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Implementing sustainable production techniques at the UBC Farm : the UBC Farm as a living laboratory Pfoh, Jenna; Pisarek, Jessica; Prucklmeier, Brigitte; Rajabi, Fariba; Ram, David; Renshaw, Carly; Rezaei, Golnaz; Rhee, Ji Ye 2009-04-10

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UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report       Implementing sustainable production techniques at the UBC Farm: The UBC Farm as a living laboratory Jenna Pfoh, Jessica Pisarek, Brigitte Prucklmeier, Fariba Rajabi, David Ram Carly Renshaw, Golnaz Rezaei, Ji Ye Rhee  University of British Columbia AGSC 450 April 10, 2009           Disclaimer: “UBC SEEDS provides students with the opportunity to share the findings of their studies, as well as their opinions, conclusions and recommendations with the UBC community. The reader should bear in mind that this is a student project/report and is not an official document of UBC. Furthermore readers should bear in mind that these reports may not reflect the current status of activities at UBC. We urge you to contact the research persons mentioned in a report or the SEEDS Coordinator about the current status of the subject matter of a project/report”. AGSC 450, Winter 2009    Scenario 3A:  Implementing sustainable production techniques at the UBC Farm: The UBC Farm as a living laboratory  Biofuels and Energy Crops         Group 23:  Jenna Pfoh  Jessica Pisarek  Brigitte Prucklmeier  Fariba Rajabi  David Ram Carly Renshaw  Golnaz Rezaei  Ji Ye Rhee U B C F O O D S Y S T E M P R O J E C T  TABLE OF CONTENT S   PART I ....................................................................................................................................... 3 A B STR AC T  ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ...  3  I N TR ODUC TION  ................................ ................................ ................................ ............................  3  P R OB LE M D E FIN IT ION  ................................ ................................ ................................ ..................  4  V IS ION S TA TE MEN T AND I DEN TIFICA TION O F V A LU E A SSUMP TIONS  ................................ ...........  5  PART II..................................................................................................................................... 6 M E THODO LOGY  ................................ ................................ ................................ ...........................  6  Objectives ................................................................................................................................ 6 Research Methods ................................................................................................................... 7 Variables to Consider ............................................................................................................. 8 F IND INGS  ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ .....  9  Canola ..................................................................................................................................... 9 Miscanthus ............................................................................................................................ 11 UBC Farm Climate and Soil ................................................................................................. 13 D ISC USS ION  ................................ ................................ ................................ ...............................  13  R EC OMMEN DA TIONS  ................................ ................................ ................................ ..................  15  Part 1: General recommendations for the UBC Farm ......................................................... 16 Part 2: Specific Recommendations for 2010 AGSC 450 students ........................................ 16 C ONCLUS ION  ................................ ................................ ................................ ..............................  17  PART III: FIELD WORK .......................................................................................... 18 M EE TING WITH B OM FOR D  ................................ ................................ ................................ .........  18  H ANDS - ON FAR M WOR K  ................................ ................................ ................................ .............  19  S IGN WOR KSHOP  ................................ ................................ ................................ ........................  20  PART IV: GROUP REFLECTIONS ................................................................... 21 APPENDIX A: MEETING MINUTES WITH BOMFORD ................. 24 APPENDIX B: SIGN TEMPLATES FOR THE UBC FARM ..................... 26 REFERENCES ..................................................................................................................... 26    Part I Abstract As part of the UBC Food S ystem Project (U BC FS ) our group help ed res ear ch and  establi sh biofuel demonst rati on plot s at the UBC Farm for canola, a first - ge nerati on biofuel, and miscanthus , a second - ge nerati on biofuel. Our res earch compar es and cont rasts these two crops in terms of growin g cap a bil it ies and processi ng t e chnologies, an d contex tualiz es thi s information as it relates t o the UBC Farm. Aft er anal yz ing th e soil and cli mate condit ions of the UBC Farm, we deduc ed that both crops can pot enti all y hav e all of their nutr it ional and cli mate requirements met onc e is sues re ga rding ad equ ate nit rogen for canola, and s ufficient drain a ge fo r miscanthus are add ressed . We beli eve that produci ng, pro cessi n g and uti li z ing canola and its end product (biodi esel ) is feasibl e withi n the boun daries of the UBC campus . On the other hand, miscanthus will serve bet ter as a tool for educ ati on and rese arch bec ause of the relativel y ex pensive technolog y tha t is required to ex tract its ethanol. Bas ed on these findi ngs and conclusi ons, our group pr ovided a set of gen eral recomm endati ons to the UBC Farm and specific recomm endati on s for the 2010 AGSC 450 students. The y conce rn areas of rese arch and interviews that we didn’t have the time or resources to complete. All of our recommendations support the notion that UBC has the potenti al to at tain its goal of bec omi ng a leade r in sust ainabili t y, and can be an ex empl ar of a sel f - r eli ant food system.   Introduction    Our group is part of a microcosm of othe r AGSC 450 groups who ar e all working towards helpi n g UBC ac hieve a more sust ain able food s ystem. Th e UBCF S P is  founded on a coll aborati ve netwo rk of comm unit y stakeholde rs and partne rs, and reli es on comm unit y - bas ed acti on rese arch as the pri mar y sou rce of data coll e cti on. The purpose of ou r specific scenario was to  discuss biofuels in the contex t of miti gati ng cl im ate chan ge b y redu c ing the emi ssi ons of greenhous e gases (GH Gs) associated with fossi l fuels curr entl y uti li z ed at the UBC Farm.  