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Climate action partnership : moving UBC beyond climate neutral Chan, Kit Yieng; Chan, Michelle; Chan, Oi Yan; Chan, Thomas; Chan, Tsz Mei; Chang, Sharon; Chau, Kenrick; Chelali, Tarik Apr 10, 2009

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UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report       Climate Action Partnership Moving UBC Beyond Climate Neutral Kit Yieng Chan, Michelle Chan, Oi Yan Chan, Thomas Chan, Tsz Mei Chan, Sharon Chang, Kenrick Chau, Tarik Chelali  University of British Columbia AGSC 450 10 April, 2009           Disclaimer: “UBC SEEDS provides students with the opportunity to share the findings of their studies, as well as their opinions, conclusions and recommendations with the UBC community. The reader should bear in mind that this is a student project/report and is not an official document of UBC. Furthermore readers should bear in mind that these reports may not reflect the current status of activities at UBC. We urge you to contact the research persons mentioned in a report or the SEEDS Coordinator about the current status of the subject matter of a project/report”.    The University of British Columbia Food System Project (UBCFSP) 2009    Scenario 1  Climate Action Partnership  Moving UBC Beyond Climate Neutral     AGSC 450 Group 3 10 April 2009   Kit Yieng Chan Michelle Chan Oi Yan Chan Thomas Chan Tsz Mei Chan Sharon Chang Kenrick Chau Tarik Chelali  Table of Contents Part I: Gene ral Overview  ................................ ................................ .................  1  1.1 Abstract  ................................ ................................ ................................ ...  1  1.2 Intro d u ctio n  ................................ ................................ .............................  1  1.3 Visi o n State me n t & Valu e Assu mp tio n  ................................ ..................  2  Part II: Cli mate Chan g e and the Foo d Syste ms  ................................ ...............  4  2.1 Back g rou n d Inf o r matio n  ................................ ................................ .........  4  2.1.1 . Prob le m Sta te men t  ................................ ................................ ...........  4  2.1.2 . Link ag es between Cli ma te Cha n g e and the Glo b al & Natio n al Foo d Syste ms  ................................ ................................ .............................  6  2.1.3 . Link ag es between Cli ma te Cha n g e and the UBC Ca mp u s  .............  8  2.1.4 . Su mma r y of Cli mat e Neutr al Actio n by Ca mp u ses  ........................  9  2.2 Cli mate Action Paper Targ et: Edi b le Land scap es  ................................  12  2.3 Metho d o lo g y  ................................ ................................ .........................  13  2.4 Res earch Find i n g s & Discu ss io n  ................................ ..........................  13  2.4.1 . Feasib ility  ................................ ................................ .......................  13  2.4.2 . App rop riate n ess  ................................ ................................ .............  19  2.4.3 . Poten tial Ba rriers & Challen g es  ................................ ....................  20  Part III: Reco mme n d atio n s  ................................ ................................ ............  22  3.1 UBC Sus tain ab ility Off ice  ................................ ................................ ....  22  3.2 UBC Foo d Serv ices & AMS Foo d and Bev erage Dep art men t  ............  22  3.3 UBC Waste Manag e men t  ................................ ................................ .....  22  3.5 UBC Far m  ................................ ................................ .............................  23  3.6 Ca mp u s and Co mmu n ity Plann in g  ................................ .......................  23  3.7 AGSC 450 20 10 colleag u es  ................................ ................................ ..  23  Con clu sion  ................................ ................................ ................................ ......  25  Ref erences  ................................ ................................ ................................ ......  26   1  Part I: General Overview 1.1 Abstract  Working in conjunction  with the UBC Fo od S ys tem Project, we, grou p 3, have conduct ed resea rch to  dete rmine wh ether roof top ga rdens at UBC would  dec reas e greenhouse gas  emi ssi on, help with cli mate chan ge , an d move UBC be yond ca rbon neutral .  In th e proj ect, int erviews  with hi ghl y respect able and  prof essi onal indi viduals, such as Ted Cathcart and Tara Moreau ,  were condu cted and calculati ons were don e to evaluate  th e carbon emi s sion associated with the t ransportati on  of food.  This all owed the group to  det ermine if havin g edibl e landscapes at UBC w oul d trul y move UBC be yo nd cli mate neutral . It was fo und that edibl e landsc ap es could potentiall y assi s t with  these go als; howe ver, factors such as appropri a te crops, suit able buil dings and avail able resourc e s would need to be caref ull y chosen and assessed  in order to suc cessfull y inclu de e dibl e landsc apes on UBC campus .  Furthe rmore, preli mi nar y calculati ons reveal that rooftop ga rd ens, comm unit y gard ens ali ke, will do ver y litt le to reduce the campus’ dependency on imported food. T his  repo rt includes usefu l information regardi ng  the buildi ng of edibl e lan dscapes  and  the ca rbon emi ssi on caused b y tr ansp ortation ; furthermor e, i t also contains recomm endati ons that promot e furthe r resea rch, ini ti at e sust ain able pra cti ces, and incl ude more loc al food sourc es .  Th ese proposals and rec omm endati on set fo rth wil l help future AGS C 45 0 to effe cti vel y move UBC be yond carbon neutral.    