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Identifying sustainability : the UBC Model Food System example Cheng, Mona; Gfeller, Joel; Klaponski, Matthew; May, Lisa; Pittaway, Margot; Stanley, Taeya; Sun, Julianne Apr 2, 2003

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UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report       Identifying Sustainability: The UBC Model Food System Example Mona Cheng, Joel Gfeller, Matthew Klaponski, Lisa May, Margot Pittaway, Taeya Stanley, Julianne Sun  University of British Columbia AGSC 450 April 2, 2003           Disclaimer: “UBC SEEDS provides students with the opportunity to share the findings of their studies, as well as their opinions, conclusions and recommendations with the UBC community. The reader should bear in mind that this is a student project/report and is not an official document of UBC. Furthermore readers should bear in mind that these reports may not reflect the current status of activities at UBC. We urge you to contact the research persons mentioned in a report or the SEEDS Coordinator about the current status of the subject matter of a project/report”.    3  AGSC 450  Date Submitted: Wednesday, April 02, 2003 Submitted To:    Dr. Alejandro Rojas & Anthony Brunetti    Identifying Sustainability:  The UBC Model Food System Example                         Group 19 Members: Mona Cheng (GRS) Joel Gfeller (FoodSc)  Matthew Klaponski (FNH) Lisa May (Agro) Margot Pittaway (AnSc)  Taeya Stanley (FNH) Julianne Sun (FNH)     4  Abstract  Universit ies have the res ponsi bil it y to be the le ad ers of social chan ge thro ugh ini ti ati ves that respo nd to current soci al, economi c, environmental and mor a l values.  The Universit y of Britis h Col umbi a has an opportuni t y to lead the research of sustainable foo d s ystems throu gh the developm ent and stud y of a Model Food S ystem.  This s yste m wil l incorporate the lo cal UBC farm, a Comm u nit y Kitchen and a stron g comm unit y component of students, facult y and con cern ed Fo od Citiz ens.  Our rese arc h proposal outl ines the me asures necessa r y to create and stud y thi s Model Food S ys tem (MFS ).  It is our beli ef that throu gh thi s stud y the Universit y will ben efit from decre ased ope rati n g costs , higher nutrit ional an d social value of food m e nus, and a strong comm unit y linka ge.   Introduction   Problem Statement   The Universit y of Britis h Col umbi a has establi shed a food s ystem in an att e mpt to meet the nutrit ional needs of its comm unit y of students, facult y, staff and visit ors.  However, th e go als used to create thi s s ystem ar e ali gned with those of the universit y, nam el y profit maximising and efficiency Although thes e ideals are legit im ate in a busi ness s ense, the y are misplaced in a universit y.  It must b e observed th at these ide als repres ent a m yopic view of the issues surroundin g a food s ystem.      Undoubtedl y , value and nutrit ion of dail y meals are at the forefront of consumers’ conscience    In addit ion, sociall y and ethni call y relev ant food choices, va riet y, as well as the ecolo gical impacts of pro ducti on and processi n g methods shoul d be para mount when creati ng a fo od s ystem, especially at a university that regards itself as “world class” .  Placing greater importance on these values in business ideology ensures more than profit.  It ensures the customers’ satisfaction and health as well as the   5  healt h of the envi ronm en t. Adopti ng such values i nherentl y incr eases the success of a busi ness bec a use the y repres ent a trend tow ards sust ainabili t y.  A sustainable syst em operat es usi ng methods that en coura ge “perpetual” growth  withi n an ecolo gical ma ndate.  Therefo re, a food s ystem shoul d place emphasis o n the acc ess to ecolo gic all y produc ed food, fair - wa ge or comm unit y volunt eer ed labour, environment all y conscience tr ansportati on of goods and locall y prod uced and proces sed items. The lac k of these values in the UBC Food S ystem requir e s attenti on.   The stud y of a s ystems s ustainabil it y, or abil it y to maintain long -te rm succ ess, can invol ve compl ex and someti mes abstract con ce pts that are difficult to identif y let alone m easu re.  A system itself can cont ain a mul ti tude of components each with sep arat e functi ons that util iz e specific inputs to gene rate the desired output s.  Therefo re, the mor e com ponents contained withi n a system, the mor e diffic ult it can be to evaluate t h e sust ainabili t y of a given sit uati on  (  .    