Our group  fo cused our re search as per recomm end ati ons offer ed b y Mark Bomford, Progr am Coordinator for the Centre for Sustain abl e Food S ystems at the UBC Farm (se e Appendix A). Bomford desired that we focus our resear ch on both canol a and miscanthus : two crops that are rep resent ati ve of biofuels yet ve r y contrasti ng. We  will ex ami ne the feasibi li t y of producin g, proc essi ng an d u ti li zing these two crop s at the UBC farm to obtain biodiesel from canola and ethanol from miscanthus . In addit ion, our group will discuss the hands - on wo rk acti vit ies perform ed at the UBC Farm. App ropriat e signa ge for th e both the canola and miscanthus plo ts was also designe d b y our group and is presented as colou rful mockups (se e Appendix B). The purpos e of our recomm endati on s is to help the Farm to achieve its go al of being "c arbon ne utral ", as per the Unive rsit y's 201 0 Carbon Neutr al pledge.   Problem Definition S cenario 3A , whi ch addr esses the problem of GHG emi ssi ons at the on - far m producti on level, is one part of a multi tude of AGS C 450 scen arios that are all workin g towards a mor e sust ainable and secu re fo od s ystem on UBC camp us. The AGS C 450 group sce narios add ress iss ues at the producti on, processi n g, procu rement, prepar ati on, distribut ion, consumpt ion and waste mana gement levels of the UBC Food S yste m. The UBC Food S yste m represents a food s ystem microcosm, wh er e success ful strate gies empl o yed on cam pus not onl y help UBC att ain it's goal of bein g Ca rbon Neutral b y 2010, but also serves as "r eal - wo rld" research for adaptable, and sust ainabl e methods that can help foster a healt h y and long - li ved planet.    All scenarios provided fo r the purpose of AGS C 4 50 acknowled ge that eve r y me al we eat has the potential to m it igate cli mate chan ge. The problem that our sc en ario addr esses is relevant be caus e cur rent  resea rch has found that on - farm produ cti on of foo d contribut es 8% of tot al GHG emi ssi ons in Canada (A GSC  450 Teac hing team, 2009). In resp onse to these alarmi ng findings, the C e ntre for Sustainable Food S ystems (CS FS ) at the UBC Farm in conjunction wit h the 100 - Mi le Diet Societ y, have enli sted in the "Chan gin g the Food S yst em to Change th e Cli mate Project". Th is two - yea r proje ct ex plores how sust ainable agricult ural techniques can redu ce th e GHGs asso ciated with on - farm produ cti on.  Dec reasin g CO 2 emi ssi ons at the UBC Farm by subst it uti ng conv e nti onal fossi l fuel use wit h biofuels grown and process ed at the Fa r m would reduce its GHG output and potentiall y increas e its carbon sequesterin g capabil it ies (AGSC 450 Teachin g te a m, 2009).   Vision statement and Identification of Value Assumptions     The AGS C 450 Tea ching te am provided a "Visi o n Statement" for a sust ai nable UBC food s ystem, whi ch state s: "the over archin g go al of a sust ainable food s yst em is to protect and enhanc e the diversit y and quali t y of the ecos ystem and to improve social eq uit y". As a whole, our group agr ees that the seven guidi ng principl es are r efle cti ve of a sust ain able food s ystem, but we also beli eve that t he y are un re ali sti c and represent a utopian soci et y devoid of laws, poli cies, and regulations concernin g food. We pro pose chan ges to thr ee ex ist ing principl es and suggest the addit ion of a n ew one.    We beli eve it is impos sible to produce all foods lo call y, especi all y wh en et hnic foods are consi d ered. Ce rtain const raint s such as clim ate and cost woul d make producing forei gn crops more dif ficult and at tim es unfeasibl e. We wondered what the te rm "local " en compasses. Does "lo cal " re fer to a campus , muni cipalit y, cit y, region or provinc e? Depending on how far the geo graphic al boundar ies of that local region ex tend, we beli ev e that foo d providers with in one re gion must establis h relations hips with  ex ternal food providers to ensu re a food s ecur e region. We based thi s bel ief on the conc ept of  a food s ystem that is self - r eli ant rather th an self -sufficient. “Self- reli an ce impli es reducti on of depe ndence on othe r plac es, b ut does not den y the desirabil i ty or necessity of external trade relationships” (Kloppenburg, Hendrickson, & S tevenson, 1996, p. 38). We beli eve thi s concept of self - r eli ance, alon g wi th a definiti on of “local”, should be incorporated into principle #1.   In addit ion, we reco gniz ed that  principle #2 onl y advocates the rec ycli n g or compos ti ng of waste, but not the redu cti on or reuse of it. As ch il dren, most of us were ta ught the "thre e Rs": reduc e, reus e, re c ycl e. Our primar y st rate gies shoul d be to reduce and reuse, wit h rec ycli n g as th e  last resor t.  We thought principle #7 was ambi guous. Some members of the group int er preted “growers” as any farmer who produces food, be it vegetables, grain, meat or milk, whereas “providers” were the food retailers. Others believed that dairy and cattle farmers we re the “providers”. Therefore, principle #7 could be amended to: "Fair wages are equitability dist ributed amongst all le vels of the food s ystem, and food providers rec eive fair pri ces and offer fair pri ces to consu mers.   Lastl y, we also re co gni z ed that these seven prin cipl es do not directl y refl ect the prim ar y goal of our sc enario, whi ch is to reduce GHG emi ssi ons at the farm level. Even if food is produced loc all y, as prin cipl e #1 suggests it shoul d be, it does not mean that the on - sit e emi ssi o ns from farm equ ipm ent are an y less than those from imported food. In order for our scenario to hav e a stron ger conne cti on to the seve n principl es that provide the foundati on for the UBCFS P , we beli eve it deserves to be dir ectl y addressed as a new princ ipl e.    Part II Methodology  Objectives  Our main task is to prov ide hands - on assi stance with the conti nued imple mentati on of “Changing the Food System to Change the Climate Project,” while at the same time increasing our first - hand knowled ge of the cli mate - c han ge iss ues at hand. Our specific group objecti ve is to discuss biofuels and ener g y crops, including planting pra cti ces,  the importance of biofuels as alt ernati ves to fossil fuels,  and UBC’s role in establishing biofuel demonstration plots t o  ex empl if y pr oducti on and use of renew able en e rg y in agriculture.  Research Methods  W e conducted ou r resea r ch based on a revie w of relevant literatu re, int ervi ews, and ou r own accumul ated kno wledge  as fou rth ye ar stud ents in the Facult y of Land and Food S ystem s (LFS ).  The first aspe ct of our resea rch invol ve d coll ecti ng back ground information on the ph ysiol o g y, growin g ca pabil it ies, growin g requ irements, and ene r g y output s of canola and miscanthus . In addit ion, we coll ected data on the advanta ges an d disadvan tages of u sing canola and miscanthus as biofuels, and their potential to miti gate cli mate change. This gen eral literature review was don e mainl y throu gh onli ne resear ch, as it provided a relativel y sim ple and effe cti ve wa y to access gen eral facts and up - t o - date scie nti fic articles and statis ti cs. To make sure our res ear ch was relevant to cli mate and gr owing condit ions at the UBC Farm, we spok e with Bomford about the UBC Farm 's soi l t ype an d its sui tabili t y to planti ng these crops.        