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UBC Food System research proposal Calabrese, Adriana; Fong, Grace; Isac, Gretsi; Smith, Keri; Marshall, Paris; Wong, Pauline; O, Ruby Apr 2, 2003

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UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report       UBC FOOD SYSTEM RESEARCH PROPOSAL Adriana Calabrese, Grace Fong, Gretsi Isac, Keri Smith, Paris Marshall, Pauline Wong, Ruby O  University of British Columbia AGSC 450 April 2, 2003           Disclaimer: “UBC SEEDS provides students with the opportunity to share the findings of their studies, as well as their opinions, conclusions and recommendations with the UBC community. The reader should bear in mind that this is a student project/report and is not an official document of UBC. Furthermore readers should bear in mind that these reports may not reflect the current status of activities at UBC. We urge you to contact the research persons mentioned in a report or the SEEDS Coordinator about the current status of the subject matter of a project/report”.   4  UBC FOOD SYSTEM RESEARCH PROPOSAL  AGSC 450  April 2nd, 2003    GROUP # 13  Adriana Calabrese Grace Fong Gretsi Isac Keri Smith Paris Marshall Pauline Wong Ruby O      “ I SEEK TO FIND OUT ABOUT MY WORLD SUCH THAT I CAN TAKE AN INFORMED ACTION IN IT.  THE PROCESS OF LEARNING IS A SYNTHESIS OF FINDING OUT AND TAKING ACTION”   RICHARD BAWDEN     5   TABLE OF CONTENTS:  ABSTRACT …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………  3  INTRODUCTION …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..  3  VALUES ASSUMPTIONS  ………………………………………………………………………………………………………..  4  UBC FOOD SYSTEM: MAP OF BOUNDARIES ……………………………………………………………………………….  5  MODEL OF UBC FOOD SYSTEM  ………………………………………………………………………………………………  8  INDICATORS AND EVALUTION METHOD      SOCIAL PERSPECTIVE  ………………………………………………………………………………………….  9   ECOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVE …………………………………………………………………………………..  12   ECONOMICAL PERSPECTIVE ………………………………………………………………………………….  15  RECOMMENDATIONS  …………………………………………………………………………………………………………..  17  CONCLUSION ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………...  19  APPENDIX 1  ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….  20  APPENDIX 2  ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….  21  REFERENCES  ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..  22     6   ABSTRACT:  It is par amount for a foo d s ystem to be sust ainab le: meet the demand of t he pres ent but not comp romisi ng the resour ces for future gene rati ons.  Food securit y is a co re part of a sust ainable food s yste m and shoul d be used as an in dicator to evaluate t he curr ent state of the UBC Food s ys tem.  As a workin g te a m of AGSC 450, our rol e is to design a model to assess th e sust ainable st ate o f the UBC food system, emphasizing on the lack of “food security” existing and how we achieve it th rough an al ysis of various co mponents of the land, food, and comm unit y. We hav e chosen two indi cators to be me asured for each social, ecolo gic al, and economi cal perspecti ve in the ev alua ti on of the sust ain abil it y of the UBC food s ystem. As such, these indi c ator s will help to guid e futur e AGS C students in assessing the state of sustainabil it y of our food s yst em and help make re comm endati ons to strive for our propos ed goal.  INTRODUCTION: Our group defines food s ecurit y as eve r yone, at al l times, having eas y a cc e ss to safe, nutrit ious, and affordabl e food produc e d in a long-term sociall y, economi call y, and ecologic all y viable mann er . After reviewin g numerous literatu res about food s ystem sust ainabili t y an d the 2002 UBC Food S ystem Project, we conclude that that a lack of food securit y is the major iss ue confronti n g the UBC fo od s ystem. This problem indi cates a need for acti on.  We evaluat e the UBC food s ystem at two ex tremes: “unsustainable” to “sustainable”, with intermediate stages along a continuum.  In order to pro gress t owards a sust ain able foo d s ystem, we need to achieve food security. Food insecurity defines our current state of the UBC food system as being “unsustainable”, whereas attaining food security would define it as being “sustainable”.  