UBC Undergraduate Research

Douglas Kenny Building : a life cycle assessment Ramsay, Luke Mar 29, 2010

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UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report          Douglas Kenny Building: A Life Cycle Assessment Luke Ramsay  University of British Columbia CIVL 498C March 29, 2010             Disclaimer: “UBC SEEDS provides students with the opportunity to share the findings of their studies, as well as their opinions, conclusions and recommendations with the UBC community. The reader should bear in mind that this is a student project/report and is not an official document of UBC. Furthermore readers should bear in mind that these reports may not reflect the current status of activities at UBC. We urge you to contact the research persons mentioned in a report or the SEEDS Coordinator about the current status of the subject matter of a project/report”. 		 				 		! !   "! ! "	 	#		! 	 #$ ! ! % &'	! %()(#*! +,-./%,/%()(		&' 	! 	 	! ! 0 	  		' 	! ! ! !   	!   ! ! 0"!  0! !  	! 0	!   		0 12	! ! ! 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' 	 	  	  		! ! # 	0! ! # 	 	0		!  !  ! 	%),0+"& 1  Foundation Known/Measured IE Input   1.1  Concrete Footing             1.1.1 Footing_Column_Type1             Length (m) 1.75 21.09       Width (m) 1.75 1.92       Thickness (mm) 600.00 500.00       Concrete (MPa) 25.00 30.00       Concrete flyash % - average       Rebar 20M 20M     1.1.2 Footing_Column_Type2             Length (m) 2.30 26.18       Width (m) 2.30 2.91       Thickness (mm) 800.00 500.00       Concrete (MPa) 25.00 30.00       Concrete flyash % - average       Rebar 20M 20M     1.1.3  Footing_Column_Type3             Length (m) 2.00 7.10       Width (m) 2.00 2.37       Thickness (mm) 700.00 500.00       Concrete (MPa) 25.00 30.00       Concrete flyash % - average       Rebar 20.00 20.00     1.1.4  Footing_Column_Type4             Length (m) 2.80 17.71       Width (m) 2.80 3.54       Thickness (mm) 800.00 500.00       Concrete (MPa) 25.00 30.00       Concrete flyash % - average       Rebar 25.00 20.00     1.1.5  Footing_Column_Type5             Length (m) 3.00 7.10       Width (m) 3.00 3.55       Thickness (mm) 700.00 500.00       Concrete (MPa) 25.00 30.00       Concrete flyash % - average       Rebar 25.00 20.00     1.1.6  Footing_Column_Type9             Length (m) 6.00 13.89       Width (m) 4.50 5.44       Thickness (mm) 700.00 500.00       Concrete (MPa) 25.00 30.00       Concrete flyash % - average       Rebar 20M 20M     1.1.7  Footing_Column_Type10             Length (m) 11.00 16.50       Width (m) 7.50 13.00       Thickness (mm) 1300.00 500.00 %%      Concrete (MPa) 25.00 30.00       Concrete flyash % - average       Rebar 20M 20M     1.1.8  Footing_Column_Type11             Length (m) 8.50 13.17       Width (m) 8.50 13.17       Thickness (mm) 1200.00 500.00       Concrete (MPa) 25.00 30.00       Concrete flyash % - average       Rebar 20M 20M     1.1.9  Footing_Column_Type13             Length (m) 1.20 1.63       Width (m) 4.00 4.43       Thickness (mm) 750.00 500.00       Concrete (MPa) 25.00 30.00       Concrete flyash % - average       Rebar 20M 20M     1.1.10  Footing_Column_Type14             Length (m) 10.00 12.10       Width (m) 6.50 8.60       Thickness (mm) 800.00 500.00       Concrete (MPa) 25.00 30.00       Concrete flyash % - average       Rebar 20M 20M     1.1.11  Footing_Strip_Type6             Length (m) 30.00 30.00       Width (m) 0.85 0.85       Thickness (mm) 350.00 350.00       Concrete (MPa) 25.00 30.00       Concrete flyash % - average       Rebar 15M 15M     1.1.12  Footing_Strip_Type7             Length (m) 189.00 189.00       Width (m) 0.65 0.65       Thickness (mm) 250.00 250.00       Concrete (MPa) 25.00 30.00       Concrete flyash % - average       Rebar 15.00 15.00     1.1.13 Footing_Strip_Type8             Length (m) 56.00 56.00       Width (m) 0.65 0.65       Thickness (mm) 250.00 250.00       Concrete (MPa) 25.00 30.00       Concrete flyash % - average       Rebar 15M 15M     1.1.14 Footing_Strip_Type12             Length (m) 7.00 7.00       Width (m) 0.75 0.75       Thickness (mm) 250.00 250.00       Concrete (MPa) 25.00 30.00 %.      