We conducted a gre at deal of o u r rese arch throu gh int ervie ws, m eeti ngs, and informal convers ati ons with noted ex perts in the field. The most valuable meeti ng we had was with Bomford . We also consul ted Professor Art Bomke, noted Soil Scienti st in the Facult y of Land, Food, and S yste ms, and Andr ea Mo r ga n, a student conducti n g directed studi es on miscanthus , and ca retak er of the UBC miscant hus plot .  Conversati ons  with Bomford and Andrea Mo r gan provide d us with ver y us eful i nformation on the appli cati ons and pra cti cal purposes of growin g c an ola and miscanthus at the UBC Farm. Bomford als o contex tualiz ed the actual purpose and impo rtance of the biofu el plot s as a way of demons tr ati ng the producti on and use of ren ewable ene rg y in agri cult ure. As on e of the pro gram coo rdinators for UBC Farm, B omford was able to provide detailed information, and clarify the purpose of the UBC’s biofuel plots; he also proved ex tremel y acc essi ble to our group.        As part of thi s project, we were required to con duct our own fieldwork as well , such as assi sti ng i n pr eparin g the miscanthus demons trati on plot . This final practi cal en ga gement provided us with a hands - on wa y to actuall y ass ist  with the  “Changing the Food System to Change the Climate Project.”  At the same time, our fieldwork off ered on e of the most cr eati ve and reli able wa ys to incr ease our first - h and knowledge of cli mate - ch an ge iss ues and possi ble solut ions at hand.  Variables to Consider  As part of an y res ear ch stud y, it is important to questi on the credibi li ty of resea rch methods, data, and sour ces . We strove to gathe r data from onl y the mos t reli able sourc es we could find, by pa yin g pa rticular att enti on to how web pages wer e credit ed , whether or not the y were unive rsit y - af filiated , and the date that the websit e was last updated.  As for our int ervi ews and meeti ngs, we can tr ust the reli abil it y of information on biofuels and their impor tance to UBC Farm, pro vided by Bomfo rd and Professor Bomke, as the y are both noted experts in their respecti ve fields.   However, ther e is the concern of information si mpl ificati on; as emi nent ex perts in their fields with vast sources of knowled ge, both Bomford and Profe ssor Bomke mi ght hav e sim pli fied their comm ents during int ervi ews in an effort to make their answers more und erstan dable to us. Another point to raise is  the fact that Bomford, prior LFS student, and Professor Bomke, cur rent LFS pro fessor, wer e the onl y sources of ex pert info r mation we pursu ed. Thi s could point to a sourc e of bi as in how we conducted our stud y.      Our hands - on ex perie nce workin g on UBC F arm provided an important source of information as well . Du r ing our visi t, we looked at other edu cati onal si gn s post ed around the farm to get a bett e r idea of how to create our own. However, certain outsi de environmental factors, includin g un ex pected snow,  af fected our proposed fieldwork , result ing in ou r contribut ion of fewer hours to weeding canola and planting miscanthus . In addit ion, it is important to note that the work we condu cted on the farm did not provid e an y t an gibl e data. Rather, we took the opp ortuni t y to work on the plot s as a wa y to further our holi sti c understandin g of agricultural producti on of the bio fuels we studi ed.    Findings  Canola        Canola was dev eloped in the 1970s b y Canadi a n plant scientis ts who were looki ng for a crop that wo uld yi el d a healt h y and edibl e oil (MC GA, 2008). Canola is used as a cookin g oil , livestock feed, a rot ati onal crop, and mor e re ce ntl y as a biofu el. It is the most important oil seed crop of the world ; its producti on has grow n much faster than an y ot her sou rc e of edibl e vegetable oil (Shahidi , 1990). It is a member of th e genus Brassi c a, and as a member of th e crucifer fami l y,  it can ea sil y be identified b y the four yell o w flowe r petals that form the shape of a cross (MCGA, 2008 ). The yell ow flow er pro duces seed pods th at are five centi meters in length and ea ch pod cont ains 20 to 30 round seeds which can be crush ed to ex tract canola oil. The canola pl ant can gro w from one to two meter s in height (MCGA, 200 8). It is a cool - se ason crop and is most l y produ ced in  Alberta, Sask atche wan, Manit oba, and Briti sh Colum bia (Shahidi , 2008).  It tak es 3.5 mont hs for the seed t o germinate from the tim e of planti ng dependin g on moi sture, fertili t y, and tempe ratur e (MC GA, 2008).          Ideall y, canol a shou ld be gro wn on fer ti le, well - drained soil s that hav e minim al weeds (Shahidi, 1990). C anola should not be grow n in fields that have a hi gh residue of herbicides, esp eciall y tho se which canol a is suscep ti ble to (e.g. tri az ine, imadaz oli nones). Furthermo re, a hi gh dens it y of w eed spe cies or pla nti ng with another Brassica crop is not recomm ended, as thi s may depl ete the soil of nutri ents.  Wet soi l shou ld also be avoided, since canola cannot survive in saturated soil condit ions for long periods of time (Shahidi , 1990). Mi nim um te mperature fo r growth of canola is abo ut  0°C.  The crop wil l ger mi nate at a soil temperatur es of about 5° C  but its opt imum soil temperature is around 10 ° C . The  crop is tol erant to sali ne condit ions and a soil pH as low as 5.5. Canola requires approx im atel y 16  to 18 inch es of water throu gh its gro w ing season (Opli n ger, Ha rdman, Grit ton, Doll , & Kell ing,1989).  Canola can be developed for both spring and wint er annuals. For sprin g ca nola, earl y seeding is n ecess ar y to reduce dama ge from fl ea beetl es and improve s eed yi elds (Shahidi , 1990). Wint er canola is usuall y se eded six weeks before th e first anticipate d hard frost. Th e seedli ngs then go do rma nt in winter and new le af tissue is gene rated in earl y sprin g (W eb er, M ye rs, & Minor, 1993 ). Producti on of canola req u ires sufficient quantit ies of nitrogen, phosphorous, potassi um, and sulfur to suppl y esse nti al plant nut rients (Shahidi , 1990). It requires 100 - 200 kg of ni trogen/h ecta re, and 10 - 2 0 kg of sulfu r/hecta re (H oveland, Odom, Haaland, & Aliso n, 1981 ).  Canola is  the prim ar y so urce of biodies el, which is the fastest growin g alt e rnati ve fuel in Europe. In Canad a, bi odiesel remains in the ear l y sta ges o f market d evel opment.  It is produced usin g a me chan ism call ed trans - este rific ati on. After the oil is ex tracted fro m the canola seed, the tri gl yce r ides are rea cted wit h an alcohol in the presenc e of an alkaline catal yst. One of the produ cts of th is reacti on is meth yl ester , otherwise known as bio diesel (Ener g y S ystem Resea rch Unit, n. d.)  Biodi esel can be used as a subs ti tut e for conventi o nal diesel or as an addit ive.  In both pure and blend ed forms, biodi esel has been shown to reduce the emi ssi ons of air tox ins such as carbon diox ide, particula te matt er, ca rbon monox ide, black smoke from vehicles as well as hydro carbons .  When co mparing regular di esel wit h pure biodi esel, pure biodi esel produces a 73% decr ease in the lif ec yc l e of CO 2 , a 51% reduc ti on in methane emi ssi ons, a 67% dec reas e in unburned h ydroc arbon s, a 48% dec reas e in carb on monox ide, a 47% reducti on in parti culate matter and a 100 % redu c ti on in sulfur oxide emi ssi ons. Its l ow level of iodi ne also contributes to less residual en gine deposi ts ( W estern Economi c Diversific ati on Canada, 2004).  