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The sustainability of the UBC Food System Collaborative Project III Mah, Erica; Aitchison, Gina; Lauder, Janis; Ho, Tom; Chiu, Donald; Sahota, Newton; Van Roechoudt, Madeleine Mar 31, 2004

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UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report       The Sustainability of the UBC Food System Collaborative Project III Gina Aitchison, Janis Lauder, Tom Ho, Donald Chiu, Newton Sahota, Madeleine Van Roechoudt  University of British Columbia AGSC 450 March 31, 2004           Disclaimer: “UBC SEEDS provides students with the opportunity to share the findings of their studies, as well as their opinions, conclusions and recommendations with the UBC community. The reader should bear in mind that this is a student project/report and is not an official document of UBC. Furthermore readers should bear in mind that these reports may not reflect the current status of activities at UBC. We urge you to contact the research persons mentioned in a report or the SEEDS Coordinator about the current status of the subject matter of a project/report”.  The Sustainability of the UBC Food System Collaborative Project III AGSC 450 – Land, Food, and Community    Group #1 Eri ca Mah Gin a Ait ch iso n Janis Laud er Tom Ho Don ald Chi u Newt on Sahot a Mad el ei ne Van Roech oud t   March 31st, 2004   2   Introduction   As consul tants ass essi ng the sust ainabili t y of the Uni versit y of Britis h Colum bia Food S ystem (UBC FS ), we have be en given the task of buil ding upon the work of previous AGS C  450 students.  Last yea r the class devel oped a res ear ch frame w ork to ass ess the UBCFS in the broad ter ms of sust ainabili t y the or y.  Our group has dec ided to base our work on the sust ainabili ty mod el developed b y Group 14 in 2003 .  We aim to build on this model to develop a framework to assess the sust ainabili t y of a particul ar subs ystem, the UBC Food Co-op.  By assessing the sust ainabili ty of the UBC Food Co -op, our hope is to develop recomm end ati ons to facil it ate change in thi s subs ystem that will enhance its contribut ion to the sustainabil it y of the whole UBC Food S ystem.  Our group has chosen t o work on five of the specific tasks as outl ined in The Sustainability of the UBC Food System Collaborative Project III (Rojas & Wagn er, 2004).  We int end to:  Document the openin g of the new groc er y outl et i n the SUB    Ex plore potential posi ti ve contribut ions as well as chall en ges to the sust a inabil it y of UBC’s current food system that could arise from the new Food Co -op   Assess the chall en ges and potential for the developm ent of a student -run cooperati ve busi n ess   P ropose a detailed, well - informed plan for how a student -run coope rati ve groc er y outl e t could fit into the Faculty of Agricultural Science’s curriculum and core values.   Design a market surv e y inst rument to determi ne the level of consum e r int erest, awar eness, and needs   3   We will ex plore the first three tasks in order to provide sufficient b ack ground information for a thorou gh investi gati on of the fourth task. Afte r meeti n g with the Food Co -op ex ecuti ve, we dec ided to focus on the fourt h task becaus e we were able to identif y a large gap, an d a hu ge opportunit y, for coll abora ti on between the F acult y of Agricultural Sciences and the Food Co -op. We will appl y the framew ork of sust aina bil it y to the Food Co -op and identif y ho w coll aborati on with the Facult y of Agricult ur al Sciences will enhanc e that sust ainabili ty.    In addit ion, as a use ful tool for the Food Co -op, we will develop a resea rch design to assess the consum er int erest in an alt ern ati ve SUB gro cer y outl et.  Originall y, thi s task was desi gned as a precu r sor to the openin g of the gro cer y outl et to assess whether or not it would be popular.  Sinc e the outl et is alread y op en, we hav e desi gned a market surve y to assess consum er awa rene ss and interest in the kinds of products carried b y t he Food Co -op. Model Foundation  Our group chose to base our work on Group 14’s model of sustainability (20 03).  Group 14 provided a well -resea rched and clea rl y-defined visi on of both a sust ainable and an unsust ainable UBC F S .  