How do we know what q uali fies as a sust ainable s ys tem?  The use of a sim ple model provides a hint as to how to ap proach thi s q uesti on. For ex ampl e, imagin e a s ystem rep resent ed as a batht ub.  Th e input s are hot water from the tap and so ap from a bar, the output being soa p y wate r throu gh the drain.  In a perf ect s ys tem, the material and en er g y foun d in the input s shou ld be full y accounted for in the output s.  This sit uati on rarel y ex ist s in reali t y  , wherein the efficien c y of th e system is compromi sed by le aks in the tub.    The UBC Food s ystem appears to leak throu gh th ermal ene r g y loss es, emi ssi ons of carbon compounds /t ransportati on costs , non -rec yc led organic wastes, and ineffi cie nt spending.  How ever, the magnit udes of th es e leak s are not easil y det ected if the flow of mate rials an d ener g y from their entr y to and ex it from the s yst em are neit her investi gated nor accou nted.  The lack of aw aren ess that the tub is leaking creat es a false over esti mation of the costs that run the food s ys tem.  The refo re, ex tra resources o r inputs must be added to maintain the desired level of output.  This “topping- up” of the system, as well as the leaks represents major   8  Model Food System Map Disclaimer   The proposed Model Foo d s ystem has a great deal of int eracti ons within the Universit y itself and the larger comm unit y.  Fi gur e 2, the Model Food S yst em Map, att empt s to ill ustrate the compl ex int eract ions and quali f y each of these.  Th e le gend indi cates th e nat ure of each int er acti on, rangin g from Hi gh -en er g y requirements ve rsus bene fits, to low ener g y requir ements versus ben efits.  In addit ion, each compon ent of the system is quali fied as to t he pref eren ce we will giv e to includi ng thi s compo nent in our system. For i nstance, the Lo cal and Re gion al producers are giv en sepa ra te pref eren ce lev els as we feel choosi ng mor e in gr edients from local produc ers enh ances the loc al econom y and decr eas es transportat ion of goods via fossil fuel powered vehicles.  Fu rthermor e, thi s connecti on to local farmers will stren gthen the comm unit y linka ges that are vit al in a food s ystem.  Figure 2:       9                     Data Collection  Table 1 (App endix A) represents the abund ant suppl y of methods in which our Model Food S ystem and subsequentl y the UBC fo od s ystem could be studi ed. The components of th e systems can be shown t o have a ran g e of sustain abil it y in dicators that ar e measur a ble eit her throu gh quali ta ti ve or quanti tative studi es.  Table 1 is an ex tensive list and it is not our intention for the read er to assum e all of these components mus t be identified(   ).  Subsequentl y, we have compi led a summa r y of the major data coll ec ti on methods. We beli eve that these suggested app roac hes are th e priorit y stud y areas to b e undertak en du ring the ini ti al stud y of th e propo sed Model Food S ystem. After care ful consi der ati on, thes e ar eas were pr op osed for the ini ti al stud y be caus e the y contribut ed greatest in the overall task of pl acin g t he UBC Food S ystem on the sust ainable end on the co nti nuum rangin g from un sust ainable to sustainable . (  ) C onducti ng these priorit y m eas urements and coll e cti ng data on these  UBC FOOD SYST EM MAP    10  aspects of the s ystem wo uld achieve a greater und erstandin g of the sust aina bil it y suc cess of th e UBC Food S ystem. The ten condens ed data coll e cti on methods are listed in Table 2.0 (Appendix B). Indicators  SOCIAL INDICATORS  Nutritional Value   Currentl y, the re are nearl y thi rt y UBC food servic es outlets and about ten Alma Matt er Societ y (A MS ) food services outlets on campus .  Due to the fact students and staf f are bus y with their class schedules and other acti vit ies, the y often igno re the nutrit ional value of the foods the y gulp dow n during me als. As stude nts ourselves, we reco gniz e t he importance of nutrit ion for our stressful lif e. In a sust ainable food s yst e m, the consum pti on and product ion of food shoul d enhan ce the healt h of the consu mers (Kloppenbur g, et al ., 2000). Our emphasis is to stud y the food producti on and prepar ati on, and nutrit ional value of foods o f the outl ets in UBC. The Food In fo Servic e ru n by the food scienc e students in the Facult y of Agricult ur al Scienc es is an ex cell ent starter for stud ying the food producti on. We propose the students of Agricult ural Scien ces participate in and raise questi ons in regard to the sustain abil it y, and all ow t he food sci ence students to ex plore int o the food producti on field and prov ide knowled ge campus -w ide.   