Miscanthus   Miscanthus x giganteus is a steril e h ybrid of M. sinensis and  M. sacchariflorus , and is comm onl y known as "gia nt Chinese sil ver gr ass " (Livi n g Countr ysid e, 200 9). It is on e of the most producti ve gr asses known as it has the abil it y to tolerat e cool temper a tures and maintain photos ynthetic acti vit y even in the co lder mont hs of October (Yates, 2008 ) . It is a perennial plant which can gro w more than 3.5 mete rs in height and its dr y weight can reach 25 tonnes/hectar e in one gro wing se ason. In addit ion, it is a GHG - neutr al crop because of its good carbon sequ estrati n g  pro perties.   The amount of carbon diox ide absorbed by the plant durin g gro wth is the same as the amount releas ed when used as a biofu el (Livi n g Countr yside, 2009).  This is important in respect to the farm 's goal of becomi ng "c arbon neutr al", as per the Un iversit y's 2010 Ca rbo n Neutral pled ge.  The growth and develop ment of miscanthus are i nfluenced greatl y b y cli mate. Miscanthus crops hav e opti mum growth in areas with mil d temperatures and high wat er acti vit y. Miscanthus gr as s originates from the trop ical and subt ropical p arts of southeastern Asia, wher e the y hav e su it able cli mates for gro wth: warm temper atures an d heav y rain fall s that are well dist ributed. Ambient temperatures also re gulate th e len gth of the growing s eason (Christi an & Haase, 2001 ).  Misca nthus is capable of tol erati ng a wide ran ge of soil t ypes. The most fav ourable soil for the crop is medium s oil s like sand y or silt y lo am. It shou ld hav e good air movement, with high wat er - holdi n g capac it y and or ganic matt er co ntent (Christ ian & Haase, 200 1). Howev er, Miscanthus has also shown reason able yield on a wide ran ge of soils , from sands to high organic matt er soils ( D ep artment for Environment Food and Rural Affai rs [DEFR A] , 2007). The soil pH shoul d be maintained around pH 5.5 to 7.5 (DEFR A, 2007 )  an d nutrients such as nit rogen and phosphorus are required but onl y in low levels (Le wandowski , Scurlock, Lindv all , & Christ ou, 2003). Fertili z ers can be appli ed to m iscanthus plot s but are usuall y fo r soils with a low nutrient content (Le wandowski et al. , 2003). The max im um amount of nit rogen and phosphorus fertili z er app li cati on is up to 50 - 70 kg/hectare/ ye ar and 5 - 17 kg/hectare, respecti vel y ( Lew andow ski et al., 2003).    Mi scanthus species use a C4 photos ynthetic path wa y. C4 plants are mor e efficient in  their light, wate r and nit r ogen us a ge than C3 plant s, such as canol a. The nu mbers C4 and C3 indi cate the number of carbon atom s in the mol ecu le used in phot os ynthesis (Yates, 2008). C4 plants are the most ef fici ent in convertin g sunl igh t ener g y to biomass  ene r g y (Heaton et al., 2004). The y hav e four ex tra steps in their metabolic pathwa ys an d have four ex tra proteins than C3 plants, which are mor e conc entrated in miscant hus grown in cooler temp eratur es; therefo re, these ex tra proteins ar e thought to be rel ated to to leranc e of low tempe ratu res (Y ates, 2008).   Miscanthus’ rapid growth and highly favourable energy balance of low input and high yield characteristics have led to its popularity as a potential biofuel in Europe since the 1980’s (Heaton et al., 200 4). Un li ke canola, miscanthus yields ethanol, not biodiesel. It is conside red to be a more efficient bio fuel than other plants be c ause it gener ates 2.5 mor e ethanol than co rn does (Ha y & Fora ge Gro wer, 2008). On e disadva ntage is that the cell ulosi c ethanol  technolo g y that is required to ex tract the ethanol from miscant hus is stil l ex pensive and not yet av ail able at an indus trial level. This process pr e - tre ats the misc anthus with a dilut e acid to remove hemi cell ulose and lignin components, thereb y ex posi ng t he biom ass to enz ym es and rele asing suga rs that can then be fermented into ethanol (La wford & Rousseau, 2003 ).   UBC Farm Climate and Soil W hen looki ng at the feas ibi li t y of growin g canol a and miscanthus on the UBC Farm, we must look at cli mate and soil cha ra cterist ics as a means of determi ning i f the crops are suit ed for the chosen env ironment.  The soil at the UBC Farm is a Duri c Humo - Fer ric Podz ol which is a typ e of Bose soil .  It has a course t ex ture with gr avell y and resid ual ston y deposi ts that occur 3 0cm to 160c m deep (Bomke, person a l communi cati on, March 2009). The soil has good to ex cessi ve dr aina ge.  Becaus e of this, poor water holdi n g cap acit y and nutrient retention can oc cur and subs equen tl y lead to poor crop yiel ds in plants that cannot adjust .  Becaus e the soil is a typ e of Podz ol, it is acidi c in nature and ca n cause nit ro gen l eachin g (Lundst rom et al, 2000).  Due to mana gement int erventi ons such as limi ng practi c es, compos t applicati on and cover croppin g, the pH is approx im atel y 6.5 with nitrog en avail abil it y conti nuall y incr easin g.  In some areas of the Far m however, the pH is as low as 5.5.  The UBC Far m ex periences a typical west coast clim at e with warm rain y winter s and relativel y cool dr y summ ers.   Discussion  Based on th e soil and cli mate  condit ions of the UBC Farm, both canola an d miscanthus will have all of their nutr it ional and cli mate requir ements met.  One proble m that canola ma y face bein g grown at the Farm is its abil it y to acqui re nit ro gen.  Whil e avail a ble nitrogen l evels are cont inui n g to incr eas e at the Farm throu gh co mpos t and wint er cover cropping pr acti c es, the levels ar e sti ll yet to be at opt im al.  Nitrogen deficienc y in canola lim it s chloroph yll developm ent and older le aves turn light gr een or yell ow, wit her, and fall off ( Be rlund, McKa y, Knodel, 2007).  This ulti matel y le ads to a decre as ed flowerin g period and decre ased se ed producti on.  This is the cardinal sign and if observ ed, mana gem ent applicat ions withi n the organic farming regulatio ns such as manure, fish meal or blo od bone meal appli cati ons shoul d be perfo rmed.   One problem miscanthus ma y fac e bein g cult ivate d at the Farm is the soils abil it y to hold water.  Bec ause this crop requir es lar ge amou nts of water and the soil at the UBC Farm drains water ver y well , it ma y  not receiv e its water requirements from the soil and a typ e of irrigation s ystem such as overhead or drip wil l likel y be needed to meet the plants requirements (Ontario Minist r y of Agr iculture, Food and Rur al Affairs [OMA FR A] , 2007). Howev er, whe re the cr op is planted at the bott om of the hil l at the Farm, there are som e wate r draina ge iss ues and thus the soil has an increas ed wat er holding capacit y. This wil l aid in the plants growth and hopefull y decr ease th e amount of irrigati on requi red.  In the contex t of the UBC Farm, not onl y do th e canola and misc anthus plot s serve as educati onal demonst r ati on sites for the producti on of biofuels, but the y also work towards the Farm’s ability to become carbon - n eutral. Be cause the trans - este rificati on of canola is a relativel y eas y and inex pensive proc ess, the UBC Farm could pot enti all y pr oduce its own biodi esel to run its farming equipm ent. Ult im atel y the Farm cannot produ ce enou gh biodi esel to sus tain all of its fuel requirements; however, it i s a step in the posi ti ve directi on towards carbon neut rali t y.  