Concrete flyash % - average       Rebar 15M 15M     1.1.15 Footing_Strip_Type15             Length (m) 11.00 11.00       Width (m) 1.40 1.40       Thickness (mm) 250.00 250.00       Concrete (MPa) 25.00 30.00       Concrete flyash % - average       Rebar 15M 15M     1.1.16 Footing_Stairs             Length (m) - 15.85       Width (m) - 15.85       Thickness (mm) - 200.00       Concrete (MPa) 25.00 30.00       Concrete flyash % - average       Rebar 10M 10M     1.1.17 Footing_StaiwellFloors             Length (m) 15.23 15.23       Width (m) 15.23 15.23       Thickness (mm) 200.00 200.00       Concrete (MPa) 25.00 30.00       Concrete flyash % - average       Rebar 10M 10M   1.2  Concrete Slab-on-Grade     1.2.1  SOG_100mm           Length (m) 51.51 5-;.      Width (m) 51.51 5-;.      Thickness (mm) 130.00 )((((      Concrete (MPa) 25.00 .(((      Concrete flyash % -     Envelope Category Vapour Barrier >      Material Polyethylene 6 mil 9!       Thickness 6mm 9! ! 2  Walls   2.1  Cast In Placen Concrete     2.1.1  Wall_Cast-in-Place_AllFloors       Length (m) 675.28 9;5%-      Height (m) 4.30 +.(      Thickness (mm) 200.00 %((((      Concrete (MPa) 25.00 .(((      Concrete flyash % average       Rebar 20M %(3 %+    Window Opening Number of Windows 58.00 5-((      Total Window Area (m2) 61.55 9)55      Fixed/Operable Fixed 61	      Frame Type Aluminum ! !       Glazing Type Standard Glazing 8		7 2    Door Opening Number of Doors 47.00 +;((      Door Type Solid Wood Door 8	: 	&    2.1.2 Wall_Cast-in-Place_SteelStud_AllFloors       Length (m) 907.62 ,(;9%      Height (m) 4.24 +%+    Concrete Thickness 200.00 %((((      Reinforcement 20M %(3       Concrete (MPa) 25.00 .(((      Concrete flyash % -     Steel Stud Sheathing Type none       Stud Spacing 400.00 +((((      Stud Weight Light Weight :       Stud thickness 39 x 92 .,1,%    Window Opening Number of Windows 497.00 +,;((      Total Window Area (m2) 557.39 55;.,      Fixed/Operable Fixed 61	      Frame Type Aluminum ! !       Glazing Type Standard Glazing 8		7 2    Door Opening Number of Doors 18.00 )-((      Door Type Solid Wood Door 8	: 	&    Envelope Category Insulation       Material Fiberglass Batt 6       Thickness (mm) 68.50 9-05      Category Vapour Barrier >      Material Polyethylene 6 mil 9!       Category Gypsum board 7!  	      Material Gypsum Regular 1/2" 7! *)/%L      Thickness - C  2.2 Steel Stud     2.2.1 Wall_SteelStud_Ground Floor           Length (m) 1029.81 )(%,-)      Height (m) 4.30 +.(      Sheathing Type none       Stud Spacing 400.00 +((((      Stud Weight Light Weight :       Stud thickness 39 x 92 .,1,%    Window Opening Number of Windows 35.00 .5((      Total Window Area (m2) 55.71 55;)      Fixed/Operable Fixed 61	      Frame Type Aluminum ! ! %5      Glazing Type Standard Glazing 8		7 2    Door Opening Number of Doors 133.00 )..((      Door Type Solid Wood 8	: 	&    Envelope Category Gypsum board 7!  	      Material Gypsum Regular 1/2" 7! *)/%L      Thickness - C    Envelope Category Gypsum board 7!  	      Material Gypsum Regular 1/2" 7! *)/%L      Thickness - C    2.2.2 Wall_SteelStud_Floor2           Length (m) 565.89 595-,      Height (m) 4.30 +.(      Wall Type interior       Sheathing Type none       Stud Spacing 400.00 +((((      Stud Weight Light Weight :       Stud thickness 39 x 92 .,1,%    Window Opening Number of Windows 6.00 9((      Total Window Area (m2) 8.85 --5      Fixed/Operable Fixed 61	      Frame Type Aluminum ! !       Glazing Type Standard Glazing 8		7 2    Door Opening Number of Doors 85.00 -5((      Door Type Solid Wood 8	: 	&    Envelope Category Gypsum board 7!  	      Material Gypsum Regular 1/2" 7! *)/%L      Thickness - C      Category Gypsum board 7!  	      Material Gypsum Regular 1/2" 7! *)/%L      Thickness - C    2.2.3 Wall_SteelStud_Floor3           Length (m) 814.01 -)+()      Height (m) 4.30 +.(      Wall Type interior       Sheathing Type none       Stud Spacing 400.00 +((((      Stud Weight Light Weight :       Stud thickness 39 x 92 .,1,%    Window Opening Number of Windows 14.00 )+((      Total Window Area (m2) 17.80 );-(      Fixed/Operable Fixed 61	      Frame Type Aluminum ! !       Glazing Type Standard Glazing 8		7 2    Door Opening Number of Doors 115.00 ))5((%9      Door Type Solid Wood 8	: 	&    Envelope Category Gypsum board 7!  	      