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The sustainability of the UBC Food System Macrander, Mariette; Parisone, Catherine; Kislig, Evelyn; Karmali, Hafiz; Strachan, Alex; Chang, Maria; Fu, Angus Apr 2, 2003

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UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report       THE SUSTAINABILITY OF THE UBC FOOD SYSTEM Mariette Macrander, Catherine Parisone, Evelyn Kislig, Hafiz Karmali, Alex Strachan, Maria Chang, Angus Fu  University of British Columbia AGSC 450 April 2, 2003           Disclaimer: “UBC SEEDS provides students with the opportunity to share the findings of their studies, as well as their opinions, conclusions and recommendations with the UBC community. The reader should bear in mind that this is a student project/report and is not an official document of UBC. Furthermore readers should bear in mind that these reports may not reflect the current status of activities at UBC. We urge you to contact the research persons mentioned in a report or the SEEDS Coordinator about the current status of the subject matter of a project/report”.   2  THE SUSTAI NABI LITY OF THE UBC FOOD SYSTEM            GROUP 16  Mariette Mac rand er Catherine Parisone Evel yn Kisl i g Hafiz Karmali Alex Strachan Maria Chan g Angus Fu   Agricultural Scienc e 450 April 2 n d , 2003 Alejandro Roj as Ton y Brun ett i  3  TABLE OF CONTENTS  1.0 Executive Summary         2 2.0 Introduction          3 3.0 Sustainability          4-7 3.1  Definiti on         4 3.2  Indic ators         4 3.2.1 Ecological        4-5 3.2.2 Economic        6  3.2.3 Social        7 4.0 Approaches          8-11 4.1  To conceptualiz e sust ain abil it y      8-9 4.2  Approach es in Contex t of UBC      10 4.3  Value Assum pti ons        10-11 5.0 Analysis of Present and Future   11-14 5.1  S tages of Ch an ge Model       11-13 5.2  Model in Contex t of UBC       14 6.0 Research Methods         15-16 7.0 Visual Representation of UBC Map      17 8.0 Summary and Final Thoughts       18 9.0 Recommendations         18-19 10.0 Appendices         20-21 10.1  Quanti tative Surve y       20 10.2  Quali tative Surve y       21 11.0  References         23   4  1 . 0 Executive Summary  The Universit y of Britis h Col umbi a is a small subs ystem within Van couv er , which in turn is a small er subs ystem of th e Low er Mainl and.  Due to the increas e in popul ati on on campus , there is an incre ase in pressu re on the ecos ystem.  To decr ease the ecolo gical footp rint, UBC as a s ystem, must anal yz e and tak e re sponsi bil it y for th e social , ecolo gical, and econom ic impacts. This proposal conce rns changin g the curr ent struc ture and ideolo g y of the subs ystems wit hin the UBC campus tow ards a more sust ainable, int er co nnected s ystem.  Throu gh the Stages of Change Model this trans it ion wil l flow smoothl y and wo rk at the speed of ever y par t y invol ved. All stages o f the model can work con curr entl y with each othe r due to the compl ex it y of each subs ystem cur rentl y at UBC.  The flex ibi li t y of this model allows for a gr ad ual chan ge th at will increas e the likelihood that the transit ion wil l be smoot h and permanent. Sustainabil it y can be ach ieved at UBC if the impa cts of the social, ecologi c al, and economi c perspecti ves are t aken int o account.     5  2.0 Introduction  " To learn how to live graciously together would make us worthy of this unique, beautiful blue planet that evolved in its present splendor over some billions of years, a planet that we should give over to our children with the assurance that this great community of the living will lavish upon them the care that it has bestowed so abundantly upon ourselves "   Thomas Berry (“Ecological and Economic Sustainability”) This quotation is especiall y approp riate wh en addr essi ng the important issu e of sustainabil it y. It is important to maintain a sust ainable comm unit y to ensure the needs of futur e gener ati ons are m et for centuri es to come. We feel that the curr ent pol icies of the subsystems within UBC’s food s ystem, includi n g those leadin g to a lack of usa ge of resour ces we alre ad y possess in our comm unit y, do not contri bute to the sustainabil it y of the UBC food s ystem because th ere is no proper tool to anal yse, as sess and chan ge these pol icies. To recti f y th e sit uati on, thi s paper wil l tr y to address the iss ues that surround the sustainabil it y of the UBC food s yste m through the proposi ti on of our rese ar ch tool s. We will define the indicators and their rel evanc e to UBC, the approach es and models t o address the iss ue and research m ethods that will be able to succin ctl y measure sust ainabili t y. We will start this anal ysis by defining wh at the no ti on of sust ainabili t y means to us, then we will delve into more compl ic ated ar eas of the iss ue.   6  3.0 Sustainability 3. 