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AMS lighter footprint strategy Cao, Zhixia (Stella); Common, Sarah; Goodison, Heather; Hwang, Jade Sun In; Lam, Yi Ting (Tina); Lo, Jacky; Petersen, Melanie Apr 11, 2008

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UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report       AMS Lighter Footprint Strategy Zhixia (Stella) Cao, Sarah Common, Heather Goodison, Jade Sun In Hwang, Yi Ting (Tina) Lam, Jacky Lo, Melanie Petersen  University of British Columbia AGSC 450 April 11, 2008           Disclaimer: “UBC SEEDS provides students with the opportunity to share the findings of their studies, as well as their opinions, conclusions and recommendations with the UBC community. The reader should bear in mind that this is a student project/report and is not an official document of UBC. Furthermore readers should bear in mind that these reports may not reflect the current status of activities at UBC. We urge you to contact the research persons mentioned in a report or the SEEDS Coordinator about the current status of the subject matter of a project/report”.       Scenario 2: AMS Lighter Footprint Strategy UBC FSP 2008   Group 19 Zhix ia (Stella) Cao  Sarah Com mon  Heather Goodison  J ade Sun In Hwan g  Yi Ting (Tina ) Lam  J ack y Lo  Melanie Petersen        1    Table of Contents Abstract         page 2 Introduction         page 2 Problem Definition        page 3 Vision Statement Reflections      page 5 Methodology         page 6 Findings         page 7  Other Universities       page 8  Sustainable Packaging      page 13 Discussion         page 15 Recommendations        page 18 Conclusion         page 19 References         page 20 Appendix         page 22 2  Abstract The curr ent conc ern of our high ecolo gical footpri nt has caused an incre ase d need for awar eness and chan ge in our food s yst em.  The Un iversit y of Britis h Col umbi a Food  S yst em Project (U BC FS P ) is a research project add ressi n g the sustainabil it y of food s ystem at UBC Vancouve r. By rese arc hing the curr ent pol ices of other universit ies as well as collaborati n g with several stak eholders in th e project, nam el y AMS Sustainabil it y, AMS Food and Bev er a ge Department, and Neptun e Food Servi ce, our grou p determi ned the need to work with the groc er y suppl ier to creat e a sust ai nable food pro curement poli c y. The food procu re ment poli cies of Universit y Comm unit ies can af fe ct ecolo gical footprint in num erous wa ys includi ng food miles, sust ainable producti on pr acti ces and pack a ging. Universit y towns as la r ge as UBC have th e potential to create deman d for more sust ainable pr acti ces from their suppl ie rs in all three pil lars of sust ainabili t y : so cial, ecologic al, and economi ca l. We suggest seve ral me thods to create transparen c y in the food chain betwe en Neptun e Food Service and AMS Fo od and Bever a ge Department that we hope will help strengthen th e comm unit y and busi ness bonds for both companie s resp ecti vel y.  Introduction  The UBC Food S ystem P roject (U BC FS P ) is a co mm unit y - b ased acti on research project, started six years ago, wh ose aim includes redu cing the Ecologi cal Footp rint (EF) of th e UBC food s ystem (Rich er & Rojas, 2008).  EF is a conc ep t used to describe envir onmental impact and was develope d b y Dr. Wil li am Rees and Mathis Wackern a gel of UBC (Doh ert y & Stein, 2007).  It is a measure of how m uch land and marin e ar ea a group of peopl e requir es to produce its resourc es and dispo se of its wa ste and it is determined lar gel y b y the acti on s of lar ge organiz ati ons, such as UBC (Dohe rt y & Stein, 20 07).  The over ar ching go als of the UBCFS P are  3  to assess UBC food s yste m sus tainabil it y, identif y barriers to sustainabil it y, creat e a sha red visi on and model of trans it ion among stakeholde rs, make re comm endati ons to enhance sust ainabili t y and implement measures of th e ef f ecti veness of acti ons take n (Richer & Rojas, 2008).  The UBCFS P has man y partners includi n g UBC Food Se rvices, AM S Food and Beve ra ge Dep artment, UBC Waste Mana gem ent and the UBC Farm, but bases itself in a stre am of core UBC La nd and Food S ystems courses which culm inate with AGSC 450 (Richer & Rojas, 2008).  In thi s course te a ms of students approach scenarios de ali ng with fo od securit y iss ues on campus .   This team’s scenario involves creating targets for sustainable food procurement for the AMS Li ghter Footprint Strate g y.  The AMS is the student societ y of UBC and operates student services, student own ed busi nesses and clubs (A MS Light er F ootprint Strate g y, 2008).  The AMS has cre ated its Li gh ter Footprint Strate g y, as part of the Environment a l Sustainabil it y Poli c y passed in 2007, in order to tr y to improve t he social and ecolo gical environments in which students work (AMS Li ghter Footprin t Strate g y, 2008).  Our goal in thi s pr oject was to help the AMS create tar gets fo r fo od procurem ent that lower the EF of the AMS Fo od and Bever a ge Department.   Problem Definition There ex ist s a severe lac k of educati on about, con necti on to and transpa ren c y of our food s ystem, from p roducti on to consumpt ion to waste dispos al.  We are sepa rat ed from our food b y oil , which manifests itself as fuel, fertili z er and pl asti c.  