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Increasing education, awareness, participation and effectiveness in composting on campus : a critical… Nelson, Michelle; Kurniawan, Grace; Chambers, Erin; Sukovieff, Jill; Wong, Kimberley; Fu, Alma Qu; Lindsay, Adrian 2007-04-13

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UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report       Increasing Education, Awareness, Participation and Effectiveness in Composting on Campus: A Critical Analysis of the Get Caught Composting Campaign Michelle Nelson, Grace Kurniawan, Erin Chambers, Jill Sukovieff, Kimberley Wong, Alma Qu Fu, Adrian Lindsay  University of British Columbia AGSC 450 April 13, 2007           Disclaimer: “UBC SEEDS provides students with the opportunity to share the findings of their studies, as well as their opinions, conclusions and recommendations with the UBC community. The reader should bear in mind that this is a student project/report and is not an official document of UBC. Furthermore readers should bear in mind that these reports may not reflect the current status of activities at UBC. We urge you to contact the research persons mentioned in a report or the SEEDS Coordinator about the current status of the subject matter of a project/report”.   AGSC450 Group 23   Scenario 7: Increasing Education, Awareness, Participation and Effectiveness in Composting on Campus   A Critical Analysis of the Get Caught Composting Campaign      Group Members: Michelle Nelson, Grace Kurniawan, Erin Chambers, Jill Sukovieff, Kimberley Wong, Alma Qu Fu, Adrian Lindsay     April 13th, 2007   2 Table of Contents  Contents Page Number Abstract 3 Introduction 3 Problem Definition 4 Connection to the Global Food System 6 Vision Statement 7 Literature Review 8 Methodology     Survey with Campaign Volunteers  10 Survey with Students/Staff/Faculty on Campus 11    Contact with AGSC100 Course Coordinator 12 Findings     Survey with Students/Staff/Faculty 12    Survey with Campaign Volunteers 15    Contact with AGSC100 Course Coordinator 16    Review of Social Marketing Plan 16 Discussion 17 Recommendations  UBC Waste Management 19 UBC Food Services 21 AGSC 450 Colleagues 22 Conclusion 23 References 24 Appendix I: Volunteer Survey and Composting 2007 Tally Sheet 25 Appendix II: Campus Awareness Survey 27 Appendix III: Statistical Results from Campus Awareness Survey 28 Appendix IV: Composting Poster 29 Appendix V: 7 Steps to Social Change 30 Appendix VI: Proposed GCCC one-inch Button Logo 30  3 Abstract Scenario 7’s objective in the UBC Food System Project is to increase education, awareness, participation and effectiveness in composting on campus. In September 2004, the In-Vessel Composting Facility was created by UBC Waste Management (UBCWM) as a large-scale composting practice on campus. In the fall of 2006, UBCWM launched the organic waste composting program through collaboration with UBC Food Services (UBCFS) and Wastefree UBC. The goal of this research project was to conduct a critical review of the “Get Caught Composting Campaign” (GCCC), an initiative created by our former AGSC 450 colleagues from spring 2006, in order to evaluate its effectiveness and increase its awareness on campus. Through literature reviews, we found that the greatest challenges the In-Vessel Composting program has faced are lack of awareness and contamination of the compost bins; and that the most effective way to increase the awareness of the GCCC is through social marketing techniques. We conducted a thorough analysis of the campaign by campus awareness surveys to determine if people knew about the GCCC and how they felt about it, by volunteer questionnaires, and by data analysis of the Caught Composting 2007 Tally Sheet to find out how the campaign was actually implemented. Based on the information we obtained from the research, we found that there is still potential for the GCCC to be a successful initiative, and have thus created various recommendations for UBCWM, UBCFS, and future AGSC 450 colleagues to consider and apply in the future.   Introduction The UBC Food System Project (UBCFSP) covers a broad spectrum of issues; looking to develop and implement plans for a sustainable food system on campus at the University of British Columbia. The portion of this project investigated by our group was the composting program on campus. This program is intended to provide a sustainable method of organic waste management through the use of an in-vessel composting unit. The program is challenged by issues such as low input, a lack of composting awareness on campus, and compost contamination through improper use of bins.  Upon investigation of prior UBCFSP papers and other literature provided we came across a plan for the Get Caught Composting Campaign (GCCC) that was implemented in January of 2007. The aspect that struck us the most about the campaign was the fact that not  4 one of our group members knew of it. This spurred the investigation into the GCCC to determine its effectiveness and determine which aspects can be improved upon. The strategy was to get a general idea of the campaign including how it was implemented by volunteers, and how it was received by students. In addition, we researched social marketing techniques and performed a general survey of students. We have used this information to compile recommendations for the “Get Caught Composting” campaign, as well as the sustainable campus food system.  