The group develope d a thorou gh frame work for assessing the progress of the UBCFS toward their visi on.  Their presentation was or gani z ed and laid out in a logic al and professi onal manner, which en a bled the reader to follow their visi oning process and to comp rehe nd their rati onale.  Th eir conclusi ons reflect ed th e values held b y the group and the y main tained a balan ce betw ee n the three asp ects of su stainabil it y .  Our group ima gin es a sust ain able UBCFS to look much like the visi on prese n ted by Group 14 in 2003.   Their paper provided us with a soli d foundati on upon which to base our investi gati on of the UBC Food Co -op.  4  Definition of Sustainability Our definiti on of sust ainabili t y is in acco rdanc e with the 2003 working Group 14.  As the y state, “Sustainability may be thought of as having three unique aspects: an ecolo gical asp ect, a soci al aspect, and an econo mi c aspect.  Each aspect ma y be looked at sepa r atel y, but ult im atel y the three must be viewed togethe r.  Th e y do not operate in isol ati on.  The y are int erdep endent and int erconnect ed.  Each contribut es significantl y to sust ainabili t y a s a whole.” (Group 14, 2003)  This definiti on is compl ete and consi stent with our view and will provi de us with a basis for our proje ct. Value Assumptions   As a group we hav e deci ded to approach thi s project from a weak - anthrop ocentric viewpoint .  However , in our discussi on it was clear that our indi vidual values run along a conti nuum that ran ges fr om a stronger anthropoc entric to a mildl y eco ce ntric perspe cti ve.  As Group 14 states, “the health of the community is determined not only by the health of its human population, but also by the health of the surrounding environment.”  Our group shares the view that there needs to be a balanc e between the human and environmental elements of a s ystem.  Indicator Criteria  The criteria outl ined b y Group 14 encompass all that we beli eve to be important to ensure th at i ndicators are eff ecti ve to ols for assessin g th e sust ainabili t y of a s ystem.    “[Group 14 feels] that sustainability indicators should be easy to understand, appl y, and int erpret, as well as rele vant and comm unicable.  The y shoul d be us eable ye ar afte r ye ar in order to provide a lon g term  view of sust ainabili t y.  The y shoul d also highli ght linkages and be used in  5  concert with one anoth er.  Th e y shoul d mak e use of data th at ar e acc essi ble and reli able .  The y shoul d mea sure pro gress, ex plain sust ainabili t y, edu cate comm unit ies, mot ivate peop le, and focus action” (Group 14, 2003).  However, we do not feel that Group 14’s choice of indicators fulfilled all of these criteria.  We found the ir ecolo gical indi cator, food miles, had a good foundati on and rati onale but lacked prop er methodolog y to ap pl y it to the UBCFS . Group 14 proposed to onl y measu re produ ce because other produ cts, such as br ead, cont ain man y dif fer ent ingredi ents from numerous places and thus the food miles would be ver y dif ficult to measure (Group 14, 20 03). Howeve r, our gro up feels that produc e is onl y a small percent a ge of tot al food sold at UBC and therefo r e would not be an accu ra te repres entation of the whole s ystem. In addit ion, Group 14 does not quanti f y the ide al sust ainable dist ance that food shoul d travel. Therefo re, ac co rding to Group 14’s method of measurement, food mi les are difficult to und erstand, appl y, and are not relevant to the UBCF S .  However, our group feels that the ‘food miles’ concept is a useful tool for visualizing the re -loc ali z ati on of the food s ystem.   Group 14 chose the awa reness of nutrit ious food s among students as thei r social indi cator.  The y desc ribe ver y detailed and well -d efined rese arc h methodolog y.  We agre e that awar eness is a good indi cator of social sust a inabili t y; how ever, ult im atel y th e level of awar eness of nutrit ious foods gives litt le indicati o n of the numbe r of stude nts whose acti ons refle ct thi s aw aren ess.  This indi cator is the first step towa rds asses sing the social sust ainabili t y of th e UBC FS .  In up comi ng yea rs it will be necessa r y to develop indi cators regardin g the level at whi ch awa reness is tr anslate d int o acti on.   