1 General definition  The UN con fer ence in 19 87 defined sust ainabili t y as the abil it y to "meet pr esent needs without compromi sing the abil it y of future gen er ati ons to meet their needs "(W ebsit e: Definin g Sustainabil it y).  A sustain able food s ystem encom passes proc edures   that work with nat ural proc esses to conse rv e resourc es.  It promot es th e resil ienc e of our ecos ys tem by minim iz ing the environmental impac t while taking economi c fa ctors int o consi derati on. An unsustainable s yst em on the other hand is a system that is unable to meet these requirements. Thus, it is important to take a thre e -pron ged approach when ad dressi n g the issue of sustainabil it y.  It con cerns the int e ra cti ons between the social, economi c and eco logical p erspe cti ves   We will use indi cators to classi f y the level of sustainability of UBC‘s food system.  The use of indicators is a wa y to measur e, indi cate, and point out or to som ethi ng with more or less ex actness; something that is a sign, s ympt om o r an index of somethi ng used to visuall y show the condit ion o f a system. The indi cators chos en wi ll att empt to do four thi ngs.  Thes e include: add re ssi ng ca rr yin g capacit y, relevan ce to the comm un it y, takin g a lon g term vi ew of pro gress and showi ng the link betw een econom y, environment, and societ y   7        3.2 Indicators: definitions and their context in UBC  3.2.1 Ecological A system is ecologic all y sust ainable when it can maintain the diversit y of life and the basis of its pr oductivity. An ecologically sustainable environment can be defined as “using, conserving and enhancin g the comm unit y's resourc es so that ecol ogic al process es, on whic h life depends, are maintained, and the total quali t y of life, no w and i n the future, can be inc re ased. " ( “E cologi cal Sustainabil it y ” Weste rn Australi an Gove rnment   Our first and major ecolo gic al indicator is waste management .  When looki ng at waste mana gement we picked three aspe cts.  The y are compos ti ng, pack a gin g and rec ycli n g.  Th es e three aspects w ere chos en because th e y ar e eas y to use and can giv e an empi rical measur e.  Fo r ex ampl e, the amount of compos ti ng and rec ycli n g that is done at UBC inc ludi ng the UBC farm can be evaluat ed quanti tativel y.  The amou nt of compos ti ng and rec yc li ng can be easil y measu red b y weight compared to measurin g the air quali t y around the ca mpus .  These two aspe cts also depend on the t ype of packa gin g that is used by the UBC food s ystem.  The amount of St yro foam and other non - rec ycl able products aff ect the amount the food s yst em rec yc les.  The measur ement of the number of pap er cups us ed can be cal culated usin g the amount order ed.  The se aspects of waste man a gem ent can help us meas ure the level o f sust ainabili t y in the food s ystem .  An indivi dual can track the amount of ex ternal inputs , its cost of comi ng int o the s ystem and what the output waste s would be.  With thi s knowledge, the actual  8  sust ainabili t y of the s yste m can be ass essed.  Thes e aspects of waste man a gement also fall un der th e criteria of what makes a good indi cator.   Our second majo r indicat or is energy management.  The amount of energy used in UBC’s plant operati ons gives us an in dicati on as to whether th e food s ystem at UBC is economi call y and environmentall y sust ain a ble.  Ener g y can be easil y me asured.  Th e amount of fuel used to ope rate cars, service vehicles, an d landscapin g equipm ent , plus the amount of elect ricit y used to op erate the actual ope rati on plant s and food servic es locati ons can be me asured b y assessing curr ent ene r g y and gas bill s.  This is important to see whe re the food s ystem stands when using ex ternal resou rces that can af fe ct the enviro nment in the short and long term.           3 .2.2 Economic  A system is conside red economi call y sust ain able when it can me et the nee ds of the econo m y (achiev ement of pro fitabili t y, abil it y fo r the busi ne ss to conti nue efficient o perati ons) whil e bein g ab le to take int o consi derati on social and ecolo gic al fac tors.   In acc essi ng sust ainabili ty, economi cs is an ar ea t hat is widel y used b y dif f erent ins ti tut ions because it is a quanti tative subject   Therefo re, it is an indi cator that can easi l y  9  be measur ed, and the eco nomi c viabili t y of a food s ystem can be easil y asce rtained.  