Material Gypsum Regular 1/2" 7! *)/%L      Thickness - C      Category Gypsum board 7!  	      Material Gypsum Regular 1/2" 7! *)/%L      Thickness - C    2.2.4 Wall_SteelStud_Floor4           Length (m) 691.41 9,)+)      Height (m) 4.30 +.(      Wall Type interior       Sheathing Type none       Stud Spacing 400.00 +((((      Stud Weight Light Weight :       Stud thickness 39 x 92 .,1,%    Window Opening Number of Windows 3.00 .((      Total Window Area (m2) 2.90 %,(      Fixed/Operable Fixed 61	      Frame Type Aluminum ! !       Glazing Type Standard Glazing 8		7 2    Door Opening Number of Doors 117.00 ));((      Door Type Solid Wood 8	: 	&    Envelope Category Gypsum board 7!  	      Material Gypsum Regular 1/2" 7! *)/%L      Thickness - C      Category Gypsum board 7!  	      Material Gypsum Regular 1/2" 7! *)/%L      Thickness - C    2.2.5 Wall_SteelStud_Penthouse           Length (m) 10.77 )(;;      Height (m) 3.60 .9(      Wall Type interior       Sheathing Type none       Stud Spacing 400.00 +((((      Stud Weight Light Weight :       Stud thickness 39 x 92 .,1,%    Window Opening Number of Windows none     Envelope Category Gypsum board 7!  	      Material Gypsum Regular 1/2" 7! *)/%L      Thickness - C      Category Gypsum board 7!  	      Material Gypsum Regular 1/2" 7! *)/%L      Thickness - C    2.2.6 Wall_SteelStud_Washrooms     %;      Length (m) 252.00 %5%((      Height (m) 4.30 +.(      Wall Type interior       Sheathing Type none       Stud Spacing 400.00 +((((      Stud Weight Light Weight :       Stud thickness 39 x 92 .,1,%    Door Opening Number of Doors 26.00 %9((      Door Type Solid Wood 8	: 	&    Envelope Category Gypsum board 7!  	      Material 15.9 Exterior Drywall 7! 3 *5/-L      Thickness   C      Category Gypsum board 7!  	      Material Gypsum Regular 1/2" 7! *)/%L      Thickness - C    2.2.7 Wall_SteelStud_Penthouse_Exterior           Length (m) 88.84 ---+      Height (m) 6.72 9;%    Steel Stud Wall Type Exterior <1      Sheathing Type none       Stud Spacing 400.00 +((((      Stud Weight Light Weight :       Stud thickness 39 x 152 .,1)5%    Window Opening Number of Windows none     Door Opening Number of Doors 8.00 -((      Door Type Solid Wood 8	: 	&    Envelope Category Cladding 		      Material Metal Cladding 8		C! @%9A      Thickness - C      Category Insulation       Material Fiberglass Batt 6       Thickness 150.00 )5(((      Category Vapour Barrier >      Material Polyethylene 6 mil 9!       Category Gypsum board 7!  	      Material 15.9 Exterior Drywall 7! 3 *5/-L      Thickness   C      Category Gypsum board 7!  	      Material 15.9 Exterior Drywall 7! 3 *5/-L      Thickness   C  2.3 Concrete Block Wall     2.3.1 Wall_ConcreteBlock_SteelStud_AllFloors       Length (m) 124.50 )%+5(%-      Height (m) 4.30 +.(      Rebar - )(3     Steel Stud Wall Type interior       Sheathing Type none       Stud Spacing 400.00 +((((      Stud Weight Light Weight :       Stud thickness 39 x 92 .,1,%    Door Opening Number of Doors 16.00 )9((      Door Type Steel Interior Door 8&    Envelope Category Gypsum board 7!  	      Material Gypsum Regular 1/2" 7! *)/%L      Thickness   C  2.4 Curtian Wall     2.4.1 Wall_Curtain_AllFloors       Length (m) 3.22 .%%      Height (m) 147.69 )+;9,      Percent Viewable Glazing 86.88 -9--      Percent Spandrel Panel 13.12 ).)%      Thickness of Insulation none (((      Type Metal Spandrel Panel 3 8	3 Columns and Beams   3.1  Concrete Column     3.1.1 - Column_Concrete_Beam_GroundFloor       Number of Columns 35.00 .5((      Number of Beams -       Floor to Floor Height (m) 0.40 (+(      Bay Sizes (m) 10000.00 )((((((      Supported Span 10000.00 )((((((      Live Load (kPa) 3.60 .9(    3.1.2 -  Column_Concrete_Beam_Floor2           Number of Columns 35.00 .5((      Number of Beams 56.00 59((      Floor to Floor Height (m) 4.30 +.(      Bay Sizes (m) 10.00 )(((      Supported Span 10.00 )(((      Live Load (kPa) 3.60 .9(    3.1.3 - Column_Concrete_Beam_Floor3           Number of Columns 34.00 .+((      Number of Beams 52.00 5%((      Floor to Floor Height (m) 4.30 +.(      Bay Sizes (m) 10000.00 )((((((      Supported Span 10000.00 )((((((%,      Live Load (kPa) 3.60 .9(    3.1.4 - Column_Concrete_Beam_Floor4           Number of Columns 31.00 .)