The final indi cator in the 2003 model is the affo rdabil it y of food.  This eco nomi c indicator measures the percentage of UBC residents’ income spent on deemed nutritious  6  food and on the tot al am ount of food over a defin ed period of time.  The paramete rs of thi s indi cator are well -defin ed and could be used effecti vel y to assess the c onsumer’s will ingness to pa y for nutriti ous food.  This indicator could be improved by dev elopi ng a method for defining what nutritious food is.  Group 18’s indicator, which measures the deviance of calo rie rati o s of the three ma cronut rients in campus food , compared to the recomm ended Nati onal Research Council rati os, could be combi ned with thi s indi cator to make it compl ete.  Also, measurin g the amount of mone y spent on nutrit ious food compared to the tot al amount spe nt on food does not ref lect the afford ab il it y of nutrit ious food.  Rather, it ma y indi c ate th at a person do es choose to purchase nut ritiou s food.   Ove rall , Group 14 provid es an adequ ate frame wor k for its s ampl e indi cator s.  Thes e indi cators can be used as a basis for mor e refined rese a rch indi c ators.  The nex t step for our group is to build upon Group 14’s research design to develop tangible, measurable indi cators to assess our subs ystem, the UBC Food Co -op. Our Vision of a Sustainable UBC Food Co-op Our visi on of a sust ainable UBC Foo d Co-op en compasses a number of important chara cterist ics. In order for it to contribut e to the sust ainabili t y of the UBCFS , it must first be sust ainable as its own subs ystem. To begin, we envisi on the UBC Food Co -op as a valuable resour ce for educati on an d comm unit y out rea ch surroundin g food iss ues.   A sust ainabl e UBC Fo od Co -op would provide the comm unit y with information and resources about or ganic an d fair -trad e food, student -run co-oper ati ves (i.e. how to start yo ur own), and seasonal diets.   They wo uld also offer a ch all en gin g and ex cit ing workin g enviro nment for students to gain leadership and empl o yment skil ls.  Th e UBC Food Co -op would lead b y ex ampl e in bu siness ethi cs and  7  global cit iz enshi p.  Ide a ll y the UBC Food Co -o p would act as a meeti n g pla ce fo r like -mi nded students to ex plore global issues and act o n their ideas. Nex t, the UBC Food Co -op would make sust ain able foods avail able to t he enti re UBC comm unit y at affo rdable prices .  By doin g so, Co -op members will create a self -sufficient co-op er ati ve busi ness that can off er fair wages, rewards for volunt eers, and contribut e profit s to comm unit y pro grams. As a global cit iz en, the UBC Food Co -op would develop conne cti ons with other UBC FS stakehol ders.  The Co -op would be int egrated with a variet y of UBC Facult ies and comm unit y gro ups, such as the UBC Farm.  It would emphasiz e local sour cin g of its produ cts and liaise with local farme rs to pr ovide consum ers with a variet y of produc ts.   As a sust ainable business, the Co -op would be economi call y self-suffici ent, and woul d not rel y on ex ternal s ubsi dies.   It would dev e lop partnerships with a variet y of bu ye rs such as student comm it tees, makin g it less reli a nt on store -f ront sale s .  Definition of a Co-operative   A co-op erati ve is an "a utonom ous associati on of persons, unit ed volunt aril y to meet their comm on econ omi c, social, and cult ura l needs and aspirati ons t hrough a joi ntl y -owned and demo crati c all y- c ontroll ed ente rprise " (The Intern ati onal Co -Op erati ve Alli anc e, 2004) What kind of Co-operative is the Food Co-op?  The UBC Food Co -op is a consum er co -ope rati ve . This is a group of people who pool their resou rces to enable acc ess to the benefits of economi es of scale. Th e y mak e purchases in bulk, all owing for savin gs per unit costs .  The y provid e both products and services fo r the comm uni t y.  8  History of the UBC Food Co-op   The UBC Food Co -op was started in 1998 b y a small group of fri ends wh o decided to bu y vegetables to geth er and sh are the cost.  The y were abl e to obtain the vegetables at a lower cost and come to gether to share the food at a potl uck.  This co -op gr ew and the group began to include other friends.  