro gr am, but bin usa ge is currentl y too lo w to war rant an incre ase in com post ing pick -up times. A furthe r probl em that hampers the ex pansion of the compos ti ng progr a m is the contamination of the compos ti ng bins with materials that break the compos ti ng machine (UBC W M, 2005).  There fore, thi s compos ti ng scenario wa s desi gn ed with several objecti ves: to assess the effe cti veness of current edu cati onal tool s used to promot e UBC compos ti ng, to anal yz e the cur rent leve ls of participati on in compos ti ng, and to identi f y an y bar riers or limi tations to  participati on on campu s .    Group 5 3  Scenario 5 This scenario identifies a predicament that is reflecti ve of a larger, global problem . UBC alone produces ove r 12 tonnes of garb a ge ever yda y (Waste F re e UBC, 2005), of which approx im atel y 70% is compos table (UBC W M, 2005). Wit hout the compos ti ng pro gr am, all of thi s rec yclable waste would be sent to the Vancouve r landfil l loca ted in Delt a (Cit y of Vancouve r, 2005). Event uall y, thi s landfil l will be filled to  capacit y and other landfil l sit es will need to be created. Cons idering that UBC is a small proport ion of Vancouver’s population, we can per ceive the vast amount of waste that our cit y alone produc es, and how much of it unnecessa ril y ends up in the landfill s. A number of problems are caus ed by includin g compos table waste in landfil ls.  Due to the anaerobic condit ion s creat ed in a tradit ional landfill , compos table material takes an ex tended amount of time to decompos e compared to the time needed in a compos ter (UBC W M, 2005). These condit ions also ins ti gate th e produ cti on of harmful produ cts such as methan e (an ex plosi ve gr eenhouse gas) and le ac hate (a tox ic chemi cal) (Read et al., 2001). When compos table waste is diverted from land fill sit es to compos ters , the environment, econom y and societ y all benefit. These ben efits include: l ess garba ge endin g up at t he landfil l , so more la nd will be conserv ed; less waste ac cumul ati on in landfil l , ther eb y decre asin g the producti o n of harmful land fill products ; saved mone y and ener g y b y reducin g t he transport ati on need ed for garba ge dispo sal; compos t can be us ed as top soil for gardens to pr event moi sture loss , s aving mon e y b y reducin g the need to pu rch ase chemi cal fertili z er (UBC W M, 2005); and fina ll y, incr eased publi c awar eness on compos ti ng, whi ch en coura ges peo ple to be responsi ble me mbers of soci et y and to become mo re invol ved in their comm unit y. C ompos ti ng has the capa cit y to do much more than just  decompos e food scr a ps; it can pla y a vit al role in chan ging ou r global s ociet y.   Group 5 4  Scenario 5 Visions and Values As a group, we beli eve in an ecolo gicall y-fo cused and environment all y sust ainabl e paradi gm. We ex hibi t weak anthropoc entrism ; we tend to rega rd humans as above other forms of nature, and emphasiz e cult ural and human conne cti ons, particula rly a stron g sense of comm unit y. We must ass ume that the value assum pti ons we portr a y as a group have aff ected the work that we hav e done on the UBCFS P . Although we att empt ed to cond uct resea rch and mak e recomm endati ons witho ut bias, values are an underl yin g component of personali ti es that inevitabl y affe ct thoughts and opini ons. We feel that the 7 Guiding Principl es of th e Vi sion Statement for a Su stainable UBC Food S ystem ar e a goo d base upon which to buil d a sust ainable food s ystem at UBC. Thes e Principl es fulfil l an esse nti al role in the develop ment of the UBC Food S ystem b y  act in g as an instrument of regul ati on and conn ecti vit y. The 7 Principl es offe r a refer e nce point from which the progr ess of food s ys tem ini ti ati ves can be moni tored. Additi onall y, t he presenc e of writ ten goals improv es the likeli hood of the project having lastin g eff ect s . The Principl es also provide a visi on for the us e of a s ystem of c ycli c al nature, wh ere output s ca n be used as input s, emphasiz ing the importance of compos ti ng and rec ycli n g for s ystem self - sufficienc y. The y of fer flex ibi lit y throu gh the recognit ion that food can and must be both affordab le and acc essi ble, and sim ult aneousl y sociall y and finan ciall y viable. It is clea r to us that t hese Principl es ca nnot be followed without some degree of support from ou tsi d e input s . The following ar e our suggesti ons pertaini ng to the enhan cement of the 7 Guiding Principl es of the Visi on Statement for a Sustainable UBC Food S ys tem:  W e suggest that the 7 Guidi ng Principl es be fo r matted in a temporal ord er acco rding to priorit y.   