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Sustainability research proposal for the UBC Food System Chan, Lorna; Francescutti, Lisa; Kan, Jenny; Luk, Lester; Omidvar, Vahid; Thandi, Fulroop; Yap, Melissa Apr 2, 2003

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UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report       Sustainability Research Proposal for the UBC Food System Lorna Chan, Lisa Francescutti, Jenny Kan, Lester Luk, Vahid Omidvar, Fulroop Thandi, Melissa Yap  University of British Columbia AGSC 450 April 2, 2003           Disclaimer: “UBC SEEDS provides students with the opportunity to share the findings of their studies, as well as their opinions, conclusions and recommendations with the UBC community. The reader should bear in mind that this is a student project/report and is not an official document of UBC. Furthermore readers should bear in mind that these reports may not reflect the current status of activities at UBC. We urge you to contact the research persons mentioned in a report or the SEEDS Coordinator about the current status of the subject matter of a project/report”.  Sustainability Research Proposal for the UBC Food System AGSC 450       Group Members: Lorna Chan Lisa Francescutti Jenny Kan Lester Luk Vahid Omidvar Fulroop Thandi Melissa Yap    Group 15, UBC’s Food Sustainability Project       1 of 25 TABLE OF CONTENTS            Page  1.  Abstract…………………………………………………………………………….. .........2 2.  Introduction………………………………………………………………………….........2 3.  A Look at UBC’s Sustainability Office………………………………………………..…3 4.  Our Value Assumptions……………………………………………………………….….4 5.  Map of the UBC Food System…………………………………………………..………..5 6.  Our Proposed Sustainabil it y Mo del……………………………………………………....7 7.  Research Design Proposal………………………………………………………………..11 8.  Conclusion……………………………………………………………………..................15 9.  R ecomm endati on s………………………………………………………………………..16 10.  References……………………………………………………………………..................17 11.  Appendices. ………………………………………………...............................................19                       Group 15, UBC’s Food Sustainability Project       2 of 25  Abstract  This report proposes a model to assess the state of UBC’s food system sustainability on a continuum ranging from “unsustainable” to “sustainable.”  Sustainab il it y is defi ned as a value -bas ed, adaptable approach con cern ed wit h the int erconn ecti ons between food, he alt h and agricult ure invol ving so cial, economi cal and ecolo gic al iss ues (1, 8).  Our pro posal is based on a weak anthropoc entric and co mm unit y -based value pe rspecti ve.  After anal yz ing the curr ent goals of the UBC Sustainabil it y Offic e, and ex ami ning the components of the food s ystem bas ed on our values, we have develo ped measur able soci al, ecologic al and economi cal indi cator s to evaluate the sust ainabi li t y of the UBC Food Sys tem (UBC FS ).  The in dicators of sust ainabili t y will as sis t in locati ng the UBC FS in our proposed s ustainabil it y model.  The social, ecological and economical indicators are ‘community support of local agriculture production,’ ‘waste management and recycling’ and ‘profit and losses,’ respectively.  We have designed a research proposal that outl ines the ways that the sust ainabili t y of the UBCFS can be evalu ated based upon these indi cators.  We have also included recomm endati ons and alt ernati ve res ear ch ide as for future proje cts regardin g sust ainabili t y of the UBCFS .  Introduction In light o f cu rrent int eres ts conce rning sust ainabili t y and the glob al food s ystem, it becomes essentia l and obvious to assess and evaluate a community’s state of sust ainabili ty and its int eracti ons wit h and impacts on the global s ys tem.   Currentl y, the Univ ersit y of Britis h Colum bia (UBC ) is a lar ge comm unit y containin g app rox im atel y 35,000 students, 1,740 full -ti me facult y empl o yees and 7,339 full -ti me non- fa cult y empl o ye es ( 1).  An enormous food s ystem i s needed to suppo rt suc h a lar ge universit y. Th e impact of thi s food s ystem on sust ainabili t y and the glo bal food syst em must be measured, evaluated, and understood.   As consul tants measurin g sust ainabili t y, we hop e to cr eate and design a model that will evaluat e sust ainabili t y, appl yin g s pecific criteria and indi c ators – ecolo gical, socia l, and economi cal - to show the impacts of globaliz ati on on the UBC campus an d specific all y, on the UBC Food S ystem (UBC FS ) .  Our main objecti ve in writ in g thi s repo rt is to propos e a model and methodolog y to ass ess the sust ain abil it y of the UBCFS .  In the context of this paper, we will first provide detailed background information on UBC’s sust ainabili t y poli c y fro m the UBC S ustainabil ity Office and also suppl y a map of the UBCFS tha t outl ines the boundaries of th e s ystem.  Secondl y, we wil l ex plain the underl yin g value assum pti ons of ou r group.  Thirdl y, we will describe in detail the definiti on of sust ainabili t y and our prop osed model with its indi cators Group 15, UBC’s Food Sustainability Project       3 of 25 and specified crite ria.  Fourthl y, we will prese nt our research design proposal and possi ble wa ys of measurin g and appl yin g our model in evaluating the sust ainabili t y of the UBCFS .  Lastl y, we will provide our recomm end ati ons for further resea rch propos a ls to assess the sustainabil it y of the UBCFS . A Look at UBC’s Sustainability Office  To begin our project, we became familiar with some of the initiatives that UBC’s Sustainability Office has und ertak en to promot e sust ainabili t y practices.  UBC’s Sustainability Office was established in 1997 when the University of Britis h Colum bia signed the Hali fax Declar a ti on and the Tall oires Declarati on (14).  