In 2000, when the co -op had gro wn to approx im atel y 50 people, its home bas e was a po rtable behind the MacMi ll an Buil ding at Main Mall and Agronom y Ro ad.  At thi s stage, membe rs would order ve getables b y com puter from home and pick up th eir ord er s.  Problems aros e be ca use all ord ers were don e via an honour s ystem wh ere people we re not requi red to pa y at the time of orde rin g. Th e result was that orders were often not pa id for or picked up. The s ystem be gan to bre ak down becaus e the Co -op had grown to a point where members wer e not known to one anot her. In addit ion, there was als o a problem with securit y as ther e was onl y a small lock on the portable.   In April 2002, Alice Mir o, an Inte gr ated Scien ce student who studi es Ecolog y and Geo graph y, bec ame pr esident of the Food Co -op.  Alice had a visi on to spread the ide a and knowledge of or ganic and fair -trad e food to the rest of campus .  She began as president with the mindset of ex pansion .  The visi on for the Food Co -op be gan maki ng the tr ansit ion from being bas ed on a social and cult ural mentali t y to bein g based on the ex pansion of services and ed ucati on fo r the UBC comm unit y.  Throughout he r first ye ar as president, she dealt with the stru ggles of the honour s ystem tha t came about th rou gh the comput er ord er -s ystem and loc ati on.  In April 2003, the Food Co -op was ask ed to move from th e portable.  Alice approa ched J osh Bowman, VP Admini stration, and was able to secur e a place fo r the Co -op in the basement of the SUB.  9   Befo re the co -op was able to open its storefront in the SUB, members held a market in the main lev e l of the SUB. The fir st market was held on Sep t. 23, 2003.  In November 2003 the storefront was open twice to members but meanwhile it was simpl y used as a stor a ge area.  On Januar y 23, 2004 the Food Co -op officiall y ope ned its storefront and it was open for 2 hrs each weekda y.  It gr e w to 300 members in just over 2 mont hs, with 30 volunt eers helpi ng to run the stor efront.   Conti nuing with its visi on for ex pansion , the Food Co-op plans to renovate its spac e ov er t he summ er of 2004 and re -open in the fall as a full -servi ce gro cer y outl et. Implications of Student-Run Co-operative Governance for the Food Co-op   Co -operati ve govern an ce is based on the principles of self -he lp, self -responsi bil it y, democr ac y, equit y, and soli darit y (Inte rnati onal Cooper ati ve Alli ance (ICA), 2004).   It is bas ed on th e values of honest y, ope nness, social responsi bil it y, and ca ring for others (se e Appendix III) .  Thes e principles an d values have man y impli cati ons for a student -run busi ness an d will contribut e to the social, economi c, an d environmental sust ainabili t y of the UBC Food S ystem.  Potential of a student-run co-operative business:   Educati on for the comm unit y   C omm unit y pa rticipati on  Democrati c stud ent contr ol   Equit able acc ess    Access to afford able pro ducts and servic es  P rovision of addit iona l services (workshops, infor mation, i.e. seasonal  diet recipes)      Challenges of a student-run co-operative business:   Lim it ed finan cial resour c es for start -up withi n the Alm a Mater Societ y's str ucture    High lev el of responsi bil it y/ac countabili t y fo r a st udent gro up to take on   S lower decisi on makin g   Economi c difficulti es of achievin g actual economi es of scale   10   High turnov er rate in lea dership   Dependen c y on volunt ee rism  Dependen c y on shar ed values  Contributions and Challenges to the sustainability of the UBC Food System   The  int roducti on of a full -service on -c ampus natural foods coop erati ve groc er y outl et will contribut e to, as well as chall en ge, th e sust ainabili t y of th e curr ent UBCFS .  