We chose thr ee major economi c indi cato rs which include  profitability, marketing and employment .  When we loo k a t profit abil it y as a whole we look at whether th e foo d s ystem is jus t breakin g even or if it is gaini ng financiall y.  A s ystem is not sust ainable if it incurs an economi c loss , whet her it is in the short or long term    When assessing thi s indi cator we look to see whether prici ng of food is reason able for the comm unit y, and whether or not the costs of the ex ternal inputs comi ng int o the food s ystem ex ceed the mon e y comi n g back in rev enue.  Profit abil it y can also be found in income statemen ts and balance sh eets.    The second economi c in dicator, mark eti ng, is als o an essential elem ent.  The amount of corpo rate sponsoring and events he ld b y UBC and the use of the grou nds b y di ffe rent corporati ons, such as the movi e indus tr y, can pro mot e economi c growth and funding fo r the campus fo od s ystem.  This in turn can also creat e furthe r empl o ym ent wit hin the universit ies boundaries.  Th e growth from ma rketi n g can be me asured and eco nomi c gro wth, which lea ds to economi c sust ainab il it y, can be obs erved             3.2.3 Social The social dimension of sust ainabili t y encompass es polit ical, cultural, and all other people- cente red iss ues.  Social sust ainabili t y is related to how we make choic es that aff ect other humans in our "global  10  comm unit y."  A s yst em is considered soci all y sust ainable when it can provi de comm unit y inform ati on, services and facil it ies, comm unit y developm ent o pportunit ies, and cult ural developm ent init iatives.  The social indicator that we chose to assess UBC’s food system sustainability is food security.  We choose thi s indi cator bec ause it ties in with the ec ological and economi c in dic ators as well .  In order to see if the food s ystem is sust ainable the foll owing criteria has to be evalu ated.  The first is whethe r the acc ess to differ ent food outl ets is easil y ac cessi ble to ever yone, the second i s whether the food provided is affo rdable, and the third is the avail ab il it y of food (wh ether the food is avail able accordi ng to its demand at each of the food servic es outlet).  Last but not least, the hea lt h benefits of the food provided must be measur ed, as healt h is an import ant conce rn of ou r group.  Through su rve ys and price compa risons, this indicator can easil y show whether the on campus food s ystem is sust ainable .     The social indicator ties all three indi cators of sustainabil it y together and at the same time fall s under the criteria of what mak e s good indi cator   Just as economi c, ecolo gical and so cial sust ainabili t y work to geth er in the big pictur e of sustai nabil it y, the indicators we have chosen work to geth er too.         11  4.0 Approaches 4. 1 To conceptualize sustainability  W hen it comes to decidi ng wh ether or not a food s ys tem is sust ainable, we as a group feel that this is eith er a yes or no issue .  That is, a food s yst em is sust ainable, or it is not.  Howeve r, alt hou gh the broad concept of sustainability may be a “black” or “white” thing, we see that its separate components of ecolo gic a l, social, and environmen tal sust ainabili t y can eac h be measur ed on a spectrum.  That is, they are not “black” or “white” but instead fall within a range  To conce ptualiz e thi s notion of indi cators acti n g t ogeth er to produc e a sust ainable comm unit y, it is important to consi der fi gure 1.1 and 1.2 fo r an ex planati on.   In a per fect wo rld (sc ena rio #1)   a system that is in fact sust ainable would have all three of these compone nts (ecolo gic al, economi c, and social indi cato rs) working to gether at the same rate     In ot her words, the y would all be in equal or in pe rfe ct alignment.  Unfo rtunatel y, it is not a perfect wo rld, so alt hough thi s upper left hand side of the quad ran t   see table  is the desired place, we feel that “perfect sustainability” is very difficult, if not impossible to achieve.   Scenario #2  where the elements of su stainabil it y ar e acti n g ap art, but the s ystem as a whole is sti ll sust ainable, is a place wh ere mor e s ystem s are likel y to fall .  In the case of UBC’s food system, landing here  would mean that economi c , ecologi cal and environmental sust ainab il it y are not wo rking at the same rate, and wh en measured sep ar atel y ma y in fact not be sust ainable at all.  