This ne wl y ad apte d sust ainabili t y poli c y dr ives UBC to wo rk towa r ds achievin g an e nviron mentall y responsi ble comm unit y campus that is economi call y vi able and refle cts the values of campus comm unit y members.  In addit ion, it ensures the int egr ati on of ecolo gical, economi c a l and social consi derati ons at all levels of strate gic plan ning an d operations within the university.  The overall strategy of the UBC’s S ustainabil it y Office is to develop an acti on plan with clear indi c ators for tar gets including evaluation guidelines, ef fecti ve me asures of pro gress, repo rting mechanism s and providi ng approp riate ed ucati onal support s ystems.  The ta r get and acti on plans are reviewed ever y two ye ars.  The UBC Sustainabil it y Offic e promotes, co ordinates, and implements the most effe cti ve sust ainabili t y pra cti ces.  There ar e sev eral on going pro grams in pla c e to en sure that UBC is strivi n g towards sust ainabili t y, such as the Sustainable Ener g y M ana gement Pro gr am , Canada 's lar gest campus en er g y and water retro fit; Green Buil dings , campus structures that champi on sust ainabili t y and win awa rd s; UBC SEEDS , student, staff and facult y workin g tow ards sust ainabili t y in ta ndem; Sustainabil it y Coordinator Progr am , a grassroots campaign to brin g sust ai nabil it y practi c es to 300 UBC departments; Sustainabil it y Circles , dialo gue and de bate on iss ues that matte r; Paper Reducti on , wo r king tow ards at least a le ss paper -strewn wo rld, if not a paperless one; and Tr ekS TEP1 , on-the-job sust ain abil it y traini n g for stude nts (14).  The UBC’s Sustainability Office uses its website in an attempt to explain its efforts in achieving sust ainabili t y on campus to the publi c.  In assess ing the ecolo gical sust ainabili t y of its campus , the office uses paper and en er g y co nsum pti on as indi cators.  Additi onall y, a pro gram call ed Wastefre e UBC , promotes Group 15, UBC’s Food Sustainability Project       4 of 25 waste redu cti on amon gs t UBC comm unit y mem bers (14).  The suc cess of thi s progra m is evalu ated b y using a census to moni tor the waste produ cti on withi n the UBC campu s.  Another ecolo gical i ndicator, utilized by UBC’s Sustainability Office, is the amount of composting and recycling.  This particular indi cator is used by UBC Waste Mana g em ent as part of the waste reducti on pro grams (14 ).  Social indicators include the willingness of students and faculty members’ to become involved with the campus sust ainabili t y efforts.  Comm it ment on a personal level can help achieve su stainabil it y.  UBC off ers courses about sust ainabili t y, av a il able from the Student Electronic Network fo r Sustainabil it y Edu cati on , which provides a listi ng of su stainabil it y rel ated cour ses (14).  Othe r pe rson al comm it ment ini ti ati ves would include gett ing invol ve d with reducin g single - occupan c y vehicle trips to campus , creati n g a healt hier environment and abidi n g by the Student Sustainabil it y Pled ge (a person al comm it ment to buil ding a bett er world).    Our Value Assumptions   Our nex t step in the project was to conduct an int ernal evaluation of our group members to determi ne the major para digms through which we view the UBCFS as a whole.  Our group membe rs come from various ba ck groun ds and there fore, the re were uniqu e viewpoint s that arose in our disc ussi ons.  Howeve r, thro ugh much debate our group agreed to take on a weak anthro pocentric and comm unit y - b ased approach in o rder to desi gn a mod el for ass essi ng the sustainabil it y of the UBCFS .  In the article, Anthropocentrism: A Modern View, W. H. Murdy states that, “[t]o be an thropocentric is to affirm that mankind is to be valued more highly than any other things in nature by man” (9).  Some proponents of this approach, including B. Norton, distinguish a “strong” from a “weak” anthropocentrism, the former bein g bas ed on the mo ral validity of satisfaction of all human “felt preferences” (wants and desires) and the latter based on the recognition of the moral validity of only “considered preferences” (basic human needs) (1).  Even though our views ar e weakl y anthropoc entri c, we s ti ll understand that our conti nued survival and well being as the human species is compl etel y dependent on maintaining a healt h y ecos ystem.   Group 15, UBC’s Food Sustainability Project       5 of 25  Through our discussi ons , our group also found t hat we sh ared a comm unit y -bas ed value s ystem as opposed to an indi vidual freedom bas ed s ystem.  We unanim ousl y agreed in valui ng the local comm unit y in which we reside as well as the lar ger glob al com muni t y that we ar e an int egral pa rt of.  We stron gly beli eve that an y food s ystem nee ds to bring about connectedness among st comm un it y membe rs becaus e the sharing of food can establi sh strong conn ecti ons betwe en people.  We used our anthropoc e ntric and comm unit y-b as ed appro ach es in ord er to eff ecti vel y compl ete th is project.  Our values wer e ver y important in est ab li shing our end result of thi s project which was a gen er al model to assess the sust ainabili t y of the UBC FS .  In the contex t of thi s paper, we will provide furth e r details about our group’s position in relation to food system sustainability and reveal the strong relat ionsh ip evident between our group’s values and the construction of our model.   Map of the UBCFS  Befo re desi gnin g our mo del, it was vit al to const ruct a map of the UBCFS .  In const ru cti ng thi s ma p, we defined the UBC com muni t y boundar y as ex tending to the Universit y Gates incorpo rati n g all food, retail outl ets and dispo sal unit s withi n those paramet er s.  This map,  (App endix A)  outl ines the components and ph ysical bounda ries of the UBCFS as well as its linkages with the global, nati onal, regional and local food s ystems.  