Group 5 5  Scenario 5  There is a need to add re ss the short -te rm finan cial sust ainabili t y of the Food S ystem, as thi s is important to the success of man y of the Project Coll aborators , such as UBC Food Services.   There is a disconnect between the ‘plain language’ version and the ‘academic’ version of the Principl es; in the a cademic version, Principle 7 addresses the need for a “balance of imported and local foods”, but Principle 3 in the plain language version states that food should be “ethnically diverse”.  Principle 1 also states that “food is locally grown.”  Although the plain lan gu age version su ggests a desire for ethni c all y dive rse food, it could be understood that thi s shoul d be locall y grow n. Ther efor e, Principl e 3 of the plain langu a ge ve rsion could be chan ged to:  Food is ethni call y dive rse, affor dable, saf e and nutritiou s , and is a balance betwe en imported and local foods. This will ensure that when people read the Guiding Principl es the y reali z e th at we do not insi st that all food must be locall y gro wn, produc ed and process ed. Evaluation of the Composting Subsystem (Our Methodology):  In orde r to ass ess cu rren t st udent awa reness of and participati on in compos ti ng at UBC, we dev eloped a s ystemat ic wa y in which to gath er information. We chose to use a qu ali tative and observa ti onal appro ach of data coll ecti on throu gh a questi onnaire of UBC students that live on and off campus , and thro ugh personal and electro nic interviews with speci fic UBCFS P ’s partners (Andrew Par r, Sarah J ohnson, Nanc y Too good , and J uan Solorz ano). We also went to specific buil dings on campus to take photos and note the accessi bil it y of compos ti ng bins and av ail abil it y of marketi n g and educati onal tools. The above-me nti oned tool s will be ex plained furthe r below. Questi onnaire: We cond ucted prim ar y data coll ec ti on through a questi onn aire to determi ne U BC students’ knowledge about composting. The questionnaire that was prep ar ed (refe r to Appendix  Group 5 6  Scenario 5 1 ) posed qu esti ons that all ow ed  us to assess th ree particular aspe cts of co mpos ti ng:  how much students actuall y know about how to compos t, how often students com post , and what, if an y, barriers pr event students from compos ti ng. The questi onnaire was prep are d in consul tation with UBCFS P tea ching assi stant Yona Sipos -R andor, in order to provid e unbiased and non - guidi n g questi ons to int erviewees . Inte rviews:  In ord er to address the feasibi li t y of our proposed acti ons, we en ga ged in personal and ele ctronic int e rviews with specifi c UBCFS P partners . Electronic int er views were conducted with Andrew Par r of UBC Food Services, Sar ah J ohnson of UBC Waste Mana gement, and J uan Solorz ano from the Sustainabili t y Offic e. A pers onal int erview was also conducted with Nanc y Toogood of AMS Food and Beve ra ge Dep artment . Observati onal Data Coll ecti on : Compos ti ng bins in buil dings around cam pus (such as the SU B, Macmi ll an, and the For estr y Scien ce Center) were observ ed to determi ne accessi bil it y of the bins. Photos were also t aken of the bins and po sters to dete rmine the current educati onal and marketi ng m aterials in us e. Research on Social Ma r keti ng Principl es :  Social Marketi n g appli es th e concepts of comm ercial marketing in order to ‘sell’ an idea rather than a product. In the case of this scenario, we are trying to ‘sell’ the idea of composting. Therefore, once we finished our data gathering, we needed to know about s ocial marketi n g principl es to ensure that an y campaign, promoti onal items, or events that were desi gned would be congru ent with these prin cipl es. As part of th e social marketi ng conce pt, we have also draw n upon a popular an d well -establi shed healt h behavi our theor y, the Stages of Chan ge theo r y (W einreich, 2003). The Stages of Change theor y is ba sed on the ide a t hat people ch an ge thei r behaviour in sta ges, starti ng at the pre -contemplation stage and movi ng through to the maintenanc e stage. There f ore, dependin g on the  Group 5 7  Scenario 5 resul ts of the questi onnaire des cribed abov e, we would know which stage of compos ti ng knowledge or cap abil it y students were at. A comp osti ng camp aign could be focus ed on dir ecti n g students from this stage t o the nex t.   