This paper provides an overview of the problems faced in composting on campus, as well as a review of previous projects and literature on the problem. We discuss our methodology for our surveys and information gathering on composting awareness as well as avenues for integrating the campaign into student activities. We also present our discussion and recommendations for UBC Waste Management, UBC Food Services, and future AGSC 450 students who will take part in this project.   Problem Definition In June 2000, the UBC Compost Project was launched by UBC Waste Management (UBCWM) in response to public concern over long-term environmental effects of increasing waste accumulation associated with increased population density around campus (UBCWM, 2006). The purpose of the program was to promote waste reduction and to increase public awareness of composting on campus (UBCWM, 2006). In addition, WasteFree UBC and UBC Food Services (UBCFS) are also two important initiatives on campus working towards sustainability. Their goal is to reduce solid wastes that enter the waste stream and to develop  5 campus-wide respect to support reducing, reusing and recycling (UBC Wastefree, 2007; UBCFS, n.d.).   In September 2004, the In-Vessel Composting Facility was created at South Campus as a large-scale composting practice to increase the environmental effectiveness of UBCWM (UBCWM, 2006). This is a closed loop system referred to as the decomposition of organic materials from waste streams into useful nutrient-rich end products that can be used in gardens and at the UBC farm as top soil for the prevention of soil moisture loss (UBCWM, 2006). The system is the first Canadian on-campus in-vessel composting facility and it is “capable of processing 5 tonnes of organic waste daily” derived from both pre-consumer and post-consumer wastes.   The UBC Food Services took a very vital step in the road to a waste free campus when they launched a new organic waste composting and recycling program in the fall of 2006. This program consisted of 17 new recycling and composting stations which where distributed throughout UBC retail food and beverage outlets (UBCFS, 2006). Since the introduction of these stations, UBCWM and the In-Vessel Composting Facility have had to deal with many challenges regarding composting on campus (UBCWM, 2006). The greatest challenge that the In-Vessel Composting Facility program has faced is contamination of the compost bins. Many non-compostable items found in green bins can damage the machine leading to significant repair costs while also contaminating the final product. Although UBC Wastefree, UBCWM and UBCFS have developed a number of small-scale activities and initiatives such as workshops, a composting consulting program, posters, brochures, “The Rind” newsletter, “Green Discounts and Happy Hour” in UBC food  6 service outlets, and tours of the in-vessel composting facility to promote composting on campus, lack of awareness about the program is still a problem. The level of composting, especially from post-consumer organic waste, is very low compared to the vessel’s operating capacity and is therefore not economical (UBCWM, 2006; UBC Wastefree, 2007).   Connection to the Global Food System Our current global food system is being smothered by the accumulation of landfill waste. Landfills contribute to pollution by leaching toxins into the surrounding soil and groundwater and by contaminating dynamic ecosystems (Christenson and Cozzarelli, 2003). The contagion of the landfill sites and the surrounding environment is directly affecting our current and future food system. The correlation between UBC’s increasing resident, faculty and student densities and the amount of landfill waste is positive (UBC Wastefree, 2007).  This problem is being tackled by our composting system (the in-vessel composter) which is allowing our campus community to become a closed loop food system. By becoming a viable and visible role model for other communities we can hopefully begin to raise awareness and action regarding our current problem of waste reduction (Social Media Change, 2004). Our scenario is connected to the broader problems in the global and national food system through the sheer nature of how the majority of our food is produced and disposed of. Mass production of crops in specialized production regions means food is traveling an enormous distance before it is consumed. This leads to open nutrient cycles that encourages farmers to apply synthetic or chemical fertilizers in place of rich compost to close these gaps.  7 Even if post-consumer waste is properly composted locally, the benefits will never be realized by the original production site thousands of kilometers away, as a result of our current food production system.  Vision Statement We are a group of diverse students from multiple disciplines within the Faculty of Land and Food Systems which has inadvertently influenced our individual value assumptions.  This was demonstrated during group discussion when individual group members placed greater importance on certain points of the vision statement based on their academic backgrounds. Despite our diverse educational backgrounds, there was a general consensus that all the points in the vision statement are appropriate for a sustainable food system at UBC; however, we would like to see the term “locally produced” in the first point clarified. Without clarification this term could refer to the UBC campus, the lower mainland, within a 100km radius of campus or by another measure. Furthermore, we would include minor additions to points one and four that read the following: o “Food is locally grown, produced and processed when regionally appropriate” o “Providers and educators promote awareness among consumers about cultivation, processing, ingredients and nutrition, and waste disposal/composting” Our proposed change to the first point above is to address the seasonality of our producing region, and thus our production limitations. Our proposed change to the second point is to promote education of the complete food system from cultivation to waste disposal.   