And, we are separ ated from our food b y the convolut ed s yst ems of producti on which valu e profit over healt h and gr owth over sust ainabili t y.  Th e lack of awa reness o f the mul ti farious impacts of our fo od, economi c, social and environmental, has all owed ne gati ve food con sump ti on habit s to develop and en grain  4  themselves in our cult ure .  We are a fast food peo ple, basing ou r food choi ces on conveni ence and taste, for goin g the be nefits of local and season al food choices.  We are not onl y causin g detriment to our own hea lt h by comm odit isi ng foo d and all owing ir responsi ble and disrespe ctful food s ys tems to dominate our landscapes; we are also destroying ours and others’ communities and ecos ystems.   Whil e man y universit ies campus have establi shed concret e sust ainabili t y pr ogr ams with specific tar gets and soli d poli cies, UBC has a fra gmented ini ti ati v e with no complete guidi ng principles or documentati ons. The AMS, a student societ y of UBC, has rece ntl y develop ed a draft form of sust ainabili t y strate g y: the AMS Environmental Sustainabil it y Poli c y (AMS ESP ).  This strateg y contains su ggesti ons on guidi ng  UBC towards its goal of sust ainabili t y.  The purpose of our project is to work alon gside wit h AMS food and Bev era ge Department to cr eate acti on plans and dev elop targets withi n the AMS lighter Footprint strate g y.  This aligns with the objecti ve of the AMS ESP which is to reduce the universit y campus ecolo gical footprint to sustainable levels and to “foster environmental justice in our own operations and through our relationships within the University and the broader community” (Doherty & Stein 2007).   As c omm unit y res ear che rs of the Food s ystems co mponent of the AMS Li ghter Footprint Strate g y our vi sion is to be part of the movement to cre ate sustain able policies for UBC: poli cies that ensure that t he universit y is livi ng res pectfull y of the other peo ples a nd s yst ems with which we sha re thi s plan et, present and future.  W e aim to cre ate AMS and AMSFBD ta r gets to enhanc e the sustainabil it y of food purch asing b y anal yz in g what that pol ic y is now, wh ere potential for pro gr ess lies, and how steps to achiev e that  pro gress can be m ade.  The enti r e campus bod y shoul d ben efit from chan ges made, i n terms of the healt h of our campus comm unit y.  UBC has pledged sust ainabili t y and so these tar gets will also be in keepin g with  5  that moral obl igati on.  Our visi on in the lon g term is of a vibrant, local, he a lt h y food s ystem ;  in order to reali se that vision we need to mak e posi ti ve chan ge wher eve r possibl e.    Our focus is on food pro curement but we have m oved back from the choic es that the AMS is making to those that one of i ts suppli ers is making.  AMS orde rs grocer y items from Neptune, produ ce from Central foods, dair y from Saputo, cheese from Lar osa, and bake d goods from Island Cit y Bakin g Compan y (N. T oo good , personal communi cati on , March 5, 2008 ).  Nanc y Too good , AMS Food  and Bever a ge Man a ge r,  mentioned in her ad dress to AGS C 450 students that she wants to effe ct chan ge in the sup pli ers she is alread y estab li shed with instead of chan gin g suppl iers.  If UBC can pressure and then assi st companies it order s from in chan gin g t heir systems to more sus tainable ones, then we can trul y be the "le ade rs in sust ainabili t y" that we have promoted oursel ves as.  Miriam Stein , AMS Sustainabil it y coordi nator,  was also ex cit ed about us focusin g on a su ppli er as part of th e strate g y to light en UBC’s foot print and  also, hopefull y, as a potential mode of lightenin g that of BC.   We want to review Neptune’s available foods: where they are procuring their food from, what their ethi cs are, wh at chan ges the y have bee n making in their comp a n y of lat e , if an y, whether or not the y are aware of the FSP and UBC's sust ainabili t y ini ti ati ves, wher e the y thi nk we could be of servic e to them in the future and which issues the y are int e r ested in as far as sust ainabili t y go es.  Reflections on Vision Statement   Our main criticism of the Scenario 2 Visi on State ment is that its focus lies heavil y on environmental sust ainabili t y, when a more bal a nced an al ysis includin g economi c and social sust ainabili t y would be beneficial.  We heard man y times in our discussion s wi th partners that the y are, above all , busi n esses.  The dem and for various products and the profit that can be m ade  6  are important factors, as well as ecolo gic al and so cial sust ainabili t y conc er ns.  This is a ver y important poi nt because a busi ness cannot ma ke changes that put the econo mi c bott om line in jeopard y or the y will go out of business and ce ase to ex ist .   We were wo rking und er an anthropoc entric pa radi gm, wit h the value assum pti ons that a balance betwe en environ mental, social and econo mi c sust ainabi li t y is ess e nti al; these are eq ual pil lars of sustainabil it y.  We also feel that workin g towa rds sustainabil it y has to be step - b y - step process.  The id eals of th e visi on statement are ex cell ent, but it is not poss ible to achieve thes e ideals imm ediatel y.  An y movement toward those goals is important, and opportunit ies for change should not be ignored because they aren’t ideal.  