The int erm ediate sta ges to ou r conti nuum will be discuss ed further in contex t of various aspect s of food secu rit y late r on in this paper.    7   Our visi on of a prosp ecti ve sust ainable food s yste m corresponds with the goal of the Sustainable Developm ent Poli c y of UBC: “develop an environmentally responsible campus community that is economically viable and reflects the values of campus commun it y members.”  Our analysis of a sustainable UBC food system concentrates on three aspects: social, economic, and ecologic al.  A food s ystem en compasses a cyc li c ecolo gical nature of producti on, consum pti on, and rec yc led con comi tant with int eracti on with the enti re UBC comm unit y in a so cial and economi c conte x t. Social iss ues raised from the UBC food s yste m invol ve lack of nu triti ous choices, lack of inst it uti onal support, and lack of awaren e ss and educati on. Ecologi cal iss ues include local food producti on, organi c farming and waste man a gement.  The economi c aspect to be ex ami ned is a balanc e of food pricin g and op era ti onal co st of the food ou tl ets.  VALUE ASSUMPTIONS  In evaluatin g how we see fit the infrastructur e and stabil it y of the UBC food s ystem, our group took t he opportuni t y to condu c t a discussion forum to determine our individual paradigms of a “sustainable” system. In debati n g wh ether our s ystem shoul d favour an ecocentric or anthropocentric view, our analysis concluded with the majority agreeing that ‘weak anthropocentrism’ is ideally how the UBC food system can become sustainable. “It is natural for humans to value other humans more hi ghl y that the rest of natur e ; however, that hum an su r vival and well - being depends on the health of our whole ecological support system.” (W.H. Murdy, 1993).” It is our consensus that basi c human needs must first be fulfill ed befo re we can look towards an ecocen tric, comm unit y-b ased pa radigm for our “ideal” system. Although human nutrition is our primary focus, we understand the importance of environmental factors, such  8  as food waste m ana geme nt, in att aini ng a sust aina ble infrastructur e. It goes without questi on: attaining ecolo gical sus tainabil it y will onl y furth er ben efit and enhance soci al (humanit y) stabil it y.  In further driving towards “food sustainability”, we felt the importance of the boundaries of the UBC food system to become m ore comm unit y-o rienta ted and less indi vidualis tic. The ideolo g y of being unit ed and bringin g indi v iduals closer together will further promot e social stabil it y and eli mi nate vulnerabil it y to out side fa ctors (soci al/ economi cal/ ecolo gic al ) that could imbalanc e th e enti re food s ystem. Ou r objecti ve in establishi ng food su stainabil it y withi n the infrastructur e of the UBC fo od s ystem fo cuses on th e importance of measuring social, economical, and ecological indicators. It is our strong belief that “food sustainability” can only be achieved with an equal b alance of all three cate go rical indicators. It is important to focus and wo rk towards stren gthenin g t h e weak est factor of th e s ystem first, keepin g in mind not to negati vel y impacti ng oth er sectors cur rentl y standi n g in a stable condit ion. In movi ng towards a sust ainable UBC food s ystem, we feel it is important to focus on improving social and eco logical stabil it y, with em phasis on human nutrit ion and waste mana gem ent, wit hout disrupting an y economi cal factors.     UBC FOOD SYSTEM: MAP Our definiti on of the UBC Food S ystem has b een repres ented pictoriall y in Figu re 1. Th e map can be viewed b y divi din g the s ystem into four bounda r ies: global, nati onal, re gional and local bounda r y.  