8 Literature Review  Sauder School of Business (SSB) 2006 Composting Report suggested a lack of awareness and participation as the problem resulting in incorrect composting. They came to this conclusion after the analysis of focus groups, which revealed low awareness of composting bins/posters and poor ratings regarding the advertisement posters. The posters were found to be confusing and poorly designed, while only providing a weak linkage between composting and the target audience (Brown et al., 2006).   The SSB group recommended expanding the “Garbage Heap” Promotion, which entails piling an enormous amount of garbage by the Student Union Building to raise awareness and promote the composting program. Immediately after the “Garbage Heap” promotion they suggested a one week blitz of the GCCC to promote the program and bring greater awareness to it (Brown et al., 2006).   Behavioral change is not obtained through awareness alone as Social Change Media points out in their paper titled The Seven Doors Marketing Approach (2004). There are seven main elements which can be thought of as doors; therefore, all doors must be open to successfully change human behavior, which in our case is proper composting (see Appendix V). This paper allowed us to identify elements that are currently being fulfilled; therefore, we can concentrate our resources and solutions on the closed doors. For a successful marketing mission, people need to step outside the conventional boundaries of ‘awareness communication’ and help communities visualize new futures (Social Change Media, 2004). In response to the challenges mentioned in the problem statement, the Get Caught Composting Campaign was created by our AGSC 450 Group 2 colleagues from spring 2006  9 (Archambault et al., 2006). The activity was developed based on a social marketing approach, and the main purpose of the campaign is to increase the awareness and participation of composting on campus. In the campaign, students are recognized for composting correctly and are given buttons as incentives. The campaign was designed to be held at the beginning of each academic year through collaboration with volunteers from UBC Waste Management, Imagine UBC and the Residence Sustainability Coordinator Program. In order to facilitate the campaign, lunch-time stake-outs were conducted at Place Vanier and Totem Park residences mainly to increase the awareness of composting via education. The focus group was 1st-year students because they can be educated and equipped to make an impact on the UBC campus for their remaining years and continue impacting future students. This is considered an initiative towards sustainability by helping to shape the future UBC food system. In order to further implement and improve the campaign, Group 2 colleagues made the following recommendations: 1) to develop tools and methods that measure the level of composting participation and success on campus; and 2) to evaluate students’ receptiveness to the GCCC and the effectiveness of the campaign towards promoting composting on campus (Archambault et al., 2006).  Besides UBC, other universities across Canada have also implemented the Get Caught Composting Campaign, but with slightly different methods. For example, the University of Toronto in Mississauga implemented a method of knocking on residence doors (Hardy, 2006). If residents were found to be composting correctly then they were awarded with fresh fruit and points that enabled them to win a gift certificate from the UTM bookstore (Hardy, 2006).  In order to get the whole residence’s attention prizes were awarded while a siren was sounded.   10 McGill University also has a composting program for residences, where participants pay a membership fee (Alter, 2007). In return, they will get rich and nutritious compost for their garden or window boxes (Alter, 2007). By having this program, McGill University successfully composts 1/10 of the whole university’s organic waste (Alter, 2007).  Methodology The subsystem of the University of British Columbia food system that we were assigned in this project was the subsystem of food waste, specifically compost. Our assigned project changed quite a bit from the original scenario, due to our contact in Waste Management unexpectedly leaving his job. The various groups working on the scenario decided with the help of our new contact Nadine Stunzi to take on different tasks related to our scenario; our group in turn took on the task of doing a critical review of a campaign designed by a group last year, and implemented by Waste Management this year, called the Get Caught Composting Campaign.  