We tried to be aware of the fact that as students in the Facult y of LFS our outl ook ma y di f fer consi de rabl y from the gen eral popul a ti on of UBC.  The po wer of convenience often wei ghs in heavier than conce rns of environmental sust ainabili t y of the food s ystem.  Methodology  In conti nuing with the FSP , we empl o ye d the use of comm unit y - b ased acti on resea rch (CBAR), which is the ov erar chin g methodolog y of the UBC FS P .  The main principle of CBAR is the coll aborati on and i nclusi on of comm unit y partners and st akeholders i n the rese arch directi on and implementa ti on (Stringer, 1999).  W e en ga ged in a vari et y of information -coll ecti ng methods inc lu ding literatur e revi ews, personal interviews, and emails .  Our literature review consi sted of res ea rching sust ainable food purchasin g and procur eme nt pol icies as well as other sust ainabili t y ini ti ati ves of other universiti es. In particular, we looked at Universit y of Victoria, Sim on Frase r Universit y, Unive rsit y of Cali fornia Santa Cruz , and Universit y of Toronto.   We also review ed FSP papers from previ ous AGS C 450 groups.   Additi onall y, our team had person al intervi ews, gu est speak ers ,  and comm unicated v ia email with indivi duals from  7  AMSFBD, Neptune Foo d Service, and othe r univ ersiti es such as Unive rsity of Victoria, and Universit y of Toronto.  With ever y em ail sent , we included a cop y of the ethi cs consent form to ensure that we met the et hical guid eli ne s of the UBCFS P .  Email correspo ndence is included in Appendix 1.   Lastl y, we reviewed othe r rel evant in formation from the AMS FB D such as curr ent purchasin g, inventor y, an d suppl ier lists .  Findings  In order to provid e fe asibl e, useful and effe cti ve re com mendati ons for our stakeholde rs, we must first understand  their ex pectations , aim s, goals and tar gets re gardi ng  sust ainable movements.   In Janua r y 2007, AMS student societ y  passed an Environmen tal Sustainabil it y poli c y with the aim of cr eati ng formal envir onm e ntal strate gies that help t he UBC comm unit y to reduce ecolo gic al footpri n t.  The student organiz ati on  then compi led a cohe sive document call ed AMS lighter Footp rint Strate g y that summariz es and records all the future opportuni ti es, targets, goals and e nvironmental impacts that AMS has achieved in differ ent discip li nes.  The document is not onl y a repo rt that defines tar gets and achiev ements; it also includes acti on plans and recomm endati ons fo r fut ure lead ers of AMS, so t hat previous hard work can be tr a ced, and implementation o f each s ustainabil it y str ate g y  can proceed mo re efficientl y.   Although  AMS cle arl y re cognises  th at ecolo gic al, social and economi c al co ncerns are three  equ all y  important p il lars of  sust ainabili t y, the AMS Li ghte r Footprint Strate g y onl y fo cuses on the aspect of ecolo gic al sus tainabil it y .  The str ate g y a im s to make  AMS a more environm ental organiz ati on and to moderate the EF  of the UBC comm unit y.   In order to gather des criptiv e data and benchma rks for the AMS to develop tar gets, as sessm ents and consul ta ti on sessi ons with different d epartments ,  AMS permanent staff, s enior mana gement and Ex ec uti ve Comm it tee were conducted.  AMS hen ce uses Ecolo gical Footp rint Anal ysis to ex ami nati on current situations and  8  then develops strate gies.  By  using thi s app roach, AMS can cate goriz e tar gets as eit her quanti tative tar gets whe r e objecti ves are supporte d by nume rical data or quali tative tar gets whe re AMS doesn’t have sufficient data on particular aspects, and can only provide vague directions.  Ot her than cate goriz ing t ar gets as quanti tative and quali tative, AMS also classifies tar gets as int ernal or intera cti ve tar gets. Int ernal ta r gets ar e objecti ves that AMS has complete authorit y; where as int era cti ve tar ge ts are objecti ves that n ee d other or gan iz ati ons or partnerships to participate so that acti ons can be pro cessed.   The report pla ces the topi c of Food and Beve ra ges under both internal and interacti ve targets, wher e the esti mat ed Ecolo gical Footprint is evaluated as hi gh und er int ernal tar get an d ver y high under inter acti ve tar get.  Th ere is a list of acti ons recorded und er the topic of both int ernal and intera cti ve ta rgets that AMS would like to par ti cipate in the co mi ng yea rs .   Fo r ex ampl e, the ulti mate internal tar get under Food and Beve ra ge i s to signific antl y reduce th e avera ge pe r - servin g ecol ogic al footprint of food and bevera ges sol d at the AMS food outl ets.  One of the acti ons includes sett ing inform ed tar get s for incre asin g the purch ase of loc al food ingredi ents as a perc enta ge of total food purch ase s.  There is also a tim e fr ame given for ea ch acti on ; thi s acti on is listed as a short - te rm.  Our recomm endati ons aim to align with most of the short - term acti ons list ed under the topi c of Food and Beve ra ge and Comm unicati on under both int erna l and intera cti ve ta rgets of the AMS Li ghter Footprint Strate g y.  Findings from Other Universities In thi s proje ct, we hav e conducted some res ear ch on the approa ches which SFU, UVic, U of T, and Queen’s have taken to achieve a more sustainable and procure m or e local food for campus .    