Howeve r, the stre ngth of on e makes up fo r  13  4 .2 In the context of UBC   When evaluating UBC’s food s ystem, we as a gro up see that the thre e com ponents of tot al sust ainabili t y (economi c, social and environment a l sus tainabil it y) ar e not working at equal rates. Rather, they function with compensatory mechanisms, or in “give up to gain” relationships.  Ther efo re, UBC fall s with in the upp er ri ght hand co rner of the quadrant (scen ario #2).   We have deciph ered (?) that a chan ge in one of th e three components, that is social, economi cal or environmental, will sub sequenti all y aff ect the oth er two.  These const ant fl uctuations make the abov e described perf ect ali gnm ent difficult (see s cena rio #1).  Although the s yste m is on the overall “sustainable” in the sense that it can continue to exist, it must be noted that all components are not working to gether equ all y.  Therefo re, the perf ect s ustainabil it y describ ed in our definiti on is not achieved.  Even though it is UBC’s sustainability pledge  ) to improve all of social, economi c and environmental sust ainabi li t y conti nuousl y, the cha nces of this happenin g co ncurrentl y are rare.  An improvement in one most likely means a loss in another area. Like UBC’s sustainability circles, our model shows how enviro nmental, social, and econ omi cal aspects are int ert wined and cannot effe cti vel y work indep en dentl y.     4. 3 Value Assumptions   As our group agr ees as a whole that a bio -c entric perspecti ve shoul d be ado pted, we would like to se e ecolo gical sus tainabil it y adhered to as a priorit y. As we see UBC fall ing i n the upper ri ght hand quadrant of ou r cha rt (s c enario #2), with some int eracti on betw een the th re e indi cators, we beli eve t hat  14  it is possi ble to redirect focus from prim aril y the economi c and possi bl y the social indicators in order to channel more resour ce s towards maint aini ng an ecolo gicall y sust aina ble environment. For ex ampl e, ecolo gical sus tainabil it y shoul d be a focus (e. g. us e more rec ycl ed products ) even if it means that economi c indi cators decr ease sli ghtl y (e. g. less pr ofit because of incr eased costs ). Thus, we beli ev e that environmental side of things shoul d gain to a point where the ove rall food s ystem is stil l sust ainable, but wit h a more equil ibrated focus. Unfortunatel y, due to our capit ali sti c societ y, economi c viabili t y oft en becomes the stron gest of the three, causin g a inequ ali t y of di stribut ion between the indic ators an d thi s often means that environmental sust ainabili t y comes in as th e least important priorit y. Fo r th ese re asons, our recomm endati ons strive to chan ge thi s and make ecologi c al sust ainabili t y th e emer gi ng winne r.  5.0 Analysis of the Present and the Future 5. 1 Stages of Change Model  There are five sta ges of change in this model.  The se will all ow us to diagn ose UBC toda y in terms of effort and sp eculat e what it will be working towa r ds in the future.    )  The first sta ge is call ed the Pre-cont empl ati on Stage and, when appli ed to UBC, it is chara cteriz ed by a disi nterest in c han ge and a compl ete una war eness of sust ainabili t y.  The se cond stage is the Contemplation Stage, an d it is where the particip a nts are be ginni n g to think about chan ge, perhaps chan gin g withi n six months. The thi rd sta ge is the Preparati on sta ge.  This is a ver y important sta ge  15  and here th ere is a definit e plan to start chan gin g withi n a mont h.  Acti on is the fourth sta ge and it i s self-ex planator y.  The final stage is Maint enanc e and thi s impli es the conti nuati on of wh at is workin g in keeping with the chan ge, and removi n g wh at is not.    Step 1 ± Identify Subsystems Within UBC Boundary  First UBC will need to b e broken down into subs ys tems so that it wil l be easier to identi f y which parts of the s ystem ar e fu ncti oning in a sust ainable manner, and which ones are not.  Small steps need to be impl emented i n order to ch an ge the la r ge r UBC s ystem.  In a broader sens e, it is also important to observe the UBC food s ystem in the contex t of Vancouver as a societ y and Britis h Colu mbi a, in relation to Canada and the rest of th e world.    By breakin g down UBC int o sub -s ystems, we in ef fect set pa ramete rs to eac h s ystem.  Fo r ex ampl e, thi s could include the foll owing: the residenc e foo d s ystem, UBC farm, tr a nsportati on, UBC admi nist rati on, AMS, etc.    Step 2 ± Analyze Subsystem Policies for Sustainability  Each of thes e subs yst ems will need to be anal yz ed for whe re their poli cies st and on sust ainabili t y.  This can be done usin g a surve y (se e Appendix ).  Some ma y fall withi n the Pre - co ntemplation sta ge, while others, such as the Sustainabil it y Office, m a y alr ead y be in the Acti o n stage.     