1.2 Introduction  The impact  of cli mate  chan ge has  alr ead y dramaticall y aff ected  the ecos ystem and its population . Documentati on rev eals that ex cess gr eenhouse gas emi ssi ons have adve rse eff ects on human healt h, loss of wi ldl ife habit ats, and fail ur e of agricultural crops (E nvironmental Issues, 200 9). Due to thes e ne gati ve events, man y count ries, i nsti tut ions, and even in divi duals are imple menting various methods and progr ams that will help decrease the amount of gre en house gas emi ssi ons cau sed by humans. The Univers it y of Britis h Colum bia has gain ed a well - known reputation as being the first  2  universit y in North Amer ica to successfull y imple ment a variet y of  sust ainabili t y str ate gies, such as the “Inspiration & Aspiration” plan that promotes sustainability targets in UBC’s operations, programs, resea rch and tea ching, the openin g of the first Sustainabil it y Offi ce in C anada, and the ex ecuti on of Canada’s largest energy and water retrofit (UBCFSP). In order for UBC to effectively move beyond climate neutral, it has launched a partnership, the “Climate Action Partnership” (CAP), that initiated the Inte gr ated Cli mate Acti on Fr amewo rk, whi ch uti li z es a coll abor ati ve appro ach b y includin g the ideas and participati on of facult y, sta ff, students, technical ex perts and com muni t y membe rs in order to come up wit h new and beneficial wa ys in becomi ng more sust ainable (U BC FS P ).    This report works in co ll ab orati on with the UBC Food S ystem Proj ect (UBC FS P ), with its prim ar y focus on the UBC food s ystem and its linkages betwe en greenhou se gas emi ssi on and cli mate chan ge. This project ai ms to assi st UBC in moving be yond cli mate ne utrali t y. The tar get of edibl e landscapes has been suggested in the “Climate Action Partnership” as a possible approach to climate acti ons. As such, it has been thorou ghl y anal yz ed and rese arch ed in order to determi ne whether roo f top ga rdens are benefici al to the UBC food s ystem an d if the y can pla y a role i n recti f yin g the probl ems of cli mate chan ge. Ide all y, the result s will provide assi stance to both the UBC Food S ystem Project and UBC’s Climate Action Partnership, and become a stepping - stone fo r m oving UBC be yond cli mate neutral.  1.3 Vision Statement & Value Assumption In gen eral, the majorit y of our group agrees that these visi on statements are ideal, but we have come to the conclusi on that it is virtuall y impossi ble or not feasibl e to put them all int o action. Statement 1, which su g gests, “food should be locally grown, produced, and processed”, is the focus of our group discussi on. We ar e aw are of the benef it s of local food produ cti on, such as the inc reas e in food sust ainabili t y, and the decrease in food miles and transportati on. How ever, we questi on its feasibi li t y in a real life sit uati on. We currentl y gro w our food at the cheap est cost in areas with  3  comparati ve advanta ges. These adv anta ges incl ude cli mate, geo gr aphic or labour. If we assum e consum ers will conti nue to demand the foo ds they ar e having now, switch ing to local producti on ma y require unsust ainable pr a cti ces, such as using heat to imit ate hot weather. In turn, thi s ma y be harm ful to the ecos ystem, the so c ial - economi c welfa re an d the environment. Some regions have a ver y l im it ed choice of crops the y ca n grow du e to soil quali t y, geo graphic and econ omi c barrie rs. Wit hout food imports, the y ma y be un a ble to obtain all their nutrient needs, includi ng esse nti al micronutrients.  Statement 1 also contrad icts statement 3. To obtain  cult urall y s ensit ive foods, in man y cas es such food must be  import ed. Wit h swell ing immi grati on and a nati onal poli c y emph asis on mul ti cult urali sm , it ma y  not  be  possi ble to sust ainabl y gro w all unique cult ural  food s  locall y. In tu rn, the crops we do gro w  locall y m a y be unacc eptable for these new immi grants. Whil e we can syntheticall y produ ce the se non - local foods, man y factors hav e to be taken int o consi derati on, such as farmin g techniques, educ ati on, or pest control. Restricting all food product ion to th e local region will mean sa crificin g cert ain foods we want but canno t gro w. We beli eve it is impossi ble for immi gr ant s to give up on the cult ural fo ods the y have be en eati n g fo r man y ye ars.  If statement 1 is put int o acti on wher e all foods are produ ced loc all y, th en statement 7 ,  that states all providers and growers pa y and rec eive fair prices ,  will  likel y  not be feasibl e. Growin g no n -local foods in a non - n ati ve environment requi res ex tra input and res ources, makin g them m ore ex pensive for consum e rs to purc hase. Also, when all foods ar e produc ed l ocall y, th ere is competit ion between loc al farme rs, as thi s is the onl y sour ce of these non - local foods. Loc al farme rs will then be able to control the mark e t prices of these products .  The idea of growin g all foods  locall y is onl y po ssi ble if ever yon e is will ing to give up their non - local produc es. This includes givi n g up on cult ural foods and shifti ng towards a diet consi sti ng of sim il ar food items. Widespread educ ati on and promoti on is needed to educate the popula ti on of the benefits of local fo od pr oducti on. A lar ge majori t y is sti ll unaware of fo od sust ainabili t y iss ues and lack simpl es knowled ge of how the over all food s ys tem ope rates.   4  Social equit y shoul d not be a loc al conc ept, but be spread throu ghout the glo bal food s yst em. Western - centri c view emphasiz es our cap abil it y to chan ge our food s yst em. Since the majorit y fo th e se countries ar e at the cent r e of the world tradin g s ystem, it is inevitable that chan ges in the food s yst em will result in changes in the  i nternati onal trading patt erns, and ma y then consequenti all y aff ect thi rd world ex porters. All in all , the statements ma de seem western - centri c , ideali sti c and someti mes unsust ainable.   Part II: Climate Change and the Food Systems 2.1 Background Information 2.1.1. Problem Statement  Climate chan ge has beco me a widel y acc epted rea li t y and its effe cts are als o roarin g to the front page. In Februa r y of 2009, hundreds of Australi ans died after wild fires spread th rough neighbou rhoods and bur nt houses to the grou nd. Although ther e is no dire ct connecti on between  global warmth and these incid ents, scientis ts make  it  clear that we shoul d ex pect drier summ er s  and less predictable weath er patt erns (IP C C , 2007). In 2007, Al Gore and th e Intergov ernment al Panel on Cli ma te Change, a coll aborati ve bod y of academ ics, UN comm it tees, and int ergovernm ental coun cil s, won the 2007 Nobel Peace Priz e. In eff ect, the y won the priz e "for their effo rts to buil d up and diss emi nate greater kno wledge about man - made cli mate change, and t o la y th e foundati ons for the measures that ar e need e d to counteract such cha nge " ( IP C C , 2007). Evidentl y, cli mate ch an ge is no longer an academi c m yth  – it is  real and it is happening.  