Within each boundar y, there are comp onents that interact with each other, as well with components in the other boundaries, all to meet the system’s overall goals. Within the global b oundar y, the USA, Central Americ a and Thail and are ex ampl es of components contr ibut ing to the UBC food s ystem. Fo r instance, to matoes  9  used by UBC food outl et s are gro wn and imported from California. The nat ional boundar y rep resent s the nati on of Canada, in dic ati ng that foods from other pro vinces are also distribut ed on campus (i.e. Canola Oil). The re gional bound a r y, dist inguished as th e Greate r Vancouve r Re gional Dist rict (GVRD) encloses co mponents such as local grocer y stor es (Saf ewa y) , baker y shops, UBC fa rm and the Universit y vil la ge. As for the local boundar y, ident ified by the UBC gat es, we have id enti fied si x main components: UBC Fo od Services, AMS , Natur al Foods Coop, SEEDS , UBC Sustainabil it y Offic e and UBC Waste Man a ge ment Office. Due to the compl ex it y of the interacti ons betw een these components, we fo und it difficult to depict all of them on the map. Howeve r, an ex ampl e of an int eracti on betw een components within the UBC boundar y has been represented usin g black arr ows. (Wastes from AMS, UBC Food Services, Natural Foods Coop and UBC Farm are taken to the UBC’s Waste Management).       S EEDS (Social, Ecologi cal, Economi c Developm ental Studi es) and the UBC Sustainabil it y Offic e co -ordinate th e int era cti ons between all these compo nents in order to meet the goals of th e UBC food sys tem: insti ll sust ainable developm ent values in th e UBC comm unit y and promot e sust ainable developm ent practi ces amon g them.   12  sociall y.  Deficit of an y one perspe cti ve would hin der the sust ainable devel opmen t of the system as a whole.  The centr al poi nt of the triangle (red dot ) illustrates an unsust ainable state. The curr ent state of the sustainabil it y of the UBC food s ystem will be det er mi ned by our su ggested indi cat ors and can be plot ted on the ax is.  For the rese arc h design of ou r chosen in dicators, thi s model provides an int egr ated fr amewo rk tha t features an essential int eracti on of various aspe c ts among the food s ystem .  The dott ed lines signi f y the two int ermediate sta ges tow ar ds sustainabil it y.  Since we have two indi c ators for each perspe cti ve, for t he ease of appli c ati on of thi s model, an aver a ge is tak e n in the evaluation of the two indi cators to establi sh the curr ent state of UBC sust ainabili t y.  Fur ther anal ysis of the sustainabil it y indi c ators by future AGSC working te am can add on int o the intermediate sta ges and modi f y acco rdin gl y.      INDICATORS AND EVALUATION METHOD:  In evaluatin g the curr ent state of sust ainabili t y of our UBC food s ystem an d proposed model, we have chosen two indi c ators to be measured for each s ocial, ecolo gical, and ec onomi cal perspecti ve. As such, these indi cators will help to guide futur e AGS C students in assessing the sust ainabili t y of our foo d s ystem and help make recomm end ati ons to strive towards ou r proposed go al . In appendices 1 and 2, we have constructed a chart summarizing the continuum towards “sustainability” o f our chosen indi c at ors, plus a guideline to me asure and evaluate such indi c ators for the UBC food s ystem sust ainabili t y project.   13   SOCIAL PERSPECTIVES  Indicator 1 - Lack of awareness/participation in UBC Food System    Social sust ainabili t y is de fined as a “food system in which accurate knowledge about the food system is easily accessible and widely distributed, and people have the resources and ability to communicate that knowledge” (Kloppenburg et al 2000). We bel ieve the social sust ainabili t y of the UBC food s ystem requires the acti ve invol vement of students from al l facult ies of UBC. If stu dents are unawar e of the iss ues sur rounding sust ainabili t y, t he y will be unable to assi st in the movement towar ds sustainabil it y. From researching last year’s food s ystems proje cts, we noted that social awa ren e ss appear ed frequentl y as an underlini ng problem of social sust ainabili t y (2002 UBC Food S ystem Proje cts). The number of students aware and acti vel y invol v ed in the various compon ents of the food s yst em at UBC i s one social indicator we have chosen to measure i n assessing the st arting point of awar eness.  