The assessment of the various impacts can be bro ken down int o t he three cate gories of sust ainabili t y: environme ntal, economi c, and soci a l. Table 1  Contributions Challenges Environmental -  Reduced packa gin g (bu lk sales)  -  Sale of or ga nic produc e  -  Reduced foo d miles (local products)  - Fair tr ade products increas e food  miles  Economic - R educes cost of food for consum ers  - self - suf ficient  - Requirement of fin ancia l support for start - up  - Competit ion wit h AMS Food & Bever a ge Servic es   Social  - C o - operati ve  - Sti mul ates awaren ess of sust ainabili t y iss ues  - Incr eases food secu rit y through variet y, av ail abil it y, and affo rdabil it y  - Potential creati on of tension between food service stak eholders (competit ion, pol icies, space, adv ertisi ng)   Sustainability Indicators of the UBC Food Co-op Subsystem The asses sment of the sust ainabili t y of the UBC food s yst em invol ves the use of the three cat e gories of sust ainabili t y: environment, economi c, and social. B y choosi n g two indi cators for each of th e sust ainabili t y cate gorie s, all three cate go ries wil l be addressed equall y. For a detailed descriptio n of our indi cators and methodolog y, please refe r to Appendix I.  11  Ecological The first indi cator we ch ose is the degree of localization of food products sold at the UBC Food Co-op.  The go al of our grou p is to reduc e out of provi nce imports and concurrently help support the local economy; therefore, we define ‘local’ products as products produced in Bri ti sh Colum bia.   We believe thi s is a feasibl e solut ion due to the wide variet y of agri cult ural product ion s ystems in Britis h Colum bia.  One of the benefits of re -loc ali z ati on is reduci ng th e dist anc e that foo d has to tr avel.  This will help to curb environmental de grad ati on such as air poll uti on from ex haust and the depletion of fossil fuels.  The second indica tor is the reducti on of waste from packa ged goods .  Our goal is to bu y a lar ge r proportion of bulk goods and ac cept onl y those goods that are sent in rec ycl able or reusable m aterial.  Additi onall y th e rec ycl able or reusable sh ould be rec ycl ed and/or reused.  Economic The food cooper ati ve must be financiall y self -s ufficient and not carr y and debts .  The y  must be able to make enough mone y from their busi ness so that they do not have to rel y on subsi dies, gr ants, subsi dies, or donations.  The Food Co -op shoul d be a non -pro fit organiz ati on therefor e i f an y pro fit is made it shoul d be re -invested in Food Co -op ini ti ati ves. In orde r to en ti ce more students to bu y goods withi n the coope r ati ve the cost of the goods on campus must be less than or equal to that of competit ors off campus .  Social A strong cooper ati ve busi ness requires a stable base of volunt eers that have a consi stent number of wor king hours over a period of time.  If the re is a stab le workfo rce the cooperati ve itself will be come more stabl e.  The importance of consum e r awar eness of the  12  Food Co-op is two -fol d.  First, consum ers must be awa re of the ex ist ence of the cooperati ve.  Second, co nsum e rs must be educ ated about fair trad e and organic goods, as the provisi on of these go ods is a core value of the Food Co -op.  Market Survey Development To address ou r final t ask, our group developed a market surve y th at aim s t o provide the Food Co-op with us eful inform ati on about t he UBC comm unit y.  The questi onnair e assesses the lev el of cons umer int erest, knowled ge and need. The questi ons primaril y address:  Who shops at the Food Co-op? Wh y do people shop or not shop at the Food Co -o p? What items do people purchase/would the y like to purchase at the Food Co -op?  We followed sever al of the guid eli nes of makin g an eff ecti ve surv e y whic h are outl ined in Carter McNamara’s PhD “Basics of Developing Questionnaires” (2004) including: -  Use eas y to unde rstand la ngua ge -  Avoid using stron g adje c ti ves -  Be gin with eas y to answ er questi ons about demo gr aphics, then move on t o opini on based questi ons -  In clude mult ipl e choice answers that en compass a tot al range of answers -  Keep the surv e y short -  Ask for addit ional comm entar y -  Test the surve y on a smal l group to find out if it is eas y to foll ow  Partnership Opportunities for the Faculty of Agricultural Sciences with the UBC Food Co-op  The mission of the Faculty of Agricultural Sciences is to “[Develop] life -long le arne rs to c reate knowledge to make land, food, and community healthy and sustainable.”  The UBC Food Co-op cont ributes to thi s missi on in a numbe r of wa ys.  It provid es an opportuni t y fo r students t o gain hands -on ex perien ce in sm all busi ness man agement.  It also  13  enga ges the UBC comm unit y in the iss ues sur rou nding food se curit y and t he environmental impact of our food s yste m.   