Our go al is to creat e a mor e self - effi cie nt and self -sust ainable fo od s ystem b y inc reasin g the food producti on from the UBC farm so that it can bec ome a lar ger food provid er of the UBC FS .   Fu rthermore, our desire is for all of t he waste pro duc ed with in the UBCFS to be rec yc l ed inst ead of se nt to various landfil ls.   Components within the UBCFS  The UBC farm is one of the food suppl iers to the retailers withi n the boun daries of the UBC FS .  It is also a pla ce for students to learn about sust ai nabi li t y (15).  Some of the input s such as farmin g equipm ent and seeds are pu rchas ed withi n Canada or import ed from other countries.  The food produ ced in th e farm is stored, transpo rted and s old to retailers.  Some of the wastes produ ced fro m the farm are tr ansport ed to the compos ti ng sit es wher e t he y get rec ycled (18).  Group 15, UBC’s Food Sustainability Project       6 of 25   All of the restaurants, food outl ets and cafeterias withi n the UBCFS purchase their food from the following plac es: the UBC farm, local, regional and nati onal markets ac ro ss Canada or fr om othe r countries.  The y are responsi ble for processi n g and prep arin g food for consum ers in UBC.  The waste that is produced is transported to waste m ana gement sites or to sm all -scale compos ti ng sit e s (18).    Another major compone nt withi n the UBCFS is t he consum ers who pur ch ase food from retailers and consum e thi s food eit her withi n or outsi de the UBC campus .  The waste such as food con tainers is transported to waste ma nagement sit es for rec yc li ng or compos ti ng as part of the se rvice off ere d by the UBC Waste Mana gemen t progr am (18).  The UBC Waste Mana gement program is respon sibl e for providi ng campus -wide pape r, cardbo ar d and containe r rec ycli n g operati ons; suppl yin g ed ucati onal information on safe handli ng of soli d waste fo r dispo sal; and consul ti ng on waste reducti on an d rec ycli n g (18).  As part of GVRD, the wast e that is produced withi n the UBC FS is diverted to rec yc l ing, compos ti ng (worm compos ti ng, back ya rd co mpos ti ng and windrow compos ti n g) or sent to landfil ls (18).    Both the UBC Sustainabil it y Of fice and the UBC Healt h, Societ y & Environment Office help to promot e, coordinat e and implement sust ainable practi ces b y providi n g educati on as well as a variet y of programs with att empt s to make UBC a mor e economi call y, sociall y and environmentall y balan ced comm unit y (14).  The UBC Food Services and th e Alma Mater Societ y re view all aspects of food services to ensure that good value , quali t y servi ce and a ple asant environment is avai lable to consumers (12, 16). Components outside the UBCFS  The local, regional, nati onal and global food ma rkets are amon g the foo d suppl iers to the UBCFS .  Food products are prod uced, stored and ex ported to local processors or directl y to retailers wi thi n the UBCFS .  These s ystems also ex port raw materials to the UBC farm.  Co mm odit ies ma y be tr ade d withi n Canada or wit hin other countries befor e enterin g t he UBC FS .     Group 15, UBC’s Food Sustainability Project       7 of 25 Our Proposed Sustainability Model  After const ru cti ng a ma p of the UBC FS , we th en design ed a model (A ppendix B) to assess the sust ainabili t y of the UBCFS .  To do thi s, we had to decide what iss ues were of most importance in determi ning a trul y sust ainable food s ystem.  In defining sust ainabili t y withi n a food s ystem, there are numerous factors to cons ider as food has to be produced, proc essed, dist ributed, consum e d, and rec yc led or wasted (2 ).  Th e linka ge s between land, food an d comm unit y must ex ist in a sust ainable food s ys tem, and these in turn, creat e a strong relations hip with the natural environment and the human comm unit y (2).  Through ex tensive rese ar ch, we have be en able to develop a sust ainabili t y conti nuum that recogniz es a trul y sust ainable food s ystem to be defined as follows.  Sustainability  Sustainabil it y is a value -based, adaptable appro ach co nce rned with the int erconnecti ons betwee n food, healt h an d agriculture (1, 9).  It invol ves so cial, economi cal and eco logical iss ues to develop a system that bene fits past, pr ese nt and futu re comm unit y m embers (consi sti ng of UBC students, facult y and staf f members) whos e int er es ts are focused upon (1, 5, 6, 8, 1 0).  This helps to ensure that the need s of the comm unit y m embers are met.  Sustainable developm ent shoul d be based more on or ganic farmin g methods and locall y av ail able res ources, loc al skil ls and knowledge (10 ).  In thi s respe ct, comm unit y aw areness, educati on and support ar e ke y factors in a food s ystem (10).  A sust ain able s ystem reli es on mor e lo cal self -sufficienc y, rather than on global dep endenc e, wh ich aids to connect peopl e with each othe r and wit h nature (6, 10).  This definiti on of sust ainabili t y demonstrates our group’s position in relation to food system sust ainabili t y.   Unsustainability  The opposi te side of the conti nuum ex hibit s unsustainabil it y, which has little connecti on between th e natural environment and the human comm unit y.  Social, e conomi cal and ecologic al iss ues are also ignored or not full y dev eloped.  An unsust ainable s yst e m is dependent on global resourc es rather than on local Group 15, UBC’s Food Sustainability Project       8 of 25 comm unit y resour ces an d does not value comm unit y as a priorit y.  Its pr im ar y conce rn is for the present sit uati on and for incre asing pro fit.  Thus, the envi ronmental future is ove rlooked. Proposed Indicators & Criteria  From our rese arch, we propose thre e sust ainabi li t y indi c ators to assess the sust ainabili t y of th e UBCFS .  