Methodology   The evaluation method o f measurin g our chosen i ndicator would be throu gh the coll ecti on of data by surv e yin g and illust rati ng trends noted from last year’s projects of the lack of awareness and participation in the UBC food system. The survey would be issued in a randomi z ed fashion to students b y the foll owi ng AGS C 450 class. Info rmati on coll ected from this surve y would set a bas is for SEEDS   to asse ss and make chan ges towa rds incr easi ng awar eness ove r a peri od of time. Due to a lack of numerical d ata avail ab le now, SEEDS would work w it h  14  students to quanti tativel y set the conti nuum values based on the init ial asses sment values. Surve ys would be issued biannuall y in September and J anuar y i n order to assess chan gin g views o f students in the same ac ademi c ye ar. On the conti nuum towards socia l sust ainabili t y, we ex pect to see a 50% inc reas e in awar eness he adin g towar ds a majorit y of stud ents involved in the sustainabil it y of the food s yst em.      Indicator 2 - Lack of nutritional choices  The second so cial indi cat or to be measur ed would be the number of aver a ge meals avail able on camp us that meet nut rition al recomm endati ons. Thes e recomm endati ons includ e nutrit ionall y balan ced meals with no more than 30% of calori es from fat, 55% from carboh yd rates (focu sing on whole gr ains/ enri ched products/ less simpl e sugars) a nd 15% from protein (meat or vegetabl e based  sources). Th ree of the stu dents in our group ar e majoring in dietetics and as such are food ex perts. We feel that the re is a la ck of healt h y nutrit ious food choices on campus . The groups evaluatin g diff eren t foo d outl ets last yea r al so indicated this as a pro blem. Nutriti on pla ys a rol e in our definiti on of food sec urit y, and thus we feel that students should have access to healt h y foods withi n the  15  defined bounda ries of the UBC food s ystem. Kno wing that some stud ents ma y not alw a ys want nut ritiou s foods, we do ackn owledge that there are fast food outl ets withi n our UBC boundaries off erin g food alt ernati ves to sati sf y their needs.   Methodology  Our indi cator wil l be measured b y condu cti ng nut rition al anal ysis on s el ect ed menu items as a starti ng point in impl ementing chan ges to cu rrent recipe s and menu items. Third or fourth yea r dietetic stu dents using the Food Smart 5 pro gram in the Mac Mi ll an comput er lab would be able to compl ete this anal ys is. Nutrition al anal ysis would include caloric co ntent, tot al fat, protein an d carboh ydr ate cont ent, inc ludi ng su gars and dietar y fiber. Surve ys would als o be car ried out on food outl ets in order to deter m ine the number of items avail abl e that are nut rition all y ba lanced. Gathe red in forma ti on from bot h studies would be forwa rded to all food producers, includi n g AM S and UBC food se rvices . Nutrit ional anal ysis and surve ys would be compl eted annuall y and it is ex pect ed that with chan ges to reci pes and incorpo rati ng mo re nutrit ious menu items, food service outl ets woul d move awa y from empt y calorie foods and pro gr ess towar ds sustainable nutrit ious choices with approp riate nutrient breakdowns. We ex pect to see an incr ease in the number of nutriti onall y balanced m eals to incre ase by 25 % in the int e rmedi ate sta ge, and 50 % when sociall y sust ainable.    ECOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVES  Indicator 3 – Use of non-local food sources   16    The sust ainabili t y of UBC food s ystem reli es on the amount of food produ ced locall y ve rsus importing food in from glo bal, nati onal and re gional sou rces.  Curr entl y, UBC fo od services an d AMS rel y on lar ge ord ers of food to produce an aver a ge of 7, 000 full meals a da y ( www.foods erve.ubc. ca )  These orde rs do not include or incorp orate an y food sourc es from the UBC farm and/or is minimally purchased from local producers. Ecological sustainability, “a food system in which the health of the environment is sust ained and enhan ced fo r use b y all beings and b y fu ture generations” (Kloppenburg et al 2000), can only be attained when the per cent of all locall y produced goods is s olel y dist ributed withi n the UBC food s ystem. Th is is our chosen indi cator to be measured.  