9  a. Simon Fraser University S ustainable SFU is an or ganiz ati on run b y student s, staff, and alum ni helpi ng the campus to be a more sust ainable comm unit y  (Sust ainable SFU, 2007) .  Sustainable SFU, in conjunction with the Centre for S usta inable Comm unit y Devel opment and Lo cal Solut ions , has  establi shed the Lo cal Food Proj ect in order to att ain a mor e su stainable food s ystem on campus .  This project was funded b y Environm ent Canada 's Eco Acti on Grant and is supported by SFU Sustainabil i t y Advisor y Comm it tee  (Su stainable SFU, 2007) .  The go al of this project is t o increas e the amount of local food on campus through several programs such as “Green Food Box” (Sust ainable SFU, 2007) .  Other campus par tners who participat e in this project inc lude SFS S Food and Bev era ge Services, Chartw ell s Dini ng Servic es, SFU Healt h Promoti on, The SFU Communi t y Trust and Natures Garden Organic Deli .  Food servi ce outl et s, residence ca fé, and so me restaur ants offe r weekl y or dail y loc al foo d special s  and fair trad e coffee.  In addit ion, this project raises publi c awar eness wit h res ear ch reveali n g the problems of the food s ystem toda y, t he benefits of loc al foods, the strate gies to co nsum e more locall y on campus , and the cas e studi es of the food s ystems in other  universi ti es ( Sustainable SFU, Toolki t, n.d).  The Lo cal Food Project also suppl ies the information regardin g the lo cati ons on and out of campus wh e re one can pur chase local sus tainable food pr oducts ( Sustainable SFU, Food Guide, n.d).   Under the Lo cal Foo d Pr oject, SFU introduced a program known as the “Good Food box Program” in which boxes of mix ed produce,  including or ga nic and sust aina bl y produ ced foods ,  are sold as a box on campus (Sustainable SFU, 20 07).  Not onl y do es  thi s program en coura ge people to  consum e more vegetables and fruit s, but it also raises awa reness of sust ainabili t y, supports local farme rs, and reduces food miles.  The Lo cal Food Project als o proposed some possi ble strategi es that increas es amount of loc al food on campus (Sustaina ble S FU, 2007).   In  10  the Universit y Lo cal Foo d Toolki t, Sustainable SFU suggested the possi bil it ies of  food producti on on Campus by  edibl e l andscapin g, Far mers Markets on Campu s, and Fa rms to Campus Program (Sust ainable SFU, Toolki t, n.d).  b. University of Victoria  The Universit y of Victori a (UVic ) off ers various routes for people on camp us to enjo y local food.  UVic’s Student Society has begun to launch local food menus in the restaurants at the SUB ( Unive rsit y of Victoria, 2004).   In front of SUB, ther e is also a  weekly “Pocket market” where people can bu y pr oduce dire ctl y from farmers ( UVi c, 2004 ). This market  was ini ti ated b y the UVic Sustainabil it y Projects and Food Roots, a Co - op distribut or of loca ll y and natur all y gro wn produc e and loc all y pro cessed food ( Fo od Roots, n/a ).  In addition, a “Campus Community Garden” allows people to operate their allotted plot to grow their own food (UVi c, 2004 ).   In the email communi cat ion wit h Sarah Swebb, the Sust ainabili t y Coordin a tor at UVic, it was ex plained  that UVic is  sti ll in the progr ess of developi ng poli ci es and plans in food procurem ent (S. Swebb, personal communi cati on, March 26, 2008).   It was also ex plained that  UVic has recentl y joi ned the Nanaim o Food Sha re to improve the food secu rit y problem in Nanaim o ar ea .  Swebb described  UVic ’s Purch asing Servic es Dep artment ,  which admi nist ers purchasin g servi ces polic y and m ana ges all sorts of procur ement on campus (S. Swebb, personal comm unicati on, March 26, 2008).   c. University of Toronto Beginni n g in 2006, Univ ersit y o f Toronto (U of T) partnered with “Local Food Plus” ( LFP ) to improve its sust ainable food pro curem en t on campus ( Local Food Plus, n.d ) .   LFP is a non - profit or ganiz ati on that certifies farme rs and processors as local & sust ainable and links  11  them to local p urchas ers, benefitti ng both farme rs and consum ers ( LFP , n.d ).   In respons e to many students’ preference for more healthy sustainable food, LFP is able to provide more local sust ainable food to the restaurants and cafet erias at U of T campus es. This  coll abo rati on  has receiv ed  a  tr emendous amount of posit ive feedba ck and rais ed the public awaren ess regardin g the advanta ges of sustain able food  (LF P , n.d).  d.  Queen’s University The food system at Queen’s University also sets a good example in terms of sustainabil it y.  Queen’s University is dedicated in bringing the best and freshest quality local foods onto campus as it supports the local economy and reduces carbon footprint. Queen’s purchasing department spends a lot of time on tryi n g to get local supp li er s ins pe cted and app roved to be used at its service loc ati ons (C. Han na, personal comm unicat ion, March 26, 2008).   Carl  Hanna, th e director of Residen ce Fo od Operati ons, stated that the curr ent perc enta ge of local food purch ase by Queen’s is 35%, however, this num ber can flu ctuate due to se asonal pr oduce and avail abil it y (Personal comm unicati o n, March 26, 2008).   