Even though th ere were man y indi ca tors , we limi ted our indi cators to the three that best reflect our group’s values.  We perceive all three to have equal importance in relation to sustainability as a whole.  The chosen indi cators are als o lar ge iss ues that ar e co nti nuousl y occu rrin g wit h s ustainabil it y; th ere for e, we feel that these have the most impact on an enti re food s ys tem.  Th e first is an ecological indic ator, which is waste mana gement and rec ycli ng.  It is giv en thre e criteria to me asure its status .  The criteria includ e: the amount  of soli d waste dire cted t owards rec ycli n g or co mpos ti ng, the rati o betw een the amount of rec yc led items versus the amount of to tal waste and the numb er of participants in the WasteFre e UBC pro gr am.  In choosi ng thi s pa rticular i ndicator, we found that an ecolo gical food s ystem emphasiz es rene wable resources and tries to stren gthen i nti mate bonds between people and nature (6).  Whil e there ar e man y possi ble indicators, we found that ‘waste management and recycling’ are the factors that underlie a food syste m as a whole wher e all of its parts work together to prod uce the produ ct in a c ycli cal manner (6).  As more waste is produced, the food system becomes less efficient and less effective.  Therefore, it is in everyone’s best int erest to reduc e the amount of waste produ c ed.  Sustainable metho ds entail workin g with nature to replenish soil and other resources throu gh rec ycli ng, compos ti ng and using anim al nutrients (2).  There ar e man y app roach es and theories surroundin g the valuation of the services and innate worth of environmental resourc es (6).  The nega ti ve impacts of packa gin g and processi n g wast es on the environment and societ y also need to be consi de r ed and minim iz ed (6).  A sust ainable food s yste m is one in which the he alt h of the environment is sust ain ed and enhanc ed for use by all bein gs and b y future gene rati ons (2).  The UBCFS , specificall y, shows evide nce to support the fact that it has an ecologic al problem, as UBC alone gen erat es 12 tonnes of garb a ge ev er y da y with 35% of the tot al waste bein g foo d waste (7, 8, 9).  Up to 40% of the Group 15, UBC’s Food Sustainability Project       9 of 25 garbage produced at UBC’s Food Service outlets is composed of disposable containers, such as cups (7, 8, 9).  In addition, 70% of UBC’s waste stream is made up of compostable materials (7, 8, 9).  The se cond indi cator c overs the economic aspect; it is classified as ‘profit and losses.’  This indi cator also has thr ee criteria to measu re its stat us, which ar e the following: the numbe r of jobs (full and part-ti me) cr eated b y foo d service outl ets, the pro fit or loss es ex peri enced by UBC food servi ce out lets, and the cost of food production at the UBC farm.  A sust ainable food s ystem has a value -based app ro ach, one that focuses on an econo mi c s ystem favourin g en vironmental sust ainabili ty, relations hips betwe en farmers and cons umers, fairn ess and equit y, and stron g comm unit ies over the profit mot ives (2, 5).  Profit is imperati ve fo r a food s ystem to be sust ainable; however, human soci et y has been and shoul d rema in more than just a marketpl a ce (4).  At thi s point in ti me, food p roducti on is based on profit rather th an on the purpose of feedin g peopl e, and thes e two obje cti ves shoul d be bal anced to encoura ge sust ainabili t y (4).  Th e economi c s ystem ne eds to refle ct values other than the abil it y to com pete in the m arketpl a ce with t he gr eatest effi cienc y to generate the great est profi t (5).  Thes e valu es ma y in clude: sust ainabili t y, just ice, equit y, be aut y, cult ure an d self -dete rminati on, to name a few (5 ).  This is in direct co rrelation with our weak anthropocentri c values.  In the food econom y, the marketi n g potential for local sust ainabl e foo ds is an important aspect ( 3 ) .  It is necess ar y to dev elop lo cal agri cult ural mark ets for growe rs in their regio ns and to ex ami ne consum er dema nd for locall y grown foo ds (3).  Lastl y, the social indicator assessing sustainability is the ‘community support of local agriculture production.’  Three criteria that measure its status include: the ratio of locally produced food from UBC farm and used b y UBC food servic e outl ets ve rsu s tot al food used, t he am ount of produ ce grown on UBC farm annuall y, and the varieti es of produce gro w n on the UBC farm.  The importance we found specificall y with thi s indi cator alone was obtaining a balanc e between local self -suf ficienc y and globall y de pendent needs (leanin g mor e towards the local if possi ble ) ( 7).  To addr ess thi s indicator, a sust ainable foo d s ystem must create a relations hip between farm ers, cons umers, proc essors and ot her pa rticipants (5).  Thi s would result in increased comm unicati on between con sumers a nd farmers, thu s meeti ng more of the consum ers Group 15, UBC’s Food Sustainability Project       10 of 25 needs, edu cati ng and inc reasin g the knowled ge of consum ers and in cre as ing comm unit y suppo rt of local agriculture.  People hav e lost all contact with food (4).  This dist ance is compared to the sepa rati on of knowledge about ho w food is produced, proces sed and transpo rted (4 ).  Furthe rmore, Liebl ein concludes that the dist ance betwe en people and food sour ces , increas es the dist anc e we have from each oth er (6).  As a result of thi s dist ance, people place low prior it y on agri cult ural and food sys tems, lack insi ght and concern about resour ces and the natural environm ent, an d ex hibi t short -term focus on immediate comfo r ts at the ex pense of long -term sus tainabil it y (6).  Th rou gh increasin g loc al producti on, an emphasis will be placed on the importance of close prox im it y to food and kno wledge about food.  