Current Marketing and Educational Tools: Although the compos ti ng pro gr am at UBC is relativel y new, UBC Waste Mana gement has implemented a number of ini ti ati ves to create awar eness about compos ti ng on campus . These ini ti ati ves include a compost ing and rec ycli n g n e wslett er (The Rind ), compos ti ng workshops for wor m bin and back ya rd bin compos ters, weekl y in -v essel compos ti ng facil it y tours, on -li ne compos ti ng fact sheets, and booths and displa ys at special events througho ut the ye ar (UBC W M, 2005). Mark eti ng ini ti ati ves also include post e rs at compos t bins, signs in UBC gardens , as well as  bookmarks (UBC W M, 2005). Furthe rmore, UBC Waste Man a gem ent has implement ed a number of or ganics coll ecti on sit es including Totem and Vanie r ca fete rias, Ponderosa Ca fé, Inte rnati onal House, Scar fe, AER L, the Fo rest Sc ience Center, Ma cMi ll an, Sage, Ko erne r, Gre en Coll ege, David Lam, Br ock Hall , UBC Chil dcar e Services, the SUB, an d private residenc es on campus , such as Hawthor ne Gre ens and Ga ge (UBC W M, 2005 ).  Effectiveness of Current Educational and Marketing Tools: Alt h ough UBC Waste Mana gement has develo ped marketi n g and edu c ati onal tool s (as described abov e), their actual presen ce and v isi bil it y is limi ted. Although it was discovered that six out of seven compos ti ng bins have some sort of signa ge, onl y two were using UBC Waste Mana gement mat erials (Group 17 Stakeout Summ ar y) . It is important for the UBC Waste Mana gement mate rials to be consi stent across ca mpus , since one ke y soci al marketi n g principle is that “no matter what you do in your campaign, try to stick to one main "look" and slo gan, or people ma y not reali z e all the pie ces are fro m your organization” (Weinreich, 2003).  Group 5 8  Scenario 5 Furthermo re, onl y fiv e out of seven bins were cle arl y identified as compos t and none of the sit es had an y edu cati onal mate rials present (Group 17 Stakeout Summ ar y) .  I n ord er to determi ne th e eff ecti veness of the to ols being used on camp us, we iss ued a questi onnaire (d escrib ed above in th e methodolo gy s ecti on) to 35 UBC st uden ts that live on or off campus . From thi s surve y we found that alm ost al l students interviewed knew wh at compos ti ng was and had at least a gener al idea of how it wo rks. How eve r, alt hou gh 14 of the students surve ye d knew that the y lived nea r a co mpos ter, alm ost none incorporat ed compos ti ng int o their dail y lives; onl y 6 out of th e 35 co mpos t ed, and of these, 2 onl y compos t wh en conve nient (r efe r to Appendix 2, Figure 1) . The most comm on reasons gi ven for not compos ti ng were la ck of accessi bil it y and insuffici ent knowledge about wher e compo sti ng ex ist s on campus (ref er to Appendi x 2, Figur e 2). If the cit ed ba r riers wer e removed, 25 of the students would consi der compos ti ng.   When we looked at the students’ knowledge about where composting exists on campus, 18 students wer e unaw ar e that the y could even compos t on campus . The othe r 17 students that knew that compos ti ng ex ist ed cit ed a range of diff erent plac es , but overall did not know mo st of the compos ti ng locati ons. Of the marketi ng tool s currentl y pr esent on campus t o promot e compos ti ng, onl y 7 stude nts in our surve y had ev er s een signs of compos t ing. As a result , when asked how the y thou ght UBC was doin g about m arketi n g compos ti ng on campus , their answ ers were fairl y dism al ( ref er to Appendix 2, Figu re 3 ) .  These result s mimi c the result s of the Bann e r Report that found that th e re is a low level of awa r eness about sust ainabili ty pro grams on campus (UBC Sustainabil it y Offi ce, 2005).  Group 5 9  Scenario 5   In addit ion to the questi onnaire, we consul ted wi th a number of the UBC FS P partners as described abov e.  From these conve rsati ons, we developed a ma rk eti ng an d educati on campai gn as follows:   Steps of Action:  As there is a lack of knowledge about compos ti ng on campus , our aim is to improve awar eness about compo sti ng. Bas ed on social marketi ng prin cipl es, we have developed a marketi ng and adve rtisi ng campai gn that att empt s to all eviate thi s iss ue . A key prin cipl e that we drew from social marketing is that “consistency and continuity are key to a successful campai gn .”  (Weinreich, 2003) We hav e also dec ided to develop m aterial s aim ed at univ ersit y-a ged students who are at a ‘pre - contemplation’ level (from the Stages of Chan ge theo r y described above) due to t he lack of aw aren ess abo ut compos ti ng on campu s (from questi onnair e result s). Befo re stud ents can move on to the ‘con templation ’ sta ge (i.e. ac tuall y thi nkin g about compos ti ng) the y must fi rst be made awar e that co mpos ti ng ex ist s, and where and how to do it.  Development of ‘Paper’ Marketing and Advertising Campaign:  The marketi n g and adve r ti sing campai gn is recom mended to take place wh en UBC Food Services implements thei r campu s -wide compos ti ng ini ti ati ve in Septembe r 2006.  Since we are tr yin g to maintain consi s tenc y and conti nuit y in t he desi gn, and as a resu lt of our consul tation with Andrew Parr at UBC Food Servi ces, we have design ed mat erials tha t consi stentl y incorporate the UBC Waste Management ‘Monkey’ (Andr ew Parr ). Thes e materials have be en desig ned in coll abo rati on with a graphi c design an d advertisi ng student, to ensure that the y ar e of a quali t y that is comparable with those alread y create d b y UBC Waste Management ( Mart y Chow). The marketi n g campaign consi sts of five different post e rs aim ed at different lev els of social marketi n g and the Stages of Chan ge theor y; wh y compos t, whe re to compos t, and what to  Group 5 10  Scenario 5 compos t . There are thr ee post ers tha t address ‘why compost’, and have been developed with our target population of you ng stud ents in mind (refe r to App endix 3).  Thes e post ers were desi gned to catch att enti on of stud ents, and also provide inf ormation and fa cts on co mpos ti ng.   The post er tha t addresses ‘where to compost’ is designed with the intention of presenting the locati ons of compos t bins to students in a vi suall y eff ecti ve m anner (ref er to Appendix 3). Wit h the implementation of the campus -wide com post ing pro gram, thi s post er can be ad just ed to include all the food service locations that have compost bins available. Finally, the ‘what to compost’ poster was developed to increase knowledge about the products that can and cannot be compos ted, to start addr essi ng the iss ue of contamination (ref er to App endix 3). As well , we have developed two different stickers that can act as ‘cues to action’ for students to fu rther increas e awa reness. The idea for the sti ckers was not onl y a social marke ti ng idea (Weinreich, 2003 ), but was also a su ggesti on from the Bann er Report (U BC Sustainabil it y Office, 2005 ).  On e sti cker has been desi gn ed for the AMS paper cups (ref er to App endix 3).  AMS cups are m ade of a spe cial t ype of paper t hat feels ve r y sim il ar to St yrofoam, henc e the re is litt le understandin g that the y ar e actu all y pa per. We have desi gned a sti cker that can be plac ed on the cups (for at least the mont h of S epte mber) that will not onl y increas e aw ar eness that t hese cups ar e mad e of paper, but also that they ar e compos table (re fe r to Appendix 3) . The second sti cker is for placement on the ‘door’ of garbage cans that are in the vicinity of compos t bins (see Appendix 3).  This in turn will not onl y fu rther inc reas e compos ti ng awar eness, but also act as a cue to acti on and ma y start t o ini ti ate behaviour ch anges.  Finall y, to incr ease edu cati on about compos ti ng on campus , we have creat ed a brochu re outl ini ng the differ enc e between compos ti n g waste and waste goin g to the landfil l (see Appendix 3). This material is particularl y important as man y studen ts reveal ed that the y were unsu re what the advanta ges of co mpos ti ng wer e when  Group 5 11  Scenario 5 compared to waste deco mpos it ion at a landfil l sit e. This could be m ade av ail able at all loc ati ons that have a compos t bin. We feel that all the abo ve -mentioned mat erials will be use ful for UBC Waste Management. In conversati on with Sarah J ohnson of UBC Waste Mana gem ent, it was established that there is a “need to improve the promotional material” that is currently in use (Sarah J ohnson ).   P lacement of Mark eti ng Materials: The locati on of marketi ng materi als for compos ti ng ini ti ati ves is a crucial aspect of the potential success of the marketi ng campai gn we are proposing for implementation . If plac ed strate gicall y, a campus - wide marketi n g campai gn has the potential to greatl y incr ea se aw ar eness about compost ing and ev en prompt a behaviou r ch ange to start compos ti ng.  