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Customer awareness of and participation in sustainability Cheng, Mandy; Harrison, Sara; Lam, Andria; Machial, Cristina; Syrovy, Lena; Trang, Diana Mar 31, 2004

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UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report       Customer Awareness off and Participation in Sustainability Mandy Cheng, Sara Harrison, Andria Lam, Cristina Machial, Lena Syrovy, Diana Trang  University of British Columbia AGSC 450 March 31, 2004           Disclaimer: “UBC SEEDS provides students with the opportunity to share the findings of their studies, as well as their opinions, conclusions and recommendations with the UBC community. The reader should bear in mind that this is a student project/report and is not an official document of UBC. Furthermore readers should bear in mind that these reports may not reflect the current status of activities at UBC. We urge you to contact the research persons mentioned in a report or the SEEDS Coordinator about the current status of the subject matter of a project/report”.           Customer Awareness of and Participation in Sustainability  AGSC 450 Grou p 18 Scen ario 7  March 31, 2004             Written By: Mand y Chen g Sara Harri son Andria Lam Cristi na Machial EMA ILED Len a S yr ov y Diana Tr an g Abstract Assessi ng the curr ent lev els of custom er awar enes s of and participati on in s ustainabil it y initiatives on the UBC campus is an important component of determining UBC’s progress to becomi ng a more sust ain able campus .  This is even more important considering th at even the best ini ti ati ves will do nothi ng to improve sust ainabili ty if no on e is using them.  Accordin gl y, we have ex panded on a model to assess sus tainabil it y, per f ormed rese ar ch to determ ine what init iatives are currentl y in plac e, both at UBC and at other univ e rsiti es and coll e ges, and developed a su rve y to be used nex t yea r to actuall y assess curr ent aw aren ess and participati on levels i n present init iatives.  Among some of th e cur re nt init iatives in place are programs to encou ra ge th e use of reusable containers and cutl er y, compos ti ng educati on and s ystems, and rec ycli n g (i ncludi ng rec ycli n g cooking oil to create Bio - diesel).  The surv e y and other information provid ed can also be used to assess the f e asibi li t y of creati n g future sust ain abil it y ini ti ati ves, includi ng t he feasibi li t y of introducing a ‘Food Week,’ and a more extensive composting program. Introduction As the AGS C 450 class of 2004, it is our role to further the pro gress into the UBC Food S ystem Project (U BC FS P ), and t o begin developi n g res ea rch strate gies th at wil l help to create a more sust ainable UBC food s ystem.  To accompl ish this, the various workin g gr oups have bee n assi gned to assess differ ent aspe c ts of the UBC food s yste m includi ng the cost of l ocall y produced foods, fo od mileage, a definiti on of food securit y for the UBC campus and more.  How ever, fo r our food s ystem to become more sust aina ble, ever yon e on campus must be awar e of the effo rts and s hould be making a conscious att empt to pa rticipate in the sustainabi li t y ini ti ati ves.  Accordin gl y, it is also important to determi ne the cu rrent lev els of awa reness and part icipati on in sustainabil it y ini ti ati ves.  Consequentl y, our group was given the ta sk of ass essi ng consum er aw ar ene ss of, and participati on in, sustainabil it y.   As a part of ou r topic, we are responsi ble for four components: compi li ng an inventor y of UBC campus -based food sust a inabili t y ini ti ati ves, work ing with UBC Food Serv ices and AM S Food Services to develop and conduct market research into consumers’ support for and participation in current and proposed sustainability initiatives, researching other universities' and colleges’ initiatives related to sustainable foo d procurem ent, and ex ami ning cur rent and propos ed future ma rketi n g and other educ ati onal campai gns.  The following will address these iss ues and provide a strate g y for future ye ars to conduct m arket resea rch and proce e d to a more sust ainable future.  Underlying Value Assumptions Although our group is co mprised of members fro m a wide back ground (fo od, soil and anim al sciences, horticultur e, gl obal resourc e s ystems , an d food resour ce economi cs), as a whole, we feel that the UBC Food S yste m can and shoul d strive t o achieve ecolo gical, eco nomi c and social sust ainabili t y.  In particul ar, we feel that each of these par ameters is equ all y important.  This is ex pected giv e n our group’s paradigm of a combination of weak anthropocentrism (social and economi cal sus tainabil it y) and bio -c entrism (ecolo gic al sus tainabil it y ) and can be ex plained using the definiti ons provided by the Cente r of Environ mental Sustainabil it y (20 04).  In particula r, we ak anthropocentris m suggests that, “while it is true that human beings are the source of all value in the sense that it is human beings who pla ce value on nature, it does not foll ow that the values the y pla ce on nature simply serve their own interests instrumentally” and b i oce ntrism is “placing the bioti c (living) community at the center of ethical and political concern.” We feel that bec ause our paradi gm takes int o cons iderati on the well -b eing of both hum ans and the environment, and bec ause our group is comp rised of a ver y divers e ac a demi c back ground, ver y few lim it ati ons ex ist .  To compl etel y encompass all aspects of human well - being, how eve r, all comm unit y and indi vidual paradi gms should also be consi der ed.  Our Model for Sustainability  In order to have a clea r directi on to proce ed, we were given a cent ral res ear ch questi on: to determi ne the lev el of kn owledge and awar eness about current sus tainabil it y ini ti ati ves with in the UBC comm unit y.  