Climate chan ge, which is caused b y ex cessi ve gr eenhouse gas emi ssi on s , is an inc reasin g concern to the p opulation and the environment. Man y of th e harmful ga ses  that are  rele ased int o the atm osphere are caus ed by hum an acti vit ies, such as the carbon diox ide and nit rous ox ide that are produced from  burnin g s oli d waste and fo ssi l fuel s, and the methane  that is  emi tt ed from or ganic wa ste  5  decompos it ion (Environmental Issu es, 2009). This overabundant amount of gases result s in infrare d radiation  bein g  trapped and withheld in the outer atm osphere, which conse quentl y leads to the r isi n g of temperatur e  (Environme ntal Issu es, 2009). Due to the population’s increasing demand for generating the most products in t he least amount of tim e, advan ced technolo gie s and quick er methods of transportati on, such as producti on companies an d autom ob il es that burn fossil fuels, have increased gr eenhouse gas emi ssi ons by 70%; 120% of th e tot al gas inc reas e has be en  directl y from transport ati on between 1970 and 2004, and it is esti mated that the amount of carbon diox ide emi ssion will increase by 75 – 350 % b y the en d of the 21 st  centur y (N OAA, 2008).  One of the main contribut ors towards cli mate chan ge is the  often overlooked food s ys tem. Man y of th e gr eenhouse gas es ar e emi tt ed throughout th e pro cess of food producti on, su c h as meth ane du rin g agriculture d ecompos it ion and carbon diox ide from the transportati on of food pro ducts to consum ers ( Rich er et al . 2009 ).  The drasti c inc reas e in gr eenhouse gas emi ssi on s  is result ing in rising global tempe rature s , which aff ects population  healt h , living  wildl ife  habit ats, and agriculture producti vit y (Environmen tal Issu es, 2009). Th e iss ue of cli mate chan ge grea tl y af fe cts the living co ndit ions of the population because warmer temperat ure incr eas es the chanc e of vector - borne diseas es to become mor e widesp r ead (Environm ental Issues, 2009). Cli mate chan ge affe cts wildl ife be cause anim als and plants ne e d to adapt to the  changes wit hin their ecos ystem s , such as rising sea level s, which reduces the land avail able to living or gan ism s and destro ys the ve get ati ons needed fo r fo o d  and habit ats (BBC Ho me, 2009).  Wit h warming temperatur e s , it is inevitable that agricult ur e will suffer  from droughts , increasin g th e numbe r of problems for farmers , such as pest man a gemen t, crop variet y choic es, and seeding dates, du e to the uncertain and const antl y chan gin g temper ature (A lberta Agri cult ure and Rural Developm ent, 2007).  At UBC , iss ues con cerni ng cli mate chan ge hav e recentl y been tak en to centre sta ge . In Mar ch 2008, President Toope si gned the Canadian University and College President’s Statement of Climate Action , a mand ati ng doc ument which fo rmali z ed our drive to solve cli mat e problems and comm it s the  6  u niversit y to sett ing spe cific scientific tar gets to wards the participator y reducti on of gr eenhouse gas emi ssi ons. This mandate will be met vi a the Inte grated Cli mate Acti on Fr amework, which will effe cti vel y produ ce th e cli mate act ion plan fo r our campus . Th e f ramework is a roundtabl e of comm unit y stak eholders which will outl ine how UBC can move towards and be yond carbon neutr ali t y. Roundt ables brin g to geth er se ctors su ch as transp ortation, ene r g y, food, ed ucati on and buil ding poli c y ,  and the y consi st of students, facult y, staff, technic al ex perts and the wider comm unit y. The roundta bles will produce a seri es of discussi on papers that will morph int o a cli mate act ion visi on statement ; thi s in turn  will  be adopted b y t he UBC comm unit y. Thi s gr ass - roots app roach at tempts to bring to gether all stakeholders int o a consu lt ati ve and coll aborati ve i nit iative .  UBC makes the claims to produce “excep ti onal global cit iz ens [and] promot e the values of a civil and sustainable society” (UBC Trek, 2009). This mission statement is effectively embroidered in the cli mate acti on plan, which moves to solve problems of cli mate chan ge that  will  affect the worl d. If UBC wants to be a lead ing global partner towar ds carbon neutrali t y, thi s project pla ys an import ant role in starti ng the discussi on s  and recomm endati ons that ma y all ow our school to lead the field. The recomm endati ons and result s obtained from the  coll e cti ve studi es in the UBCFS P project will undoubtedl y all ow UBC  to assess its environmental impact ; more importantl y, the  result s ma y ver y well lead to furthe r impl ementati ons  and acti ons  at other u niversit ies and co mm unit ies.  2.1.2. Linkages between Climate Change and the Global & National Food Systems Food s ystems hav e  a  maj or impact on GHG emi ssi ons; mainl y from agri cu lt ure, catt le graz ing, ener g y use, t ransportati on, processi n g and pac kagin g, and waste man agement. Crop producti on requires a lot of resour c es and input s. Fertili z ers are often us ed, overus e d in some cases, and th eir s ynthesis invol ves the burning of fossil fu els (AGSC 450, Group 12, 20 07). Fossi l fu el use cau ses carbon diox ide emi ssi ons, and thi s is one of the prim ar y sour ces for global anth ropo genic GHG emi ssi ons (IP C C , 2007 ). The s econd major carbon diox ide contrib utor is land cle arin g and deforestatio n ( IP C C , 2007). Not onl y does thi s result in gas emi ssi ons, the lack of for ests to take in  7  carbon diox ide means the loss of important carb on sinks (Bentl e y & Barker, 2005). Be cause of the high demands for animals and crops in today’s market, many farms are operated int ensivel y at the indus trial  siz e.  