The students from the Fa cult y of Agricult ural Scie nces are fortun ate to hav e the knowled ge regardin g food, nutrit ion, and healt h. There fore, we feel the prim ar y focus shoul d be withi n thi s facult y and be incorporated into the Mo del Food s ystem kitchen we propose. For ex ampl e, Dietetics and Nutrit ion students can be invol ved in ass essi ng the nutrit ional value of the foods on campus - wide. Throu gh dieta r y an al ysis of foods at ea ch foodse rvice outl et, we can see at wh at perc enta ge th ese foods stand and see whi ch one s are consi dered nutrit ious. In addit ion, Dieteti cs and Nutriti on students could use the Canadian Food Gui de to measure how well meals at each food servi ce outl e t provide the re comm end ed servin gs of each food group.   Consi dering that peopl e normall y eat two to three meals a da y plus sna cks than a meal se rved, the school should provide 35% of the mini mum recomm ended se rvi ng of each food group to make sure ever yon e is ge tt ing the   11  proper amount of nutri en ts from their meals.  Afte r looking at the result s,  outl ets found withi n the lower per centa ge ran ge and that don 't fo ll ow the Canadian Food guide wil l ne ed to have t heir meals car efull y pl anned, pr efe r abl y b y diet eti c and nutri ti onal sciences students. The goal is to rea ch the highest perc enta ge as poss ibl e of recomm end ed nutrients and the 35% of servin gs from each food group in order to achieve sust ain able nutrit ional value in UBC food service me als.  Food System Variety  In the paper “Tasting Food, Tasting Sustainability: Defining the Attributes of an Alternative Food System with Competent, Ordinary People” by Kloppenburg, et al., two of the attributes of a sustainable food s ystem included are diversity and cultural nourishment. Canada’s Food Guide to Healthy Eating emphasizes a variet y of foods from eac h of the food groups. Be c ause students and staf f co me from diffe rent ethnic back grounds, providin g diverse food produ cts is not on l y healt hier but also more cult urall y important.  The meals provided b y UBC Food S ystem shoul d include a wide ran ge of food selecti ons includi ng ethni c foods, ve get arian foods, organic foods, and inex pensive foods. Questi onnaires can be provide d to the stu dents on their prefe rre d t ype of food choic es. The Comm unit y kit ch en can use such inform ati on and all ow students to prepare a variety of foods using the available resources. As Kloppenburg et al’s paper states “A diverse food s ystem invit es incre ased oppor tuni ti e s for people from man y cult ures and socio -e cono mi c backgrounds, and increase participation of consumers.”(2000). Such transition will lead to a more sustainable food s ystem as people become involved and respo nsibl e in their consum pti on, prepar ati on, and prod ucti on of foods. (   Advertising  We hope the impl ementati on of the Model Food Sys tem can provide a basi c sample model of the whole UBC food s ystem and bri ng the people close r at UBC. Advertisi n g is an important indicator of sust a inabili t y; successful adv ertisement will bring more people partic ipate in the proje ct and facil it ate the pro gressi on towards a sust ainable UBC food s ys tem. The ini ti al student participants ma y cr eate post ers, banners, and bro chures   12  regardin g wa ys to achiev e sust ainabili t y. Such acti on will create a comm unit y withi n UBC that is knowledgeable to its foo d s ystem.        ECONOMIC INDICATORS  Energy Cost  Economi c sust ainabili t y of the UBC food s yste m cannot be measured with out anal yz in g the vast amount s of ener g y consu med on campus . Elim inating, or at least redu cing, ener g y ex pendit ures coul d in fact improve the over all healt h of the food s ystem as a whole. For ex ampl e, we suggest reor ganiz ing curr en t long dist ance food shipments by infusin g close r prox im it y food sourc es, such as the UBC Farm. The s er ious concerns surrounding locality issues may be minimized through the development of a “Community Kitchen” on campus (  The Com munity Kitchen would have a “fresh from the garden” motto aim ed at providi ng