In ord er for the UBC Food S ys tem to become more sust ainable, we must incr eas e custo mer aw aren ess and participati on in sustainable practi c es, redu cing th e amount of waste produced and encou ra gin g the pur chas e of locall y produced food.  We also understand that if we hope to help create a mo r e sust ainable UBC food s ys tem, it will need to be worthwhil e for each of the stakeholders invo lved .  Specificall y, an y recom mendati ons that are mad e at the end of th e proje ct must be both practi cal an d economi call y fe asibl e.  In the end, it is our hope that we can create a pl an that will work for eve r yo n e invol ved.   In 2003, th e AGS C 450 class developed a variet y of differ ent models to measure the sust ainabili t y of the UBC Food S ystem (2 ).  Fo r our purposes this ye ar, we have chosen to further develop the model cr eate d by Group 9, lar gel y du e to the ease with which the int erconne ctedness betwe en the thr ee realm s of sust ainabili t y could be visuali z ed.  This model also provides the opportuni t y to evaluat e each of the thr ee pil lars of sust ainabili t y s epar atel y, somethi ng we felt was ver y important.  In addit i on, we beli eve th at the model all ows users to visuali z e the strengths and weakness es with in the fo od s ystem, providin g the abil it y to determine wh er e future efforts n eed to be focused and all owin g users to tail or sust ainabili t y ini ti ati ves to address these specifi c needs. Howeve r, there wer e so me adjust ments made to this model in order to appl y it to our sit uati on in a more useful manner.  In particular, we modi fied the scal e used for ea ch indi cator by chan gin g the dist ance betwe en the inc rements to represent the gre ater ef forts required at lower le vels of sust ainabili t y (see Fi gure 1).  This gr eate r ef fort relates to the need fo r infrastru ctur e and so on at low sustai nabi li t y  F ig. 1:  Curren t mo d el of sustain ab il it y levels.  For ex ampl e, to begin rec ycli n g and comp osti ng pro gr ams at UBC, significant chan ges h ad to occur in waste m ana ge ment.  The cr eati on of a compos ter also requir es s ignificant inf rastructu re and capit al.  How ever, once the ground work has been laid, the onl y thi ng i nhibi ti ng sust ainabili t y is our own w il li ngness to use the avail able resour ces .   In addit ion, although we felt that Group 9 had the best model to use for the assessment of the present status of the UBC food s ystem in gene ral , the indicators proposed were not dir ectl y appli cable to our spe cific task of assessin g consu mer awa ren ess and partic ipation in sust ainab il it y (see Table 1 in the appendix for Group 9’s indicators).  Accordingly, we modified the list of indi cators to the foll owing: 1.  Ecologic al: The propo rtion of food wastes that ar e bein g compos ted and rec yc led at UBC . 2.  Ecologic al -social: The us e of sustainab le Food S ys tem ini ti ati ves on campus by facult y, staff and students .  3.  S ocial: Knowledge about the Food S yst em and the concept of sust ainabili t y .  4.  S ocial -economi c: The pr oportion of food purch asing bud get sp ent on locall y produ ced an d/or processed goods b y cam pus food providers . 5.  Economic: The profitability of UBC’s Food Service sector.  6.  Ecologic al -e conomi c: Th e dist ance that unpro cess ed food trav els, and prox im it y of processors of proc essed foods .  We  also felt that it would be useful and important to create a timeline for th e pro gressi on of ou r project bec ause it allows us to assess, evaluate, an d modi f y pro grams as needed.  A more detailed descripti on of thi s can be found in Table 2 in the appendix .  Current Initiatives at UBC and Other Universities To address the sp ecific tasks that are mentioned ab ove, we condu cted various forms of res ear ch from onl ine sear ches to consul ti ng with members of the UBC and AMS Fo od Services.  The following contains a summar y of our findi n gs and it is our hope that future ye a rs wil l be abl e to ex pand on thi s list. a. Inventory of UBC campus-based food sustainability initiatives UBC Food Se rvice, AM S Food and Bever a ge Se r vice, and UBC Waste Mana gement all pla y significant rol es in the sust ainabili t y ini ti ati ves fou nd at UBC.  Fo r ex ampl e, UBC Waste Mana gement provid es both waste mana gem ent ser vices and wast e redu cti on educati on to the campus comm unit y throu gh the coordina ti on of rec yc li ng and compos ti ng and th ro ugh inform ati on fact sheets and compos t work shops (3).  UBC Food Se rvice and AMS Food and Beve ra ge Service ar e also working  tow ards a more sust ainable futur e through a number of cr eat ive init iatives, some of which are dis cussed belo w. To encour a ge the use of reusable contain ers, the AMS and UBC Food Se rvices are off erin g several pro grams includi ng Eco -c ards and Happ y Hour which rewa rd peop le wit h free coff ee fo r using reus able mu gs, as well as 15  discounts, Avoid Green Tax and Save $! which provide discounts for using reusa ble containers, all to help promot e sust ainabili t y.  Brin gin g your own mu g will not only save you money at Blue Chip Cookies, the Pendulum Restaurant, Bernoulli’s Bagels and other sit es on campu s, but wil l also reduce the amount of waste that en ds up in our landfil ls,(4). Compos ti ng of pre- and post -consum er food waste by both the UBC and AMS Food Services has also become an import an t init iative, as has using reusable food stor a ge cont ainers.  When containe rs aren’t directly reusable, as much is recycled as possible.  For example, Food Services recycle almost all cardboa rd, pap er, met al and glass.  The y hav e even started rec yc li ng co oking oil for the producti on of Bio -di esel that can be used to pow er various campus vehicl es .  