Wastes from livestock are a major emi ssi on source, contrib uti ng as mu ch as 16 % to the annual gl obal produ cti on of methan e (Ni erenb er g, 2005). Of the anim al products, bee f and lamb are found to contribut e th e most to greenhouse gase s (Bentl e y & Bark er, 20 05). Aside from meats, rice and so y ar e two of the GHG - int ensive crops (A GSC 450, Group 12, 2007) . Nitrous ox ide emi ssions are also a consequen ce of agriculture (IP C C , 2007). Food miles, the dist ance the food has traveled, is a comm on concern, as it shoul d be. Howeve r, the means of transpo rtati on also pla ys a major role. Du e to the high effici enc y nec essary in today’s food market, producers rely on airfreights and trucks instead of car go ships to transport t heir products, and thes e methods are hi ghl y poll uti ng ( Richer et al . 2009 ).  Food processing is an essential step in today’s food production. The pu rp ose ma y be to creat e  new forms of unique food products , or sim ply to pres erve food  pro ducts during lon g trav e ls to int ernati onal markets. Regardless, these pro cessi ng oper ati ons, including deh ydr ati on and fre ez ing, depend heavil y on en er gy use, which con tribut es to the overall GHG emissi ons (Adams et al ., 2008).  In addit ion to processi n g, product pack a ging has i ncreas ed si gnific antl y (AGSC 450, Group 12, 2007). This entails the use of ener g y and input s to produce a variet y of mate rials; while efforts hav e been made, there are sti ll many t ypes of packa ges that are not de grad able or rec yc lable, which adds to the waste and poll uti on.  As a whol e food s yst em from producti on to cons umpt ion, all the above factors act to int ensif y GHG emi ssi ons, incr eas e the soci ety’s dependency on finite natural resources, lower the air quality, and contribut e to num ero us healt h conce rns (Rich er et al . 2009).  Since t he int eracti on between cli mate chan ge an d food s yst ems work s  both ways, the incre ase  in global av er a ge tempe r ature  will in turn affe ct the food s ystems. Whil e warmer temper atures ma y be beneficial to crop yi elds, it  can cause  he at str es s and potential drou ghts , which poses a si gnific ant threat to agricult ure  ( A GSC 450, Group 12, 20 07 ) . The lost of soil mo ist ure due to a hi ghe r ra te of  8  evaporati on de gr ades soil quali t y and makes it less feasibl e to produce quali t y crops  (IP C C , 2007) . The overall dec re ase in crop producti vit y is espe ciall y severe at lower att it udes, in tropical and dr y re gions.  The ch an ge in rain fall pat terns also af fects soil moi sture level, as well as its erosion rate. The actual amount of chan ge in precipi tation varies between  re gion s ; a reas at  high er alt it udes suffer from precipi tation  incr eases , while subt ropical re gion s ex perience a decr ease, causin g possi ble drou ght s  (IP C C , 2007) . Howev er, the ove rall ev ents of ex treme rainfall s tend to ris e  globall y. Accele rated soil erosion lowers  soil fe rtili t y, causing  a dec re ase in agricultural pot enti al.  Tremendous incr eas e s  of atm ospheric CO2 lev el due to emi ssi ons, combi ned with wate r, ma y enhanc e crop growth and product ivi t y b y acti ng as a fertili z er; h owe ver, the tr ade of f for s uch increas ed yi eld is the  nut rition al value of crops  ( A GSC 450, Group 12, 200 7) . The amount of protei n in crops  has been  found to decreas e as a result of the acceler ated growth rate, givi n g it less  time to accumul ate nutri ents;  key miner als such as zinc and iron are also lost .  The warmer cli mate is generall y bene ficial for fo od producti on. However ,  such effect will var y regionall y. Some re gion s ma y suff er agricult ure loss while other region s ex perience posi ti ve eff ects (IP C C , 2007) . Are as wi th high fluctuation of weather condit ion s  are more vulnerable due to the amount of  stress the crop s have to adapt to.  2.1.3. Linkages between Climate Change and the UBC Campus Greenhous e gas emi ssi ons have wre aked havo c upon  Mother Nature and caused cli mate chan ge. I n 1997, UBC took the ini tiative as the first universit y in Canada to adopt a sust ainable developm ent poli c y in or der to promot e a comm u nit y - int e gr ated sust ainabl e agricult ur e s ystem with an aim to red uce impacts on cli mate chan ge  (UBC S H) . Wit h that missi on in mind, UBC Farm is moul ded as a model farm that focuses on the urban agro - e cos ystem that ex plores t he possi bil it y of an enh a nced fu ture for urb an comm u nit ies through its linkage to the ecologi cal, eco nomi c, and social healt h of surrounding communi ti es  (UBC Farm) . Since the UBC Farm functi ons as a catal yst fo r ch an ge throu gh resea rch, alt ernati ve met hods in agri cult ure that i mproves th e healt h of ur ban comm unit ies is inst igat ed   9  (UBC Farm) . UBC striv es to establi sh healt h y habit ats with sust ainable farmin g techniques, and its feasibi li t y is vali dated wi th the UBC Farm land be ing ov er twi ce as product ive as farmland in No rth ern BC  (FO TF) .  Th e main culprit behind cli mate cha nge, being th e rapid gro wth of human population and indus trializ ati on ,  has  led  to competit ion for limi te d land  (AP P ) . UBC is no ex cepti on to these chan ges where signi ficant su r ge of students from outsi de Britis h Colum bia  has ex panded the UBC comm u nit y each ye ar, requirin g  mo re campus residen ce sp ace  (AP P ) .  Consequent l y, the competit ion for the limi ted land at UBC is sti ff, and UBC farm is ta gged as “future housing reserve” (Walke r ) .  Wit h UBC’s sustainability pledge, i t  e ncour a ges the campus comm unit y t o eat locall y b y providi ng West S ide Vancouv er resident s with or ganic fresh pr oduce and eggs on a Ten Mile Diet  (FOT F) . This demons trates the impa ct of indi vidual food choices on cli m ate cha n ge. Howeve r, cli matic shock ca n r esult in food insecurit y and possi ble vulnerabil it y of food producti on at  t he UBC farm. Since the farm embrac es ecolo gic al an d bio - diverse farming practi ces, it gives us an edge to hed ge against the uncertaint ies  of weathe r and cli mate ch an ge; fo r ex ampl e ,  the winter cold weathe r in March ma y  decre ase crop yi elds  (FOTF) . Ho weve r, due to various farmin g techniq ues  and the lar ge ran ge and  variet y of crops  bein g pla nted , UBC Farm is doi ng its best to combat against cli mate chan ge  (FO TF) .  