1. Survey with Campaign Volunteers In order to perform a critical review of the GCCC and make recommendations as to how to improve it, it was imperative that we know how the campaign was actually implemented in January. We chose to get this information by sending out a questionnaire to all of the campaign’s volunteers (see Appendix I B). The questionnaire was meant to cover not only what actually took place during the campaign, but also asked respondents for their subjective opinions on certain aspects of the campaign, such as how they felt the people  11 “caught” responded to being “caught composting”, and whether they personally felt that the campaign was successful or not. There were ten volunteers who took part in the campaign in January, and on March 14th, 2007 we sent an email to each of them asking for their participation in the survey/questionnaire, along with a consent form (see Appendix I A). Of the ten volunteers, five responded on March 15th agreeing to participate, and one responded on a later date agreeing to participate. Once the emails consenting to participation were received, a second email containing the survey both in the body of the email and in an attachment was sent out to those consenting volunteers. This was sent on March 15th, 2007. Of the six volunteers who agreed to take part in the survey/questionnaire, three completed the questionnaire, and these completed questionnaires were used to obtain the majority of our data regarding how the GCCC was implemented last year. In addition to the surveys, raw data was collected and analyzed from 7 tally sheets filled out by volunteers throughout the January GCCC (see Appendix I C). These sheets were used to record the number of people observed composting correctly, composting partially and not composting at all, as well as general observations made by the volunteers.   2. Survey with Students/Staff/Faculty on Campus In order to recommend ways to improve the awareness of the campaign and thus campus composting in general, as well as to figure out what those aware of the campaign felt about it, a second survey was conducted on the university population (see Appendix II). The survey was formulated with basic questions regarding gender, role at UBC, year and housing situation (on or off campus). The second portion of the survey included questions regarding  12 composting and the GCCC. The survey was conducted the week of March 19th, 2007 at various locations throughout the UBC campus. Forty-eight forms were filled out correctly and the data was collected and analyzed for significant trends.    3. Contact with AGSC100 Course Coordinator Through personal communication via email with AGSC 100 coordinator Andrew Riseman, our group proposed the implementation of an AGSC 100 service learning project with the GCCC as a way to increase volunteer numbers to run the campaign. We chose to contact Andrew directly because he is the person who will ultimately decide if incorporating the GCCC into the AGSC 100 curriculum is a logical and beneficial service activity for all parties involved. Our intended goals with this proposal was to recruit enough service learning students to execute the GCCC at least once, and to introduce first year LFS students to the GCCC and UBC’s composting initiatives.  Findings 1. Survey with Campaign Volunteers One of the most important findings of our research was exactly how the GCCC was actually implemented this January. The following is a detailed description of this implementation; in later sections we will discuss the differences between what was implemented and the original design.  The GCCC was implemented in January 2007 by UBCWM and 10 volunteers (N. Stunzi, personal communication, March 9th, 2007). Each volunteer took part in a training session  13 with UBCWM on January 8-9, 2007, and then spent 1 ½ to 2 hours once or twice a week throughout the rest of the month at various food services outlets around campus “catching” people composting. The sites that were included in the campaign were: the Barn, the SUB, the SUB basement, 99 chairs, Yum Yums, and Café Perugia (UBCWM, 2007; J. Carson, personal communication, March 21, 2007). Volunteers were given 10 to 20 coupons to reward those they “caught” composting correctly, but at least one volunteer reported giving out coupons to all those that took the time to talk to her, whether they had composted correctly or not (N. Stunzi, personal communication, March 9th, 2007; L. Cooksley, personal communication, April 1st, 2007.). Volunteers would either sit or stand near compost bins throughout their allotted time and watch people as they disposed of their waste.  People composting correctly would be congratulated for being “caught” composting and rewarded with a food services coupon. If they were observed composting some of their compostable items, not composting at all, or composting incorrectly (for example, putting chopsticks in the compost bin), the volunteers would go up to them and let them know what they had done incorrectly, what they should do the next time, and answer any questions that they had regarding composting, or composting on campus.  Volunteers used the GCCC as an opportunity to teach the students, staff, professors and the public about composting in general and in particular, composting on campus. In the survey the volunteers were asked about their impressions of those who were caught, namely how they felt those being caught reacted to being caught. This was totally subjective and non-scientific, but since the names and contact information of those caught were not recorded we were unable to contact anyone who was actually caught; therefore, volunteer reactions  14 seem to be the only way to judge the responses of those caught.   The volunteers reported that people had a variety of responses to being approached (L. Cooksley, personal communication, April 1st, 2007). Some of the reported responses were of embarrassment, a startled reaction, and happiness at receiving a prize and being acknowledged. There were no reported incidences of a rude reaction to being “caught” (L. Cooksley, personal communication, April 1st, 2007; N. Formigoni, personal communication, March 25, 2007; J. Carson, personal communication, March 21, 2007). All three of the volunteers that responded to the questionnaire stated that they felt that the GCCC had been a successful campaign, in that they were able to raise awareness and teach those eating on campus about composting, although the amount of people that they were able to directly affect was quite small.  