By strength ening the loc al producti on of the food s ystem, econ omi c and comm unit y dev elopm ent in the area can also be enhan ced ( 7 ).  Intermediate Stages along the Continuum  On the sust ainabili t y con ti nuum, the right sid e bei ng sust ain able and the lef t side bein g unsust ainabl e as defined above, a trul y sust ainable food s ystem (from our point of view) would have all of the criteria for each of the thre e indi cators filled to their max imum potentials.  For exampl e, a trul y sust ainabl e s ystem would have the following cha ract eristi cs: a ver y high proportion of compos ti ng and rec ycli n g co mpared to soli d waste, a hi gh rati o of rec ycled items ove r to tal waste, a hi gh numb er of part icipants in the WasteFr ee UBC pro gram, a high nu mber of full and part -ti me jobs created b y the UBC food service outl ets, a low cost of food produ cti on, high profit s ex perienced b y lo cal farmers, a hi gh rati o of locall y produ ced food used b y UBC food s ervic e outl et s compared to tot al foo ds used and a hi gh yiel d and a wide variet y of produce gro wn on the UBC far m annuall y.   Presently, we cannot define what is meant by “high ratio” or “high proportion,” etc because we do not know when this research will be con du cted.  However, these st andards can be determi ned b y research ers who will be using pres ent data as well as their own resea rch to set these standards.  If a trul y sus tainable food s ystem is gr avit ati ng slowl y towa r ds unsust ainabili t y, sta ge 2 is one measu rable st ep down from sust ainabili t y, wh er e a food s ystem has onl y t he criteri a to compl ete t wo of the three indi cators.  For ex ampl e, the s ystem may be sociall y and ecolo gic all y sust ainable, how ever it is lacking in the economi c al indi cator whe re it has no t max im iz ed the potentials of the economi c criteri a.  Group 15, UBC’s Food Sustainability Project       11 of 25 Furthermo re, a food s ys tem at sta ge 1 on our sust ainabili t y conti nuum would indi cate even less sust ainabili t y than above , where it onl y me ets the criteria for one of the indi cators (whethe r it is, socia l, ecolo gical or economi ca l).  If a food s ystem is unable to meet all three criteria fo r at least one of the indi cators, the s ystem wo uld be lab ell ed as unsust ainable, whi ch is d efined above.  Th ere is a lot of room for discrepan cies and va riati ons between sta ges on t he sust ainabili t y conti nuum becaus e ev er y food s ystem is different.  The refo re, up on labell ing wher e a foo d s ystem lies, th ere must also be a des criptio n of what is lacking and how improve ments can be made (whic h directl y rel ate to the criteria we have set).  The methods we propos e to me asure and evaluat e the indi cator s will be addressed.  Th e sta ges are in pla ce for a gene ral idea of how sustainable the overall food s ystem is .     Research Design Proposal  In const ructi n g a res ear ch desi gn usin g ecologi cal, social and economi cal persp ecti ves, rando m sampl ing will be used so that the res ear ch partici pants bett er rep resent th e lar ger group of the ent ire UBC population, from which t he y ar e dra wn (11).  Th e theoreti c al population is the enti re UBC p opulat ion (i.e. UBC students, facult y an d staff members).  Howe ver, the ac cessi ble population is cha ract eriz ed b y a mix of UBC students, facult y and staff m embers in six selected areas ac ross campus , which will repr e sent the theoreti cal population.  The si x areas are repr es entative of the enti re UBC campus and are cho sen to be: Macmi ll an Buil din g, He nr y An gus Buil ding, Civi l Engine erin g and Me chanical En ginee ring Buil dings, Buchan an Compl ex , Mathematics Buil ding an d Biol ogic al Science Buil ding.  Random samp li ng will be appli ed to surve ys distribut ed in the above mentio ned areas.  Survey research, defined as “any measurement procedures that involve asking questions of respondents,” is one of the most effective and important areas of measurement when doing res ear ch (11).  In the chosen method of surve yin g, the int erview er makes personal conta ct with the respondent, as opposed to just sending out an imp ersonal surv e y form. As a result , a sho rt verb al descriptio n can be given to each candidate prior to filli n g ou t the surve y, whi ch would provide clarific ati on and reduc e the len gt h of the form, ther eb y maintaini ng th e respondent 's int erest and minim iz ing inconvenienc e .  In addi ti on, the Group 15, UBC’s Food Sustainability Project       12 of 25 respondent can ask furt her questi ons to the int e rviewer regardin g the research stud y (11).  Overall , thi s would yi eld an ex pected increase in the perc enta ge of peopl e who are wi ll ing to participate in the surve y.  All three surv e ys des crib ed below can be found in the appendi ces.  The surve ys are design ed to facil it ate a clear reco rdi ng of answ er s, in addit ion to coll ecti ng dat a in a form that is ef ficient for late r proc essi ng (13 ).  The surve y enti tl ed “The Reusable Containers Survey” (Appendix C) will aid in measuring the number of participants in the Wastefree UBC “One Less Cup” Campaign, part of the ‘waste management and recycling’ indicator .  This surve y was formul ated b y using previous data from anoth er resea rc h project (4 ).  This surve y will be dist ributed prior to any res ear ch being condu c ted to determi ne members of the UBC comm unity’s willingness to bring their own reusable food and beverage containers.  The survey will discover wheth er or not members of the UBC co mm unit y are awa re of th e $0.15 discount offer ed if the y bring their own reus able coffe e mu gs and food containers.  