In addit ion, compos ti ng and rec ycli n g bins ar e provided in fo od service areas and at so me of the residen ces on campus , thus making rec yc li n g and compos ti ng convenient and eas y for custom ers (4,5).  The use of real cutle r y an d chi na is also bein g enc oura ged as part of the eff ort to reduce th e use of dispo sable food contai ners.  Strongl y invol ved i n thi s ini ti ati ve are AMS caterin g, 99 Chairs and UBC Residenc es.  Howe ver, whil e the use of st yr ofoam and plasti c cont ainers is convenie nt, st yrofo am and plasti c tak e a lon g time to decompo se in landfill s.  Thus b y i nstead choosi n g to use real cutle r y and china, cu stom ers can do their part to ensure that the UBC campus becomes more sust ainable (4,5). Finall y, th ere is also a pr ogr am in pla ce to support local growe rs, includi ng the UBC Farm.  For ex ampl e, the Sage Bist ro purchases s elect produ ce from the UBC farm, whi le UBC Food Se rvices has set up procur ement standards wit h a pref eren c e for pur chasin g locall y produced (5 ).  This follows from the idea tha t the closer the food gro ws to the consum er, the fresher and more nutrit iou s it is likel y to be.  Furthe r more, by t aking advanta ge of the local ma rket, few er fossi l fuels are required to transpo rt and dist ribute the food, thus reducin g the dep endenc e on an unsust ainable fuel source while reducin g emi ssi ons.  Purchasing loc al food can also help the local econom y b y providi ng local job oppor tuni ti es and keeping mon e y withi n the comm unit y. b. Other universities' and colleges’ initiatives related to sustainable food procurement There are also numerous ini ti ati ves related to sustainable food procu rement that are cu rrentl y underwa y in v arious universit ies and coll e ges acro ss North America.  These ini ti ati ves invo lve the purchasin g of loc al foods and the developm ent of and participati on in camp us rec ycli n g and compos ti ng pro gr ams.  Some of the most promisi ng ini ti ati ves are found i n the foll owing Universiti es and Coll ege s: Bates Col le ge, Middel bur y Coll e ge, Universit y of Wisconsin, Universit y of Vermont, Unive rsit y of New Hampsh ire, Michi gan State Universit y, Eve rgreen State Coll e ge, and Sterli ng Coll ege.  Bates Col le ge, loc ated in Maine, developed and la unched their loc al food i nit iative in 1994 which evolved from initi ati ves to mini miz e waste and enco ur a ge rec yc li ng and compos ti ng.  Currentl y, 30 -40% of the food products that are purchased b y Bates Col lege are lo call y grown.  Loc al farmers wo rk close l y with the Food Se rvice Director and Chef to dete rmine the typ es of crops that shoul d be gro wn, the han dli ng lo gist ics, stora ge, and the amount of cro ps that shou ld be deli vered throu ghout the ye a r.  Th e infrastru cture t hat is set in place all ows for sim ple transacti ons and coordinated deli verie s between loc al farm ers and Bates Col le ge.  Th e fo od service st a ff at Bates C oll ege was so impresse d with the quali t y of loc a l produce that the y are no w ex ami ning the potenti a l of purchasin g loc all y pro duced proc essed foods (6 ).   Bates College has also introduced a “scrim line” where food leftovers and plate scraping s are placed.  The scrim line involves a conti nuous strea m of water that flows do wn a conve yo r belt , where the wate r removes food waste from the belt and catch es it in a strain er.  The food waste is then sent to a local pi g fa rmer, whil e the water us e d in the scrim line is re-u sed in the scrim line.  As well , pre- consum er kitch en residuals are transpo rted to a farm that is twelve mil es awa y fo r compos ti ng, which sav es dini ng servic es about $1 ,000 each ye ar (7).   Middelbur y Coll e ge, in Vermont, purch ases lo cal organic produ ce from local farmers.  The dini ng servic es at Middel bur y Coll e ge formed part nerships with local farm e rs and local produ ce dist ributors, enabli ng the m to purchase more lo cal produce fo r the food s er vice outl ets on campus .  In 2003, Middelb ury College dining service also formed a partnership with the college’s student - run Organic Garden, which s ell s small amount s of fresh produce to the dini n g service throu ghout the summ er (8). The Universit y of Wisconsin was the first major publi c universit y in the Un it ed States to provide locall y gro wn foods in the regula r menu of the do r m cafete rias.  This occu rr ed in Dec ember of 2000, as a result of the University Housing Food Service’s aspiration to provide good quality and fresh foods to students.  This local food initi ati ve was also taken due to an incr ea se in student demands for orga nic foods in dorm ca feterias.  The Center for Integr ated Agricultural S ystems (C IAS) sta ff worked alon gside food service admi nist rators and the Chef to cre ate a men u that o utl ined food s ystem issues.  Thes e me nus give a gene ral overvi ew of topi cs such as ener g y use, food secu rit y, sust ainable agricult ur e, and the economi c potentia l involved wit h local food systems (8).  The Universit y of Vermo nt has also developed a compos ti ng s ystem wh ere food waste is coll ected dail y from five campus locati ons and tra nsported to a compos ti ng facil it y.  Th e compos ti ng facil it y, Interval e Compos ti ng Project, is a non -pr ofit busi ness that is located about a mil e aw a y fro m campus that takes food waste and compos ts it into soil amendments.  Food s ervice outl ets hav e ca rts, labeled “Food Waste Only”, where students are encouraged to empty their leftovers and other food wastes.  In addit ion, students who live on campus can obtain speci al compo sti ng ba gs for th eir dorms.  These  compos ti ng ba gs are m ade of Kra ft paper, compos ed of biod egradabl e cell ulose lining, which ar e compl et el y compos ted alon g with the other food wastes.  