Producti on of cell ulosi c ethanol biofuel from mis canthus unfortunatel y ca nnot be done on the Farm. The proc ess requires consid erable in puts and is ver y costl y to perform. Th e Farm can stil l pot enti all y uti li ze the mi scanthus as a fuel for heati n g their buil dings usi n g a pro cess call ed p yrol ysis : a proc es s that combusts biom ass into fuel. This method still requires more developm ent and resea rc h (Wiki pedia, 2009c), bu t it is known to be more efficient  than combus ti ng wo od for the same purposes because its “weed like characteristics” allow it to gro w back fairl y rapidl y (Bomford, personal comm unicati on, March 2009) .  In a global contex t, the first - gener ati on of biofuels was hailed as the comi ng of clean er, and green er ener g y; how ever, util iz ing seeds and gr ains like canola for fu e l diverts land awa y from producin g food for anim als and humans. This subsequentl y raises foo d prices and demand, thereb y cr eati n g a more insecu re food s ys tem. A 2007 stud y report ed that biofuels fr om grains and oilseeds had alre ad y driven up fo od prices b y $14 bil li on over the last ye ar (Tokgoz , Elobeid, Fabios a, Ha yes, Bab cock, & Yu , 2007 ). Some perc eive the first - gen erati on of biofuels as a fail ure (Bomford, personal comm unicati on, March 9, 2009).   Util iz ing second - gene rati on biofuels appea rs to be more promisi ng. It do es not rel y on food crops fo r ene r g y pro ducti on, but rather on waste that would have other wise been a dispo sal problem, such as stalks of wheat, co rn or wood. In the case of mis canth us, it util iz es a hard y high - yield crop th a t provides a greater ener gy return in comparison to first - gener ati on biofuels (Bomfo rd, perso nal communi cati on, Mar ch 9, 2009; Wiki pedia, 2009b). Howev er, as previous l y stated, it sti ll needs more rese arch and dev elopm ent.  Recommendations  Our re comm endati ons to the UBC Farm stem from our findi ngs ex tracted fr om our meeti ng with Bomford, our field work, our coll ect ion of biofuel rese arch an d our accumul ated kno wled ge as AGS C 450 students. The foll owing recomm end at ions reflect ou r opini ons on how biofuel technolog y can benefit th e UBC Farm, the UBC fo od s ystem and the neighbo ring comm unit y.   These recomm end ati ons will help the Facult y of Land and Food S ystems reach the UBCF S P goal for UBC to beco me a lead er in sust a inabili t y and an ex empl ar of a self - reli ant food s ystem.    The first part of ou r reco mm endati ons outli nes five gener al recomm endati o ns for the UBC Farm. The s econd part is specific recomm e ndati ons for the 2010 AG S C 450 students; their purpose is to fulfil l the five previous l y stated recomm endati ons fo r the Fa rm.    Part 1: General recommendations for the UBC Farm    C onti nue to establish biofuel demonst rati on plot s for both canola and misc anthus     P ursue a s yst em for prod ucing, pr ocessi n g and uti li z ing cano la wit hin the boundaries of the UBC campus .   Establis h relations hips with:  o The Depa rtment of Che mi cal and Biol o gical En gineerin g for the pu rpose of the trans - esteri ficati on of can ola    o The Dean of Fo restr y fo r the purpose of takin g ad vanta ge of his knowle d ge on cell ulosi c ethanol technol og y   C reate conn ecti ons with various UBC cou rses tha t could use the demons tra ti on plot s as tool s for educati on or res earch.   In corpor ate biofuel educ ati on int o the UBC Fa rm field trips that are of fer ed for element ar y and se conda r y school cla sses.  Part 2: Specific Recommendations for 2010 AGSC 450 students   Research based    The Universit y of Ill inoi s is at the foref ront of far m biofuel producti on and is ex ploring how high quali t y plant bi omass can be produced and uti li z ed. We recommend next year’s group contact the Univ er sit y of Ill inoi s to find out their appli cati ons, methods and techniques used to establ ish a successful bioen er gy crop, specifi call y misca nthus .    Prepare a cost analysis on the feasibility of using the Farm’s canola as a bi ofuel. Then, search and appl y fo r fund ing to support the bioene rg y crop produ cti on and processi n g at the Farm. Wit h canola pr oducti on at the UBC Far m being so small scale, it currentl y costs more to grow a tank of diesel then to purch ase one , which is not economi ca ll y fe asibl e. Funding will be nec essar y fo r this project to be co mpl eted. Capital wil l also be need ed to purchase sta rt - up equipm ent such as a canola pres s.  Key informants to meet with and interview    W e would like to emphasiz e tha t all members of the future AGSC 450 grou p assi gned to thi s scenario should atten d scheduled meeti n gs wit h Bomford, Art Bomke and if possi ble, Andrea Morgan before beginning their research. All were key informants to our group’s understandin g and dev el opme nt of this project.     Meet wit h the Chemi cal and Biol o gical En gine eri ng Department, which ha s a pilot plant for the trans - esterification of canola. Find out the feasibility of the Farm’s canola being processed on campus .     J ack Saddler, Dean of the Facult y of Fo restr y, is under goin g res ear ch in bioener g y, specificall y, the bioconv ersion of ligno cell ulosi c residues to ethanol. We propose the nex t group me et wit h him and creat e a summar y of his resea rch  Future hands-on work  S ome of the group memb ers could b e facilitators for one of the Farm’s field trips; it could include a short and info r mative presentation suit a ble for chil dren on ho w biofuels contribut e to the glob al healt h of our plan et.        Conclusion      Canola and miscanthu s are two crops that are represent ati ve of the ex pa nding biofuel indus tr y but are ver y con trasti ng. Where as canola is classi fied as a cont rove rsial first -gen erati on biofu el that pr oduces biodiesel on an in dust rial scale, miscanthu s is a second -gen erati on biofu el that pr oduces etha nol usin g rel a ti vel y ex pensive technolo g y. Both strive to reduce emi ssi ons of GH Gs, but miscanthus seems to be more promisi ng because of its superior ener g y efficien c y and be cause it util iz es non - food crops and the refo re is more publi cl y and poli ti call y ac cepted.  The primar y goal o f our project was to unde rstan d how canola and miscan thus could be best util iz ed on a small - scale at the UBC Farm. Wit hin the contex t of the UBCFS P , establi shing a canola plot at the UBC Farm has th e potential to mit igate cli mate chan ge b y reducin g GH G emi ssi ons of farmin g equipm ent. If financial resourc es are avail able and a successful pa rtnership is establi shed with the Fa cu lt y of Biol ogic al and Che mi cal Engine erin g, it will be possi ble to crea te a self - sust aini n g alt e rn ati ve ene r g y s ystem with in the boundaries of the UBC campus to fuel the UBC Farm equipm ent. We perceive th e canol a plot to be a locall y minded ini ti ati ve that will create a more s elf - r eli an t, sus tainable food s yste m on the UBC campus . Establis hing a miscanthus plot , on the other hand, is a mor e globally minded ini ti ati ve that will provide educati on and rese arch opportun it ies beyond the UBC ca mpus . At thi s point it is unreali sti c to think of utili zing it as a biofuel at the UBC Farm, but the potential for p yrol ysis s hould be ex plored, as shoul d the Universit y of Ill inoi s biofuel endeavors.      