custo mers with healt h y, home cooked meals mad e from quali t y produc e grown on the UBC Farm. This shi ft in food source loc ali t y could h elp redire ct useful fundin g to ward more effi ci ent and ecolo gicall y sust ainable s ectors of the UBC food s ys tem. Such as advanc ed kit chen equipm ent wit h improved technolog y th at decr eas e s ener g y spent. We also p ropose to develop a cond ensed time schedule for t he Comm unit y Kitchen in o rder to minim iz e en er g y consum pti on. These prec ise hours of oper ati on will result in less time spent maint aini ng food at servin g tempe ratures, hen ce reducin g wasted ene r g y. Ove rall , the reor ganiz ati on of the UBC food suppl y alon g with technologi cal improvem ents will create a more ener g y efficie nt food s ystem for the Universit y of Briti sh Colum bia.   Social Welfare W e visi on that the Model Food S ystem will be a marketpl ac e to meet consu mer and local busi ness needs. B y closi ng info rmati on gaps, we can reach an opti mal social le vel. T o illust rate, product avail abil it y can   13  be enhan ced b y the conti ngent surv e y method, wh ich is a measure of consu mer pref er ences. In orde r to compete against ex ist ing restaurant and food pla ce s, sustainable businesses will have ac cess to thi s informati on on prefe rred prices and desired products that wil l att ract more custom ers. Along with linka ges to lo cal busi nesses, developi n g the MFS will also allow fo r local farmers to establi s h a market nich e for or ga nic raised crops.  We would provid e them with a secu re sour ce of income th rou gh pre -pa ym ent at the start o f year to help them produce crops and t hen pa y the bal ance upon receipt .  Th ese efforts w ould bring revenues to bu sinesses while meeti ng consum er desires, and so max im iz e social welfa re. Curr entl y, the Sustainabil it y Offic e indi cates “a median willingness to pay of $10 per [person] per year for the campus to be pesticide free”, but there are no food projects bein g dev el oped (Pot vin, B., 2002)   . There is more room for improvem ents, namel y to inte grate our MFS with the Social, Ecologic al, and Economi c Develo pment Studi es (SEEDS) program at UBC  . The chall enge is to disenga ge as quickl y as poss ibl e from initi al funding fin anced b y th e gove rnment and unive rsity. As the busi ness stabil i z es, we can gr aduall y det ach our dependen cies from such financial subsi dies and become economi call y sust ainable in the lo n g run.  EDUCATION INDICATORS  Educati on is another cate gor y that we felt shoul d be studi ed when fo cusing on the UBC food s ystem sust ainabili t y indi c ators. After all , Aldo Leopold o nce asked th at if educ ati on of a certain kind does n ot help us to better man age our resources and work towards sustainable solutions then “what is education for?” (Orr, 1991).  Student Participation One educ ati on indi cator withi n the realm of our Model Food S ystem is st udent parti cipation. We beli eve that student parti cipation in our model food system ini ti ati ve would foster addit ional support for the project and advanc e sust ainabili t y kn owledge in the comm unit y. Thus wh en these stude nts gradu ate, the y will m ake choices that pro gr ess tow ards sustainabil it y withi n the food s yst em. W e hope that in the long run ou r efforts towards bett er info rming the student popul ati on will spread to the Gre ater Vancouver comm unit y. Th erefo re,   14  we would re comm end es tablis hing student partici pati on on a small scale wit hin our model food syst em and then trackin g student opinions over time throu gh a mail ed out surve y  We recomm end beginni n g the init ial study with student particip ati on repres enti ng the wide diversit y and variet y of people withi n the Agricult ur al Sciences Fa cult y t hrou gh a directed studi es option or newl y implemented cu rriculum  Eventuall y the ini ti ati ve could be transpl an ted throughout the UBC campus in coordination with the UBC Sustainabil it y Offic e. Students ma y pa rticipa te and even earn comm unit y servic e vo lunt eer ho urs that could be accepted as a th ree - credit course if the hours and work are within the student’s respective study areas.  