2.1.4. Summary of Climate Neutral Action by Campuses UBC is not alone in its cli mate chan ge acti ons. The Universit y of Florida has a set of plans in reducin g its g reenhouse g as emi ssi on s  to the point w h ere it has no net impact on cli mate chan ge. Their approach es, fo r ex ampl e, i nclude app ropriatel y scheduled inf rastructu r e renov ati on s , equipm e nt upgr ade s  and new ene r gy m ana gement such as enhancin g carbon sinks on the u niversit y land. (C NAP , 2004 ) The y beli eve th e majorit y of GHG emi ssi ons are  from ener g y con sump ti on from buil ding  and gas emi ssi on s  from vehi cle, so b y reducin g elect rical demand of buil dings and makin g a chan ge to hybrid or other pow ered vehicles, GHG emi ssi on s  can be low ered. (CNA P , 2004 ) In order to achi eve those tar gets, th eir univ ersit y  has conducted s e ver al stu dies, and the y have all  indi cated that it is possi ble to achiev e cli m ate neutr ali t y  with no net cost withi n twent y ye ar s. (CNAP , 2004 ) One st ud y  10  show s  that  for ever y doll ar invested in ener g y sav ing pro gr am s , two doll ars or more can be saved and 40% of ene r g y reducti o n can be achi eved. Ho wever,  the suc cess of t his target is  reli ant  on  the ex ecuti on of the plan, so having an independ ent budget  fo r en er g y - s aving i s the key .  (CNAP , 2004 )  The Unive rsit y of Tenn essee, Knox vil le, has  a different appro ach to GHG reducti on fo r the campus . This universit y  i s one of th e pionee rs wh o  have  si gned up fo r LE ED, or  Leade rship in En er g y and Environmental Design. It is a pro gram admi nist ered b y the U.S. Gre en Buil din g Council to creat e a set of stand ards fo r ecologic al frie ndl y buil di ngs. (Th e Chart er - huma n - responsi bil it ies, 2007) All new buil dings const ru ct ed at  thi s campus that  cost more than $5 mill ion ,  and an y major buil ding renovati on s ,  will be req uired to follow LEED s tandards ; thi s  ensure s that  new buil din gs ar e  m ore ener g y and water ef ficie nt  compared to the previous structures, so the y wil l not negati vel y impact the global cli mate. (The Cha rter - human - responsi bil it ies, 2007) Furthermor e, the Universit y of Tennes see  has comm it ted to limi ti ng  its GHG emi ssi on s  by signin g two other poli ci es, one of whi ch bein g t he Tall ories Declar ati on; thi s  declar ati on consi sts of ten environmental principles that inco rp orate sust ainabili t y in to  tea ch ing, res ear ch, and ope r ati ons, so the campus can be more environme ntal friendl y. ( Tall or ies Decl a rati on , 1990 )  A  group has  publi shed a  progress report  that  reco gniz es the path to a carb on neutral comm unit y involves collaboration with an “interdisciplinary perspective” of “civi c lead ers, busi nesspeople and t he broader public” ( Adams et al ., 20 08 ). Its authors describe carbon neutrality as “m e asurin g emi ssi o ns, reducing them, and then purchasing offsets to cover the rest.” In order to achieve this goal, UBC  has put forth a “Community Energy Plan (CEP)” to categorize areas that need improvement ( Adams et al ., 2008 ). The plan is described as “[ h avin g] six plan goal areas: impro ve the ener g y effici enc y of buil dings, increas e trans portati on efficien c y, enc oura ge en er g y efficient l and use planning, dive rs it y the power producti on po rtfoli o, educate and  en ga ge residents and busi ness es, and to demons trate local government leadership.” ( Adams et al ., 2008 ). Howeve r, the authors reali z e some  aspects are not covered, “i n pa rticular, t he CO 2  inventor y does not count the impacts of the ene r g y used to prod uce  11  a nd transport the goods that we consume on in the region.” ( Ad ams et al ., 2008 ). The pl an also fail s to take int o account the  ex ternali ti es ,  like the wa y t ourism will affect  the ca rbon foo tprint elsewher e . In achievin g  carbon neutral it y, UBC  has establi shed  mul ti ple working group s and trusts to dev elop the concept.   The first group is dedicat ed to busi ness and the ec onom y. Se cti on one is described as the enti t y that deals with purchasing and investment where, “ b y lev era gin g thi s purchasin g pow er, UVic can su pport the development of green businesses in the region.” ( Adams et al ., 2008 ). Modi f yin g and implementi ng poli cies that support cli mate - frien dl y busi ness es accompl i sh thi s. The second section basicall y aim s to re - lo ca li z e the econom y to eli mi nate food mil es. This is accompl ished throu gh the acti ons of the thi rd se cti on, as desc ribed b y  “clustering geographically, businesses offering similar products and services.” ( Adams et al ., 2008 ).   The second group, la bell ed  “Civic Engagement and Governance” ,  aim s to establi sh comm unicati on networks between stakeholders and the gene ral publi c ( Adams et al ., 2008 ). This is accomplished in two steps. The first is to increase awareness “through holding public information meeti ngs, add ressi n g loc al cit y coun cil meeti ngs, e ducati n g the board of gove rnors at UVi c about the CE project, and coordinati ng publi c events in conjunction with local muni cipalities”; while the second secti on invol ves the actu al decisi on - makin g of po li cies that affe ct acti on ( Adams et al ., 2008 ).   The thi rd group, which deals with the concept of ener g y usa ge in the universit y ,  is first brok en down int o 6 cate gories: h eati n g and el ectricit y, wate r, transpo rtati on, waste str eams, othe r ma terial streams, and deli verabl e s ( Adams et al ., 2008 ). These cate go r ies are fi rst measured to assess t heir impact on cli mate chan ge. Then, projects and pr oposals are put forw ard, such as the use of carb on credit s, to mit igate their effe cts.   The fourth group ass esse s the transportati on iss ue at the universit y. Some  of the  proposed  ideas that the universit y has put forth to limi t transportati on include implementi ng bike kiosk s, and  12  reen gine erin g ro ads to be more ef ficient ( Ad ams et al ., 2008 ). A rail s yste m has also been su ggeste d as a wa y to redu ce reli anc e on autom obil es.   Food, the fi fth secti on, is the most difficult aspe ct to measure, and the most sensit ive to chan ge.  