Also, Queen’s University has been contacted with Sodexo Canada for a long time, because the mission of Sodexo coincides with that of Queen’s (C. Hanna, pe rsonal commu nicati on, March 26, 2008 ).  It is menti oned b y Hanna that Sodex o Canada has  a committee dedicated to sustainability, while one of Queen’s main area of focus is to bu y local produ cts.  Sodex o, a compan y comm it ted to purchasin g as loc all y as poss ibl e, is running one of the main cafés at Queen’s, Ban Righ (C. Hanna, personal communication, March 26, 2008). Sodex o lists all the nutrit ion information for the food so students can acknowled ge th e nutrit ion value of the foo d the y consum e.     12  e. University of California Santa Cruz  Universit y of Cali fornia Santa Cruz (UCS C ) has a Food S ystem Workin g Group (FS W G) which aim s to provide ca mpus with more local or gani c food produ ced b y sociall y responsi ble operati ons and to rais e student awar eness and en gagement in the campus food s ystem  (UC Santa Cruz , n.d).   FSW G has done much to promot e sust ainabili t y on campus , su ch as, b y holdi ng the “Local and Organic College night” feeding up to 2000 students, creating dinners that strengthen relations hips between gr owers a nd campus stakeh olders, and implementi ng the stud y of sust ainabili t y int o the ex ist ing under graduate cour ses ( UC Santa Cruz , n.d ) .  As of Ma y 2004, UCS C Food S yst em Working Group draft ed guide li nes for UCS C Dining services to adopt som e food poli cies, whic h is to 1) bu y lo cal, 2) bu y se as onal, 3) bu y certified or ganic, 4) bu y humanel y produced anim al products, 5) bu y dire ct , 6) bu y certified fair tr ad e, and 7) bu y from worker supporti ve produ cers ( UC Santa Cruz , n.d ) .  There is also a course at UCSC called “The Education for Sustainable Living Program” (ES LP ).  It is an  int erdis c ipl inar y effort to att ain a sust ainable campus com muni t y.  Students form acti on res ear ch tea ms to implement tangibl e chan ges on campus , whi le the y are provided with knowledge from gu e st lecturers, facult y, ad mi nist rati ons, and comm unit y members ( UC Santa Cruz , n.d).   Within the Santa Cruz Count y, t he food poli c y council ,  S anta Cruz Count y Food S ystems Network (SCC FS N) ,  responds to problems such as food secu rit y and hun ger and diet rela ted diseas es (UC Santa Cruz , n.d).   The y recruit the ex pertise of pu bli c and private stakeholders in developi n g loc al food poli c y and  al so welcome students, fac ult y, and staf f who would like to assis t ( UC Santa Cruz , n.d ).     13  Findings: Sustainable Packaging  The Canadian Council of Minist er of the Environ ment (CCME) was establ ished to protect Canada’s environment, and it is comprised of the environment ministers from the federal, provincial, and ter ritorial gove rnments.  Reducti o n of packa gin g is one of the CCME’s concerns.  In 1989, CCME called for the development if a “National Packaging Protocol” with the aim to mi nim iz ing packa gin g waste (CCMC , 2008).  Representatives from fed eral, provincial, and muni cipal gove rnment, indust r y, envi ronment, an d consum er int erest grou ps formed the Nati onal Task For ce on Packa gin g which contribut ed gr eatl y to the dev elopm ent of the protocol.  Since the development of the “National Packaging Protocol”, the task force continues to look for alt ernati ve wa ys to reduc e pack a ging , and ex panse re - use able packa gin g s ystem.  In March of 2007, CCME and the Ontario Ministry of Environment hosted the “National Packaging Workshop” in Toronto.  One of the ke y topi cs ad dressed durin g the wo rks hop is sust ainable packa gin g. Du ring the worksh op secti on, one of the gu est speak ers, Jim Thomps on of Wal - Mart, gav e a pr esentation on ho w sustainable pack a gin g influences pur chasin g de cisi ons  (MRC , 2007).  He point ed out that Wal - Mart has establi shed goal s with respect to redu cin g pa cka gin g solid waste , using ren ewable ener g y, and sell produ cts without tox ic materials  (MRC , 2007).  He also  suggested th at sus tainable pack a ging is not onl y reducin g waste, but also i ncreasin g the us e of renew able resourc es for packa gin g (MR C , 2007).   Since the emphasis on  sust ainable pack a ging is b ecome more and mo re rob ust, it is necessa r y to take a  closer look into the concept .   The Sustainable Packin g Alli ance (SP A) de fines sust ainable pack a ging as effe cti ve, ef ficient, c ycli ng, and s afe (2005).  Sinc e the definiti on pro vided b y SPA is vagu e, it is difficult to get a fi rm understandin g on sust ainable pa cka gin g.  Fortunatel y, the Sustaina ble Packa gin g Coali ti on (SP C ) provides a much co ncrete definiti on.    14  Accordin g to the SPC, Sustainable Packa gin g de f ined as  bein g: bene fic ial, safe & healt h y fo r indi viduals and comm unit ies throughout its life c ycle; compatibl e with mar ket crit eria for performan ce and cost; sourced, manu factur ed, tra nsported, and rec ycled us ing ren ewabl e ene r g y; a max im iz ed  use of rene wable or rec ycl ed sourc e materials; manufa ctured using cle an producti on technolo gies and best pra cti ces; ma de from materials he alt h y in all probable end of life scena rios; ph ysic all y designed to opt im iz e materials and en er g y; effe cti vel y recov ered and uti li z ed in biological and / or indus trial cradle to cr adle c ycl es (2007).   