Further findings came from the GCCC tally sheets that volunteers filled out while they were “catching” people (UBCWM, 2007). These sheets indicate that 40% of those observed composted correctly, 14% of those observed composted partially, and 46% of those observed did not compost at all (UBCWM, 2007). This means that of all those people observed during this time, 60% did not compost correctly (UBCWM, 2007). It should once again be noted that the validity of these tally sheets is questionable, as they lacked consistency, there were 3 less sheets than volunteers listed, and the number of people observed disposing of food goods appears to be much lower than one would expect to be observed in a 1 ½ to 2 hour time slot in the middle of the day (times listed on the tally sheets indicate that at least some of the volunteers observed people disposing of waste between 11 am and 1 pm) (UBCWM, 2007).  15 2. Survey with Students/Staff/Faculty on Campus To determine the effectiveness and viability of the GCCC we surveyed 48 people on campus at various locations. We asked them basic questions about their role at UBC, faculty, gender and where they live. We asked these questions to get a picture of the demographic we surveyed. Most people were in their second half of their undergraduate degree (see Appendix II Figure 1). All were students with the exception of one staff member. A wide variety of faculties were included with most participants in general arts (see Appendix II Figure 2). Thirty-eight of the people polled live off campus and those who lived on campus live in a wide variety of residences (see Appendix II Figure 3 and 4).  The second part of the survey included questions on the participant knowledge of composting and the GCCC. When asked if they knew what composting is, 81% of the people responded “yes”; however only 60% could explain what composting is (see Appendix II Figure 5). When asked if they had heard of the Get Caught Composting Campaign, 90% responded no (see Appendix II Figure 6). This response is statistically significant. The purpose of a campaign is to communicate a cause. This survey shows that the communication is lost. An investigation with regards to where the GCCC went wrong and how to improve it is needed. In general, those who knew about the GCCC found out from advertising. Participants who knew about the GCCC were also given a multiple choice question asking how they felt about it. The responses were spread out but the majority fell upon one. The answer most chosen was A) The GCCC reinforced my already positive attitude towards composting. This has implications due to the fact that a positive attitude towards composting is already present;  16 The GCCC is not educating. It is important to note that due to the low number of participants actually aware of the GCCC, the results of the second half of the survey are used for light recommendations rather than definitive ones.  3. Contact with AGSC100 Course Coordinator Through email we also asked Andrew Riseman what were the requirements necessary for a service learning activity.  He requested that faculty core themes be reinforced to his students during the specified number of service hours while be coordinated by a member of the LFS faculty (A. Riseman, personal communication, March, 12, 2007).  Previously, the execution of the GCCC has been carried out by UBC Waste Management with the help of student volunteers.  While our group was able to devise a volunteer plan that included recruitment, training, and campaign execution, we were not successful in finding a suitable coordinator within the LFS faculty; consequently, we did not fulfill all the requirements set forth by Andrew to integrate the GCCC learning service project into AGSC 100.  4. Review of Social Marketing Plan  After reviewing The Seven Doors Social Marketing Plan, it was clear as to which, out of the seven components were not being fulfilled (see Appendix V). Without all seven components the compost social marketing campaign will not be successful (Social Change Media, 2004).    First and foremost, the marketing campaigns for composting which have been employed at UBC do not reach students on an emotional level. The campaigns are centered  17 on knowledge and not desire. Desire is a vital step in change as it will allow people to envision a future which is more satisfying, healthy, attractive and safe. An example of this can be found in Appendix V under ‘Desire’ (Social Change Media, 2004). The second component that is missing in a successful compost social marketing campaign is optimism. From our group discussions it was found that there is a low level of optimism towards composting in the average student. As students in the Land and Food Systems, we have an obligation to lead by example thereby showing strong community leadership.    Students interviewed by Sauder School of Business students revealed that the visible recycling bins were few and far between.  This is causing a block in personal behavior change due to real-world obstacles. Some of these latter mentioned components are currently the undertaking of other 2007, Group 23 UBCFS participants and will be discussed in their papers.   