The Universit y of Victor ia has be gun buil ding ed ibl e ga rdens as a model and educ ati onal tool to raise awar eness ( Ad ams et al ., 2008 ). Throu gh thi s ga rden, “pocket markets” have been established to market thi s sust ainable source of food and to re - l ocali z e the food s ystem through adv ertisi ng. Final l y, compos ti ng and waste mana gement has been made awar e to the gene ral population of the school through wo rkshops ( Ada ms et al ., 2008 ).   Final ly, the sixth and last group, “buildings, infrastructure, and ecology” ,  aim s to raise awar eness in the att emp t to change behavio u r among the institution’s population. This is achieved through outside visitation to the campus’ g reen buil dings, and the creati on of healt h y competit ion between stakehold ers for rewards. This secti on als o att empt s to retrofit existi ng buil dings on campus to become mor e cli mate - fri endl y, su ch as the use of videoconf er encin g ( Ad ams et al ., 2008 ). The l a st step in thi s group is to re - establish the campus’ ecology through int rod ucing  nati ve ve getation and harnessi n g the Geo r gia Strait to reduc e depende nce on artif ici al wat er s uppli es, which result s i n a decre ase of ene r g y consu mpt ion and land erosion.   The  Universit y of Victor ia understands that the road to carbon neutrali t y requires acti on from a vast network of enti ti es. Adams and coll ea gu es (2 008)  makes the foll owin g an alo g y:  The best approaches to the mitigation of climate change will look like a beehive swarming with experimentation, communication, and action, rather than a mighty slugger stepping up to the plate to deliver a grand-slam home run.  2.2 Climate Action Paper Target: Edible Landscapes From the various su gges ti ons that the UBC Cli mate Acti o n Partne rship has proposed, the id ea of edibl e landsc apes has been chos en as the mai n resea rch subj e ct  for th is paper .  Edibl e landsc a pes help cli mate chan ge in man y wa ys, such as drama ti call y dec reasin g the am ount of fossil fuel input into  13  the food s ystem and si gnificantl y redu cing the amount of greenhouse ga s and carbon diox ide em it ted int o the atm osphere  (The Urban Farme r, 2005). These could be achieved bec ause local edibl e landscapes and rooftop gardens do not require the large amount of fossil fuel that  man y conventi o nal farmin g uses for fertili z ers, pesti cides, herbici des and machineri es  (The Urban Farm er, 20 05) . Furthermo re, the easil y acc essi ble and local roo ftop ga rdens eli mi nate t he need to transpo rt fo od products to dist ant locati ons, wh ich would c onse quentl y decr ease ca rbon diox ide emi ssi on  caused by transportati on devices  (T he Urban Fam er, 2005) .  2.3 Methodology  E dibl e landscapes , roo f top gard ens in particul ar,  will be  evaluated  to determi ne their  effe cti veness and rel ati onshi p as a solut ion for carbon neutr ali t y. We wil l determi ne  wh ether  roof top ga rdens will be  helpful t o the UBC food s ystem  and how the y ma y contri bute to the push to get UBC beyond cli mate neutral . T hree spe cific steps will  be  conducted: (1) investi gat e , through int erviews with ex perts on the matter, how to create  rooftop garde ns, (2) determi ne  the fea sibi li t y of rooftop garden ing  at UBC, and (3) evalu ate  and calculate the rel ati onshi p between food miles, carbon emi ssi ons and local ga rdens.    2.4 Research Findings & Discussion 2.4.1. How to Build a Rooftop Garden? To ini ti ate the resea rch on rooftop ga rdens, m ember  of the group  condu cted an int e rview with Ted Cathcart, manager and master gardener of YWCA’s rooftop garden. W e  find  that rooftop ga r dens do not requir e si gnific a nt spe cial mainten anc e compared to regular far ms. The main iss ues to be consi dered when oper at ing a sust ainable roo ftop gard en, like regula r farms, include ac cessi bil it y, nutrient mana gement, ir r igati on and crop zones & crop rotati ons. How ev er, some diff eren ces between rooftop and ground lev e l ga rdenin g ex ist ,  which mainl y influ ence the t ype of crop that shoul d be gro wn, and include siz e restrictions , wei ght restri cti ons, and the need for a more compl ex irrigati on  14  system. The int ervie w  highli ghts and address es al l of these point s with  respect to bringin g the idea of edibl e landscap es to UBC , which uses  the YWCA rooftop gard en as a model that is easil y tr anspo sable to the rooftops of  UBC’s buildings.  Accordin g to Ted Cathca rt, one of the most important att ributes of rooftop ga rdenin g is human resourc e (person al com muni cati on, Ted Cathcar t, 2009). For an y edibl e landscape to be sust aina ble, volunt eers ar e  pre fer red because th e products of edibl e landscap e do not yi eld enou gh profit for hired help. Volunteers must ha ve basic knowledge in agriculture. In the past case of YWCA’s rooftop ga rden, Ted has usuall y been the one to ex tend  his  knowledge to new volunt eers (perso nal comm unicati on, Ted Cat hcart, 2009). Fo r popular it y of edibl e landsc apes t o spread, th e ga rden sho uld be located in a place where it is highl y acc e ssi ble. Accessi bil it y pro mot es ideas, concepts and awar eness. It ma y also increas e volunt eer appli cati ons. In the cas e of UBC, an acc essi ble loca ti on provide s  a d ynami c le arn ing tool for all facult ies.   To const ruct  edibl e l and scapes on top of buil dings, the first iss ue that ne eds to be add ressed is the structural int egrit y of the buil ding. For  YWCA’s rooftop garden, Ted comments that modern rooftops are usuall y buil t stronger than the y ne ed to be. Such dete rminants include buil ding the roof to be able to hold the wei ght of snow saturated wit h rainwater ,  in the event of a catastrophi c bli z z ard precedin g a heav y rainfa ll (personal comm unicat ion, Ted Cath cart, 2009 ) . When plannin g a roo ftop ga rden, the bluep rin ts of the building’s roof should be analyzed to fi gur e out  how the wei ght of the planters can be most effe cti vel y dist ributed (perso nal comm unicati on, Ted Cathcart, 2009). Ideall y, the rooftop shoul d have some sort of drainage s ystem that can be retrofit te d with a low energ y pump to be used as a means for loc ali z ed irrigation. Harnes sing the storm water col lected on a roof means less carbon emi ssi ons will be produced as a result of tr ansporting water to the garden. Usin g storm water as irrigation also impro ves sust ainabili t y in which st orm water will no longe r be sent to suburb an water treatm ent facil it ies, thus limi ti ng carbon emi ssi on s from transportati on an d operati on of su ch facil it y (personal communi c ati on, Ted Cathcart, 2009 ).   