Community Education Another indicator of th e success of ou r sustainabl e model food s ystem is comm unit y educati on. Educati o n within our community is an important indicator because it is a reflection of the public’s knowledge and awa reness o f sustainabil it y iss ues. We recom mend that the UBC Susta inabili t y Offic e start b y working with UBC students to produce food sust ainabili t y educ ati on, which would adver ti se for the consum ers of the MFS ini ti ati ve. Randomi z ed distribut ion of questi onnaires that within the UBC comm unit y, whi ch relat e to sust ainabili t y educ ati on could then be used to grad e the succ ess of the adv er ti sing and provi de indi c ati ons of the sust ainabili t y kno wled ge of the comm unit y. In add it ion to providi ng information for the public, the model food s ystem pa rticipants could work with the UBC Sustainabil it y Office to of fer student led field trips and tours of the farm. T his appro ach would bring people close r to their food and all ows them to appreciat e the in fluence of their choices. Furthe rmor e, we recomm end that fo od securit y and sust ainab il it y topi cs be made av ail able to yo un ge r students of elem entar y school age. The M F S could have repr esenta ti ves who plan food sust a inabili t y acti vit ies for youth wher e the educ ati on is tar gete d specificall y to youn gsters. Elementa r y schools could establish a “Food Week” where young students are able to discuss the benefits and consequenc es of their food choices.   ECOLOGICAL INDICATORS Nutrient Recycling and Waste Management   15  Nutrient Rec ycli n g can be improved b y using th e manure produ ced from the farm anim als, includi ng chickens, dair y cows, an d possi bl y sh eep.  In addi ti on, organic material rec overed from food outl ets and compos ted wil l make ex cell ent organic gro wing m aterial.  Thes e ef forts will reduce the depend enc y on ex ternal farm input s to the UBC S ys tem.  Costs will be dec reased, a s less mone y is s pent on fertili z er, and is inst ead focussed on pa yin g stude nts, or having them volu nteer, to bike the manu re from the anim als ar e to the crops.  Also, chickens can be int egrated dir ectl y onto the crop.  Chickens will eat weeds and inse cts in the area.  Howeve r, crops must be selected prop erl y, so the chickens do not eat the desired plants. Waste management can be achiev ed throu gh man ual labour.  Providing bu ggies, or bik es with carts att ached to the back, fo r volunt eer students to wheel the food wastes to the farm wil l reduc e the reli ance on fossil fue ls for transport a ti on.  If the food is brou ght to the chickens as an alt ernate food sour ce, the y will require less pell eted fe ed.  This should be done eve r y 2 -3 da ys, so food do es not go bad.  This wil l les sen costs and lead to better ov er all sust ainabili t y of the UBC food s ystem     Biodiversity Biodi versit y is crucial to sust ainabili t y.  Cur rentl y, the UBC farm embra ces a diverse and int e grati ve approach to farmin g, as opposed to a monocult ure method.  This inherentl y all ows natural l y occu rrin g spe cies to flourish, and benefits from the natural bal ances between pests and natura l predators in pest control .  With funding from the Univers it y, or assi stanc e from th e comm unit y, the farm can incre ase both its diver sit y of anim als and plant s and enlarge the area in which the crops are gro wn.  Student help, paid or volunt ee r, wil l be required to suc ceed with this project.  Also, a grea ter selecti on of foods fro m the farm wil l provide more int eresti ng me als from th e Comm unit y Kitch en.  This wi ll help promot e the idea of eati n g healt hier foods withi n the student communi t y.  The mor e people to have the opportuni t y to eat this food, the more t he word will spread, and hop efull y bri ng out more volunt e ers for thi s t ype of feast.    16   Value Assumptions   Our group values a broad er ran ge of quali ti es than that of the UBC Food s ys tem directors, which include ecolo gical, so cial , nutrit ional, economi cal and local communi t y sup port.  We value re c ycli n g organic wastes, eit her for anim al feed or compos t, as well as decr easin g fertili z er and pesti cide use. The low impact of human power ed transport is worth y of inv esti gati o n under our prin cipl es.  In addit ion , we feel it is necessa r y to creat e a comm unit y of Food cit iz ens, both at the UBC campus and in the Greate r Van couver distri ct who will feel responsi ble to car e for the land from which th eir food is harv ested. Our group feels that thes e ho li sti c values and views o f a foo d s ystem are ne cessa r y to combat the leaka ges that result in a system fo cuse d primarily on profit and “efficiency.”      