The major tar gets for ad vertisi ng shoul d be an y high traf fic ar eas on camp us, such as the Student Union Buil ding (SUB) , but must first be approved by the Student Admini s trati ve Comm iss ion (SAC) (Nanc y Too good ). Othe r hi gh traffic areas include ar eas in which students and staff hav e a mom ent to read, such as th e insi de of bathro om stalls an d elevators. M a rketi n g material shoul d also be visi ble and readil y avail a ble around upper ye ar student residences ,  such as Walt er Gage, Fai rvie w Crescent, and Marine Drive Residences. The st udents who live at these residenc es hav e a lar ge i mpact on the waste gen e rated withi n the UBC Fo od S ystem bec ause of their time spent living and worki ng on campus (these residences diffe r from dormit or y-st yl e Totem and Vanier resi dences, wher e compos ti ng is easil y acc essi ble in the cafete rias) . In addit ion to this advertising, informative post ers must be effecti vel y uti li z ed around compos ti ng bins in order to reduc e th e incidenc e of contamina ti on.    Group 5 12  Scenario 5 Development of ‘Peer’ Marketing Campaign In addit ion to this ‘paper’ marketi n g camp aign, i t is essential that different channel s of media ar e used.  We have conta cted the UBC Sustainabil it y Offic e to determi n e int er est in spreadin g the word about compos ti ng through t he Sustainabil it y Ambassadors. Upon consul tation with J uan Solorz ano from the UBC Sustainabil it y Offic e, we found that the y have several resourc es avail ab le to compl ement our ca mpaign, includin g: sustainabil it y coordinators, booths , and network co nnecti ons (J uan Solorz ano) . The sust ainabili t y coordinators have th ree focuses throu ghout the school ye ar, one of wh ich is materials reducti on , which is usuall y scheduled for Novemb er to Januar y. B y having s ustainabil it y coordinator s educate students on compos ti ng late r in the yea r, reinfor cement of t he information that stud ents have been s eein g since Septembe r will occ ur. Since t h e Sustainabil it y Offic e has booths set up durin g ori entations at the start of the school year (e g. GA LA, Im agin e, and transfe r students), as well as pro -sust ainabil it y events thro ughout the yea r (such as UBC Responsi ble Consum pti on Week ) p utt ing up  post ers and bro chure s at these booths would help to spre ad awar enes s about compos ti n g to new students .  To c reate the abov e -me nti oned marketi ng m ater ials, a budget will be necessa r y. UBC Waste Management, in an electronic interview, said that they “have limited financial support for promot ions, (but) so far have not be en too limi ted in (th eir) ability to produce posters, etc.” (Sarah J ohnson ).  Furthermore, UBC Food Services suggested that they “ will definitel y wo rk with Waste Mana gem ent on the ma rketi n g piec e, and more importantl y, on a good pick up and controls piece to ensure contaminatio n etc. is kept to a minim um. ” (Andrew Parr) Based on information from these t wo services, we beli eve t hat the bud get sampl es t hat we hav e dev eloped are feasibl e and reali sti c (ref er to Appendix 4).   Group 5 13  Scenario 5 Recommendations for UBCFSP Partners:  Recommendations for UBC Waste Management and UBC Food Services: ◦ Coordinate a compos ting campai gn for Septem ber 2006 to coincide with the int roducti on of compos ti ng bins in UBC Food Servic es outl ets. The campai gn sho uld include post ers, educati onal mat erials an d marketi n g m ate rials. Materials hav e be en dev eloped to aid e in thi s campai gn and can be fo und in Appendix 3. (If the post ers and sti ckers are elected to be used, the design student who helped develop them is willing to ensure that they are ‘print - ready’ and can be contacted at ) ◦ Have at least one work e r from each UBC Food Service Lo cati on att end a compos ti ng workshop or tour to le arn about co mpos ti ng on campus . Recommendations for UBC Waste Management: ◦ Whe n compos ti ng bins are dist ributed, ensure t he bins come with UBC Waste Mana gement educati onal and mark eti ng materi als so students will know that compos ting is a campus -wide program and will be come more aw ar e of the rol e of the UBC Waste M an a gem ent. ◦ All marketi ng materi als should look uniform; the “monkey” should be present t hroug hout . ◦ Collaborate with UBC Food Services on the above mentioned camp aign. As part of thi s, displ a ys could be set up, such as a pile of coffee cups outsi de the sub which would draw att enti on to the idea that paper is compos table .   