15   The steps in raisi n g cro p s on edibl e landsc apes ta ke time, and do not have a univers al formul a to accompl ish the goal of feedin g students on campus . As Ted (2009) comm ents on the developm ental stages of YWCA’s rooftop garden, prototypes will be needed to evaluate the growing cond it ions on the roofs ; YWCA has done thi s by plantin g orn amental and low - maintena nce ve get ati on to assess the abil it y for plants to gro w in such an environment . Ide all y, these plants will have to be locali z ed in planters that can house as much soil with a hi gh nutrie nt ret enti on per wei ght rati o as possi ble (personal comm unicati on , Ted Cathcart, 2009). A synthetic membran e shee t will also be needed to line the bott om of each plan ter to act as a siev e or a filter shoul d the need to drain ex cess wate r from rain fall be need ed (p ers onal comm unicati on, Ted Cathcart, 2009). Alon g with rainwate r, artific ial irrigation, pre fer abl y fro m a loc al storm water coll ecti on unit , shoul d be used. Usin g volunt eers or equipm ent, soil moi sture shoul d be moni tored as closel y as po ssi ble, for plant growth ma y be sev e rel y affe cted to the point of plant death (personal comm unicati on, Ted Cathcart, 2009). After the prototyp e planters have shown to be successful, incr easin g the scale of the project will  be possi ble ,  given the capit al  to  ex pand the ope rati on and resou rces su ch as volunteers are readil y avail able.  The mechani cs of mainta ini ng an edibl e lands cap e on top of a roof is not ver y diffe rent from a regular farm. For sust ainabili t y, and perhaps or gani c, purposes, fertili z ers shoul d  be derived from organic wastes produc e d on campus . Such was tes like  left - over food from the major food out lets, “grey- water” obtained from washrooms and sinks scattered throughout campus, and the inedible parts of harv ested foods shoul d all be compos ted b ack int o the soil (personal co mm unicati on, Ted Cathc art, 2009). To address the ne ed to feed students on a dail y basis , crops shoul d be planted in succ essi on to ensure a dail y ha rvest sc hedule. Food d ive rsit y can be accompl ished through the rotati on of dif f er ent crop t yp es (person al comm unicati on, Ted Cathcart , 2009). Greenhouses ma y also be use d to ex tend the gro wing season. H owev e r, the YWCA model gar den has just rec entl y imp lemented thi s idea and th ere is insufficient evid ence regardin g the suc cess of usi ng greenhouses (per sonal comm unicati on, Ted Cathcart, 2009).   16  2.4.2 The Feasibility and the Creation of Rooftop Gardens at UBC In an ef fort to determi ne whether roo ftop garden s are feasibl e at UBC, members  of the grou p  int erviewed Tara Mo rea u, d irector of S oci et y Pr omot ing Environmental Conservati on (SP EC), and a UBC PhD candidate in the Facult y of Land an d Food S ystems. Tara  is the mana ger and coordinator of the SPEC rooftop conta iner gard enin g at 2150 Maple Street , and has hands - on ex perien ce with an ex ten sive knowledge on rooftop gardenin g. The re are no rooftop gard ens with edibl e food plantati ons at UBC , but there are green rooftops  (perso nal comm unicati on, Tara Moreau, 2009 ; pers onal comm unicati on, J oe Stott, 2009) . Tara beli eves t hat  r ooftop gard enin g  a t UBC is definitel y feasi ble . The essentials  fo r growin g food, such as ve getable s, include  soil (temper atu re, aerati on, or ganic matt er, nutrit ion, pH, moi sture), cli mate (temp eratur e, humi dit y, atm ospheric ga ses, wind), water, sun, plant selecti on, and pla nt and insect diversit y  ar e all pr esent at our campus (p er sonal comm unicati on, Tara Moreau, 2009) . Tar a bel ieves that it is vit al to understand  the soil and it s microcli mate in order for plants to grow well  (p ersonal comm unicati on, Tara Mo reau, 2009 ) . It i s  also  fund amental and necessa r y to res ear ch  the rooftop microcli mate, as man y pl ants will be  ex posed to harsh weather  condit ion s to begin wit h; t hus, the loc ati on of ro oftop gardens is esse nti al on wheth er pl ants can s urvive the sev ere  enviro nment  (person al comm unicati on, Tar a More au, 2009) .  Tar a also ex plains that p lants on a rooftop ex perience ex treme he at  and wind, hence it will be necessar y to  wate r frequ ent l y , insert  wooden planks beneath plants to provide venti lation and air circulation, and incorpor ate  pale tt es or decks to maintain plant temperature ar e important for plant survival (personal comm unicati on, Tara Moreau, 2009 ).  Growi ng plants on a buil din g with a centre ex it to the rooftop could also prove beneficial, since the talle r structure offe rs  the plants on the rooftop a shaded area, and acts as a wind breake r  (person al comm unicati on, Tara More au, 2009) . Other than that, const ructi ng fen ces aroun d the area whe re the pl ants ar e gro wn, or plantin g hi gh vegetables su ch as corn, would serve as wind bre ake rs as well (personal comm unicati on, Tara Moreau, 2009).  An opti mal row orientati on for max imum sun ex posure ,  including ro oftop gardens in Britis h Colum bia , is from East to West  (perso nal  17  comm unicati on, Tara M oreau, 2009 ) . The soil pH determi nes the  o pti mal environment fo r speci fic vegetables and fruit s; for ex ampl e, broc coli ne eds pH 6.0 – 6.8 (a sli ghtl y acidi c pH), whe reas okr as require soil pH of appr ox im atel y 5.5 – 6.0 (a more ac idi c pH comp ared to bro ccoli )  (p erso nal comm unicati on, Tara M oreau, 2 009) . Tar a also point ed out that Vancouve r has the len gthi est grow ing season comp ared to Abb otsford, Chil li wack, Da wson Creek, Kaml oops, Kelowna, Nanaim o, Nel son, Port Alberni, Prince George, Prince Rupert, and Victoria at 221 days  (personal comm unicati on,  Tara Moreau, 2009) . Harvesting the most out of Vancouver climate’s growing season knows no boundaries, be it rooftop gard ens, or comm unit y gard ens. Th e t yp e of mul ches us ed as a co ati ng above the s oil uti li z es the short sun rays that is present  he re in Va ncouve r to keep soil temperatur e const ant (eit her raises or lo wers soil te mperature ), an d promot e opti mal plant growth, and is especiall y valuabl e to rooftop gard enin g (p erso nal comm unicati on, Tara Moreau, 2009) .  