((      Number of Beams 42.00 +%((      Floor to Floor Height (m) 4.30 +.(      Bay Sizes (m) 10000.00 )((((((      Supported Span 10000.00 )((((((      Live Load (kPa) 3.60 .9(    3.1.5 - Column_Concrete_Beam_Penthouse           Number of Columns 20.00 %(((      Number of Beams 33.00 ..((      Floor to Floor Height (m) 4.30 +.(      Bay Sizes (m) 10000.00 )((((((      Supported Span 10000.00 )((((((      Live Load (kPa) 3.60 .9(4 Floors   4.1 Concrete Pre Cast Double T     4.1.1 - Floor_PrecastDoubleT       Number of Bays 57.09 5;((      Bay Sizes (m) 10.00 )(((      Span (m) 10.00 )(((      Live Load (kPa) 3.60 .9(      With or without concrete topping Topping Included 		5 Roof   5.1  Concrete Precast Double T     5.1.1 - Roof_ConcretePrecastDoubleT_Main       Number of Bays 16.58 );((      Bay Sizes (m) 10.00 )(((      Span (m) 10.00 )(((      With or without concrete topping Topping Included 		      Live Load (kPa) 3.60 .9(    Envelope Category Roof Envelopes *<      Material Roof Membrane 8		3 		! 3 !  %      Thickness (mm) - C      Category Insulation       Material Rigid Insulation <1		      Thickness (mm) 75.00 ;5((      Category Roof Envelopes *<      Material Gravel Ballast @8A      Thickness (mm) 50.00 C  5.2 Open Web Steel Joist     5.2.1 - Roof_OpenWebSteelJoists_Penthouse .(      Roof Width (m) 39.78 .,;-      Span (m) 10.00 )(((      Live load (kPa) 3.60 .9(      Steel Joists Open Web D :        Decking Type Steel 8    Envelope Category Gypsum Board 7! 	      Material Exterior Drywall 7! 3 *      Thickness (mm) 15.90 5/-L      Category Roof Envelopes *<      Material Roof Membrane 8		3 		! 3 !  %      Thickness (mm) - C      Category Insulation       Material Rigid Insulation <1		      Thickness (mm) 75.00 ;5((      Category Roof Envelopes *<      Material Gravel Ballast @8A      Thickness (mm) 50.00 C6 Extra Basic Material         6.1 Concrete     6.1.1 ExtraBasicMaterial_Concrete       30 MPa Average Flyash (m^3) 88.62 --9%  6.2 Steel     6.2.1 ExtraBasicMaterial_Steel       Hollow Structrual Steel (tonnes) 10.75 )(;5  6.3 Extra Cladding Material     6.2.1 ExtraBasicMaterial_ExtraCladdingMaterial       Ontario (Standard) Brick (m^2) 530.27 5.(%;  6.3 Extra Envelope Material     6.3.1 ExtraBasicMaterial_ExtraEnvelopeMaterial       Standard Glazing (m^2) 95.86 +;,..),#0+& "& Assembly Group Assembly Type Assembly Name Specific AssumptionsConcrete Strength of 25 Mpa was used, In Athena 30 Mpa was the closest input. No Fly ash concentration was specified, so average was used. Athena limits thickness to 500mm, to account for this limitation extra length and width is added to keep the footing volume the same, by the equation:(Extra length/ width) = [-(lenght+width )+sqrt((length+width) 2^ + 4*(length*width*(thickness-500)/500))]/2In addition there is a number of each footing, as a result the number of footings was multiplied by the length to yield the correct volume.Extra Length = (old length + Extra Length/Width)* Number of FootingsThe footings from 1.1.12 and below are strip footings1.1.1 Footing_Column_Type1 The slab thickness is limited to 500mm in the impact estimator. The following calculation was done in order to determine the extra length and width needed.(Extra length/ Width) == (-(1.75+1.75) + SQRT((1.75+1.75) 2^ + (4*1.75*1.75*(600-500)/500)))/2= 0.167 mIn addition there is a number of each footing, as a result the number of footings was multiplied by the length to yield the correct volume.New Length = (1.75 + 0.167) * (11 columns) = 21.09 m1.1.2 Footing_Column_Type2 The slab thickness is limited to 500mm in the impact estimator. The following calculation was done in order to determine the extra length and width needed.(Extra length/ Width) == (-(2.30+2.30) + SQRT((2.30+2.30) 2^ + (4*2.30*2.30*(800-500)/500)))/2= 0.609 mIn addition there is a number of each footing, as a result the number of footings was multiplied by the length to yield the correct volume.New Length = (2.30 + 0.609) * (9 columns) = 26.18 m1.1  Concrete Footing1.1.3  Footing_Column_Type3 The slab thickness is limited to 500mm in the impact estimator. The following calculation was done in order to determine the extra length and width needed.