Recommendations for the UBC Sustainability Office: ◦ Have  sust ainabili t y am bassadors emphasiz e the iss ue of increas ed com post ing at UBC wh en informi ng cl asses of sust ainabili t y pro gr ams bein g run at UBC ◦ Have sust ainabili t y co ordinators addr ess cl asses durin g their Waste R educti on Fo cus pe riod (November 2006 to Januar y 2007) to incr ease aw areness about compos ti ng and to reinfor ce the  Group 5 14  Scenario 5 compos ti ng camp aign th at wil l have been ini ti ate d in September 2006.   ◦ When recruitin g sust ainabili t y offic ers, the sust ainabili t y of fice sh ould tr y to inc reas e advertisement of the pos it ions in all facult ies in order to en ga ge a broad er rep resent ati on of students, which would facil it ate the spread of sustainabil it y aw aren ess. Recommendations for AMS Food and Beverage Department: ◦ Start usi ng paper cups in all AMS Food Service Establis hments, not just Blue Chip Cookies. ◦ P lace compos table sti ckers (see Appendix 3) on paper cups so that people will know that the cups ar e not mad e of St yrofo am and that the y are compos table (for at least the mon th of September). (Note that AGSC 100 students must do service, and some students can be arr an ged to help place the sti ckers on the cups; alt ernati vely, as the cup of coffe e is being order ed, the worker can pla ce the stic ker on the cup ). ◦ Have at le ast one wor ker from ea ch AMS Fo od Service Establis hmen t att end a compos ti ng workshop or tour to lea rn about compost ing on campus . Recommendations for AGSC 450 2007 colleagues: ◦ Run educati on focus gr oups with on -campus students to learn about their thoughts and ideas on compos ti ng throu gh disc ussi on; focus on a specif ic demographic, such as on -campus students or students in a particular ye ar.  ◦ After the campai gn of 2006, determi ne if the r e is an in cre ased awar e ness of compos ti n g on campus .  If awar eness ha s in creased, ensur e socia l marketi ng is addressi n g students that are at the contemplation stage (Stages of Chan ge theor y) inst ead of addr essi ng at the pre-contemplation stage. For ex ampl e, in order to move from contemplation to acti on, messages shoul d promot e the benef it s of performi n g the beh avior and minim iz ing the barriers.  Group 5 15  Scenario 5 ◦ Paper towels can be part of the compos ti n g pr ogr am  rese arch how feasibl e it is for pape r towel compos t bins to be put in bathrooms acro ss campus and have it part of the j anit orial service or volunt a r y servi ce.  ◦ Make sure compos ti ng is part of unive rsi t y town (coll abor ate with the Universit y Town scenario) ◦ Determi ne feasibi li t y of incre asing the numbe r of compos ti ng bins around cam pus (i.e. 1:1 rati o of ga rba ge to compos t bins) and develop a camp aign to add ress the proble m of contamination . ◦ De termi n e the feasibi li ty of c reating a sustainability ambassador ‘composting officer’ posi ti on who would specific all y work on the compos ti ng campai gn.  Reflections on the linkages between the UBCFSP and the globalized food system  The UBC FS P provides us with a be tt er underst anding of the global fo od s ystem. As global cit iz ens, we need to create an environment that is healt h y and sust ai nable.  By dev elopi ng our knowled ge of ho w to creat e a sust ainable co mm unit y on the small sc ale model of the UBC food s ystem, we can lea rn how to transf er posi ti ve innovations to the glo bal food s yst em.  The UBCFS P is an ex cell ent tool to suppl y us with an  understandin g of how a food s ystem wo rks, and as a result , we will be able to appl y our knowl edge to the global food s ys tem.   Sim il arities between UBC FS P and the globaliz ed food s ystem: ◦ UBC food s yst em is a small scale food s ystem that has input s and output s like an y oth er food s ystem . ◦ The compos ti ng c ycl e that has been created at UBC (i.e. food waste co mpos ted to top soil for our campus grounds) ca n be appli ed to our glo bali z ed food s ystem wh ere our compos table garbage can be composted and used on our planet’s earth.  Group 5 16  Scenario 5 ◦ By educati n g students in UBC about compos ti ng, the y will be able to spread the word to people the y know.  