Methodology  The evaluation method u sed to determ ine the perc ent of locall y produc ed goods distribut ed withi n the UBC food s ystem wo uld be to interview UBC foo d outl ets and the UBC farm, gath erin g statis ti cal anal ysis to cal culate the percent a ge of food purchased/di stribut ed fro m the local region (U BC Fa rm) to the food outl ets. AGSC 450 students woul d carr y out these int e rvie ws and perform  statis ti cal an al ys is annuall y. Th e informat ion would then be forw ar ded to the Sustainabil it y Office, wher e the y would assi st in determi ning the num eric al increas e ex pec ted fro m the base yea r. On the conti nuum towards ecolo gical sus tainabil it y it is expected that there will be a si gnific ant increas e (50%) in the amount of food produced and used from the farm. Ideall y, ecolo gical sus tain abil it y  17  would be achiev ed when 100% of farm products are used b y the food outl ets, coupled with 25% of food distribut ed to UBC food outl ets be produced loc al l y, thus movi ng UBC aw a y from national and glo bal dependen ce.   Indicator 4 – Limited Access to Waste Management Facilities  To compl et el y und erstan d the healt h of a s ystem, measurements must be ta ken of both inputs and output s. While we thi nk it is important to insu re the re ducti on of input s through the use of locall y produ c ed food, we also think it is important to consi d er our output s b y looki ng at creati ng a full y sust ainabl e waste mana gement fa cil it y that en coura ges max im um parti cipation from all members of the UBC comm unit y. For the purpos e of our model, waste is defined as the outputs from the prod ucti on and consum pti on of consum er goods: re c ycla ble products, such as can s, bottl es and compos table or ganic matt e r. Waste pla ys an enormous role in an y food s ystem. Accordin g to UBC Waste Management, 70% of the wast e produc e d at UBC is made up co mpos table materials, equ ali ng approx im atel y 1900 tone s ( http :// www. r ec ycle. ub c. ca )   This entire amount is not all produced withi n the UBC food s ystem, but a significant p erc enta ge is. Therefo re, an y model use d to measure s ustainabil it y must use an indi c ator to measure how and to what degree th e waste m ana gement s ystem is used. Methodology  We will use the number of various t ypes of waste mana gement facil it ies on campus as an indic ator to measure the sust ainabili t y of our fo od s ystem. It is our unde rstanding that curr entl y, the re ar e divers e s yst ems of waste mana gement in pla ce, such  18  as blue bin rec yc li ng for paper and cans, and com post ing for some of the food outl ets. As a whole, we feel that the UBC Waste Mana gement s ystem lack s conti nuit y, ac cessi bil it y and overall efficien c y. We currentl y hav e no ad equate compos ti n g s yst e m, rec ycli n g is underus ed an d there is an ex cessi ve amount of waste producti on. Whil e we understand that UBC Waste Mana gement is under goin g an ex tensive campai gn for th e ren ewal and ex pansion of its faci li ti es, we would like to make su ggesti ons and prop ose a time line that works in conjunction wit h the ex isting plans ( http :/ / www. r ec ycle. ub c. ca ) . Foll owing the gui deli nes outli ned in the UBC Waste Mana gement Ann ual Report, we agree with the tar get of inc reasin g blue bins and implementi ng lar ge sc ale, in -vessel compos ti ng servic es and support their recomm end ati ons for incre ased acc e ss for the UBC comm unit y. As such we would like to propose that b y midpoint on our conti nuum, blue bins must be avail able on at least one floor at all facult y buil dings/food outl ets/ residences with in the boundaries of UBC Food S ystem and compos t ing fa cil it ies avail able to ever y food outl et on cam pus. At thi s stage, we have focus ed on food outl ets and no t gen eral bui ldi ngs b ec au se of their lar ge producti on of or ganic waste. As an end goal we would like to ha ve blue bins avail able in ever y room and compos ti ng facil it ies at all facult y buil dings, food outl ets an d residences. Finally, we encourage UBC Waste Management’s goal to increase education and awareness about reducing the amount o f waste ea ch indi vidual pr oduces and su ggest that further information can be gath ered throu gh su rve ys and data co ll e cti on with the help of AGS C students.  