(Extra length/ Width) == (-(2.00+2.00) + SQRT((2.00+2.00) 2^ + (4*2.00*2.00*(700-500)/500)))/2= 0.366 mIn addition there is a number of each footing, as a result the number of footings was multiplied by the length to yield the correct volume.New Length = (2.30 + 0.366) * (3 columns) = 7.1 m1.1.4  Footing_Column_Type4 The slab thickness is limited to 500mm in the impact estimator. The following calculation was done in order to determine the extra length and width needed.(Extra length/ Width) == (-(2.80+2.80) + SQRT((2.80+2.80) 2^ + (4*2.80*2.80*(800-500)/500)))/2= 0.742 mIn addition there is a number of each footing, as a result the number of footings was multiplied by the length to yield the correct volume.New Length = (2.30 + 0.742) * (5 columns) = 17.71 m1.1.5  Footing_Column_Type5 The slab thickness is limited to 500mm in the impact estimator. The following calculation was done in order to determine the extra length and width needed.(Extra length/ Width) == (-(3.0+3.0) + SQRT((3.00+3.00) 2^ + (4*3.00*3.00*(700-500)/500)))/2= 0.550 mIn addition there is a number of each footing, as a result the number of footings was multiplied by the length to yield the correct volume.New Length = (3.00 + 0.550) * (2 columns) = 17.71 m1  Foundation.%1.1.13  Footing_Strip_Type81.1.14  Footing_Strip_Type121.1.10  Footing_Column_Type14 The slab thickness is limited to 500mm in the impact estimator. The following calculation was done in order to determine the extra length and width needed.(Extra length/ Width) == (-(10.0+6.50) + SQRT((10.0+ 6.50) 2^ + (4*10.0*6.50*(800-500)/500)))/2= 2.097 mIn addition there is a number of each footing, as a result the number of footings was multiplied by the length to yield the correct volume.New Length = (12.10 + 2.10) * (1 columns) = 12.10 m1.1.11  Footing_Strip_Type61.1.12  Footing_Strip_Type7The slab thickness is limited to 500mm in the impact estimator. The following calculation was done in order to determine the extra length and width needed.(Extra length/ Width) == (-(6.0+4.5) + SQRT((6.00+4.50) 2^ + (4*6.00*4.50*(700-500)/500)))/2= 0.944 mIn addition there is a number of each footing, as a result the number of footings was multiplied by the length to yield the correct volume.New Length = (6.00 + 0.944) * (2 columns) = 13.89 m1.1.7  Footing_Column_Type10 The slab thickness is limited to 500mm in the impact estimator. The following calculation was done in order to determine the extra length and width needed.(Extra length/ Width) == (-(11.0+16.5) + SQRT((11.00+16.50) 2^ + (4*11.00*16.50*(1300-500)/500)))/2= 5.50 mIn addition there is a number of each footing, as a result the number of footings was multiplied by the length to yield the correct volume.New Length = (11.00 + 5.50) * (1 columns) = 16.50 m1.1.8  Footing_Column_Type11 The slab thickness is limited to 500mm in the impact estimator. The following calculation was done in order to determine the extra length and width needed.(Extra length/ Width) == (-(8.50+8.50) + SQRT((8.50+ 8.50) 2^ + (4*8.5*8.5*(1200-500)/500)))/2= 4.67 mIn addition there is a number of each footing, as a result the number of footings was multiplied by the length to yield the correct volume.New Length = (8.5 + 4.67) * (1 columns) = 13.17 m1.1.9  Footing_Column_Type131.1.15  Footing_Strip_Type151.1.6  Footing_Column_Type9The slab thickness is limited to 500mm in the impact estimator. The following calculation was done in order to determine the extra length and width needed.(Extra length/ Width) == (-(1.20+4.00) + SQRT((1.20+ 4.00) 2^ + (4*1.20*4.00*(1200-500)/500)))/2= 0.427 mIn addition there is a number of each footing, as a result the number of footings was multiplied by the length to yield the correct volume.New Length = (1.20 + 0.427) * (1 columns) = 1.63 m..1.1.17 Footing_StaiwellFloors1.1.16 Footing_Stairs The stairs were modeled as footing because of the ability to specify the rebar used. All the stairwells are measured to find the volume and this volume is converted to an equivalent area for a 200mm thickness.The first volume calculation that was performed was to account for the lower stairwell in the atrium it was done by taking the top area and multiplying it by the height:Lower Atrium Stairs Volume = (Above projected Area)*Height = 10.85*0.487 = 5.28 m 3^The