Students are in char ge of bringin g their compos ti ng ba gs th at are filled wi th food waste to one of the five desi gnated loc ati ons on campus (9). Food pulpers hav e be en inst all ed in the dini ng hall s at the Universit y of New Hampsh ire, all owing food wastes to be pulveriz ed int o small pieces.  The food pulpers produce a dr y paste - l i k e material which is easil y and quickl y compos ted be cause of th e incre ase in s urfac e ar ea.  This fast method of compos ti ng de creas es the inciden ce of foul odors associated wit h compos ti ng.  In addit ion, student volunt eers from the Offic e of Su stainabil it y P ro gram coll ect food and or ganic wastes from various loca ti ons four mornings pe r week.  The food and or ga nic wastes ar e transpo rte d by truck by student volunteers to Kingman Farm, the University’s agronomy research facility, where it is compost ed in one of the eight compos t windrows (10).  Mi chigan State Univ ersity has also developed a co mpos ti ng s ystem, suppl yi ng 32 - gall on wheeled carts to food se r vice outl et kitchens.  The se carts are gr een in colo r and ar e label ed as food waste ca rts to differ enti at e them from other rec yc li ng carts and are primaril y used to coll ect pre -consum er food waste.  The wheel ed ca rts enable food waste to be moved easil y from the kitch en to the loading do ck, wher e waste mana gement staff empt y the contents of the cart into a truck.  T h e pre-consum e r food waste is then transported to a compos ti ng sit e about fou r miles from the campus , where it is compost ed an d tested as a potential fer ti li z er or soil amendment (11). At Ever gre en State Coll e ge, in Ol ympi a, Washin gton, a volunteer -run com post ing project was developed in 1998, and i nvolves pick up service from approx im atel y 1000 residents.  The y hav e als o const ructed an on -sit e air compos ti ng and a conti nuous -flow vermi - compos ti ng s yst em  and ar e invol ved with educati ona l out reach pro grams, or ganiz ing and holdi ng com muni t y compos ti ng workshops (12). Finall y, Sterli n g Coll e ge, in New York, sta rted ma nagin g their own dining s ervice in 1995, usi n g locall y gro wn meats, pro duce, and pro cess ed food s in their kitchens.  The y also began pur chasin g, p reparin g, and servin g fo ods in an environmentall y sust ainable m anner.  The y are even usin g biodegr adable, petroleum free dish and l aundr y so aps, and 100% rec ycl ed, unbleached paper products that can be com post ed.  All the food was te from the kitchen is als o compos ted (13).   c. Current and proposed future marketing and other educational campaigns The desired outcome of our group’s work is to develop an understanding of “the current and potential support for sust ainabili t y ini ti ati ves, and how these trends m a y tr a nslate int o custom er behavior and new workin g dire cti ons for UBC Foo d Services and AMS Foo d Services (14).  In thi s contex t, ex ami ning marketi ng and educ ati onal campaigns about sustainabi li t y is crucial to identi f y how man y people are cu r rentl y being reached, if behavior ch an ges are result ing from these campai gns, and wh at opportuni ti es are av ail able to increas e aw aren ess of an d participati on in the food s ystem.  This resea r ch can in turn inform Fo od Service mana gers in order to addr ess environmental, economi c and social conc erns in a balanced m anner.   Existing campaigns In the following s ecti on, the ex ist ing marketi ng an d educati onal campai gns on the UBC campus will be discussed, and the most recent info rmati on about the number of st udents currentl y bein g reach ed will be provided.  In addit ion, some ideas and recomm end ati ons for future mark eti ng and educati onal campai gns wil l be suggested. T o begi n, the Sust a i na bil i ty Ple dge was cre a te d in 2002 to give UBC stude nt s the opport unit y to make a persona l comm it me nt to susta i na bil i t y.  This commi tm e nt is supporte d through course s, eve nt s, ideas, and career resources that make it easier to put sustainability into practice in one’s personal and profe ssi ona l life .  As of Janua ry 1, 2003, 360 stude nts had signe d the Sust ai na bi l i t y Ple dge , whic h rea ds as “I pledge to explore and take into account the social and ecological consequences of my decisions.  Furt he rm ore , I ple dge to use the knowl e dge I gain whil e at UBC to improve the sust a i na bil i t y of the communi ti e s i n which I live, learn, and work” (15, 16). Sustainability Coordinators (SC’s) have also been introduced and act as volunteers to link the S ustainabil it y Office with facult ies and residenc e s.  The Facult y SC pro gr am was desi gned to implement sus tainable dev elopment policy in UBC’s 300 departments through providing information about enviro nmental impacts of dail y acti vit ies, and helpi ng to identif y alt e rnati ve wa ys of doing thi n gs.  The fo c us of the Facult y SC pro gr am is on more ef ficient ener g y use and trans portati on, and reduc ed waste gen er ati on.  To help there are also toolki ts avail able to help achieve th ese goals on th e Sustainabil it y Offic e web site (17).  The Residence SC pro gr am has been in pla ce in t he juni or residenc es, Tot em and Vanie r, since Septem ber 2003.  With a focus on air, food, m ateri als, and ene r g y, thi s program has the opportuni t y to reach mor e than 1300 students livi ng in these re sidences.  The duti es of the Residence SC include conducti ng educ ati onal and social marketi n g campaigns; provid in g resou rc es to cre ate ch an ge and alt ernati ve ide as; develop ing netwo rks betwe en facult y, staf f, students, and comm unit y; and appl yin g fo r grants to implement projects in the residences (18).   Also strongl y invol ved in marketi ng and edu cati on are UBC Was te Mana ge ment Services.  