16  Step 3 ± Group Each Subsystem into One of the 5 Stages  Based on th e surve y, eac h subs ystem can be grou ped int o one of the five st ages and then the h ead of each department can be contacted.  Establi shing a rapport and buil din g an open relations hip wit h the m ke y.  Without communi cati on and trust the move ment towards sustainabil it y, if at all, wil l be slow.   Step 4 ± Target Each Stage With a Specific Message   The Pre-cont empl ati on stage will be tar geted wit h information that increas e s their awar eness about sustainabil it y indi cators at UBC. The infor mation wil l also have to ex plain wh y chan ge is important and what speci ficall y th e y can do about it.   S ubs yst ems that fall withi n the Contempl ati on stage shoul d rec eive incenti ves to enforc e their old posit ive behavior, an d there shoul d be an emp hasis on adopti ng ne w po sit ive behaviors.    The groups within the Preparati on sta ge shoul d be provided specific in for m ati on about how to chan ge and choic es to support which chan ges the y are will ing to mak e.    W it hin the Acti on stage encoura gem ent, reinfo rce ment, and support are ne eded, with the developm ent of strate gi e s that lead int o the Maint enanc e sta ge.  Ke y steps to succ ess for sust ainabili t y are th e co mm it ment to open communicati on between all levels of the subs ystems and identi f yin g the barri e rs to chan ge.  15   6 . 0 Research Methods  6. 1 Data Collection Methodologies The main methods of dat a coll ecti on chosen wer e sampl e surve ys and focu s groups. Th ese surv e ys are critical tools since the y provide population -based esti mates.  There are two t ypes of su rve ys that we re focused on, quanti tative ( shown in appendix secti on 10.1) and quanti tative (shown in appendix secti on 10.2).  Each rese arch met hod has its strengths and weakness es   .  Howev er, togethe r we beli eve that it will give a stron g rep re sentation as to how the UBC comm unit y vie ws sust ainabili t y   Quali tative methods for data coll ecti on pla y an i mpo rtant role in impact evaluation b y providi n g information useful to understand the processes behind observed results and assess changes in people’s percepti ons of the UBC food s ystem. Fu rthermor e , quali tative methods can be used to improve the quali t y of surv e y-bas ed quanti tative evaluations by helpi n g gen erat e evalu ati on hypothesis, strength ening th e desi gn of surve y questi onnair es and ex panding or clarif yi ng quanti tative evaluatio n findings (Good ).  The quanti tative res ear ch methods will include surve ys th at are “cross - sectional or longitudinal”  ) .  The focus will be on que sti ons that can be judged by a stron gl y agre e, disa gr ee basis .  The quali tative res earch m ethods will focus on questi ons that wil l urge those participati n g to ex press their feeli n g in a narrati ve format (   .  Both these metho ds can be done over a period of time reflecting whether the “Stages of Change” have been effective. This will also show if there is an equal  16  weighti n g in sustainabil it y of the ecolo gic al, econ omi c and social s yst ems     Focus groups are also important becaus e the y are designed to bui ld and ma int ain the relations hips alread y establi shed with ke y pl a yers in the UBC food s ystem.  This relativ el y info rmal atmos pher e will help to identif y areas that have not been address ed i n previous surve ys that are important fo r ea ch ke y indi vidual, as well as pro vidi ng an opportuni t y for feedba ck as to wh at is working or not.   This resea rch method is an im portant tool for buil ding t rust and maintaining op e n comm unicati on betwee n all members of the UBC food s ystem      Other data coll ecti on tec hniques ma y includ e que sti onnaires to other mem bers of the comm unit y, and int erviews wit h professo r s or other contribut ors to the systems such as plant operati ons. It ma y be possi ble to incorporate ot her ex perimental treatm e nts that ma y bett e r re flect each of th e thre e s yst ems and their subsequent sub s ystems.  18                                                                                            OUTSIDE UBC BOUNDARIES 19  8.0 Summary and Final Thoughts Our group does not consi der UBC sust ainable as a whole s ystem.  We hav e found that the economi c indi cators a re mo re he avi l y wei ghted in importan c e and the ecolo gic indicat ors are fall ing sho rt. We hope that that we can aid in these assessments lead ing to future chan ges thr ough the rese arch tool s and the information provided in this paper . We stress that there ne eds to be mor e rese arch don e on the current pol icies at the UBC subs ystem lev els in order fo r positi ve and per manent chan ge to occur.     