next portion of the atrium stairway volume is calculated by taking the side area and multiplying it by the width:Middle Atrium Stair Volume = (Side projected area)*Width = 6.04*2.17 = 13.12 m 3^Upper Atrium Stair Volume = (Side projected area)*Width = 2.07*2.85 = 5.90 m 3^The remainder of the stairwells in the building are located at the corners of the building. The individual stairwell volumes are calculated by using the equation below:Volume = (x*y/2 - x'*y'/2 - b*h*n/2)*Width = (2.825*2.296/2 - 1.7*1.354/2 - 2.35*1.42*12/2) *1.07Volume = 0.693 m 3^ Each of the individual stairwells are the same volume so a single volume was calculated then the number of stairwells counted and multiplied by the single stairwell volume. This volume is then added to the volume from the stairs in the atrium and the total volume is calculated. Total Stairwell Volume = 28 stairwells*0.693 + 5.28 + 13.12 + 5.90 = 50.26 m 3^2.1.1  Wall_Cast-in-Place_AllFloors The majority of these walls are present inside the stairwell towers and in the atrium, they are 200mm concrete walls with no insulation or steel studs on either side of the walls. 1.2.1  SOG_100mmThe slab on grade thickness is only available in 100mm and 200mm slabs in the impact estimators. The following calculation was done in order to determine the extra length and width needed to account for proper slab thickness. Because the actual slab is 130mm the 100 mm slab was used with the extra length and width added on to keep the volumes the same.(Extra length/ Width) == (-(51.51+51.51) + SQRT((51.51+51.51) 2^ + (4*51.51*51.51*(130-100)/100)))/2= 7,22 m This floor is primarily located on surrounding the stairwells and the cast in place walls at the corners of the building. Also these floors extend in a few walkways over top of the atrium. They were modeled as a footing because they are not supported by the column and beam system, and they have no consistent span. Modeling as a footing allows the volume of concrete and rebar will likely be more accurate than by using a existing flooring system.Concrete Strength of 25 Mpa was used, In Athena 30 Mpa was the closest input. No Fly ash concentration was specified, so average was used. The Stud Spacing is 400 mm on center, the stud thickness is 67.5 mm however the minimum specified thickness available in the impact estimator is 92 mm. The stud weight is also not specified, however, the light weight stud was used in order to maintain as much accuracy as possible to try and a reduce the error of the larger stud weight that is used. The type of window in the building was not specified in the drawings, so standard glazing was used. The takeoffs of the exterior windows were done from the outside elevations of the building, with a count and area measurement. While the limited number of interior windows were measured using plan view in linear meters and the height of the windows measured during a site visit to determine the proper window area, a count was also completed in the plan view.1.2  Concrete Slab-on-Grade2.1  Cast In Place Concrete2  Walls2.3.1 Wall_Cast-in-Place_SteelStud_AllFloors These walls are exclusively exterior walls. There is a 200mm thick cast in place concrete wall on the exterior followed by 89mm steel studs filled with batt insulation a sheet of poly and 15.9mm drywall. This wall type from all floors have been combined into this one category.  The top floor is 3.4m and the other floors are 4.3m, to account for this with using a single input into the Impact Estimator, a weighted average to determine the floor height that should be used for the input. The Calculation is shown below:Total Height = [(linear meters of 3.4m wall)*3.4m + (linear meters of 4.3m wall)*4.3]/ (total linear meters)Total Height = (61.42*3.4 + 846.2*4.3) / (907.62) = 4.24 m .