Meeti ng with the UBC Food Co -op ex ecuti ve, our group reco gniz ed m an y wa ys in which coll abor ati on bet ween the two groups could be mut uall y bene f icial.  We have compi led a list of poten ti al partnerships which we feel would contribut e to the over all sust ainabili t y of the UBC Food S ystem. Curriculum Integration   Have the Food Co -op as an opti on for the mandator y volunt ee r hours for AGS C 100 students    Expand the awaren ess of the Food Co -op via post ers and mark eti ng presen tations through GRS 290/390/ 490 mandator y comm unit y projects.   Have the Food Co-op as an opti on for the FRE 30 2 busi ness plan term project.     S uppl y food items for FNH 341 Food Th eor y Ap pli cati ons Food Labor ator y.   Have the FNH 403 stude nts create a manual, inclu ding Haz ard Anal ysis Critical Control Points (HACCP) and Standard Operating Procedures (SOP’s), to be used by volunt ee rs to stud y fo od safet y. Additi onall y, s tudents could cre ate a fo od safet y test that all volunt eers and sta ff at the Food Co -op must pass withi n the first mont h of their empl o yme nt.   C onti nue to ex pand upon the curr ent Food Co -op case stud y with future AGSC 450 groups   Have an assi gnm ent wit hin FNH cou rses that asks students to develop recip es that emphasiz e seasonal diets .  Community Development    Develop a tri -m entoring triad in which a juni or agricultural student and a senior member of the Food Co- op partner wit h a profess or in AGSC to ex plore opportuni ti es to further the Food Co-op.   C reate a liaison posit ion wit hin the AGUS and the Food Co -op ex ecuti ves whose sole purpose is to max imiz e the mutual benefits of cooperati on betw een the two organiz ati ons.  14    S uppl y the produ ce an d dr y goods for the Agricult ur al Und er gr aduat e Societ y (AGUS ) Wednesda y ni ght Barb eque, Com muni t y Dinner, and othe r relat e d functi ons.    Suppl y food to Agora in the form of co ffe e, conf e cti onaries, bakin g suppl ies, and  eventuall y produc e for s andwiches an d salads.   UBC fa rm and Food Co - op should collaborate to make their produ cts avail able at each loc ati on. This helps to address the se asonalit y of their oper ati ons. (i.e. Food Co -op is a winter oper ati on/ UBC Fa rm is a summ er oper ati on).   Conclusion  Our vision for the UBC Food System has been based upon Group 14’s sound three -pil lar model.  Throughout the paper we have appli ed their visi on of sustainabili t y to our scenario, th e Food Co -o p.  Bas ed on their mode l we were able to dev el op indi cators that would not onl y be eas y to underst and and appl y, but that would also be relevant and comm unicable.   Through investi gati ng th e hist or y, chall en ges, an d opportuni ti es of the Fo od Co -op, we were abl e to identif y areas in which the Co -op could be stren gthen ed and wa ys in which it could be improved in the future.  To address t hese iss ues we focus ed on the Facult y of Agricultural Scienc es as a stron g resou rce which we beli eve, when tapp ed, could enable th e Food Co-op to become sust ainable while contri buti ng to the sust ainabilit y of the whole UBC Food S ystem.  By int egr ati ng th e Food C o -op int o the curriculum and comm unit y developm ent ini ti ati ves withi n the Facult y of Agricultural Scien ces, it wi ll act as a leade r and ex ampl e for future partnerships bet we en t he Food Co -op and ot her facult ies and comm unit y groups.  It is our hope that through these partne rships, the Co -op can fulfil l its  15  goal of raisi ng aw aren e ss and unde rstanding of fair tr ade and or ganic foods as well as becomi ng an edu cati onal centre for student -run ini ti ati ves and co -ope rati ves .        16  Appendix I:   Sustainability  Categories  Sustainability Indicator Explanation of Indicator Method of  Measurement  ECONOM IC  S E LF SU FF IC IENCY  -  Wil l reach sust ainabili ty wh en 100% of net rev enue is rein v ested in the compan y, there is zero reli ance on subsi dies, all debts are pa id off, and staff is rec eivi ng a fair wage.  (All debts should be reco vered as soon as poss ibl e).  - Unsustainable —ex hibi ts an y of the following ch ara cterist ics:  dependant on subsi di es, no mone y being reinvested, debt.   - Measur e on a yearl y bas is  - Use ente rprise bud get to make sure that rev enue is cov er ing costs .  - If pro fit is being mad e it shoul d be reinvested in Food Co - op ini ti ati ves.     PR ICE ON AND OFF CAMP US   - Products should be equi valent if not cheap er than of f campus (in accord anc e with a co - ope rati ve busi ness phi losop h y).  - If the pri ces of all the Fo od Co - op products are mo re ex pen sive than the equivalent off - campu s products then the Food Co - op is 0% sust ainable.  - If the pr i ces of all the Fo od Co - op products are equal to or cheaper than the equivalent of f - c ampus products then the Food C o - op is 100% sust ainable.   - Take name brand produ cts sold on and off campus and compare them.  1.  Price a minim um of 10 items sold at the Foo d Co - op.  2.  Choose a minim um of 5 off -campus locati ons and pri ce the same 10 items.  3.  Calculate the off - cam pus avera ge pric e for ea ch item  4.  Compare the off - cam pus avera ges to the Food Co - op price.  5.  Count the number of on -cam pus items whose pric e is equal to or less - than off campu s.   *NOTE: see App endix IV.  ECO LO G IC A L   LOCA LIZAT IO N   -  The Food Co - op is sust ainable if ever y item that is sol d by the Food Co - op, that could be pro duced locall y, is pur chased b y t he co - op from a l ocal sour ce.  - Number of items sold at the food coop that could be pur ch ased from a local sour ce, compared to the number of items sold b y the Food Co - op.  *NOTE:  1 item = 1 typ e of produce (ex . Strawberrie s).  *NOTE:  if item is out of season it no longer co unts as ‘local’.  17  WASTE   - The s ystem is sust ainable when all products come in rec ycla ble or reusable packa gin g.  In addit ion, thi s packa ging must also be reused and/or re c ycled.   - The s yste m is unsus tainable when none of the packa gin g is reusable and/or re c yclable.   -  % of the items the Food Co - op carri es that come in reusa ble or rec ycl able packa gin g.  - The number of those pa cka ges that are actuall y re c ycled or reused.  1. Once a mont h hav e t he mana ger randoml y ex ami ne the waste.  2. Record an y rec ycl able or reusable packa gin g in the waste bin.  *NOTE: If the re is, the Co - op is unsust ainable.  If ther e is not, then it is sustainable.   SOC IA L   STAFF/VO LU NTEER TURN - OVER/ WORK LOAD   - Sustainable  would mean there are man y  volunt e ers wit h short hours and stable terms.  - Unsustainable would be few  volunt eers wit h long hou rs and high probabil it y of quit ti ng.  - Measur e the  # of volunt eers/ term  - Measur e the # of hours/ volunt eer/  term  *NOTE: Coll ected via volunt eer timesheet (see App endix V)  AWARENES S -UNDERS TAND IN G ACT ION   -  The Food Co - op is soci all y sust ainable when all me mbers  of the comm unit y ar e aw ar e of and understand the valu es an d goals of the Food Co - op.  With re spect to acti on, the Co - op is sust ainable when more pe ople  ar e pu rchasin g items from the Food Co - op relative to the term befor e.  - Measur e with data coll e cti on surve y.  *NOTE: See Appendix II.                  18       Appendix II: Consumer Awareness/Action Survey – UBC Food Co-op  Personal Information  Faculty__________ Major__________ Year___ _ Do you live on-Campus?  Yes / No   Please read the following questions and circle the appropriate response.  1.  Do you und erstand the concept of fair -trad e?   Yes  No      If you answ ered ye s, does thi s understanding i nfluence you r shopping habit s?   Yes  No 2.  Have you he ard of th e UBC Food Co -op? Yes   No 3.  Do you know wher e the UBC Food Co -op is loc ated? Yes  No 4.  Have you ev er pur chas ed an item from the UBC Food Co -op? Yes  No If you answer no, proceed to question 6.  5.   I have pur chased an ite m from the Food Co - op…        within the last week  within the last month within the last year  Please proceed to question 7  6.  I have not pur chased an item from the Co - op because of…. Please circle all that apply (End of survey) a. price b. convenience c. product preferences d. location e. other, please specify_____________________  7.  W hat is you r re ason for s hopping at the Food Co - op?  Please circle all that apply a.   price b.   convenience c. product preferences d. location e. fair trade/organic products f. other, please specify_____________________  8.  