Part III: Field Work  Meeting with Bomford      The first tim e we spok e with Bomford was whe n he att ended the breako ut sessi on during on e of our AGSC 450 classes earl y in the se mester. Some of the mai n topi cs he proposed that our group focus on included: 1) Ho w can canola and misc an thus best be used at the UBC Farm? 2) Is ther e an alt ern ati ve suppl ier of miscanthus who could suppl y it earllier in the season than Blue Ste m nurser y ? 3) Can we fo rmulate well - r esea rched suggesti ons on how to improve the canola cro p at the UBC Farm?    Our first group me eti ng at the Farm was sch edule d for the earl y mornin g of March 9th, which turned out to be a mornin g ver y white with snow.   Despit e th es e less than friendl y farmin g condit ions ever yone from our group sti ll showed up read y to work. As we soon cam e to reali z e that these condi ti ons were not conduciv e to trimm ing the canola or preppin g the mi scanthus plot as per ou r initi al agend a, we ende d up meeti ng with Bomf ord for wh at turned out to to be an invaluable group discussi on and int egral pa rt in the develop ment of thi s paper.   Our ori ginal int enti on was to gain a great er unde rstanding of the pu rpose of our rese arch, and to make sure our obje ct ives and goals for thi s proj ect ali gned with Bom for d's desir ed outcome. We left the Fa rm that da y with a lot more info rmati on and understandin g t han we had anti cipated. We couldn 't put enough str ess enou gh on how important it was that we all ended up att en ding that me eti ng. We had originall y int en ded for onl y 2 - 3 of ou r gr oup members to speak with Bomfo rd. It was a blessi n g in disguis e that the we ather that da y was not conducive to hands - on work.      Overall , we gained kno wledge about the go als, lim it ati on s and barriers to gro wing, processi n g and uti li z ing canola and Misc anthus at the UBC Farm. We lea r ned about ke y pla ye rs in the UBC com muni t y th at would help fulfill the goals of the biof uel demonst rati on plot s (see Recomm endati ons for more inform ati on). Bo mford also comm unicated the Farm 's need for demons trati on plot signs: a task that bec a me an important part of our field work and somethi ng tan gibl e we could offer the UBC Farm (see App endix B). We also reali z ed that there had been la ck of co mm unicati on sin ce our fi rst meeti ng with Bomfor d. Wit hout us knowing, anoth er supplie r for Miscanthus had alre ad y been foun d: Kato 's Nurser y Ltd. in Abbotsford, BC. Had we set the task of findi n g an alt ernate suppli er as one of our priorit ies, it could have tak en aw a y va luable time from our pr oject.  Hands-on farm work          A few weeks after the meeti n g with Bomfor d, and afte r much res che duli ng, six of our eight group members met at the Farm. It was a beauti ful sunn y afte rnoo n and we were much more ea ger to get o ur ha nds dirt y. Our effort s were dir ected solel y to the miscanthus plot ; we unfortunatel y di d not have an opportuni t y to work dir ectl y with the canola crop. S pecific tasks included al ignin g and di ggin g a port ion of the perimeter of th e miscanthus plot , removi ng  la r ge ro cks fro m the soil, and taking bio logical waste mate rial an d deli vering it to the compos t up the hil l -  and might we add th at the wh eelbar rows were ve r y he av y! Some of our group memb ers picked up shovels, enga ged their muscles and du g a grid one fo ot wide b y one foot deep while the rest o f us stretched ou r legs an d got our hands dirt y b y picking up ro cks. One gli tch alon g the wa y worth not ing took plac e during the ali gnin g of th e plot as we vee red off track a few tim es crea ti ng a less than perf ect g r id for our miscanthus . La stl y, to ou r disappoint ment we wer e not able to plant the miscanthus like originall y ho ped as the ground was too wet from the inc essant rain in the da ys pr evious . After 2 hours o f fieldwork on the Farm, it was agre ed b y ever yone t hat our contribu ti on, yet small , was a ver y rewa rding and enjo ya ble ex perienc e.  Sign workshop      After spe akin g with Bomford and workin g han ds - on at the UBC Farm, three members of our group met to discuss and create a template for the si gna ge of the can ola and Miscanthus demons trati on plot s. Two of the three group memb ers att endin g the sign workshop had not parti cipated in ha nds - on work at the Farm due to scheduli ng conflic ts, whereas th e thi rd group memb er had; she was able to p rovide insi ght regardin g the ph ys ical aspects of th e plot s, as well as cre ati ve suggesti ons based on th e other signs she saw at the Farm. Th rou ghout the enti re creati ve proces s for desi gning th e sign mock - up templates, the sign workshop members strived to make the sign relatable, eas y t o understand and int er act ive in order to appeal to the lar ge vari ety of indi viduals who freq uent the UBC Farm.      During th e sign wo rks hop it was decided that a gen eral si gn template wo uld be creat ed. This gene ral tem plate would be used fo r both th e canola and misc a nthus signs, and would be included in the final report as pot enti al sign mock - ups that the UBC Farm could easil y implement and ada pt to suit their preferen ce s. It was decid ed that ea c h sign shoul d be comprised of the foll owi ng el ements: C omm on name, lati n name, gen eral gro wth properties, current uses, go als for us age in the futur e, and acc ording to each goal a defi nit ion of the termi nolog y used. In add it ion, to make the signs interacti ve and relat able to the public visi ti ng the Farm, a "Di d You Kn ow? " thought bubbl e was envisi oned as an accomp anim ent to the main sign (se e Appendix B).  Part IV: Group Reflections  Working on thi s AGS C 450 capston e proje ct trul y drove home the ide a of being fl ex ibl e when workin g with a real comm unit y. Flex ibi li t y was cru cial in all of our comm unit y - b ased -resea rch proj ects throu gh out the enti re Land, Food , and Comm unit y s eries.  Throughout ou r time wor king on our proj ect we had to take int o consi der ati on all sorts of variables: schedul es of th e coll aborati ve par tne rs, differin g views o f our partners, plant/ seed procurement, planting times, and weather. These variables usually don’t play such a huge factor in other schoolwork. In other classes outside the Facult y of Land and Food S ystems, we hav e worked on group p roject s but rarel y in the contex t of comm unit y bas ed res earch. We tend to find that indi viduals from other fa cult ies ar e not accust omed to working on prac ti cal projects that are not as structured and don’t have theory as their primary focus. They have diff icult y putt in g theor y int o a practi cal, co mm unit y - b ased contex t. We feel these proj ects ar e a more accu rate reflection of “real - life” than traditional academic projects we find in other faculties across campus ; the y demand col laborati on, flex ibi li t y and cr eati vit y.  