+2.2.1 Wall_SteelStud_Ground FloorThe Steel Stud wall is an interior wall with 89mm studs and drywall on each side. No insulation was used. The window area was calculated by measuring the length from the plan view and multiplying by a hand measured window height during a site visit, the calculation is below:Window Area = Total Length * Measured Height = 52.22m * 1.07m = 55.71 m23.1  Concrete Column and BeamConcrete Strength of 25 Mpa was used, In Athena 30 Mpa was the closest input. No Fly ash concentration was specified, so average was used. The larger concrete beams are running in both directions between the columns, there are smaller concrete beams built into the floor slab spanning the larger beams. The beams were counted on each floor spanning the columns, the columns are spaced at 10m on center in both directions so each of the span and bay are measured at 10m. Note That all the columns are used for one floor below for accuracy, for this reason the first floor height is the height from the footing to the SOG and there are no columns needed for the penthouse walls. The live load was taken to be the standard for this type of building as 3.6 KPa, it was not specified in the building drawings.2.3 Concrete Block Wall3 Columns and Beams2.2.2 Wall_SteelStud_Floor2 The Steel Stud wall is an interior wall with 89mm studs and drywall on each side. No insulation was used. The window area was calculated by measuring the length from the plan view and multiplying by a hand measured window height during a site visit, the calculation is below:Window Area = Total Length * Measured Height = 8.30m * 1.07m = 8.85 m22.3.2 Wall_SteelStud_Penthouse_Exterior This steel stud wall has vertical metal cladding on horizontal grits. In addition there is two layers of exterior drywall with batt insulation in between. The height of this was taken as the floor to floor height plus the parapet in order to account for the additional wall above the roof.2.3.1 Wall_ConcBlock_SteelStud_ AllFloorsThe Lock Block wall is located on the second floor at the east end of the building. No rebar was specified so 10M will be used for input into the impact estimator. 2.4.1 Wall_Curtain_AllFloorsThere is a curtain wall that is present in the atrium and extends up to the ceiling and connects into the skylight. The Skylight above the atrium was also modeled as a curtain wall, it is on an angle. The area of the curtain wall was measured from above, therefore the angle needed to be taken into account and the proper skylight area calculated as shown below. Skylight Area = sqrt((Projected Area) 2^ + (Height) 2^)                                                 = sqrt (299.64 2^+4.117 2^) = 299.67 m 2^The height and length are calculated by using the actual width of the curtain wall as the width, and the height is calculated accordingly as shown below.Width = 3.22 mHeight = (Total Area)/(width) = (299.67 + 175.89)/(3.22) = 147.692.4 Curtain Wall2.2 Steel StudThere are no beams on the first floor a 130mm SOG was used. The first floor of concrete columns and beams come directly up from the footings as a result they are shorter than the other floors. To find the height from the footing to the first floor a weighted average was used. There are no beams on the first floor a 130mm SOG was used. The calculations is shown below:First Floor Height = QR(First Floor Height* # of columns for this height)/(# of columns)]First Floor Height = 450*11/31 + 450*9/31 + 300*3/31 + 300*5/31 + 300*2/31 + 300*1/31First Floor Height = 396.77 mm = 0.397 m2.2.3 Wall_SteelStud_Floor3 The Steel Stud wall is an interior wall with 89mm studs and drywall on each side. No insulation was used. The window area was calculated by measuring the length from the plan view and multiplying by a hand measured window height during a site visit, the calculation is below:Window Area = Total Length * Measured Height = 16.69m * 1.07m = 17.80 m22.2.4 Wall_SteelStud_Floor4 The Steel Stud wall is an interior wall with 89mm studs and drywall on each side. No insulation was used. The window area was calculated by measuring the length from the plan view and multiplying by a hand measured window height during a site visit, the calculation is below:Window Area = Total Length * Measured Height = 2.72m * 1.07m = 2.90 m22.2.4 Wall_SteelStud_PenthouseThe Steel Stud wall is an interior wall with 89mm studs and drywall on each side. No insulation was used. 3.1.1 - Column_Concrete_Beam _GroundFloor.56.1.1 ExtraBasicMaterial_Concrete This concrete is a result of the roof parapet that surrounds all of the roofs of the buildings other than the penthouse. The volume calculation is shown below:Volume (m 3^) = Length*Height*Thickness = 369.24 * 1.2 * 0.2 = 88.6176 