The y provide information abou t compost ing throu gh wo rm bin and back ya rd bin workshops, and produc e a compost newsletter called “The Rind.”  As an example of the potential of these strategies, 145 people at UBC took compost ing works hops in 20 00/2001.  Waste Manage ment also offers consul ti ng servic es to hel p develop compost ing s ystems, provide traini ng, and moni tor small -scale projects.  Such projects include St. John’s Composting, Green’s College Composting, Acadia C omm unit y Gardens Ba c k ya rd Compost ing, UBC Food Co -op Demons trati on Garden Com post ing, and Gage Resid ence Ba c k ya rd Compost ing.  In ad dit ion, Waste Managem e nt parti cipates in GSS Orientati ons, Im a gine UBC Main Event Carnival, Campus Craz e In formati on Daz e, Alternati ve Transp ortation Clean Air Day Fair, Student Resident Promotions, Waste Free “One Less Cup”, UBC Farm summ er Saturd a y market da ys, and th e Cec il Green Staff (3,19). There are s ever al educ ati onal programs that take place at UBC Farm in the Land, Food, and Comm unit y Garden, and in the Market Ga rden. Int er gene rati onal Land ed Learnin g is a proje ct of the Department of Curriculum Studies, which “brings together children, educators, and retired local farmers to ex plore how participati on in a farming/ ga rdenin g proje ct on an urban farm can foster environmental conscious ness, respe ct for natu re, and an understandin g of food - land issues.”  The pil ot project in 2002 -2003 included 18 seventh - gr ade students, their teache rs, and seven comm unit y farmers (20). Finall y, th e volunt ee rs progr am at the Mark et Ga r den contribut es to most of the work in seeding, weedin g, harv esti ng, and marketi ng of produc e, whil e at the same time pro vidi ng hands -on ex perience fo r the volunt eers in producin g and sel li ng food (21 ). Future Propositions Our group se es gre at pot enti al for food s ystem ed ucati on to be incorpor ate d int o the Ima gine UBC camp aign.  This ca mpaign int roduc es first year students to their facul ti es, their fell ow classmates, the la yout of the campus and the resou rces av ail able to them, an d is run by fell ow students.  Given that 4200 new students and 700 volunt eers partook in Ima gine UBC in 2003, there is great pot enti al to use thi s as an opportuni t y to i ntroduce students to food s ystem init iatives including the Natural Fo od Co -op, compos t ing fa cil it ies, UBC Fa rm, and deals offe red b y UBC Food Servic es and AMS Food and Bev era ge (22).   Furthermo re, bas ed on the potenti al for theme wee ks in the SUB to rea ch la rge numbers of students, we beli eve a Fo od Week could offe r anot her venue to inc re a se aw areness and understandin g about the Food S ystem.  Memb ers of the food s ystem, for ex ampl e, UBC Food Services and AMS Food and Bev er a ge Servic es, could set up boot hs to provide information about the role of each or ganiz ati on, and all the steps fro m foo d producti on to con sump ti on and waste mana gement.  In formatio n about eati n g local and seasonal diets could also b e provided, wit h cr eati ve recipes usin g se asonal fo ods being provid ed at bo oths for the UBC Farm, other farms, or proc essors in the Fras er Vall e y.   Another suggestion is to have UBC and AMS food outlets incorporate “food mile” menus that displ a y details the ori gin of selected food products (especi all y produ ce ), alo ng with the pric e.  Total food miles, if desired, co uld also be provided.  Th e men u does not need to be fanc y, but should demons trate the ran ge of avail able food, and what can be don e with it.  Providing some of this information in the “Inside UBC” student planner could also help demonstrate the available options and provide students with the opportuni t y to see what is avail able in adv a nce of comi n g to campus .  This planner also provide s an opportunit y to list some seasonal foods/ r ecipe s, or a schedul e of avail able compos ti n g, gr owing, or processi n g wo r kshops and events at the cost of ap prox im atel y $250 for coupon siz ed en tries, to $1500 for a page (23). Proposed research plan and methods of data collection The precedin g secti ons h ave hi ghli ghted man y of the sustainabil it y ini ti ati ves in place at UBC in the food sector, as well as som e in it iatives from selected universiti es in the United States.  Howeve r, we have sti ll been un able to full y dete rmine the le vels of participati on and awar eness of consum ers in sustainability initiatives here on campus.  Accordingly, next year’s AGSC 450 class will need to ex pand on the resea rch th at we hav e done b y det er mi ning the participati on and int erest in these ini ti ati ves from students, staff, and facult y at UBC ; as well as which init iatives tested at other universit ies have be en the most successful, and th erefo re the most promisi ng fo r initi ati on at UBC. In order to assess this, we propose that next year’s AGSC 450 class further research UBC ini ti ati ves b y ref errin g to publi shed reports whe rev er possibl e, and conta cti ng pe rsons in char ge of the init iatives when other sources of info rmati on is unavail able.  To assi st, we have in cluded a list of refe renc es and links to sources to facil it ate the res e arch in the refe ren ce se cti on.  However, we acknowled ge that while the reports ma y give an in dicati on of what h as b een done, the y do not alwa ys give a good repr e sentation of what has bee n successful.  We also do not necessaril y know the goals of th e groups involved in creati ng sust ainabi li t y projects at UBC, wha t the barriers are to reali z ing their visi ons, an d how the AGSC 450 Fo od S ystem Stud y can hel p.  Accordin gl y, we sugge st that subs equ ent classes work more closel y with the other stakehold ers in the project. To further att empt to assess custom er interest and awar eness of sust ainabil it y ini ti ati ves, our group, in consul tation wit h UBC Food Servi ces an d AMS Food and Beve ra ge Se rvices, h as also creat ed a surv e y desi gne d for dist ributi on by e-m ail (through th e UBC s ys tem) or onli ne (the surv e y is avail able at the end of the appendix ).  