F urthermore, the survey will measure people’s will ingness to participate in the Wastefree UBC “One Less Cup” Campaign by discovering whether or not the discount is enough of an incenti ve to use their own mugs and con tainers over dispo sables and the reasons fo r doing so.  The UBC Food Servic es can measur e the numbe r of participants in thi s pr ogr am b y keepin g records of th e amount s of hot beve ra ges and food items sold to custom ers who brin g th eir own mugs and/or containe rs.  The number of particip an ts in the W astefree UBC “One Less Cup” Campaign as an ecolo gical indi c ator dete r mi nes that a high will ingness to bring reusabl e m ugs and containe rs b y in divi duals means that the campus is moving towards sustaina bil it y.    Another me asure of our chosen ecolo gical indi ca tor is the rati o of the am ount of rec ycl ed mat eria l versus the amount of tot al waste.  This is to be carried out b y the indi vid ual food outl ets on a dail y basis in logbooks.  The lo gbook s will ensure ac cur ate record keepin g as well as conti nuous moni tori ng.  This procedur e shoul d becom e a mandator y poli c y fo r all food s ervic e outl ets t o abide b y.  Th e lo gbook s will be located at each outl et and will record: 1) the amount of tot al waste (re corded in tot al garb a ge bags and rec ycl able bins of equiva lent siz e ) and 2) the amount of rec ycled mate rial (record ed in tot al rec yclab le bins).  Like wise, the rati o of the amount of compos ted material versus the amount of tot al waste will be measured Group 15, UBC’s Food Sustainability Project       13 of 25 to indi cate efforts to biodegrad e material that can be compos ted.  Simi larly, the lo gbooks will be located at each UBC Food Servi ce outl et and will record the amount of compos ted material (record ed in tot al compos t storage bins to hold mate rials befor e bein g put int o compos t, that are of eq uivalent siz e to the garba ge ba gs) and will use the same tot al waste used fo r the fo r mer rati o.  Rati os for co mpos table material and rec yclabl e material can be compare d before and after modi f icati ons in the UBC FS to determi ne movements towards campus sust ainabili t y.  In addit ion, the su rve y entitled “Survey of Composting and Recycling on UBC Campus” (Appendix D) serves as a preli mi nar y gau ge of the will ingness of students, staff and facult y to participate in compos ti n g and rec ycli n g ef forts on campus .  Economi c indi cators mu st also be used in th e me asure of sust ainabili t y.  The purpose of the su rve y entitled “Survey of Local Sustainable Food Products on UBC Campus” (Appendix E) is to discover people’s willingness to pay for locally sustainable products.  In this survey, we would ask random stu dents, facult y and staf f membe rs if the y would bu y an d consum e loc all y sust ai nable produ cts.  As a result , thi s surve y will show the pro babil it y of acceptan ce if locall y sust ainable produ cts wer e int roduc ed to th e UBC food chain.  In addit ion, thi s surve y will display people’s willingness to pay for an increase in the variety of food at UBC, espe ciall y locall y sust ainable foo d products, ethni c and cult ural foods.  Furtherm ore, thi s surve y will evaluate the importance of societal benefits that people put on job creati on withi n the UBCFS .  We feel that if peopl e ha ve a hi gh social - economi c value on job creati on, the y will have a posi ti ve reacti on to locall y sust ainable foo ds.    This survey provides primary data about people’s willingness to pay for locally su stain able product s.  Howeve r, the actu al data can be obtained afte r the resea rch has been condu c ted by looki n g at the net income statement, mont hl y per f ormance indi c ators and revenue summ ar y of UBC food servi ces.  A posit ive net income indi cates that local l y sust ainable food operati ons cover its cost and gener ate a small portion of profit , therefor e, making thi s method economi call y sust ainable.  In addit ion, this positi ve income demons trates that people are int erested in locall y sust ainable foods.  After th e resear ch is compl eted, we can also compar e the consum pti on of locall y sust ainab le products against re gular produ cts.  This can be done b y Group 15, UBC’s Food Sustainability Project       14 of 25 looki ng at the receivi n g i nvoices of raw materi al for food prep arati on.  Ord ering mo re sust ainable products from local mark ets over regular pro ducts indi cate s that UBC is sell ing mo re food that cont ains sust ainable products.  This data also indi cates the dem and fo r locall y sust ainable foods withi n the UBC comm unit y.  In addit ion, the number of j obs that are creat ed with in UBC food servi ces, due to the incre ased use of locall y sust ainable products, ca n be me asured b y ev alu ati ng th e number of peo ple that were empl o ye d by food services befo re and after implementation of this program.  An increas e in demand for locall y su sta inable products result s in hiring more empl o ye es, thus indi cati ng that thi s pro gra m creates mor e jobs in UBC food services.  Fin all y, th e rate of participati on in disco unt promot ion can be calculated b y looki n g at the invoi ces for raw materi al such as cups .  Furthermore, the cost of food producti on at UBC farm can be dete r mi ned by assessing the food produ cti on data provided b y UBC farm ers.    Social criteria are based on the ‘community support for local production’ indicator.  Similar to the economi c indi ca tor, a rev iew of the rec eivi ng invo ices of raw mate rial for food prepar ati on can be done.  An increas ed use of local pr oducts rather than impor ted products indi cates that UBC is sell ing more food that contains sust ainable prod ucts.  From thi s data, a rati o of locall y produ ced food from the UBC farm used by UBC Food Services vers us tot al food used can be produc ed to indi cate th e demand for loc all y sus tainable products.  