As a result , more people wil l be awar e of the importanc e of co mpos ti ng. ◦ UBC food s ystem is a small scale version of th e global food s yst em, so it is an ideal pl ace to implement new chan ges (i.e. sust ainabili t y and compos ti ng) and se e the feasibi li t y be fore implementi ng these ch an ges in the global food s ys tem. ◦ There is the same disconnecti on between UBC students/ residents and their food, as can be se en in the globaliz ed food sys tem.  If we want the world as a whole to understand more about where our food comes from and to app re ciate th e labor behind it, we need to start at a loc al level, and educ ate UBC students on the fact that their food do es not just come from a store or outl et.   ◦ The microcosm of UBC has the sam e wast e m ana gement iss ues as the globaliz ed food s ystem in that both are looki ng i nto alt ernati ve waste ma nagement solut ions and creati n g aw ar eness of the impact on the environ ment of the curr ent landfi ll sit uati on.  Even thou gh the UBC food s ystem is an ex cell ent tool fo r us to have a bett e r understandin g of the globaliz ed food s ystem, we must consi der that the re ar e some diffe ren ces between the two food s ys tems.   Differ ences b etwe en UBC food s ystem and the gl obali z ed foo d s ystem: ◦ UBC food s ystem is a much small er scale model compared to the globa li z ed food s ystem and the food s yst em at globa l level is much more co mpl ex  the same theories ma y not appl y to both s ystems . ◦ The majorit y of peopl e in the UBC food s ystem are mor e educ ated than at the global lev el. ◦ UB C is quite forward in its thi nking and has sust ainabili t y as a goal ( UBC Sustainabil it y Pledge).  Group 5 17  Scenario 5 ◦ The UBC food s yst em does not have to deal with int ernati onal trade iss ues to the same degr ee that  globaliz ed food s ystem. ◦ A greater perc enta ge of people at UBC are awa r e of compos ti ng and ar e of a liberal mindset.    Conclusion:  Anal ysis of ou r findin gs from student surve ys , UBCFS P partne r int erviews, and observati onal data coll ec ti on, it is clear that awareness of compos t ing pro gr ams on campus is low. As a result of our findings, we concluded that it is imperative to market our ‘product’ to the UBC population assuming that the vast majority of students and staff are in the ‘pre -contemplation’ stage of the Stages of Change M odel, with respect to co mpos ti ng. Wit h the implementation of our proposed strate gies and marketi ng mate rial, as well as those of our coll ea gues addr essi ng ot her aspects of scena rio 5, it is possi ble to increase aw aren ess and participati on in compos ti ng in it iatives on campus . Inc reasin g compos ti ng awa reness will enable our AGS C 450 coll eagu es of 2006/2007 to develop strate gies for a population in the ‘contemplation’ stage, enabling the UBFSP to progress towards closing the food system ‘loop’ and developi n g an inc rea singl y sust ainable UBC.   Group 5 18  Scenario 5 References:  C how, Mart y. Pe rsonal i nterview.   "Comm unicati on and Ed ucati on Iniatives. " 2006. Compos ti ng Council of Canada. 21 Ma rch 2006  htt p:/ /www.compos t.org/comm Ed Init .htm l   "Compos ti ng. " 2006. UBC Waste Management. 23 March 2006 htt p:/ /www.rec ycle.ub c.c a/compost .htm    "Group 17 - Compos t Stakeout Summ ar y. " UBC Food S ystem Project Coll aborati on. 9 March 2006 WebCT under "Sc e nario 5 Discussi ons".  Jardine, D.E. "Sourc e Se parati on Reduc es Waste and Lea chate Stren gth on Prince Edwar d Island, C anada. " 23 Ma rc h 2006 htt p:/ /www.gov.p e.ca/phot os /ori ginal/fae_ ww_soursepa.pd f    Johnson, Sarah. "Questi o ns for Sarah J ohnson - Answered. " E-m ail to Lor r ie Patterson.  22 Mar ch  2006.  Parr, Andr ew. "Questi on s for Andre w Parr - Ans wered. " E -mail to Lor rie Patt erson. 22  Mar ch  2006.  Read, Adam D., Ma rk Hudgins , and Paul Phil li ps. "Ae robic landfil l test cel ls and their impli cati ons for sust ainable waste dispos al. " The Geo graphic al J ournal 167 (3) (2001). 21 March 2006  htt p:/ /www.blackwell -s yn er g y.com/ li nks/ doi/ 10.1111/1475 -4959.00021/abs/    Solorz ano, J uan . Personal interview.   Toogood, Nanc y. Person al interview.   UBC Sustainability Office. “UBC Undergraduate Student Survey: Survey Results Banner Report”. 27 April 2005.  3 February 2006 WebCT under “2006 UBCFSP Recommended Resources”.   "UBC Sustainabil it y Pledge. " Univ ersit y of Briti sh Colum bia . UBC Sustainabil it y. 10 Apr. 2006 htt p:/ /www.sust ain.ubc.ca/sus tainable_u/index 2.htm .   "Van couve r Landfill Fac ts and Fi gures. " 7 Jul y 20 05. Cit y of Van couver . 23 March 2006 htt p:/ /www.cit y.vancouv er.bc.c a/en gsvcs/sol idwa ste/lan dfil l/ facts.ht m   "Wastefr ee UBC. " Wastefree UBC. 23 Ma rch 200 6 htt p:/ /www.rec ycle.ub c.c a/wastefr ee/W astef reema in.ht m    Weinreich, Nedr a K. "What is Social Marketi ng? ." 2003. Wei nreich Com muni cati ons . 22 March 2006  htt p:/ /www.social -marketi ng. com/ W hati s.html    Group 5 19  Scenario 5 Appendix 1:  S tudent Questi onnaire  1.  W here is your residenti al area? a.  W hat is you r livi ng sit uat ion? (Please circle) i. ON CAMP US  OFF CAMP US ii. HOUSE  APP ARTMENT/CONDO iii.  OTHER__________  2.  Do you know what comp osti ng is and how it work s? a.  If so, please ex plain. b.  * If not, or incor rect ans wer, we will ex plain:  3.  Do you inco rporat e com post ing in you r dail y life (i.e. at hom e/school o r bo th)? a.  If so, what do you do on a regula r basis as pa rt of compos ti ng (i.e. wh at do yo u put in the compos ti ng bin? )  b.  How often do you compo st?  (i.e. do you compos t dail y or onl y wh en it is convenient? )  c.  Do you live/wo rk in an area wh ere th ere is a com po ster nearb y? d.  If so, what kind of comp oster is present? (i.e. worm -bin compost ing, back yard bin compos ti ng, and in -v esse l compost ing)  4.  Are ther e an y barrie rs tha t prevent or limi t you fro m compost ing (i.e. insuff icient knowledge or lack of acc essi bil it y to compos ti n g bins)? a.  If these ba rrie rs wer e re moved (i.e. wit h more kn owledge or mor e ac cessi bil it y to compos ti ng), would you consi der compos ti ng?  5.  If possi ble, please list up to 5 materials that can be compos ted and 5 materi als that cannot be compos ted wit hi n the UBC (in -vess el) compos t ing pro gr am.   6.  Do you s ee si gns of com post ing around campus ? (i.e. whethe r it ex ist s, whether people are doin g it, an y visi ble advertisi ng or instructi ona l post ers, etc.)  7.  Are you fami li ar wit h an y compos ti n g pro gr am(s) around campus ? a.   If so, which pro gram(s) and do you participate in an y?  b.   How did you find out ab out these pro gram(s )? (i.e. post ers, word -of-mout h, etc)  8.  Do you know wher e and how you can compos t on campus ? a.  If so, wher e and how? 9.  On a scale of 1 to 10, ho w well do you thi nk UBC manages compost or organi c waste?  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Very Poorly         Very Well  10. On a scale of 1 to 10, ho w well do you thi nk UBC advertises compos ti ng?  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Very Poorly         Very Well  Group 5 20  Scenario 5 Appendix 2: Findi ngs from Stud ent Intervie ws            Group 5 21  Scenario 5  Group 5 22  Scenario 5 Appendix 3: Marketi ng and Educati onal Mat erial s  Sticker 1: Sti cker for Gar bage Cans (to be pla ced i n locati ons that have a co mpos t bin)   Sticker 2:  Sticker for AMS Food and Bever a ge paper cups   Poster 1: Poster for UBC W aste Management and UBC Food Services that describes ‘Why’ students shoul d compos t.    Group 5 23  Scenario 5 Poster 2 and 3:  Posters for UBC Waste Man a gem ent and UBC Food Servi ces that desc ribes ‘Why’ students should compost    Poster 4: Poster for UBC Waste Mana gement and UBC Food Services that describes ‘Where’ students should compost.     Poster 5:  Poster for UBC Waste Mana gement and UBC Food Services that describes ‘What’ students can compost.     Group 5  Scenario 5 24  Brochu re 1: For UBCW M to highli ght the adv ant ages of compos ti n g over l andfill use QuickTime™ and aT FF (U ncom pressed) decom press orare needed to see this picture. QuickTime™ and aT FF (L ZW) decom press orare needed to see this picture. Group 5  Scenario 5 25  Appendix 4: Ex ampl e Budget Summ aries   # s  Item  Selection 1  Selection 2  Selection 3  Selection 4  1080  Small stickers -beverage cup  Black & W hite  Black & W hite  Colour  Colour  600  Bumper stickers -garbage can  Black & W hite  Black & W hite  Colour  Colour  100  Posters  Black & W hite Recycled  Black & W h ite Recycled Laminated  Colour Recycled  Colour Recycled Laminated  100  Brochures  Black & W hite Recycled  Black & W hite Recycled  Colour Recycled  Colour Recycled    Totals $158 .50  $267 .50  $394 .50  $503 .50   * Please fe el fre e to ex plore other opti ons via t he att ached ex cel sheet  

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