Discussion There were some short comings that should be noted regarding the information gathered from the volunteer surveys. As we gathered our data from only 3 sources, it may not be as accurate as it would have been had all the volunteers responded. We decided though that as the answers we received were all quite similar, and we can postulate that all the filled in sheets would have been answered in a similar manner, this information was usable. It should also be noted that there are many short comings to the tally sheets that lead us to feel that they are not a significant and accurate source of data. One of the main shortcomings is that there were 10 volunteers who participated in the campaign but only 7  18 tally sheets collected, so it would appear that 3 of the sheets are missing. Another shortcoming is that the tally sheets are not filled out in a consistent manner by the volunteers, one volunteer actually stopped recording the number of people composting incorrectly and simply wrote “too many” (UBCWM, 2007). Although it should be remembered that those participating in the campaign were volunteering their time, and perhaps felt that the education of the public was more important than recording their findings consistently, it has left those trying to review the campaign unable to trust the results and thus unable to use them to compare to future results. Without proof that the campaign is making a difference in the amount of people composting, and composting correctly on campus, it will be much harder to secure any funding for the campaign. Thus, correct paper work with dates, times and locations, as well as the name of the volunteer filling out the tally is imperative to the campaign’s continuation and improvement. The GCCC was designed last year by our colleagues in Group 2, using ideas and concepts of community based social marketing (Archambault et al., 2006). One of the core concepts they used was the need to give incentives to induce behavior change. For this they recommended buttons which serve the duel purpose of an incentive while creating a community norm, as well as the chance to enter to win a larger prize such as an iPod (McKenzie-Mohr, 2007; Archambault et al., 2006). Due to lack of funding the actual implementation by Waste Management of the GCCC this January did not use either of these ideas and instead gave out food services coupons. These coupons have no composting connotation, and by many are not seen as a big enough incentive for change, as indicated by the suggestions of some people answering our general survey. Also, there was no part of the  19 implemented campaign that would create societal norms around composting on campus, as the buttons Group 2 planned to give out would have (Archambault et al., 2006). Another difficulty for us when reviewing the campaign was our inability to get in touch with people who had been caught to get their ideas and feelings about the campaign. This left us unable to determine whether the campaign was truly a success or not.  We were left relying on the feelings of those who volunteered, which may have been biased.  Although the general survey about the GCCC yielded useful results, there were still some shortcomings. Forty-eight participants is a good outcome, but the demographic of these participants is less diverse than we would have hoped. The data was skewed towards students in the second half of their undergraduate degree who live off campus and who are under the faculty of arts. We had hoped to survey more graduate students, staff and faculty. A more significant problem faced by the survey is the lack of participants that knew about the GCCC. Half of the survey was dependant on the participant saying yes to the question, “Do you know of the GCCC?” Data from the second half of the survey, of which only 5 were completed, is not viable to use for recommendations due to the quantity. Consequently, we can not determine the public’s opinion of the GCCC and the medium that informed them about it.   Recommendations 1. UBC Waste Management Proper data collection is essential for future evaluation of campaign success or failure. The tally sheets kept by the GCCC volunteers were not consistent resulting in invalid and  20 unreliable results. The data collection was unorganized, the results were ambiguous and the total tally numbers did not make logical sense for the designated time periods spent catching composter’s (see Appendix I D). We suggest volunteers follow strict guidelines when filling in their data and that Waste Management stress the importance of careful and accurate data collection to all volunteers. We also suggest that the contact information from some of the subjects caught composting is obtained. This will aid in future analysis of the GCCC and add valuable insight to possible improvements. We also recommend that Waste Management continue on with the campaign in the fall, this time with accurate data collection including times, dates and locations the data has been collected written on each sheet. We recommend that they use this data as an indicator of whether the campaign is having an effect on composting behavior on campus or not, and that they pass this information on to either the next group of AGSC 450 students working on the project, or use it themselves as a means of securing funding with which to improve the campaign, or at least to implement features of the campaign originally designed by our colleagues in Group 2.    