m 3^6.2.1 ExtraBasicMaterial_Steel The Steel is a result of HSS Steel Sections which are seen in the atrium of the building holding up the skylight and also around the curtain wall for decoration. The diameter of the steel sections were measured by hand on a site visit, and found to be 250mm (10inch), while the wall thickness was assumed to be 12mm (1/2 inch) after researching standard thicknesses for a non structural HSS of the appropriate diameter. The weight calculation is below:Weight = Length*(X-section Area)*Density =  277.31 m * 0.00494 m 2^ * 7.85 Tonnes/m 3^Weight = 110.75 tonnes6.2.1 ExtraBasicMaterial_ ExtraCladdingMaterialThe brick in the building is located primarily on the outside of the building however there is some located inside the building in the atrium. It is unclear if the brick is veneer, however there is no input for veneer brick in the impact estimator so normal "standard" brick is used. 6.2.1 ExtraBasicMaterial_ExtraEnvelopeMaterial The extra glass used is due to large single pane windows in the atrium. Because not all the sections were available to do takeoffs some additional amount of window area needed to be added. In addition only double pane windows are available, as a result the amount of window area for this calculation is divided by two to get a more accurate window area. The calculation is shown below:Total EBM window = Takeoff Area + Measured Area = 88.5m 2^ + 7.36m 2^ = 95.86 m 2^Total Standard Glazing used = 95.86 / 2 = 47.93 m 2^6.3 Extra Cladding Material6.3 Extra Envelope MaterialThe roof is built using the same construction as the floors, however, it has different overlay materials and rigid insulation. The actual roof is constructed using larger beams running in both directions along the columns and smaller intermediate girders running between the beams. All of these beams are built into the floor slab. For this reason the Precast Double T floor slab was chosen to model the smaller beams between the larger beams running in both directions. The larger concrete beams are running in both directions between the columns, there are smaller concrete beams built into the floor slab spanning the larger beams. The beams were counted on each floor spanning the columns, the columns are spaced at 10m on center in both directions so each of the span and bay are measured at 10m.3.1.1 - Column_Concrete_Beam_Penthouse The larger concrete beams are running in both directions between the columns, there are smaller concrete beams built into the floor slab spanning the larger beams. The beams were counted on each floor spanning the columns, the columns are spaced at 10m on center in both directions so each of the span and bay are measured at 10m.4.1.1 - Floor_PrecastDoubleTThe actual floor is constructed using larger beams running in both directions along the columns and smaller intermediate girders running between the beams. All of these beams are built into the floor slab. For this reason the Precast Double T floor slab was chosen to model the smaller beams between the larger beams running in both directions. The larger concrete beams are running in both directions between the columns, there are smaller concrete beams built into the floor slab spanning the larger beams. The beams were counted on each floor spanning the columns, the columns are spaced at 10m on center in both directions so each of the span and bay are measured at 10m.3.1.3 - Column_Concrete_Beam_Floor3 The larger concrete beams are running in both directions between the columns, there are smaller concrete beams built into the floor slab spanning the larger beams. The beams were counted on each floor spanning the columns, the columns are spaced at 10m on center in both directions so each of the span and bay are measured at 10m.6 Extra Basic Material5 Roof4 Floors6.1 Concrete6.2 Steel5.2.1 - Roof_OpenWebSteelJoists_Penthouse The roof was constructed using an open web steel joist which is the exact type of roofing structure that is used in the impact estimator. 5.1  Concrete Precast Double T4.1 Concrete Precast Double T3.1.1 - Column_Concrete_Beam_Floor45.2 Open Web Steel Joist3.1.1 - Column_Concrete_Beam_Floor25.1.1 - Roof_ConcretePrecastDoubleT_Main

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