W e have proposed a res e arch method that requires the creati on of a Mode l Food S ystem throu gh wh ich a standard can be establi shed for thi s universit y to compare to its own Food S ystem. This model s yste m would operate und er the contex ts of the previous l y mentioned sustainabil it y indi ca tors while striving to mee t a high level of ef ficienc y thro u gh nutrient cyc li ng, volunt eer and stud ent labour as well as minim al depende nce on fossil fuel power ed equip ment. It is our hope th at this model s ystem will provide a broad ran ge of data and information that ill ustrates what a sustainable food s ystem looks like. Wit h this information in hand, we feel the Universit y of Briti sh Columbi a can take its nex t steps toward dev elopi ng a sust ainable food s ystem of their own.  Conclusion  C omi ng from a dive rse group of discipl ines, we came up wit h Soci al, Eco nomi c, Ecologic al, and Educati on  as important indicators for a sust ainable food s ystem. The map and the method olog y ch art provide us wi th the blue print of amen ding the   17  leaka ges o f our  pr esent b atht ub analo g y. Social indi cators ar e based on nut rition al information, food system diversit y, and advertisi n g. The Model Food S yste m we propose can help reach nutrit ional goals to maintain a healt h y di et, provide a balanced diet from a divers e s electi on on food, and connect people to geth er by all owin g them to see the rel ati onshi p between foods and the mselves.  Another indicat or is Economic, which in cludes max im iz ing social welfar e by harnessi n g the ener gy input s in an ef ficient m anner and m eeti n g  consu mer and producer demands wit h enough inform ati on and awaren ess in a Model Foo d S ystem marketpl a ce. Too often -negl ected resourc es are Student Participati on and Comm unit y Educ ati on, which we call ed edu cati o n indi cators. Here we uti li z e students as a mo bil e forc e to mak e advan ce choi ces, which will result in progr ess towards sust ainabili t y withi n the food s ystem. We recomm end coll aborati on with th e Sustainabil it y offic e an d local elementar y s chools to better inform the student po pulation; educati on is pr imary in reflecting the public’s knowledge and awa renes s of sustainabil it y iss ues. As wit h ecolo gical indica tors, nutrient rec ycli n g and waste mana gement efforts will reduce th e depend enc y on ex ternal farm input s to the UBC S yst em b y reli e ving input costs and in turn lead to bett er over all sust ainabili t y of the UBC food s yste m. Another component is biodi versit y , whe re the UBC farm serves as an ex a mpl e for other resourc es to model from.  The UBC farm embrac es a divers e and i ntegr ati ve app roach to farming, as oppos ed to a monocult ure method, whic h all ows diverse speci es to flourish in balance with one an other.    Recommendations  1.0 Social 1.1  C reate menus which pro vide students with choice of prepa rati on method and nutrit ional values  1.2  Have food s ervice outl ets establ ish a nutriti on emphasis so students and staf f can hav e access to healt h y foods that are av ail able wit hin short walki ng dist anc e   1.3  Develop plans for a future culinary school (profit recoverable “Continued Education” operation that educates tr ainee -che fs on local/ sust ainable fa rming te chniques and crops whil e providi ng world class c uli nar y tr aini ng)  1.4  C reate an op en forum p a ge for comm ents and fee dback on the websit e  1.5  Encoura ge the sustainabi li t y offic e to work with o ur proposed model food s ys tem and be close l y invol ved with the data co ll ecti on    18  1.6  R ecomm end that UBC Food S ystem outlets provide a vari et y of nutrit ious and high qu ali t y foods.  1.7  The students of Agricult ural Sciences p articipate through newl y developed curriculum linking sust ainabili t y educ ati on and food s ystem d evelop ment   1.8  In cre ase sust ainabili t y awaren ess throu gh ef fecti ve advertisi n g ini ti ati ves  1.9 Lobb y fede ral and provincial gov ernments for Universit y awa reness an d support for takin g on such an important hol ist ic analys is of food s ystem ine ffi ciencies   2.0 Economic 2.1  Decr ease tr ansportati on costs by supporting lo cal companies  2.2  Inv est in local busi ness networkin g ini ti ati ves  2.3  Inv esti gate and impleme nt wa ys o f dec reasin g op erati n g costs   3.0 Ecological  3.1  In corpor ate comm unit y/s atelli te ga rdens  3.2  Inv esti gat e alt ern ati ve an d unconventi onal transpo rtati on means i.e. bio -die sel, hum an power... etc.   3.3  P ut meters in place at UBC farm to gau ge wat er usage  3.4  R educe ove rall ene r g y waste by suppo rting enviro nmentall y friendl y ini ti ati ves  3.5  S tud y importan ce of biodivers it y  References  1.  “Food Info Services” UBC Faculty of Agricultural Sciences. 20 March. 2003 htt p:/ /www.fis.agsci.ubc. ca   2.  Gliessman, Stephen R. “Agroecology: Ecological Processes in Sustainable Agriculture.” USA: C R C Press, 2000.  3.  Health Canada. “Canada’s Food Guide to Healthy Eating.” 20 March. 2003              http:/ /www.hc-sc. gc. ca/hpfb -d gpsa/onpp-b ppn/food_guide_ rainbow _e.htm l   4.  Kloppenburg, J. et al. “Tasting Food, Tasting Sustainability: Defining the Attributes of an Alternative Food System with Competent, Ordinary People.” Human Organiz ati on 59:2 (2000): 177-186   5.  Orr, D. “What is Education For?” Trumpeter 8:3 (1991): 99-102   6.  P otvi n, B. Roundup at UBC: The Road to a Pesti c ide -Fr ee Campus at the Universit y of Briti sh Colum bia . October, 2002  7.  “UBC Food Services” UBC Food Services. 20 March. 2003 htt p:/ /www.fo odserv.ubc.c a/   8.  “UBC SEEDS” 27 March. 2003 htt p:/ /www.sust ain.ubc.ca/m atrix /seedsind ex s/s eedsfood.htm     19                           Appendix A  Table 1.0.  Components to be measured within the Model Food System, as well as suggested methods of measurement.   Component           What is measurable?         How can it be measured?   1) BC Hydro/GVRD water source        a) Energy cons umption (i.e. lighting)   b) Water usage (i.e. irrigation, dishwashing)   a) Read box/ bill (timers) *   b) Flow meters/ timers *   c) Incentive programs -  input from BC Hydro for efficient usage   2) Volunteers, Students,  Faculty, and community  Supporters of UBC Farm    a) Number of participants and students involved   b) Hours worked/volunteer hours   c) Satisfaction   d) Community support and interest    a) Course attendance and class list    b) Time sheets   c) Courses evaluation and case evaluation   d) Donations,  membership, visits to farm and the system, market garden, calls of interest    20   3) Consumers or Customers of UBC’s Model Food System (Students, Staff and Community)   a) Amount of products sold   b) Customer Satisfaction   c) Interest in program   a) Receipts   b) Surveys   c) Surveys/participation record   4) UBC  Administration/  Board of Governors    a) Money from UBC Administration and Board of Governors   b) Publicity    c) Public interest   d) Zoning policies    e) Model System’s Dependence on financial support   a) Grant records    b) Number of speeches Martha Piper/administration deliver that focus on the model food system   c) Visits to farm, records, meetings, support   d) Investigate ‘Official Community Plan’ zoning changes (UBC Farm interest)  e) Money needed ov er time (becoming more sustainable means requiring less financial support over time)   5) Agricultural Sciences  Administration  and Faculty    a) Curriculum development   b) Money   c) Resources/Infrastructure   a) Amount of introduced applicable and relevant coursework   b) Money budgeted for the model food system   c) Amount of training and allocated space   6) Agricultural Sciences  Food Service and  “Community Kitchen”   Connection to #12   a) Employment   b) Active participation   c) Exposure   d) Pleasure   e) Ex perience for students   Connection to #4 and #5   g) Research    h) Public relation    i) Money   Connection to #3   j) Food products   k) Food variety   l) Nutritional quality   Connection to #7   m) More efficient transport (energy)   n) Exercise    Connection to #1 1   o) Connection to industry   p) Place of sale   q) Money Exchanged for goods   r) Energy used for transport   s) Equipment purchased     a) Number of jobs   b) Diversity and number of participants   c) Media coverag e  d) Satisfaction Survey   e) Types of Knowledge and skills provided by community participants     g) Records    h) Public opinion questionnaire   i) Money budgeted for the model food system     j) Menu range   k) Menu range   l) Nutritional analysis and study     m) Calorie and energy balance study   n) Measured activity of the participants      o) Number of local suppliers   p) Number of local versus international   q) Accounting records   r) Transportation method and energy requirement calculations   s) Accounting re cords    21   Connection to #1   t ) Energy cost/efficiency     