19   ECONOMIC PERSPECTIVES:  Indicator 5: Cost of food within UBC Boundary  In ou r third set of indi cat ors we will look at the economi c pil lar of sustaina bil it y and how we beli ev e it relates to the UBC Food S ystem. Be cause th e food s ystem is consumer based, economi cs pla ys an important role in det ermini ng wh at and how changes shoul d be implemented. One of the prima r y conc e rns we found wh en looki ng at the economi c sust ai nabil it y of the UBC Food S yste m is that from our perspe cti ves as consum ers, we fee l that most food items avail able wit hin UBC boun dar y ar e quit e ex pensive and not in balance with a student’s budget. Therefore, we have chosen, as an economic indicator, the percentage of afford able me als avail able withi n our boundaries that are reason abl y siz ed and nutrit ious. We beli eve thi s indi cator wil l provide an accur ate account of how acc essi ble the food s yste m is economi call y to the UBC comm unit y. Methodology  There are thr ee compone nts to our chosen indi cat or: siz e, n utriti on, and affordabil it y. Befo re establi shing our method of eval uati on we must first clarif y siz e and nutrit ion. For the first tw o, we look to the Canadia n Food Guide to Healt h y Eati ng ( www.hc -sc. gc. ca /hpfb -dgpsa/onpp -bppn/ food_ guide_rainbow_e.htm l ),  w hich offers a vari et y of combi nati ons covering all dietar y needs. Th e thi rd component, affo rdabil it y, is our lar gest variabl e an d will be determi ned b y a series of questi onnair es and surve ys given to stud ents and staff about their own will ingness to pa y for meals as compar ed with market price. AGS C students, under the guidanc e of the  20  Sustainabil it y Office, will conduct these surve ys o n a regula r basis but at var yin g times in the semest er to foll ow economi c ch anges. As well , we en coura ge th at a surve y be conduct ed at ever y sta ge alon g the conti nuum. At the midpoint on the conti nuum of sust ainabili t y, we propos e that 50% of all me als offer ed on campus must be withi n the tar ge t ran ge establi shed by th e surve ys and comm unit y response. At the final sta ge we sugges t that 75% of all meals must be wit hin the target range in or der to maint ain economi c sust ainabili t y.   Indicator 6: Operational costs of food outlets within UBC boundary  Finall y, we will look at the economi c man a gemen t of the UBC Food S yste m and propose a method of measurem ent wit h which economi c sust aina bil it y can be achiev ed. Fr om our initi al resear ch, we understand th at man y of the food outl ets on camp us, particularl y those of UBC Food Services, do not operate at profit , there b y making their op erati on unsust ainable (2002 UBC Food System Projects). According to Kloppenburg, “a [economically] sustainable food system is one in which local farmers and area busi nesses are profit able, capable of supporti ng a good stand ard of living for worke rs, their househo lds, and the comm unit y i n general” (2000). Workin g with that defini ti on for economi c sust ainabili t y, we beli eve b y reco gniz ing that the food outl ets on UBC ar e part of a greate r enti t y, we can in fact make th em profit able and sust ainabl e if all components ar e balanced.  Methodology:   21  We have proposed the us e of a cost -b ene fit anal ys is, which will incorporate a more ex tensive underst anding of costs , such as those that pertain to the environment and societ y. As well , we will look at the wil li ngness of the UBC food s ystem se ctors to reinvest their profit for fu rther de velopm ent of sust ainable practi ces. Our ev aluation method wil l invit e participati on from the Food and Resource Economi c students to compl ete an an al ysis of financial repo rts, as well , conduct in depth interviews with various fo od service managers. Using management’s figures and interests, the students will attempt to construct a timeline for the UBC foo d s ystem to  rene goti ate its costs an d profits whil e incorporat ing all other components of the model for sust aina bil it y that we hav e propo sed. Along the conti nuum of sust ainabili t y, we recomm end the goal of lowe rin g operati onal costs to equal those of market pri ce, an d eventuall y have op erati o nal costs lower than ma r ket price. We beli ev e tha t b y focusin g on loc al res ources, creati n g an effi ci ent waste mana gement s ystem, and promoti ng healt h y/cost - effe cti ve meals, w e can i n fact lowe r costs and ma ke the whole food s yste m economi call y sust ainable .  