Although the SP A and th e SPC have provided a general out li ne of sustain a ble packa gin g, it is sti ll difficult for consum ers or dist ributors  to identi f y products which are particip ati ng in sust ainable pack a ging.   W ith the aid of “Packaging Scorecard”, h ow eve r ,  consum ers and distributor are given more transparency about information on products’ packaging.  Acco rding to the Flexible Packaging Association (FPA), the packaging scorecard measures suppliers’ ability fo r developi n g sust ainabl e pack a ging.   Spe ciall y, the score card measur es gr eenhouse gas emi ssi ons related to pack agin g raw mate rials prod ucti on, sust ainable mater ials values, product to packa gin g rati o, cube uti li z ati on, rec ycl ed content usage, innovation, t he amount of renew able ener g y used to manu fact ure the packa gin g, the re cover y valu e of the raw materials and emi ssi on related to the dist anc e re quired to transport the packa gin g materials (FP A, 2008).  The ove rall score of each suppl ie r ca n be used for eva luatin g t he sust ainabili t y level of packa gin g in each product.  Wal - Mart, mas s distribut or, has been using thi s tool to identi f y gr een suppl iers.  With the aid of the scor ec ard, Wal - Mart is able to more accur atel y measu ring th e pro gress tow ard its goal of redu cing pack a ging in their suppl y ch ain by 5% B y 2013 (FP A, 200 8).  In orde r make packa gin g more sust ain a ble, making packa ges small , or use less materials i s onl y part of the  15  solut ion.  It is more important to look at the total packa ge and it developm e nt process, the product, and custom er rel ati onshi p for an over all bett er pack a ge (FP A, 2008 ).  Discussion  After an al yz in g the food s ystem of man y unive rsiti es, there is  an app ar ent trend of universit ies att empt ing to incre a s e the amount of local sus tainable f ood and the awar eness of sust ainabili t y on campus .  A pproach es to a more s ustainable food s ystem can differ subst anti all y among dif fer ent uni versiti es due to their populations, siz e and structure of their campus es, and their geo graphi cal locati o ns. Thus, w e would have to consider these limi tations before su ggesti ng such pro grams or m ethods to UBC or AMS .   As an example, SFU’s Local Food Project is able to bring more lo cal food to campus with the finan cial support from Enviro nment Canada 's Eco Acti on Grant (Sust ainabl e SFU, 2007).  Whil e loc al sus tainable food can s ometim es be more ex pensive than the ex ist ing non - lo cal food, fundin g is often helpful for the transit ion to purchase more locall y and the sear ch for ide al local food su ppli ers.  If AMS appli es for  thi s gr ant, it wil l gain fin ancial assi stant in bringin g more lo cal items to the AMS food outl ets.  In the meanti me, AMS would benefit from thi s progr am since appli cant of this grant is requi red to submi t an EcoActi on proje ct propo sal (e. g. Loc al Food Pro j ect b y SFU).  This propo sal would enfor ce AMS to work towards a defined dire cti on in redu cing the ecolo gical footprint of AMS .   Although SFU (~25000) has onl y about half of the population of UBC (~45 000 students), AMS food outl ets do not actual l y serv e al l students in UBC, so SFU and AMS ar e of compa rable siz es.  Additi onall y, a feasibl e wa y to promot e a mor e sust ainable  food s ystem o n campus is to sell fresh local produ ces directl y on campus .  SFU has the “Good Food Box” Program that sells box es of mix pr oduces, whil e UVic and Food Ro ots have their Pocket Ma rkets to sell fresh loc al produce dir ectl y to students and staff (Sustainable SFU, 2007; UVic, 2004; Food Roots, n.d).    16  These ar e gr eat routes fo r students to purchase fres h local foods and to pro mot e t heir awa reness in importance to consum e locall y.   The loc ati on where the food is sold also has its significan ce determi ning its impact o n publi c awar eness. For ex ampl e, Pocket markets at UVic ar e held in front of their student uni on buil ding (SUB) (UVic , 2 004).  The food from UBC fa rm could also be sold at bus y s ecti on s  of the campus  like the UBC SUB .  Some other approa ches t o sust ainable  food s yste m on campus are to contr act wit h organiz ati ons and compa nies that can provide th e universit y more lo cal foo d.  For ex ampl e, Queen’s is contracted with Sodexo for running one of its main cafes, while Sodexo is dedicated to provide as much local food as poss ibl e.  Queen’s also carefully chooses its local food suppl iers with approx im atel y 35% of food is locall y pur cha sed.  Acco rdin g to Statist ic Canada, Ontario and Qu ebec has the most food manufactu r ers meanin g more choice s for locall y processed food for Queen’s University (2006).  When taking the geo grap hical differ enc e int o account, AMS can adopt the simil ar structur e as Queen’s but will have to se t different ta r gets and timeline in local food procurement.  As well , U of T partners wit h LFP to br ing more loc all y produced food on campu s from LFP ce rtified sup pli ers and farmers  (LF P , n.d).   Howev er, U of T is scatt ered at v arious pla ces as small campus es so connecti n g these small campus es to differ ent local farm ers might b e easier than conne cti ng m an y loc al farm ers to UBC as an enti re enti t y.  