t) Equipment energy efficiency (power/hours)   7) Pedal Power  Carts/Biodiesel      a) Human calorie expenditure   b) Labour involved   c) Distance travelled   d) Costs of b ke, cart and maintenance   e) Biodiesel cost/benefit analysis   f) Emissions estimation   a) Energy expenditure calculation   b) Amount of participants and work hours   c) Proximity calculations   d) Records and comparison with conventional transportation    e) Amount of oil recovered from fryers, cost from conversion   f) Calculate fro m Air Care results   8) UBC Farm   a) Variety of Produce   b) Soil Quality (Biology)   c) Biodiversity   d) Water Usage   e) Seasonal Length   f) Seed Saving   g) Manure usage    h) Energy Usage   i) Equipment Purchased   j) Visits to Farm   k) Money Spent   l) Feed i nputs   m) Fertiliser    n) Labour Costs   o) Fossil Fuel inputs   p) Program Development   q) Market Garden Success   r) Connection to Businesses   s) Advertising & Promotion   t) Community Connection   a) Number of items including types of food group and species   b) Soil Tests & Assessments   c) Ratio with respects to the Population Studies, Beneficial Species vs. Pests   d) Water Meter *   e) Length of Season (months)   f) Number of seeds replanted vs. bought   g) Weight of manure/infrastructure (check to see if there  is a balanced distribution to prevent runoffs)   h) Energy meter and analysis of equipment for efficiency   i) From receipts find total value and depreciation values   j) Tally sheet/log book   k) Accounting records          l) Purchased amounts vs. Recycled  material   m) Cost - benefit - analysis on conventional fertilisers compared to compost quality   n) Payroll sheet vs. Volunteer hours   o) Litres of gas and diesel used and estimated emissions   p) Number of projects (i.e. Initiatives per month)   q) Profits/Cost  analysis and increasing participation         r) Number of suppliers and how much from each and nature of relationship   s) Announcements, media appearances, and money allocated   t) Calls from citizens, donations, school interests, % of land tendered by locals   9)Nutrient Cycle   a) Amount Recovered from model food system   b) Amount used   c) Number of sources   d) Cost Savings   e) Pollution impact   a) Weight of material recovered vs. material available for the recovery    b) Weight of nutrient inputs   c) S uppliers   d) Balance Sheet   e) Calculate Concentration of toxins and quantity of pollutants    22   Producers/ Processors   10) Regional Farms  11) Local  14) National/ International     a) Method of Transport and fossil fuel requirements   b) Distance Transported   c) Quality of input (organic)   d) Variety   e) Cost   f) Frequency   g) Tax/import costs   a) Record the method and calculate emissions    b) Proximity calculations   c) Certification and type of farming practices   d) Number of choices and availability, prefer ences   e) Receipts: cost versus value   f) Number of deliveries   g) Accounting records   12) Vancouver Food Citizens   a) Type of Contribution   b) Benefit to them   c) Satisfaction levels   d) Number of Connections   e) Size of community   f) Professions   g) Mar ket Garden Success   h) Public figure support   i) Donations   a) List of Participation   b) Method of retribution   c) Awareness surveys, website forums, endorsement   d) Guest book *   e) Map/ proximity   f) Ratios of expertise; i.e. chefs to soil scientists   g) Participation rates   h) Gordon Campbell, Moura Quayle, Martha Piper   i) Record of those involved and amount donated  13) Government of BC  a) Policies Development   b) Investments   c) Financial dependency on government  a) Legislation enacted   b) Grants, subs idies loans, etc.   c) Money needed over time (becoming more sustainable means requiring less financial support over time)   * = T hese co mp o nent s mu st be instal led if not c ur r entl y i n place .  Appendix B  Table 2.0  Suggested data collection priorities for initial study of the Model Food System.   1)  Electrical en er g y and wat er consum pti on  2)  P rox imit y of input contri butors  3)  Nutrient rec yc li ng amou nt  4)  Nutriti onal value of men us  5)  P rofit anal ysis of the Mo del Food S yst em  6)  Ecologic al impact and wastes  7)  C omm unit y pa rtnerships  8)  C ustom er sati sfacti on an d perceiv ed value  9)  Biodi versit y: Envi ronm e ntal healt h of Model Foo d S ystem   23   10)  Educati on contribut ion to universit y comm unit y                           

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