The composting image of a monkey was not well accepted by focus groups as it showed no link to the target audience: composters. We propose replacing the monkey with something “sexier” as recommended in, The Seven Steps to Social Change (Social Change Media, 2004). By “sexier” we do not necessarily mean in the literal sense of the word, we mean the composting image should be something that makes composting attractive to the average student; something that evokes desire. Some possible suggestions would be images of attractive people composting, images of flowers or food growing out of “garbage”, or an  21 image depicting the “magical” transformation of food waste into rich soil, perhaps with a magic wand involved. As none of our group is artistically inclined, we were unable to create visual representation of our ideas, but hope that either Waste Management or a later AGSC 450 group will be able to with the above suggestions.    We have also suggested a template for buttons (see Appendix VI) which could be handed out to those composting correctly. It is our hope that this template, which shows a mound of dirt and the GCCC acronym, will raise people’s curiosity, possibly leading people to question the wearer of the button, which will indirectly increasing the GCCC’s awareness. We know lack of funding is currently a problem for the GCCC, and thus understand that the button may not be feasible at this time. We do feel though that if funding is secured, the use of the button would aid in creating a community norm, and spreading the word about the campaign (McKenzie-Mohr, 2007). We priced out one inch buttons, and 100 of them can be purchased online for $22.00 (The Button Store, 2007). This is quite a minimal amount of money, and could even be secured through fundraising. This may seem like a small amount of buttons, but as only 101 people were listed as composting correctly on this year’s tally, we felt it is a feasible number.  2. UBC Food Services In order for all UBC food service food outlets to take part in the GCCC and promote composting on campus, our group recommends strategically placing little posters or signs in each outlet where they are easily visible to customers or those standing in line. Strategic places may include a free standing sign within the line or a poster on the counter by the till.  22 Posters promoting the GCCC should include a catchy phrase such as “Get caught by spies to win a prize!” that reminds people to compost when finished eating.  3. AGSC 450 2008 Colleagues Feedback and reinforcement are essential for successful social marketing (Social Change Media, 2004); therefore, we recommended a photo board displaying pictures of composters caught by the GCCC be placed above or near compost bins (see Appendix IV Figure 7). Initial set up of this board should be done by AGSC 450 students; however, regular updates will be done by campaign volunteers. By continuously feeding success stories and updating the public our message will be reinforced while raising awareness for the campaign. In terms of recruiting volunteers, our group strongly feels that vertical integration of the GCCC within the LFS faculty is possible and beneficial for our entire faculty; therefore, we recommend that future AGSC 450 students find a candidate within the faculty who would be willing to help coordinate AGSC 100 service learning students and lead the campaign. Not only should this person be passionate about composting, but they should also be optimistic about the benefits of promoting the GCCC and education of compost on campus. One possible idea proposed by a participant in the general survey was to utilize internet resources to educate and inform on composting and the GCCC. There are a number of sites such as and that a majority of UBC students are signed up to. Specifically, on Facebook one can create clubs and events. For example, the “I Love Composting” or the “GCCC” club/event could be formed and invitations sent out in a domino effect. We believe this to be a possibly low effort, fun, quick, inexpensive, and effective  23 medium to spread knowledge about the GCCC and subsequently, composting. This medium should be explored further by future AGSC 450 students to determine its viability.  Conclusion  It was found in this study that the GCCC has the potential to be a successful campaign if the gap is bridged between the original plan and the actual implementation. Also, the GCCC is in need of more funding, man power and more effective advertising. In order for UBC to have a sustainable food system, components such as GCCC also have to be sustainable. GCCC coordinators must ensure that resources are continually going to be available to repeat and reinforce our message about composting in the long-run! Avenues for achieving these needs should to be investigated in the future.  24 References Alter, B. (2007). Gorilla composting at McGill University. Retrieved March 14, 2007, from  Archambault, C.F., Pan, C., Yang, C., Hayward, I., Leung, H., Choy, C. & Tam, C. (2006). Promoting education, awareness, and participation in composting at UBC Get Caught Composting. Retrieved March 2, 2007, from AGSC 450 WebCT.  Brown, S., Cha, D., Cheng, C., Rameshni, F., So, C. & Zhang, K. (2006). Compost Social Marketing Plan for UBC Food Services. Retrieved February 10, 2007, from AGSC 450 WebCT.  