We appreciat e bein g a part of a comm unit y - of - le ar ners that work to gethe r to approach iss ues of sustainabil it y wit h an int erdiscipl inar y approach that unde rstands the compl ex it y of th e int er - relations amon g all sectors of a s ystem, p articularl y t he food s ystem. Frankl y, we thi nk thi s is one of the most valuab le lessons taken from the AGS C series that wil l aid us in the future, when we wo rk in the real comm unit y of Van couve r or be yond to de al wit h real - world issues. It is also rewa rdin g to be part of an on goin g 8 - ye ar proj ect. We felt satisfied and reli eved knowin g that everything we didn’t have the time or resources to address in this year’s work would be considered by next year’s students as per our recommendations.  Another theme that was brought  up was the value of the UBC Farm to UBC and its students. As a centr e of resear ch, it giv es students the opportuni t y to ex peri ence hands - on work. Some of our group mem bers had nev er wo rked on the Farm or even been t o the Farm. Th rou gh their work the y real iz ed the value of the Farm, and the imm ense amount of time, ener g y and resourc es that has been invested in using it for fo od producti on, educati on and rese arch. We particularly recognized the amount of teamwork and coordination that’s necessary to keep the UBC Farm not onl y up and running, but actuall y ex panding in what it offe rs both the UBC comm unit y and the comm unit y at lar ge. Wit h the amount of scheduli n g co nfli cts we had, we couldn’t imagine how difficult it must be for Mark Bomford, program coordinato r of the Farm, to create a s ystem of coo rdinati ng volunt ee rs, em plo ye es, rese ar chers, stud ents, visi tors and field trips. When we visi ted the Fa rm we met such a di verse arra y of indivi duals and groups workin g on a multi tude of project s. This must take an i nordinate amount of organiz ati on, but the y all coll aborate and coincide to make up one of the mo st fascinating pl aces o f research on campus ; a beauti ful getaw a y that tr ul y fosters comm unit y, one of the co re valu es of our Facult y.  We reall y valued the han d s - on component of our project. Visit ing the Far m and talki ng with Bomford was so vital to our learnin g ex perie nce! We were ex cit ed to be part of his recomm endati on to creat e sign templates for the biofuel demonst rati on plot s. We feel Mark is someone who tr ul y re ali z es the value of hands - on learnin g. We loved that h e wanted the si gns we created to answer questions such as, “how much land is needed to fuel our car or feed out family?” He hoped that through such visual conceptualizations, students and other co mm unit y members could better un derstand the headli nes in the newspape rs and the is sues surroundin g biofuels, land, food, and sust ainabili t y.  One roadbloc k that we encountered s ever al tim es when we tol d others abo ut our resea rch was publ ic resis tanc e. M an y people outri ght disa greed with the con cept of biofuels for re asons associated wit h both ethi cs and sust ainabili t y. Th e large sc ale issues of effi cienc y, use of land, and use of food conjoi ne d to bring a lot of criticism to our project when sp eakin g with me mbers of the faculty and even project leaders. However, there wasn’t as much resistance to using the biofuels as res ear ch dem onst rati on plot s; for the mot part, the y wer e stron gl y en coura ged and supported by all stakehol ders and comm unit y me mbers in the co ntex t of the UBC Farm.   Within our own group, it was both an adv anta ge and disadvanta ge that we all had the same perspective on biofuels, which was that we don’t support them as monoculture crops produced on an indus trial scale, but that we suppor t them a s educati on and resear ch tool s (especi all y the second ge nerati on!). We were also open to the idea of small - scale produ cti on of biodi esel from canola withi n the UBC campus bou ndaries. The fact that we all had the same perspecti ve probabl y sav ed us tim e in d ecidi ng what directi on we wanted to take thi s project, but it ma y hav e caus ed us to be too one - sided in our approach.  Overall , we feel proud an d privil eged to h ave tak e n part in an 8 - ye ar proj ec t that is working tow ards creati n g a campus that is trul y su s tainable and self - reli ant. We hope our work thi s term has contribut ed to creati n g a campus that can be an ex ampl e and model for other across universit ies across No rth America to foll ow.   Appendix A: Meeting minutes with Bomford March 9, 2009 Big picture context -  Fail ure of first - gen erati o n of biofuels (co rn/canol a, biodi esel, ethanol)  o Fossi l fuel calori es (ne ga ti ve ener g y bal ance; inve sti ng more en er g y than what is being gener ated)  -  P otential of second - gen er ati on (miscanthus , cell ulosi c ethanol technolo g y)  o C arbon neutral (t aking ca rbon out of the atm osphe re and then re - rele asing it )  -  P otential concerns  o R aise in food prices  o S hould arable, fe rtile lan d be used to grow biofu els instead of food?  o Geneti call y modi fied  o Howeve r, UBC Farm do es not ex pect an y si gnific ant resis tance to usin g bi ofuel demons trati on plot s as a means for edu cati on and resea rch  Background Information Mark wants gen eral b ack ground rese arch on canol a and miscanthus  - In clude our pr evious bac kground rese arch (C4 vs C3)  - Both a sour ce of biofu els b ut are ve r y contrasti n g  - C anola (annual) and miscanthus (per ennial)  - Mi scanthus is quick - gro wing (weed - li ke) and has larger biomass than cano la, gro ws to be 3 m high  - Mi scanthus is not a heav y nit ro gen feed er like co r n   Back ground on UBC Far m  - S oil t ype  o “sandy lome”; well drained sandy soil, area where the miscanthus will be planted has been she et mulched  - cli mate  Application at the UBC Farm - Main purposes of canola and miscanthus : educati o n and rese arch  - Not gro wing it to heat a buil ding, run a tr actor, et c; ho wever, it is feasibl e that the Farm could ex tract ethanol fro m their canola to use as an ener g y sour ce on the Farm  Canola  o Biodi esel from canola co uld be a worthwhil e end e avor   2006 and 2007 crops on the farm were not su ccess ful; not well cared for; organiz a ti on that establi shed the plots walked aw a y   C ase stud y (su cc essful): Scandanavia; have a sim i lar cli mate to Van couver  o C anola oil press could be feasibl e fo r the fa rm to att ain  o Transformi n g the oil into biodiesel requires the gr ain in fermented and then dis ti ll ed  o C hemi cal and biologic al engin eerin g dep artment h as a pilot plant for trans -esterificati on of canola  Miscanthus x gigantus  o C urrent suppli er: Katos, Abbotsford  o Uses: compost , mul ch, bedding fo r chick ens, win d barrier (hed gerow)  o P revious producti on at farm was unsucc essful   W e need to find out what shoul d be done nex t time around: fertili z ers? Nitrogen fix ers?   