9.0 Recommendations  1  S tart at the polic y lev el to raise aw aren ess of sust ainabili t y.  What is it?  Wh y it is important?  Introdu ce it to all levels and sectors of UBC subs ystems.  2  In order to inc reas e the sustainabil it y of ecologic a l s ystems, it is nec essar y to decre ase the sust ainabili t y of economi c s ystems.  Usin g funds from the economi c s yste m and util iz ing them in, for inst ance, waste ma nagement or fossi l fuel control can do thi s.  For th is to happen, it is imperati ve to incre ase co mm unicati on betwe en all levels.     3  Impl ement a waste restri cti on level.  A certain per centa ge of products comi ng int o UBC must have re c yclabl e pack a gin g.  If the amount of waste dispos ed of from a fa cil it y ex ceeds a certain weight or number of bags permitt ed the y will be char ged acco rdingl y fo r ex cessi ve dispo sal.   20  Mone ys gained from this char ge must then be put back int o the waste man a gem ent pro gram.  4  P rofit s from the economi c s ystem must be put ba c k int o the universit y for waste mana gement, resea rc h and developm en t, more courses, mor e pro fessors, more te achin g as sis tants, ex panding the sustainabil it y offic e, etc.  5  In cre ase the impa ct of th e UBC Farm b y having it s food directl y contribut e to the UBC f ood s ystem.  Promote the far m b y incr easin g comm un it y aw aren ess and involvement.  6  Inv esti gate sustainable so urces outside of the s yste m.  Search in the environ ment near the UBC comm unit y for alt ernate inputs to substi tut e the less sust ainable methods produ ced withi n the UBC food s ystem.      21  10.0 Appendices  10. 1 Sample Quantitative Survey     Circle the answer most appropriate to your knowledge.    1.  UBC has a sustain able food s ystem.   1  2  3  4  5  2.  UBC has a good rec ycli ng pro gram.   1  2  3  4  5  3.  UBC uti li z es its resources effe cti vel y.   1  2  3  4  5  4.  UBC has a wide vari e t y of food outl ets.  1  2  3  4  5   5.  UBC food outl ets ar e easil y acc essi ble.  1  2  3  4  5   6.  UBC promotes wast e minim iz ati on.  1  2  3  4  5   7.  UBC is economi call y sust ainable.  1  2  3  4  5   8.  UBC is ecolo gicall y s ustainable.  1  2  3  4  5   9.  UBC is sociall y sust ai nable.  1  2  3  4  5   10. UBC uses its profit s to improve ecolo gical sus tainabil it y.  1  2  3  4  5   Strongl y agr ee   1   Agree   2  Neutral   3  Disagree   4  Str ongl y disagr ee  5    22  10. 2 Sample Qualitative Survey    1.  What is sust ainabili t y? _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________  2.  What makes the UBC food s ystem sust ainable, or unsust ainable? ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________  3.  How can UBC impro ve its rec ycli n g pro gram? __________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ______  4.  How can UBC bett e r promot e waste man a gem ent? _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________  5.  Where is the UBC Far m? __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________  6.  How can UBC incr eas e the impact of the UBC Farm? ___________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________    23  1 1 . 0 References  Where are the many resources given or made available to you in your course manual/reader and WebCT?   “Successful Strategies for Food System Change: New Rules or Market Populism?”. University of C ornell   http:/ /www.cals.cornell . edu/a gfoodcomm unit y/ fa p/S tratForFoodS ystC han ge.pd f   “Defining Sustainability” http:/ /www.arch.wsu.edu /sus tain/defnsust .htm   “Ecological Sustainability” Western Australian Government: Railways Commission http:/ /www.newmetrorail .wa. gov.au/ht ml /m 08s07 .php   “Ecological and Economic Sustainability” htt p:/ /www.twb.cathol ic.edu.au/sos e/ecolo gic al_a nd_economi c_sust aina.ht m   City of Marion: “Sustainability indicators (social sustainability)” http:/ /www.marion.sa.go v.au/W eb/webmar.nsf/ Lo okup/S ocial+S ustainabil it y   “Concepts of Sustainability”. University of Wyoming: College of Agriculture  http:/ /www.uw yo.edu/A Gadmi n/S ustainableAg/ C oncept.ht m   Northern Arizona University: Methods of Data Collection http://www.prm.nau.edu/prm447/methods of data collection lesson.htm  The World Bank Group: Data Collection Methods http://www.worldbank.org/poverty/impact/methods/datacoll.htm  State Children’s Health Insurance Program: Data Collection Methods http://www.ahcpr.gov/chip/content/monitoring_evaluation/data_collection_methods-1.htm  


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