Yet, the ce rtificati on whi ch LFP hono u red th e fa r mers as local and sustain able  can s erve as a marketi ng tool ( LF P , n.d ).   If ther e is such or ganiz ati on in Vancouver that would partner wit h Neptune it could be a gre at advanc e in conne cti ng Neptune to more loc al farmers.  Nanc y Too good is worki ng towa rds ef fecti n g ch a nge with her suppl iers, in reco gnit ion of the importance of so cial sust ainabili t y  ( N. Too go od, personal communi cat ion , March 7, 2008 ).  It is a point of important potential to be creati ng change in other businesses through the demand  17  of the universit y for ethi c al and sustai nable produ c ts. UBC can begin to demand more transparen c y in the produ cts it orders b y askin g for origins of produ cts, and asking qu esti ons about wh y products are being sour ced from long dist ances or about the ethi cs of those sourc es.   We recomm end that ne xt year’s FSP include more emphasis on aspects of social sustainability.  For ex ampl e how is the wider student bod y bein g brought info rmati on abo ut chan ges happ ening in its food s yst em?  Are messages cle ar and eff ect ive?  The AMS LFS is focused on environm ental sust ainabi li t y but the impa ct of rais ing aw aren ess on campus and invol ving more people in thi nking about their food s yst em is a point at which chan ge can be ini ti ated.  Progr ams like the UPass, which benefit the student bod y an d reduce th e universit y ’s footprint without requirin g much ex tra ef f ort, are most ef fecti ve.  As the campus conti nues to chan ge and grow it is important that issues of food secu rit y be part of the buildi ng proc ess.  Nanc y Too good raised thi s issue in man y di ffe re nt wa ys with us,  discussi ng the need to get as man y peopl e invol ved as possi ble to ensure that ini ti ati ves have longevit y and do not fade out of fo c us when their pionee rs reti re or move on ( N. To ogood, pe rsonal commun icati on , March 7, 2008 ).  We need to work to chan ge con sciousn ess an d habit s; in order to be ef fecti ve poli c y ch an ge nee ds to include consi derati ons of edu cati on, comm unicati on and publi c invol vement.  We chose to look at Nept une and groc eries ins te ad of at Central and produc e or other dist ributors that UBC ord ers from because other S cenario 2 groups wer e alr ead y cov erin g thi s. Although our findi n gs ha ve not been as clea r as we hoped, we thou ght it was important to tr y and reveal the food s ystem be hind this partner in our food s ystem.  Neptun e ex pressed wil li ngn ess to coll aborate wit h us in res earch about the produ cts the y of fer but timi ng was not good for th em as the UBC conta ct, Kim Babiuk, was awa y on for the past five months and, understandabl y, did not manage to answe r ou r questi ons about Neptun e and the pro du cts it distribut es.  In cluded in  18  Appendix 1 is both out email corresponden ce and the contact inform ati on for Kim Babiuk so that next year’s groups can make contact immediately, knowing that this is a willing partner in comm unit y based acti on resea rch.  Recommendations  For Neptune  C onti nue to ex pand on the comm unit y conn ecti on s  via acti ve pa rticipati ons in organiz ati ons whose missi on is to foster sust ainabili t y (e. g. Green Table).  This can help them to bui ld connecti ons to other sust ainable fa r mers and fo od suppl iers.  Also, these organiz ati ons can provid e Neptune advices to impl ementing sust ainable op erati ons and supports whil e making an y sust ainable chan ges wit h their ex pertise.    R equest product informat ion  (e.g. ori gin of the in gredients) from suppli ers  and provide thi s to  custom er (i.e. AMS Food and Bever a ge ) .  The purpose of this is to enhanc e the transparen c y of fo od UBC purchased from Neptu ne.  T ranspa ren c y can be used as a marketi ng str ate g y in sell ing produ cts to gr een foo d service outl ets.    C oll a borate wit h UBC FS P student officiall y nex t ye a r.  Th ere shoul d hav e a date wh ere repres entative from Nept une to come in durin g cla ss tim e to provide back gr ound information on the comp an y, answe r an y questi on s, and set up appoint ments for int erview.   For AMS  S upport Neptune durin g their chan ge to more sust a inable practi c es.    Demand their suppli ers to have to provide inform ati on on their packa gin g by usin g the “Packaging Scorecard”.  R esult s  can be used  to id enti f y suppl iers who ar e working toward more sust ai nabl e packa gin g pr acti ces.    C reate a food p urch asing comm it tee with repres en tatives from AMS Food & Beve ra ge,  UBC Food Se rvice, UBC Farm, et c .  UBC food pr oviders can be invi ted to the comm it tee meetings, allowing them to comprehend UBC’s current need or ch an ges an d relations hip bonding.    C onduct resea rch to see which food suppl iers pr a cti ce sust ainabili t y that can be used fo r AMS and UBC Food Se r vice.    S uggest sim il ar course (i. e. AGS C 450) in other fa cult ies, such as Facult y of Comm erce, to help the food  provider s to become sustainable - practi ced busi n ess. This can also raise campus’s awareness in sustainability and importance of local food  For Next Year’s AGSC 450 Student  19   Init iate contact wit h Nept une as soon as possi ble. Discuss what res ear ch would bene fit the compan y, what the y are int er ested in chan gin g, wh at ideas the y hav e about sust ainabili t y.    