In orde r to measure the output of the UBC farm to determi ne whether or not the UBC farm c an prove to be a major cont ributi on in movi ng tow ar ds sust ainabili t y of the UBCFS , records shoul d be kept to see how much produce is being grown.  These records will be accumul a ted annuall y and the dat a will be compared to demons trat e the producti on capabi li ti es of the UBC farm.  In order to determi ne wh ether the variet y of the food produ ced b y the UBC farm is acceptabl e, questi onnaires are desi gned asking resp ondents whether or not the y are sati sfied with the variet y and quali t y of foods av ail able on campu s that co me from the fa rm.  These su rve ys are to be dist ributed aft er furthe r incorpo rati on of the UBC farm into the UBCFS to determi ne if variet y and quali t y ar e accept able to the comm unit y.     Group 15, UBC’s Food Sustainability Project       15 of 25 Conclusion    Inv esti gati ng the cu rrent state of sust ainabil it y i s necess ar y for makin g ini ti ati ves to improve the UBCFS .  Our proposed model can serv e as a guideline to assess the cu rre nt state of the sust ainabili t y of th e UBCFS .  The thre e main indi cators alon g with the criteri a fo r each of the in dicators des crib e diff eren t stages of sust ainabili t y which can be used in determi ning the state of sust ainabili t y of the UBCFS .  Our group decided to do a preli mi n ar y assessment of whe re the UBC FS curr entl y lies in acco rdanc e to our mo del.  We concluded that the UBCFS is unsust ainable at the present time.  Even though it fulfil ls some of the criteria for all of the indi cators it does not compl etel y sati sf y an y one of the indi cators.   We hope that in the future the UBCFS will strive to wards a mor e sust ainable food s ystem.   Recommendations  We reco gniz e that our model was not able to include a number of importa nt indi cators and wa ys to stud y the UBCFS .  Ther efore, we hav e provided a few recomm end ati ons and alt ernati ve wa ys in assessing the UBCFS .    The UBC Sustainabil it y Of fice shoul d hire mor e student workers to car r y out various res ear ch proj ects focused on assessin g th e sust ainabili t y of the UBCFS .  Th e Sustainabil it y Office shoul d provid e a detailed traini ng sessi on that all ows workers to understand iss ues related t o sus tainabil it y, which wil l further assi st them in ef fe cti vel y car r yin g out rese a rch proje cts.  Develop a res ear ch stud y that anal yses the amoun t of milea ge that food tra vels befor e it reaches UBC food servic e outl ets.  Thi s is important becaus e th e anal ysis of food milea ge will all ow us to esti m ate the sust ainabili t y of the UBCFS in regards to pro vidi ng loc al food produc ts.  This will also provid e a measure of th e quali t y of food products at UBC.  Develop a resea rch pro posal that investi gates t he ac ceptan ce of e stabli shing a local groce r y outl et (particularl y a produce m arket) withi n the UBC ca mpus .  This would help t o understand th e ch all en ges and opportuni ti es that ar e associated with opening thi s t yp e of food outl e t and how ac cepti n g UBC Group 15, UBC’s Food Sustainability Project       16 of 25 consum ers are in pur ch asing thi s t yp e of food.  This would most likel y inc reas e the comm un it y support of local agri cult ure.   Another social indi cator that would be ver y benef icial to use in another sim il ar proposal, would be the relations hip between pr oviders and consum ers.  A proposed res ear ch methodolog y to follow thi s indicator would be to examine and understand UBC community members’ knowledge about its food s ystem.  Surve ys would be ben eficial to measur e how much people actuall y kno w or ar e awar e abo ut the food s ystem.  Thu s, the problem can l ater be addr essed throu gh more promot ion, educ ati on, and int egr ati on of local farm ers closer to the campus area in order to create a relations hip between th em and their consum ers.  This will help to under stand the ne eds of the comm unit y and tea ch the comm unit y membe rs ab out the food s ystem.  Th is would result in more comm unit y support towa rds the farmers through increasing the surrounding community’s knowledge, awareness and involvement in the food s ystem.  Furt hermore, sust ainabili t y wo uld increase in the futur e.    Design a rese ar ch project that focuses on the impact of fran chises and "bra nding" on the sust ainabili t y of the UBC FS .  Th e i mpacts of franchises sh ould be ex ami ned by comparing franchise and non -franchise food outl ets as a measurem ent for custom er sati sfacti on, ec ological sust ainabili t y, and economi c profit s.  Surve ys would be don e to determi ne the values t hat members of the UBC comm unit y set on food products from fr anchised and non -fr anchised food outl ets.   C onst ruct a rese arch design that en compasses equal ac cess to food as a soci al indi cator for sust ainabili t y.  Surve ys can be done to determi ne students, staff, and facult y members ' will in gness to sacrific e equ al ac cess to a variet y of foods all ye a r round fo r a limi ted sele ct ion of season all y avail a ble and locall y grown sust ai nable food produ cts.     Group 15, UBC’s Food Sustainability Project       17 of 25 References 1. Bomke, A., Roj as, A., & Skura, (Eds.). (2001). Unit 9.2: Values for the Future: Ethic    Foundati ons for the Issue of Foot and Mouth Dise ase. AGS C I 250 - La nd, Food and    Comm unit y 1.  2. Brunett i, A. (2002 ). Bi ti ng int o Sustainabil it y: The 2002 UBC FS Stud y Report ,   1 -6. 3. Feenstr a, G. W. (1997) . Loc al food s ystems and sust ainable comm unit ies. American J ournal   of Alternati ve Agricultur e 12 (1), 28-36. 4. Kloppenber g. J ., Hend rickson, J ., & Stevenson, G. W. (1996). Com ing int o the Foodshed.  Agriculture and Human Values 13(3), 33 -42. 