Christenson, S.C. & Cozzarelli, I.M. (2003) The Norman landfill environmental research site   what happens to thewWaste in landfills? Retrieved April 7, 2007, from  Hardy, B-J (2006). Composting team wants UTM to think green. Retrieved March 14, 2007, from  McKenzie-Mohr & Associates (2007). Design and evaluation. Retrieved April 9, 2007, from  Social Change Media (2004). The seven doors social marketing approach. Retrieved February 14, 2007, from   The Button Store (2007). Prices. Retrieved April 5, 2007, from  UBC Food Services (UBCFS) (n.d.). UBC Food Services sustainability initiatives. Retrieved on April 7th, 2007 from  UBC Food Services (UBCFS) (2006). Spice. Retrieved April 7, 2007, from  UBC Waste Management (UBCWM) (2006). Composting. Retrieved on April 5th, 2007 from  UBC Waste Management (UBCWM) (2007). Get caught composting 2007 tally sheet. Reviewed April 3, 2007.  Wastefree UBC (2007). Composting projects and workshops. Retrieved on April 7th, 2007 from  25 Appendix I A – Volunteer Introduction Email  Hello, my name is Michelle Nelson and I am a student researcher working on the UBC Food System Project. My group is critically analyzing the Get Caught Composting Campaign that was conceived last year as part of this project, and was put into action this school year.  As you played a critical role in this campaign we would like to ask for your participation in a short survey that will help us to complete our analysis. As a volunteer in the Get Caught Composting Campaign you possess important information about how the campaign was implemented, as well as the ability to give us important feedback as to how successful you feel the campaign was, and whether you would volunteer to take part again. You are the only sources that we have with first hand experience in the campaign and the ability to let us know how it really went when implemented, and thus your help would be very much appreciated.  If you are willing to take part in this survey, please see the attached permission form, and reply to this email indicating your interest in participating. By replying to this email you will have indicated that you have read the permission form and that you agree to let us use the information we receive in the survey in our report. Thank you very much in advance,  Michelle Nelson,       Appendix I B - Get Caught Composting Campaign Volunteer Survey  1) Please give a brief explanation of what your duties included as a volunteer for the Get Caught Composting Campaign. This is very important, as we are currently unaware of how exactly the campaign was implemented and need this information to proceed with our analysis. 2) Roughly how many students did you “catch” composting correctly (if you have exact numbers, this would be appreciated, but if not, a rough estimate will suffice). 3) Was the number of students observed composting incorrectly also recorded? If so, how many students were observed composting incorrectly (again, if you have exact numbers, this would be appreciated, but if not, a rough estimate will suffice). 4) Where did the Get Caught Composting Campaign take place? (For example were you focused solely on the SUB? Did you “catch” people in Vanier?) 5) In your opinion, what were the reactions of the students who were “caught”? Were they startled? Were they pleased? Were they embarrassed? We understand that this is purely subjective on your part, but as we are unable to question students who were “caught”, your opinions would be greatly appreciated. 6) In your opinion, do you think that this campaign was a success? If so, why? If not, what do you think could be done differently to improve its effectiveness? (feel free to define success in which ever way you see fit, for example, raising awareness could be seen as a success, or encouraging one person to compost correctly again could be seen as a success).    7) Please feel free to add any additional comments here, and thank you for completing this survey.     26 Appendix I C - Get Caught Composting 2007 Tally Sheet    Appendix I D – Results From Tally Sheets  Composted Correctly         101 Composted Partially       35 No composting at all       97+19 (some people separated the no section and the * threw away everything including compostable items) total is 116 (may have been higher, one person wrote “too many” indicating that they stopped recording)   So, percentage wise that means:  Composted Correctly:        40% Composted Partially:        14% No composting at all:       46% Combo of no composting and Partial:  60%       27 Appendix II. - Composting Campaign Survey  1) Are you:    ___ Student, Year:                                 ___ Staff      ___ Teacher    ___ Other (Please specify: _______________)   Gender: M/ F  2) Do you live on Campus?  ___ Yes    ___ No  If yes, where do you live?______________________    3) Do you know what composting is?  ___ Yes   ___ No    If Yes, what is composting?    4) Have you heard about the Get Caught Composting Campaign?  ___ Yes    ___ No  If Yes, What is it?     If Yes, where did you hear of it (check all that apply)?  ___ Friends     ___ Classmates     ___ Teachers     ___ I was “caught composting”   ___ Advertisements (ie. posters)  ___ Other (please explain)   Please respond below if you answer yes on question #4:  I feel that the Get Caught Composting Campaign (circle one or more)  a) reinforced my already positive attitude towards composting b) increased my knowledge about composting c) changed my attitude towards composting, for the better d) changed my attitude about composting, for the worse e) increased my participation in composting f) somewhat influenced my attitude towards composting g) did not influence me at all  Please explain the response(s) you circled above:    5) Can you think of any other ways to positively influence composting attitudes, awareness, participation, knowledge and behavior towards composting?              


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