RECOMMENDATION:  C onduct surve ys o f univ ersit y students on their wil li ngness to pa y for a regular -siz ed meal and how it differs from wh at the y are pa yin g now  P erform a nutrit ional an a l ysis of various/t ypical m eals offe red at UBC food service outl ets and asses s the nutriti onal content to deter mi ne how it diffe rs from the recomm end ati ons of the Canadian Food Guide  22   Collect data on food products that are produced locally & globally to determine UBC food system’s dependency on importe d foods  C onduct a surve y of how man y fo od servic e outl ets are rec ycli n g and comp osti ng their wastes: Coun t the number of compos ti ng bins avail able to these fo od service outl ets  Inte rview man a gers/own ers of UBC Food Ser vice outl ets on their thoughts of sust ainabili t y to deter mi ne which areas ne ed improvement  C oll ect information and data on the costs /profit s of UBC Food Services: Conduct a cost -bene fit anal yses to d etermi ne wh e re costs can be low ered and how that can be passed on to the students  Develop a pro gram that l inks UBC Food Servic es, UBC Farm, SEEDS , UBC Sustainabil it y Office, producers, and consum e rs togethe r in ex chan ging in formation on UBC Food S ystem  C onduct surve ys/i ntervi e ws of universit y stud ents, UBC Food Se rvice wo rk ers, and facult ies to dete r mi ne where the sustain ab il it y of UBC Food S ystem sta nds and use that informat ion as a starti ng point to conduct furthe r res ear ch in subsequent ye ars       23  CONCLUSION:  Our ideali sti c goal of att a ini ng a sust ainable UBC food s ystem concentr ates on improving the “local”. We understand that the sust ainabili t y of a food s ys tem can onl y be achiev ed when an equal bal anc e ex ist s between social, ecologic al, and economi ca l indi cators. In developm e nt of our model, we chos e indi cators we felt , as a team, are the most i mportant to be address ed in dri ving towards sustainabil it y. In foll owing the food s ecur it y definiti on mentioned in our int roducti on, we ch ose to focus on accessi bil it y and food producti on as a mea ns of achievin g sust ainab il it y. From the indicators chosen, we have promote d acc essi bil it y throu gh in creas ed nutrit ion levels, awaren e ss of the food s yst em and low cost to consum ers. Likewis e, food produ cti on has been promot ed thro ugh efficient waste mana gem ent, gr eate r emphasis on locali t y of food sourc e an d decre ased op erati onal cost. We certainl y und erst and that these ar e not the onl y ind icators to be measu red, but rather are ke y on es tha t wil l allow us to strive towards a sust ainabl e food s ystem. We also understand that addressi n g one indi cato r can eit her positi vel y or negati vel y impact anothe r indi cator, furthe ring th e sys tem from achievin g sust ainab il it y. We feel that our ch osen indi cators addr ess causes as well as eff ects, and we beli eve th e y ar e relevant, understandable, and usea ble by the UBC comm un it y.    APPENDIX 1: THE CONTINUUM OF SUSTAINABLE INDICATORS FOR UBC FOOD SYSTEM   24        APPENDIX 2: INDICATORS AND EVALUATION METHOD FOR UBC FOOD SYSTEM MODEL    Unsustainable    Intermediate Stage 1  Intermediate Stage 2  Sustainable     Social  1. Lack of awar eness of and participati on in UBC food s ystem    50% increase in students’ awar en ess and participati on in UBC food s ystem   100% increase in students’ awar eness and participati on in UBC food s ystem   Inte ra cti ons of comm unit y with the food s ystem   2. Lack of nutriti ous choices   25% incre ase in num ber of nutrit ionall y balanc ed me als   50 % incre ase in num ber of nutrit ionall y balanc ed me als   Variet y of foo d choices and nutrit ionall y balanc ed me al   Ecological  3. Use of non - loc al food sources   50 % produce from UBC farm are used withi n UBC foo d s ystem   100 % produce from UBC farm ar e used w it hin UBC food s ystem; 25% of food at UBC food outl ets are locall y produ ced.   