5. Kloppenbur g, J ., Lez b er g. S., De Maste r, K., Stevenson, G. W., & Hendr ickson, J. (2000).   Tasti ng Food, Tasti n g Sustainabil it y: Defi nin g the Attribut es of an Altern ati ve Food   system with Com petent, Ordinar y People. Hum an Organiz ati on 59 (2), 177- 186. 6. Lieblein, G., Fr ancis, C.H., Torjusen, H. (2001 ). Future int e rconne cti ons among ecolo gical farm ers,  processors, ma rkete rs, an d consu mers in Hedma rk Countr y, Nor wa y: Creati ng Shar ed Visi on.  Human Ecolo g y Review 8(1), 60-70. 7. Lyson, T. A., & Green , J . (1999). The Agricultural Markets cape: A Fr amework fo r Sust aini ng   Agriculture and Comm u nit ies in the Northeast. J ournal of Sustainable Agri cult ure 15 (2/3),  133-147. 8.  Masseli nk, D., & Bo mke, A. (2002). Sustaina ble Agriculture and Comm unit y Developm ent:  Cult ivating a Connecti on of the Unive rsit y of Bri sit h Colunbi a. Paper pre sented at the Internati on al Fede rati on.Of Or ganic Agricult ur e Movements . Victoria, BC. 9. Murd y, W. H. (1993). Anthropocentrism : A Modern View. In Armstrong, S., & Botz ler, R. (1993). Environment Ethic. Dive rgence and Conver gence (pp. 302-310). Toronto: McGraw Hill . 10. Prett y, J . N. (1995). Regen er ati ng agricult ur e. Chapter 9, Poli cies that Work for Sustainable Group 15, UBC’s Food Sustainability Project       18 of 25  Agricutlure, 266-278. 11. Trochim , W. (2000). The Resea rch Methods Knowledge Base (2 n d  ed.). Atomi c Dog   Publi shing, Cincinnati , OH. Websites: 12. Alma -Mata Societ y. Retrieved Mar ch 5, 2003 from the World Wide Web:   http:/ /ams.ubc.ca/  13. Surve y Res ear ch Cen ter. (2003). Instrum ent Design, Univ ersit y of Cali f ornia. Retrieved   March 20, 2003 from the World Wide Web   http:/ /srcweb.berkele y. ed u/i nstrDesignN ew.html  14. UBC Campus Sustainabil it y Offi ce. Retriev e d March 5, 2003 from the World Wide Web:   http:/ /www.sust ain.ubc.ca/  15. UBC fa rm. Retrieved March 5, 2003 fr om the World Wide Web:  http:/ /www.agsci.ubc. ca/ ubcfarm/  16. UBC Food Se rvices. Retrieved Mar ch 5 from t he World Wide Web:  http:/ /www.foodserv.ubc .ca/  17. UBC Sustainabil it y Poli c y. Retriev ed Mar ch 5, 2003 from the World Wide Web:   http:/ /www.poli c y.ubcc a/ poli c y5.htm . 18. The UBC Waste Man agement Annual Repo rt. Retrieved Mar ch 5, 2003 from the World   Wide Web: htt p:// w ww.rec ycle.ub c.c a/              Group 15, UBC’s Food Sustainability Project       19 of 25 Appendices Appendix A: UBC Map Appendix B: Proposed sust ainabili t y mod el  Appendix C: The Reusable Containers Surve y Appendix D: Surve y of Compos ti ng and Rec ycli ng on UBC Campus Appendix E: Surve y of Local Sustainable Food P r oducts on UBC Campus                                       Group 15, UBC’s Food Sustainability Project       20 of 25 Appendix A                   Group 15, UBC’s Food Sustainability Project       22 of 25  Appendix C The Reusable Containers Survey  1. How many cups of hot beverages, such as coffee, tea or hot chocolate, do you purchase on campus per week?     None   1 cup   2 cups   3 cups   4 cups   5 cups   6 cups or more  2. How many food items served in disposable containers, such as sandwiches or burgers, do you purchase on campus per week?     None   1 food item   2 food items   3 food items   4 food items   5 food items   6 food items or more  3. If buying hot beverages or food items on campus, do you bring your own mug/container?      Yes    No    Sometimes  4. Did you know that you can get a discount when purchasing hot beverages and food items by bringing your own reusable mug/container?  If yes, how much do you think the discount is?        No   Yes   $0.05   $0.15   $0.20   $0.30               $0.50       Group 15, UBC’s Food Sustainability Project       23 of 25  Appendix D  Survey of Composting and Recycling on UBC Campus  1. Do you make an effort to separate your garbage and recyclables?     Yes    No    Sometimes  2. Have you ever used a compost bin? (Check all that apply)     School      Home      Other __________  3. Are you familiar with what food wastes are compostable material?     Yes    No    Somewhat  4. Are you aware of whether or not there is a composting project on the UBC campus?     Yes    No  5. If a composting bin was made available beside regular garbage bins would you utilize it?     Yes    No                Group 15, UBC’s Food Sustainability Project       24 of 25  Appendix E  Survey of Local Sustainable Food Products on UBC Campus  Please circle your response after carefully reading the questions.  1. How much extra would you pay for local sustainable products on campus? $0.00       $0.50      $1.00     $1.50     $2.00  2. How much extra would you pay for all food outlets to serve local products, resulting with more support for your farm at UBC? $0.00       $0.50      $1.00  $1.50      $2.00  3. How much extra would you pay for cultural and ethnic foods available in all food outlets? $0.00       $0.50      $1.00      $1.50     $2.00  4. How much extra would you pay for local sustainable vegetables and fruits? $0.00       $0.50      $1.00       $1.50     $2.00  5. How much extra would you pay to have shorter line-ups during peak hours in food outlets? $0.00       $0.50      $1.00      $1.50     $2.00  6. How much extra would you pay for more jobs to be available for students? $0.00       $0.50       $1.00      $1.50     $2.00  7. How much extra would you pay for recyclable, washable and re-usable materials to be used in the food outlets? $0.00     $0.50      $1.00     $1.50      $2.00  8. How much would you pay to reduce food outlets' garbage, which would in turn help out your environment? $0.00      $0.50      $1.00      $1.50     $2.00  9. How much of a discount off the regular price do you think should be awarded when you bring your own reusable containers? $0.05      $0.15      $0.20     $0.30        $0.50  

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