W hat t yp es of food do yo u normall y pur chase fro m the Food Co -op?  19  Please circle all that apply a. Bulk goods b. Produce c. Tea/coffee/chocolate d.  Gifts Appendix III: Seven Principles of Co-operative Governance ( Inte rnati o nal Co -ope rati ve Alli an c e, 2004)  1st Principle:  Voluntary And Open Membership Co - operati ves are volunt ar y or ganiz ati ons, open t o all persons able to use their servic es and will ing to acc ept the resp onsi bil it ies of membership, without gen der, social, racial, p oli ti c al, or reli gious discrim ination.   2nd Principle:  Democratic Member Control Co - operati ves are demo c rati c or ganiz ati ons contro ll ed by their members, who acti vel y participate in sett ing th eir poli cies and making de cisi ons. Men and women servin g as el e cted repres entatives ar e accou ntable to the membership . In primar y co -operati ves membe rs have equal vot ing ri ghts (on e member, one vote) and co - oper ati ves at other levels ar e or ganiz ed in a democrati c mann er.    3rd Principle:  Member Economic Participation   Members contribut e equit abl y to, and democrati c a ll y control, the capit al of their co - oper ati ve. At least part of th at capit al is usuall y the comm on propert y of the co - ope rati ve. Th e y us uall y receiv e limi ted compensati on, if an y, on capit al subs crib e d  as a condit ion of membership. Member s allocate surpluses fo r an y or all of the following purpos es: deve lopi ng the co - op er ati ve, possi bl y b y sett ing up res erves, p art of which at least woul d be indi visi ble; benefiting m embers in pr oportion to their  transa ct ions with the co -operati ve; and supporti n g other acti vit ies approv ed by the membership.   4th Principle:  Autonomy And Independence   Co - operati ves are autono mous , self - help or ganiz at ions controlled by their memb ers. If th e y enter int o agr eements wi th ot her organiz ati ons, includi ng gove rnments, or raise ca pit al from ex ternal sources, the y do so on ter ms that ensure democ rati c control b y their members and maintain th eir co - op erati ve autonom y.     5th Principle:  Education, Training And Information   Co - op erati ves provide ed ucati on and traini n g for t heir members, elected repr esentatives, mana gers, and empl o yee s so the y can contribut e eff ecti vel y to t he developm ent of thei r co - operati ves. The y in form the gen eral publi c -  particularl y youn g peopl e and opini on  leaders -  about th e nature and bene fits of co - operati on.   6th Principle:  Co-Operation Among Co-Operatives Co - operati ves se rve their members most effe cti vel y and str en gthen the co - ope rati ve moveme nt b y workin g to gethe r th rough loc al, nati onal, regional,  and in ternati onal structur es.   20   7th Principle:  Concern For Community Whil e focusing on memb er needs, co - ope rati ves work for the sust ainable developm ent of their comm unit ies through poli cies acc epted b y their membe rs. Adopted in Manch ester (UK ) 23 Septem ber 1995    22  Appendix V: Volunt eer Time Sheet             Month:     Week StartingDate:            Name of Volunteer Number of Hours Worked           Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Weekly Total                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               References:  Ban gs, D.H. (1998). The Market Planning Guide, 5th Edition. Washington, DC: Upst art Publi shing Compan y.  Forbes, C., Smi th, K., Wong, T., Qu an, V., Lu, L., J ones, L., Cant, M. (200 3). UBC Food System. Retrieved Mar ch 21 st , 2004, from htt p:/ /www.webct.ubc.c a /S C R IP T/a gsc_450/s c ripts/ student/ serve _pa 1050900319+UBC _Food_S ys_W ebsit es_2003/ Group14/i ndex .htm +OFF +U BC _Food_S ys _W ebsit es_2003/Group14/i ndex .htm  Inte rnati onal Co-ope rati v e Alli ance. (2004 ). Statement of Co-operative Identity.  Retrieved Mar ch 21 st , 2004, from http:/ / cc/i cic/i ssues/prin/21 -cent/ identit y. htm l.   McNamar a, Carte r PhD.  (2004)  Basics of Devel oping Questi onnair es. Re trieved Mar ch 22, 2004, from http:/ /www.webct.ubc.c a/S C R IP T/a gsc _450/s cripts/ student/ serve_bull eti n  Walker, J erem y. (2004 ) UBC Natural Foods Co-op. Retrieved Mar ch 21 st , 2004, f rom htt p:/ /www.ams.ub lubs/ nfc/about.htm


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