Use of local food sourc es and food from UBC farm   4. Lim it ed ac cess to wast e mana gement facil it ies   Blue bins in all buil dings and compos ti ng fa cil it ies at all food outl ets   Bl ue bins in all rooms an d compos ti ng fa cil it ies at all facult y buil dings, food outlets an d residenc es   Eas y ac cess to waste mana gement facil it ies    Economic  5. High food price for consum ers   0      25% of all me als must be                    withi n ta rget range   75% of all meals must be withi n target ran ge   Afford able meal   6. Operati onal cost hi ghe r than market pric e   50% of  the food items at selected food s ervic e has cost equal to market pri ce   50% of  the food items at selected food service has c ost equ al to market pric e plus another 50% lower than mark et price   Operati onal cost equal to or lower than mark et price   25   Perspective  Issue  Indicator  Evaluation Method  Evaluator   Social  1. Lack of awar eness of and participati on in UBC food s ystem   Number of students aw ar e of and participate in various co mponents of UBC food s ystem   Surve y   AGSC 450 students and SEEDS   2. Lack of nutriti ous choices   Number of nutrit ionall y balanced meals   Nutriti onal anal ysis   3 rd / 4 th  year diet eti c students   Ecological  3. Use of non - loc al food sources   % of goods produc ed loc all y or from the UBC farm   Inte rview and stati sti cal anal ysis of UBC food outl ets and UBC farm   AGSC 450 students  and sust ainabili t y offic e   4. Lim it ed ac cess to waste mana gement facil it ies   Number of waste mana gement facil it ies avail able   Surve y   AGSC 450 students and UBC waste mana gement   Economic  5. High food price for consum ers   % of af fordable meal that is r easonabl y siz ed and nutr it ious   Questi onnaires and surve ys   AGSC 450 students and sust ainabili t y offic e   6. Operati onal cost higher th an mark et price   Cost - benefit anal ysis of operati onal costs ; wil li ngness for reinvestm ents of profit for sust ainable pra cti ce   Financial anal ysis and int erview wit h food service man a gers  Food and Resour ce Economi c students  REFERENCES:   26  Canada’s Food Guide to Healthy Eating www.hc-s c. gc.c a/hpfb-d gpsa/onpp-bppn/ food_ gu ide_rainbow_e.htm l   European Union Food Se curit y Poli c y:  http :/ /eur o p a. eu. int /co mm/d eve lo p men t/re cueil/e n/e n0 8 /en0 8 1 ht m   ( Feenstr a, G .W. 1997. “Local food systems and sustainable communities”. American Journal of Alternative Agriculture 1 2 (1) : 28 - 3 6 )   Ind icato r s of Sustai nab ilit y T raini ng Co u r se O utli ne  http :// www. s ustai nab le mea s ur es.c o m/T r ainin g/I nd icato r s/ O utli ne ht ml   Kloppenburg, J. et al, 2000. “Tasting Food, Tasting Sustainability: Defining the Attribut es of an Alt ernati ve Food S ystem with Competent, Ordinary People”. Human Organizations. Vol 59(2) pg 177-18 6  Masselink, D.J. and A.A. Bomke (2002). “Sustainable Agriculture and Community Development: Cultivating a Connection at the Universit y of Briti sh C olumbia”, 4pp. Available at htt p:/ /www.agsci.ubc. ca /ubcfarm/documents.ht m   Rome Declar ati on on World Food Securit y:  http :// www. b r o wn. ed u/Dep ar t men ts/W o r ld Hun ger P r o gr am/ hu n ger web /HN/ Ar ticle s/W FS/R OM E FIN h t m   Vaughn, A., 1999. “The Food Indicators Toolkit: The Toolkit to develop local food indicators.” London: SAFE Alliance.   UBC Campus Sustainabil it y Offic e and SEEDS http :// www. s ustai n. ub c. ca /   UBC Food Se rvices www.foodse rve.ubc. ca   UBC Waste Mana gemen t Annual Report  http :// www. r ec ycle. ub c. ca   2002 UBC Food S ystem Projects (Groups 10, 12, 16)  http :// www. web ct. ub c. ca /S CR I PT /agsc 4 5 0 /scr ip ts/ser ve h o me   


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