C onsi der Universit y of Il li nois: htt p:/ / li 0201bp.htm l   Also  consi der Western Europe (D enMark, Germa n y, Britain)  o Not practi cal to use it as a biofuel on the farm; cel lul osic biofuel technology onl y available on an industrial scale and the farm’s equipment runs off of diesel an yw a y  o Best pot enti al use: P yr ol ys is (ch e mi cal de compos it ion of a condensed subs tance)   W ould create a stabil iz ed form of carbon inst ead of rele asing it back int o the atm osphere  o Good person to talk to: Dean of Forestr y (he has ex tensivel y resea rch ed cel lul osic ethanol producti on)  o Universit y of Ill inoi s: http:/ / li 0201bp.htm l  Bar riers/ Lim it ati ons:  o Financ es   Biofuels at the UBC Far m wil l not create a profit ; at such small - scale producti on, it would cost the farm more t o grow a tank of diesel than to bu y it  Signage for biofuel demonstration plots - C ondense our informatio n int o meaningful, att enti on - grabbin g information that can be post ed on a sign in front of the demons trati on plot  o Idea for sign: “This 500 square foot plot of canola could fuel…”   Mark feels it would not be too difficult to get the biofuel demonst rati on plot s subs idiz ed          Appendix B: Sign templates for the UBC Farm            Did You Know?Unlike most grasses, Giant Chinese Silver Grass can grow in the colder months, such as October, due to it’s efficient method of photosynthesis.What is photosynthesis?When the plant uses energy from the sun to grow.Layout of SignGiant Chinese Silver GrassDid You Know?             • Grows in Spring & Fall• Current Uses:BiodieselCooking OilLivestock Feed            Improving Soil ErosionCanolaCanolaOil ExtractionBiodiesel or Cooking OilWhat is Biodiesel?A clean burning alternative fuel produced from domestic renewable resources      Current Uses of Biodiesel Fuel for diesel engine vehicles A heating fuel in domestic and  commercial boilersBrassica napusCO2ProductionDid You Know?• Breathing in biodiesel is better for our lungs and hearts.– Biodiesel exhaust has a less harmful impact on human health than petroleum diesel fuel.• Biodiesel keeps our air cleaner and helps stop global warming.Layout of SignCanolaDid You Know?References     AGSC 450 Teachin g Tea m (2009). UBC Food System Project Document 2009 . AGS C 450: Universit y of Briti sh Columbi a.   Berlund, D. McKa y, K. Knodel, J . (2007). Canola Producti on. Retrieved April 5, 2009 from, htt p:/ / pubs/ plantsci/ crops/a686w.htm   Christ ian, D.G., & Haase , E. (2001). Agr onom y of Miscanthus . In M. B. J ones & M. Walsh (Ed.),  Miscanthus for Energy and Fibre (pp. 21 - 45). Lo ndon, UK: The Cromwel l Press.     Department fo r Environ ment Food and Rural Aff airs [DEFR A] (2007). Planting and Growing Miscanthus . htt p:/ /www.defra. / erdp/pdfs/e cs/m iscanthus - guid e.pdf     Ener g y S yst em Resear ch Unit (n.d). What is biodiesel ? Retrieved April 7, 2009, from  http:/ / .uk/EandE/W eb_si tes/02 - 03/bi ofuels/ what_bi m   Environment Canada, 20 07. Canada 's 2005 Gr een house  Gas Inv entor y: A summ ar y of Trends. Avail able online at htt p:/ / a/pdb/ gh g/i nventor y_r eport/20 05/2005s umm ar y_e. cfm   Shahidi , F (1990). Canola and Rapeseed production, chemistry, nutrition and processing technology. Dep artment of Bioch emi str y Mem o rial Universit y of Newfou ndland: Springer.     Ha y & For a ge Growe r (2 008). As Biofuel, Miscanthus uses less land than corn. Retrieved April 1, 2009, from http:/ /ha ya ndfora ge. com/ ha y/bi ofue l_m iscanthus _uses_land_0808/   Heaton, E., Cli fton - B row n, J ., Voigt , T., Jones, M.B., & Lon g, S.P . (2004). Biom ass Crops as a Source of Ren ewable En er g y: Europe an Ex perien ce with Miscanthus and Projecti ons for Ill inoi s. Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change , 9(4), 43 3 - 451.   Hoveland, C.S ., Odom, J. W., H aaland, R. L., & Ali son, J r., M.W . (1981). Rapeseed in Alabama . Ala. Agri. Ex p.S tn. Bull .352.   Kloppenbur g J r., J., Hendrickson, J., Stevenson, G.W . (1996). Com ing int o the Foodshed. Agriculture and Human Values , 13(3), 33 - 42.   Lawford, H.G., & Rousseau, J .D. (2003). Cell ulosi c fuel ethanol : Altern ati ve ferment ati on process desi gns with wil d - t ype and recombi nant Zymomonas mobilis . Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology , 105 - 108, 457 - 4 69.   Lewandowski, I., Scu rlock, J .M.O., Lindvall, E., & Christ ou, M. (2 003). The developm ent and current status of perenni a l rhiz omatous grasses as ener g y crops in the US and Europe . Biomass & Bioenergy , 25, 335 –361.     Livi n g Countr ysid e (200 9). Miscanthus . Retrieve d Febru ar y 10, 2009, fro m htt p:/ /www.ukagricult ur e .com/ crop s/m iscanthus .cf m    Lundst rom, U. van Bree man, N, Bain, D. (2000). The Podz oliz ati on Process, Retrieved Mar ch 13, 2009 from http:/ /www.sciencedi rect. com/ scie nce     Manitoba Canola Grow er s Association (2008). Canola Based Biodiesel. R etrieved Feb.10 2009, fr om http: // www.mcgaca odies el_overv iew.htm l      McKerv e y, Z., Woods, V.B., & Easson, D. L. (200 8). Miscanthus as an En e rg y Crop and Its Potential for Northern Isl and: A Review of Cur ren t Knowledge. Agri-Food and Biosciences Institute , 8.   Monsanto  Compan y. (20 08). Conversations about plant biotechnology. Retrieved Febru ar y 9, 2009, from http:/ /www.mons otech -gmo/ asp/news. asp? yr =20 08&news Id=nr20080911   Ontario Mini str y of Agri cult ure, Food and Rural Affairs, OM AFR A. (200 7). Carbon, nutrie nt and economi c impa cts of Miscanthus producti on under Ontario condit ions. Retrieved April 5, 2009 from htt ps:/ / /resear ch/appsomaf ra/om afra_p roject_det ail s.cfm? PROJ ECT_NO=26598   Oplinger, E.S., Hardman, L. L., Gritton , E.T.,   Doll, J .D., & K ell ing, K.A.  (1989). Canola, (Rapeseed). Altern ati ve Field Crops Manual, Dep artments of Agronom y and Soil Science, Col le ge of Agri cult ural and Life Sci ence s and Cooperati ve Ex tension Service, Universit y of Wisconsin - Madison. Retrieved Febr uar y 10, 2009 fr om htt p:/ /www.hort.purdeu.e du/newcrop/a fcm/ canol a. htm l   Pritchett W.L., Fisher R. F. (1987). Prop erties and Mana gement of For est Soil s. 2nd ed. J ohn Wil e y and Sons: New Yo rk   Tokgoz , S., Elobeid, A., Fabiosa, J., Ha yes, D.J ., Babco ck, B.A., Yu, T., et al. ( 2007). Emerging biofuels: Outlook of effects on U.S. grain, oilseed, and livestock Markets. Ames, Io wa: Center for Agricultural and Rural Developm ent at Io wa State Unive rsit y.     U.S. Canola Associati on. (n.d.). Biodiesel. Retriev ed Feb ruar y 9, 2009, fro m htt p:/ / m/    Weber, J. A., Myers, R. L. & Minor, H. C. (1993) . Canola: A promising oilseed. R etrieved Febru ar y 9, 2009, from htt p:/ /ex tension.m iss plor/agguides/c rops/g04280.htm      Western Economi c Diver sificati on Canada (2004 ). Bio diesel Shows Signifi cant Economi c and Environmental Potential.R etrieved April 5, 2009 from htt p:/ /www.deo.gc. ca/en g/77_2662.asp   Wiesler, F., Dickmann, J., & Horst, W.J . (1997). Effects of nit ro gen suppl y on gro wth and nit rogen uptak e b y Miscanthus sinensi s during est abli shment. Zeitschrift für Pflanzenernährung und Bodenkunde , 160: 25 - 31.   Wiki pedia: The free enc yclopedia. (2009a, M arch 30). Biofuels . Retrieved April 6, 2009, from htt p:/ / iki /Biofuel    Wiki pedia: The free enc yclopedia. ( 2009b, Ma rch 30). Miscanthus Giganteus . Retrieved April 6, 2009, from http:/ / pedia.or g/wiki /M iscanthus _gi ganteus     Wiki pedia: The free enc yclopedia. (2009c, M arch 31). P yrol ysis . Retrieved April 9, 2009 from  htt p:/ / iki /P yrol ysis #B io fuel   Yates, D.  (2008 ). Giant grass off ers clues to gro wing co rn in cooler cli mes, resea rche rs  repo rt . News Bureau: University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign . Retrieved Febr uar y 9, 2009,  from http: // news.ill inoi 0915coolgr ml       


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