C reate a proposal to setti ng  up netwo rk, non - pro fit organiz ati on like Local Flavour Plus for UBC.  This network provides servic es such as comm unicati on with local farme rs and linking them to UBC Foo d Providers, and holdi ng events that  promot e aw ar eness of healt h y eati n g and sust ai nabil it y on c ampus .   For AGSC 450 Teaching Team  Facil it ated discussi ons in scenario grou ps would have be en ver y us eful for achievin g  an understandin g of the proj ect, our goals as a scen ari o, our findi ngs etc. The y also woul d have be en helpful for co mm unicati on between TAs and students.    An y back ground info rma ti on related to Neptune and AMS obtained from interviews shoul d be readil y av a il ab le to the student s  of nex t ye a r, as well as conta ct information. This eli mi nate s  the tim e in doing ba ck ground rese arch and int e rviewin g AMS repres entatives for th e sa me information ever y ye ar.   Conclusion  The UBC Food Securit y Project is a process th at will conti nue to be devel oped in future ye a rs of AGS C 450, further ex panding a network of UBC students, prof esso rs and admi nist rators, UBC food se rvice provid ers, and ex ternal UBC fo od s ystem pa rtners and st akeholders.  Th e AMS Li ghter Footprint Strate g y  is a valuabl e tool in the effort to improve t he food secu rit y of the UBC campus and b y incorporati n g it int o all aspects of the universit y it will bring the effort to create a sust ainable s ystem on UBC campus fo r ward.  Othe r campus es across Brit ish Colum b ia and Canada ar e making sim il ar efforts and provide both inspirat ion and models for sust ainable ini ti ati ves.  It is important that we con sider the economi c, so cia l and environmental aspects of poli c y or pu rc hasing ch an ges wh en we are wo rking tow ards a su s tainable system in order fo r chan ges to be producti ve and to hav e longevit y.  Neptune Food Se rvice is a UBC food s ystem pa rtner that is a willi ng coll aborator on this missi on of sust ainabili t y, a potential aspect o f the UBC food s ystem tha t could be develo ped to reduce the ecolo gical footprint of the AMS and thereb y of UBC.   20  References AMS Student Societ y. (2 008). AMS Lighter Footprint Strategy. Universit y of Britis h Col umbi a. Retrieved Februa r y 29, 2008, from htt p:/ /www.amsub c.ca/u ploads/gove rnment/ AMS _ Li gh ter_ Footprint _S trat eg y.pd f  Canadian Council of Mini ster of the Environment (2008). Nati onal Pack a gi ng Protocol 2000 Final Report . Retriev ed on April , 03, 2008, from htt p:/ /www.ccme.ca/ asse ts/ pdf/nappfinalj un22_e.pdf  Diamond Gre enbox Init iatives (2008). Sustainabil it y. Retrieved on April , 02, 2008, from htt p:/ /www.diamondpackagin g. com/ gr een/sus taina bil it y/pa ck a gin g.htm  Dohert y, E. & Stein, M. (2007). AMS Li ghter Foo tprint Strateg y Consul tation.  Flex ibl e Packa gin g Asso ciation (2008). Pa cka gin g Sco rec ard Q&A. Retrie ved on Ap ril, 03, 2008, from  htt p:/ /www.flex pack.org/M EMON L/m o_sus tainable_pack a gin g/ sp_update/do cuments/ P acka gin g_S core card_ QA. pdf  Food Roots. (n.d). Welco me to Food Roots. Retrieved April 4, 2008, from htt p:/ /www.foodroots.ca/   Loc al Food Plus (LFP ). (2006). U of T embr ac es local sus tainable food. Re trieved April 3, 2008, from htt p:/ /www.localfo odplus .ca/NEW S _UofT_Embraces_ Lo cal_ Food.h tm   Marbek Resour ce Consul tants Ltd. (2007). Nati on al Packa gin g Workshop 2007. Retrieved on April , 03, 2007, from htt p:/ /www.ccme.c a/assets/ pdf/npw_smr yr pt_1382_e.pdf    21  Rojas, A. & Richer, L. (2 008). The Unive rsit y of Britis h Col umbi a Food Sys tem Project V I (UBC FS P ). AGSC 450, Universit y of Briti sh Columbi a.   Statist ics Canada (2006). Manufacturing, 2006 . Ottawa, Ontario. Retriev ed March 30, 2008, from http: // www41.statcan.ca/2006/ 4005/ceb400 5_000_e.htm   Stringer, E.T. (1999). Action Research. Second Ed it ion. London: Sa ge Publi cati ons In c.   Sustainable Packa gin g All ia nce. (2005). Definin g Sustainable Packa gin g. Retrieved Ap ril 3, 2008, from htt p:/ /www.sust ainablepack.o r g/rese ar ch/sub pa ge.aspx ? P age ID =10&id=7   Sustainable Packa gin g C oali ti on. (2007). What is sust ainable pack a ging? Retrieved Ap ril 3, 2008, from, htt p:/ /www.sust ainablepack a gin g.or g/about _sust ainable_pack a ging. asp   Sustainable SFU, Centre fo r Sust ainable Comm unit y Dev elopm ent, & Lo ca l Solut ion. (n.d). The University Local Food Toolkit. Retrieved April 7, 2008, from htt p:/ /www.sfu.ca/~sus ta in/ pdf/Toolkit 08.pdf   Sustainable SFU. (200 7). Sustainable SFU Projects. Simon Fraser Unive rsity, Burnab y, Britis h Colum bia. Retrieved Ma rch 30, 2008, from, htt p:/ /www.sfu.ca/~sus tain/pr ojects/ index .htm l   Sustainable SFU. (n.d).  Your Local Food Guide. R etrieved Ap ril 7, 2008, from htt p:/ /www.sfu.ca/~sus ta in/ pdf/Your%20 Local%2 0Food%20Guide - web.pd f   UC Santa Cruz . (n.d). UCS C Farm - t o - coll e ge.  The Centre for Agroecology & Sustainable Food System. R etrieved April 3, 2008, from htt p:/ /casfs.ucsc.edu/f arm2coll e ge/i ndex .htm l   Universit y of Victoria (U Vic). (2004). Food. Sustainability . Retri eved April 4, 2008, from htt p:/ /web.uvic.ca/sus tainabil it y/ Food.htm  

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