The surve y is intended to tak e appr ox im atel y five to ten minutes to compl ete, and ma y of fer th e incenti ve of being enter ed in a dra w for sev eral small priz e s furnished b y the food s er vice groups in return for its completion.  Andrew Parr and Nanc y Too good , the repr esentatives fo r UBC and AMS Food Se rvices, resp ecti vel y, were consul ted on the content of the surve y and the pot enti al priz es, and are will in g to partake in this venture , especiall y if the result ing inform ati on will help them direct future efforts.  In order to have time to d ist ribute the survey and analyze the results, next year’s AGSC 450 class should distribute the survey at the beginni n g of the t erm.  This should also provide enough time to prep are a small report for Food Services.  The su rve y res ult s can be used to establ ish information about the demogr aphics of the people using compos ti ng workshops at UBC, bringin g their own mu g, or participati ng in othe r sust ainabili t y ini ti ati ves.  From this, it can also be determi ned which pro gra ms are app eali n g to whom, and wher e ther e is room to grow and dev elop other pro gr ams to target those not rea ched b y the curr ent init iatives. There is also a pot enti al to develop new practi c es and ini ti ati ves for use at UBC from wh at has been dete rmined to be su ccessful or not su ccessful at other universit ies, ho wever, the data obtained this year did not provide this information.  As a result, another research objective for next year’s class shoul d be to attempt to make contacts at the other universit ies, and di scover the suc cess es and fail ures that ma y hav e arisen as the proje cts matur ed and evolved.  By fo rming person al conne cti ons with the other universit ie s, we ma y also create a two -wa y flow of knowled ge about food s ystem sust ainabili t y on campus es. Given the above recomm endati ons, we also prop o se the foll owing timeline for achi eving all of the go als of the UBCFS P : Current ye a r,Ye ar 3:   P ropose rese arch tool s (e .g. surv e y) fo r measurin g custom er aw aren ess and participati on in sust ainabili t y ini ti ati ve on campus  C ompi le a list of current ini ti ati ves alread y in plac e at UBC  C reate a list of the most promi sing ini ti ati ves fro m other universiti es in North America th at could be adopted at UBC  Determi ne wh at curr ent marketi ng and edu cati on al strate gies are in plac e on campus Year 4:  Use surve y to ass es s customer awa ren ess and participati on in sustainabil it y ini ti ati ves on campus and an al yz e resu lt s  Foll ow up on init iatives from other universit ies (b y cont acti n g the people headin g up these ini ti ati ves) to discover which have be en most succ essful (sociall y, ecolo gic all y, and economi call y)  R efine the list of initi ati ves that could be adopted at UBC  -  Determi ne the cost of implementi ng such ini ti ati ves  -  Determi ne the support fo r the new init iatives b y the other sustainable organiz ati ons/ UBC   Further assess th e addit io nal marketi n g and edu cat ional strate gies that are in place on campus  Year 5:  Using result s from the cu stom er awar eness surv e y and the re fined list of ini ti ati ves compil ed in Year 4, create an acti on plan for enh ancin g the sust ainabili t y of the Fo od S ystem at UBC  Give some suggesti ons for further ini ti ati ves that could be taken in futur e ye a rs if the proposed ini ti ati ves are s uccessful (e. g. pur chasin g more or ganic foods, helpi ng cr eate comm unit y pro gr ams bas ed on the succ ess of the UBC comm unit y i nit iatives)  Design possi ble educati o nal strate gies  Conclusion Although we have detailed an ex tensive list of the current sus tainabil it y ini ti ati ves and strate gies in place both on campus and at other unive rsiti es, it is evident that the work is sti ll far from over.  In order to assess the su cc ess of curr ent init iatives and the potenti al for other i nit iatives, further resea rch will need to b e done.  Acco rdin gl y, it is hoped that the strate gies suggested above will all o w future class es invo lved in the UBCFS P to not onl y assess the cur rent pa rticipati on and awa reness in sust a inabili t y ini ti ati ves, but to also develop a feas ibl e set of recomm end ati ons that can be pass ed on to the appropriate stak eh olders.  It is onl y b y usin g all the avail able resour ces that a stron g set of goals and ini ti ati ves can be created, but b y doin g so, it is our hope that more people wil l be come invol ved in making our food s ystem a mor e sust ainable food s ystem.  We also hope that the model described earlie r wil l provide a wa y to ass ess our progress and demons trate conti nued improvement.  In conclusi on, it is important to remember that we , as members of a high er inst it ute of educati on, reali z e the impact we hav e on our planet and com muni ti es, and strive to cr eate a bett er societ y and envi ronment for not just ourselves, but for soci et y as a whole (24 ).  Accord ingl y, we must all seek to lead more sust ainable liv es, and re co gniz e that it is not onl y important to be awa re of th e opti ons avail able, but we must al so be acti ve pa rticipants in the move to become more sust ainable.  It is onl y by  ex ertin g thi s effort tha t we can set valuable ex a mpl es for the rest of hum anit y. Literature Cited  1.  C enter for Environm enta l Sustainabil it y. Glossar y. Access ed Mar ch 22, 20 04. htt p:/ /www.ecomus eum.i thaca.n y.us/ .   2.  Bouris, K.  2003.  2003 UBC Food S ystem Coll aborati ve Project: Summ ar y of findi n gs.  UBC Campus Sustainabil it y Office.  3.  Department of Plant Op e rati ons.  2003.  Buil ding a Sustainable Communi ty:  UB C Waste Mana gement 2002 -2003 Annual Report.  Universi t y of Britis h Col umbi a.  Access ed Mar ch 23, 2004.  http:/ /pdf.lbs.ubc.ca/re c ycle/annu alrepo rt2003.pdf .   4.  AMS Food and Beve ra ge Services.  List of sustainabil it y ini ti ati ves.  Class handout.  March 3, 2004.  5.  UBC Food Se rvices.  Sus tainabil it y ini ti ati ves.  Class handout.  March 3, 2004.  6.  J ohnson, D.B. & Stevens on, G.W .  1998.  Something to Cheer About: Nati onal Trends and Prospects for Sust ainable Agriculture Products in Food Servic e Oper ati ons in Col leges and Universiti es.  Acc essed March 17, 2004. htt p:/ /www.wisc.edu/ci as/pub s/J ohnson.P DF .   7.  Bates Col le ge.  2001. Bat es Dini ng Hono re d with Nati onal Reco gnit ion.  Accessed March 17, 2004. htt p:/ /abacus.bates. edu/admin/ offices/di ning/ about us /environmental i nit iatives.htm l .  8.  New Rules Project.  200 4.  Universit y Support of Loc all y Grown Food.  Accessed March 17, 2004. htt p:/ /www.newrules.or g/a gri/colle ge food.h tm l .  9.  Universit y of Vermont.  2003.  Compos ti ng Food Scraps.  Access ed M arch 17, 2004. htt p:/ /www.uvm.edu/~uvmppd/S ervices/R ec ycli n g and S oli d W aste/? P age =C ompos ti ng/C ompost ing.htm l .   10.  Universit y of New Hamp shire Offic e of Sust ainab il it y Pro gr ams.  2003.  Closi ng the Food C ycle in the UNH/Durh a m Comm unit y.  Accesse d March 17, 2004. htt p:/ /www.sust ainableunh.unh.edu/fas/compost /unh /i ndex .html .  11.  Universit y of Michigan Plant Operati ons. 2002.  Food Waste Com post Progr am.  Acc essed March 17, 2004. htt p:/ /www.re c ycle.umich.edu/ gr ounds/ rec ycle/food_ com post ing.htm l .   12.  Gilbert, T. & Klu g, J . 1999.  Ever gre en State Coll ege Compos ti ng Pro gram .  Access ed Mar ch 17, 2004. htt p:/ /www.nwf.or g/campus Ecolo g y/file s/ever gre en.pdf .  13.  S terli ng Dining Se r vices.  1999.  Sterli ng Coll ege Dining Servic e.  Accesse d March 17, 2004. htt p:/ /www.nwf.org/ cam pusEcolog y/files/s terli n g.pdf .   14.  R ojas, A. and Wagn er, J.  2004.  The sust ainabili ty of the UBC Food S yste m Coll aborati ve Project III.  AGSC 450.  Land, Food and Comm unit y III.  15.  C ampus Sustainabil it y Office.  2003.  Sustainable U.   Universit y of Briti sh Colum bia.  Access ed  Mar ch 23, 200 4. htt p:/ /www.sust ain.ubc.ca/sus tainable u/home. htm .   16.  Del Vicchio, D.  2002.  Pledgin g to make a diff ere nce.  The Point .  Acc esse d March 23, 2004.  http:/ /www.lega c ygames. ubc.ca/ thepoint/ pdfs/130 803.pdf .   17.  C ampus Sustainabil it y Office.  2003.  Sustainabil it y Coordinator Pro gr am.  Universit y of Britis h Col umbi a.  Acces sed March 11, 2004. htt p :/ /www.sust ain.ubc.ca/sc _prog.htm l .  18.  C ampus Sustainabil it y Office.  2003.  Residen ce Sustainabil it y Coordinat or Program.  Universit y of Briti sh Columbi a.  Access ed Mar ch 11, 2004:  http:/ /www.sust ain.ubc.ca/rez sc.htm .   19.  UBC Waste Mana gemen t Program. Compos t Project . Universit y of Britis h Col umbi a.  Access ed Mar ch 6, 2003, from htt p:/ /www.rec ycl e .ubc.ca/compost .htm l .   20.  Department of Cur riculu m Studi es.  Cultivating environmental stewards hi p in youn g people: an int ergener ati onal landed - learnin g proje ct at UBC Farm.  Access ed Mar ch 23, 2004. htt p:/ /www.curricstudi es. educ.ubc. ca/proje cts/ landedlearnin g.htm l .   21.  UB C Farm. Who & Wha t We Are. Acc essed Mar ch 12, 2003. htt p:/ /www.agsci.ubc. ca/ ubcfarm/who.htm .  22.  Ima gin e UBC.  2004.  What is Ima gin e UBC?  Universit y of Britis h Col umbi a.  Acc essed March 11, 2004. htt p:/ /st udents.ub c.ca/i ma gine/w hati s.cfm .   23.  AMS .  2004.  Displ a y Ads.  Universit y of Britis h Colum bia.  Accessed March 11, 2004.  http:/ /www.ams.ub c.ca/s urvival_guide/ins ide_ub c /di spla y_ads.ht ml .   24.  Orr, D.  1991.  What is educati on for?  Trumpeter 8:3 Summ er, pages 99 -1 02.  Victoria.    Sustainability Survey  ( completion time: approximately 5 - 10 minutes)  General Background  1. Gender (che ck one):      _M         _F         _ I cho ose not to specif y  2. My status at UBC (ch e ck primar y role ):   _Under gr aduate  _Graduate _Facult y _Staff _Other  3. Len gth o f enroll ment/e mpl o ym ent at UBC : _Less tha n 1 yea r  _1-4 ye ars _Greate r than 5 years _Greate r than 10 years  4. Are you currently living in Student Residence? (If  ‘no’ proceed to Section A question 3)     Y             N  5. If so, which Residen ce ? _Place Vanie r        _Totem Park  _Ri tsum eiken        _Gage Tow ers/Apa rtmen ts _Fairvie w _Thunderbird       Section A Rec ycli n g  1. Are you awar e of rec ycli ng pro grams in you r re sidence?      Y             N  2. Do you participate in t hese re c ycli n g pro gr ams?  Y N  3. If you do not live in res idence at UBC, do you rec ycle at hom e?       Y         N  4 How  knowled ge able do you consi d er yoursel f to be rega rdin g which ite ms are re c yclabl e, and which ar e not? (e.g. what t yp e of plasti cs, pap er products, and metal materials)   _Not at all   _Somewhat _Moderatel y   _Most l y       _Ver y  5. How do you in form yo urself about which items yo u are abl e to rec ycle in your area? (check all that appl y) _I don’t _ I read th e inst ructi ons on the lar ge rec ycli n g bins _I’ve received pamphlets from my residence advis ors _I’ve seen commercials on TV Other ______________________  6. How much of the rec yclable materi al you us e at home do you rec ycl e?     _0%      _25% _50%           _75%       _100%  7. Are  you awar e of UBC campus -wide rec ycli n g ini ti ati ves? (bins in buil dings, the thre e-pa rt ga rba ge and rec ycli n g bi ns outside buil dings)   Y  N  8. Do you rec yc le outsi de of your home whil e on campus ?     Y      N  9. How much of  the rec yclable materi al you us e at UBC do you rec ycle?  _0%     _25% _50%  _75%  _100%  10. I f you do not rec ycle 100% of the rec yclabl e material you use on cam pus, wh y? (ch eck all that appl y) _I was not aw are th ere were rec ycli n g bins on campus _I cannot readil y find the appropriate bins _I just don’t want to bother Other ____________________  11. How sati sfied ar e yo u with the rec ycli n g effor t on the behalf of UBC? _Com pletel y diss ati sfied _Somewhat dissatis fied _Neutral _Sati sfied _Ver y satisfied  COMMENTS ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________  Section B Compos ti ng   *If you live in UBC Res idence, pro ce ed with que sti on 1, if you live off - ca mpus , proceed to questi on 3  1. Are you awar e of com post ing pro gr ams in your residenc e?       Y         N  2. Do you participate in t hese compos ti ng pro gra ms?  Y N  3. If you do not live in residence at UBC, do you com post at hom e?       Y         N  4 How knowled ge able do you consi d er yoursel f to be rega rdin g which ite ms are compos table, and which ar e not? (e.g. cooked or unc ooked food s, meats, spoil ed food, plant materials, etc. )   _Not at all   _Somewhat _Moderatel y   _Most l y       _Ver y  5. How do you in form yo urself about which items yo u are abl e to compost ? (Check all that appl y) _I don’t _I read th e inst ructi ons that came wit h m y home bi n _I’ve received pamphlets from my residence advisors _I’ve seen commercials o n TV Other ______________________  6. If you do compos t, ho w much of the compos ta ble material you use at hom e do you compos t?     _0%      _25% _50%           _75%       _100%  7. Are  you awar e of an y compos ti ng pro gr ams at UBC? (Outsi de of Macmi ll an, near the Pendulum , etc)   Y  N  8. Do you compos t out side of your home whil e on campus ?     Y      N  9. How ofte n would you use compos ti ng facil it ies on campus if the y were made avail able, for ex ampl e, as a fourth com partment in the 3-compa r tm ent garb a ge and re c ycl ing bins, or as bins in Pacific Spirit Place an d other campus eati ng ar eas?   _Never  _Seldom _Occasionall y  _Often  _Alwa ys  COMMEN TS ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________  Section C Food Issu es  1.  W hich of these terms re garding food ori gin ar e yo u fami li ar wit h (che ck all that appl y): _Fa ir Trade _Or ganic _Certi fied Organi c _Environmentall y- friendl y/ Eco -friendl y  2.  How often do you pur cha se food items with an y or all of the above lab els o utsi de of UBC? _Never _Sometim es      _Occasio nall y _Often  _Alwa ys  3.  Do you pu rchas e Fair Trade bever a ges at UBC (coff ee, te a,  hot chocolat e, etc.)   Y N  4.  When you pur chase coffee, t ea, et c., at UBC how often do you purch as e Fair Trad e? _Never _Sometim es _Occasionall y      _Often _Alwa ys  5. I f you do not alwa ys p urchase Fair Trad e, wh y not? (Check all that apply) _Fair Trade items are too ex pensive _ I do not like the variet y/bl end that is offered as Fair Trad e _Fair Trade is not alw a ys avail able _ I do not mak e an effort to purchase Fair Trade Other _________________  Que st i ons 6 through 8 perta i n to purc ha se s made at groc e ry store s, not nece ssa ri l y on campus.   6. How often do you bu y local (Lowe r Mainl and or BC) produ ce or proc essed goods when you bu y gro ceri es? _Never      _Sometim es _Occasionall y  _Often  _Alwa ys  7. If your answer to question 5 was not ‘always’, what are your reasons for not buying local produce or process ed go ods? (Check all that apply) _I do not b ase m y purch a sing decisi ons on the sou rce of th e food _Loc al products are not readi l y avail able _Loc al products are not o bvious l y labeled _Loc al products are too ex pensive _The foods I like are not gro wn or pro cessed loc al l y  8. If the same product, fo r ex ampl e, red apples, we re avail abl e for the same price from both a local and an imported so urce at the groc er y store, would you purpos efull y choose local?  Y N  9. Are you awar e of the UBC Farm Mark et?  Y N  10. Have you ev er att ended the UBC Fa rm Market ? Y N  11. Are you awar e of the Natural Food Coop at UBC?  Y     N  12. Have  you ev er pur ch ased from the Natural Fo od Coop at UBC?  Y N  13. How int erested woul d you be in att ending a Food Week in the SUB, where loc al, Fai r Trade, and/or or gani c foo ds would be showcas ed in AMS and UBC Food S ervice establi shments?   _Not int erested  _Somewhat interested _Neutral _Inte rested _Ver y int er ested  14.W hen you pur chase food from establi shments on campus , how often do you get the food to go?  _Never   _Sometim es        _Often   _Ver y often          _ Alwa ys  15.  If you get your food to go, how do you tak e it? (Check the two most frequ e nt modes) _In m y own reusabl e con tainer _In a pape r bag or other rec yclabl e containe r  _In a St yro foam contain e r  _In a reus able Tuppe rwa re containe r I bou ght fro m a Food Servic e outl et on   campus  16.  C heck the thre e fa ctors that you consi der most important when makin g yo ur food      choices at UBC (in no pa rticular orde r): _Nutrit ion _Taste _Afford abil it y _Con venience (fast food) _Loc ati on (close to cl asses/work) _Able to car r y to class/ w ork Other __________________________  17. Are there any initiatives you would specifically like the AMS/ UBC Food Services to implement regarding recycling, composting, using reusable containers and/or sourcing their products? ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________   18.  W hat incenti ves would you require in ord er to tak e further advanta ge of th e sust ainabili t y ini ti ati ves AMS and UBC Food s er vices alre ad y off er? (e.g. gr eate r discounts , etc.) _________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________  GENERA L COMMENT S __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________  Thank yo u for participati ng in our surv e y!          

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