Wit h pl ants bein g on rooftops, it is defini tel y an adv anta ge for the veget ables and fruit s to receive suffic ient sunl ight ex p osure for sati sfactor y growth  (per sonal comm unicati on, Tara More au, 2009) . Even thou gh all plants have different sun, wate r and food requirements, the y also have man y dive rse  cult ivars (varieti es) of each species so that crop yi elds are max im iz ed under var yin g condit ions  (per sonal comm unicati on, Tara Moreau, 2009) . The mo st important tas k is to carr y out crop rotati on, ever y thre e yea rs ,  bec aus e it helps minim iz e buil d - up of s oil - borne inse cts and diseases, and pr events n utrient depletion of th e soil  (personal comm unicati o n, Tara More au, 2009) . To maintain a stable ec os ystem for roo ftop gar dens, increas ed bi odiversit y of plants is vit al  (personal comm unicati on, Tara Moreau, 200 9 ) . Compan ion plantati ons shoul d also be looked int o, bec ause th e y enhan ce the div ersit y by providi n g alt ernate fo od and shelter sourc es for insects, birds and anim als  (personal comm unic ati on, Tara Mor eau, 20 09) . Square foot gardenin g (SFG) can be ad apted fo r rooftop ga rdenin g pu rp oses ,  as well as gardenin g in confined  and small spac es on rooftops  (personal comm unicati on, Tara Moreau, 2009) . Square foot ga rdenin g is based on a series of 12 inches b y 12 i nches square s , fo r a tot al area of 1 squar e foot; e a ch  square can hold  a diff ere nt t ype of vegetable or herb  (person al communi cat ion, Tara Mor eau, 2009) .   18  The feasibi li t y of roo fto p gard ens does not dep end solel y on the crops, its ecos ystem, and farmin g methods, but also on the infrastructure of the buil dings . Reali z ing thi s crucial factor, an  int er view with J oe Stott, d irector of th e UB C Campus and Comm unit y Planning, has also been conducted.  He emphasiz es t he importan ce of th e  building’s infr astructu re becaus e that determi nes whether or not the rooftops can support the load of soil , plants, and the amount of water the pla nts and soil holds . Rooftop gard ens also strike him as a feasibl e noti on , be cause the Rose Gard en at UBC is buil t on top of a parking lot  (personal comm unicati on, J oe Stot t, 2009). Howeve r, a pprox im atel y 437 buil dings at UBC hav e been  buil t in the 1920s, and the y are not const ru cted to support rain or snow load (personal comm unicati on, J oe Stot t, 2009). Furthermor e, these bui ldi ngs have not be en  buil t accordin g to safet y guidelines  and buil din g code s that  all o w publi c oc cu panc y on rooftops  (pers onal comm unicati on, J oe Stot t, 2009). Ther e a re also no emer gen c y ex it plans or maps from the rooftop t o a safe lo cati on fo r thes e buil dings, and henc e it is not reasonable to retro - fit old buil dings (pe rson al comm unicati on, J oe Stott , 2009).  Therefo re, if rooftop gardens are  to be buil t, it is  appropriate to propose the id ea to new buil ding const ru cti ons such as the new Student Union Buil din g (SU B). A rooftop gard en at the centre of the curr ent SUB (pati o - li ke spac e on se cond floor with gr eens and fountain) can be consi de red for modi ficati ons to support a rooftop ga rden . It is  also a great space for increasin g awa reness abo ut rooftop ga rdens, and s erve s  as a demons trati on for edu cati onal pu rposes as well (personal comm uni cati on, Tara Mo reau, 20 09).  The one major obje cti on rooftop gardens fa ce is the budget set fo r a buil ding (personal comm unicati on, J oe Stot t, 2009). Archit e cts be gin with concepts, and their conc epts are reali z ed b y con trac tors who refine their drawin gs. Th en, en gin e ers incorporate ele ctrical fea tures and evaluate the sa fet y of th e buil ding for publi c occupan c y (p erso nal comm unicati on, J oe Stott, 2009).  Throu gh ea ch st age, as the conc ept of a buil ding becomes a tan gi ble infrastructur e, cost s inc rease greatl y (personal comm unicati on, J oe Stot t, 2009). Due to  limi ted funding, ev en if ther e is an y mon e y left over, th e y will be spent on indoo r structures , like improvi ng classrooms, labs and of fices (personal comm un icati on, J oe Stott, 2009). In s pit e of that, there are  19  alwa ys diffe rent methods to account for fundin g, such as students raisi ng funds to permit landscap ing on arable land nex t to  the buildi ng, and  for  rooftop ga rdenin g.  2.4.3. Appropriateness: calculating and offsetting the food miles  Whil e evidence seems t o show it is possi ble to const ruct rooftop ga rden s at UBC to incre ase local food producti on, research has also been con ducted to determi ne wh e ther these acti ons will help lower GHG emi ssi ons. We have chosen one cro p, potato, as a mod el to evaluate the emi ssi ons that are associated wit h its transp ortation to campus for co nsum pti on.  UBC Food Se rvices 200 8 Potato Usage ¹  45,371 pounds = 20.58 metric tons  Potatoes are most l y brou ght from Washin gton (25 0  km) on 5 ton diesel trucks and some from the Low er Mainl and (25  km) .  Using the Washington distances and Leopold’s center method for calculati on, we are able to calculate the amount of CO2, as found in Bentley & Barker’s “Fighting Global Warming at the Farmer’s Market” ( 2005).  Weight (in tone s) * dist a nce trav eled (in km) = (Ton - km)  Emissi on factor for tru ck s = 207 g of CO 2 /t on - km (Bentl e y & Barker, 2005 )  Ton - km * Emi ssi on f actor (g of CO 2 /t on - km) = gr ams of CO 2  20.58 tons * 250  km = 5145 Ton - km  5145 Ton - km *207 (gra ms of CO 2 /Ton - km) = 1065015  gr ams CO 2  = 1,065.015 kg of CO 2  So, 45,371 pounds of potatoes from Washington, deli vered in one trip, emi ts= 1,065.015 kg CO 2   ¹Calculations are done in conjunction wit h AGS C 450, Group 5, 2009.  Rooftop Garden Potato Producti on  As provided wit h the UBC Fo od Services, the esti mated area of the Plac e Vanier Comm onsbl ock (PVC), where a rooftop garden has on ce been cons idered, is rou ghl y 250 m 2 .  1.  Find the yi eld from a gar den of potatoes of that si z e, using the ave ra ge yea rl y statis ti cs of the YWCA gard en b y Ted  C athcart:  250 m 2  of PVC * (0.450 tons of potatoes each ye a r / 650 m 2  of YWCA rooftop area)  = 0.256 tons of ave ra ge yield of potatoes at PVC rooftop ga rden  2.  C alculate the amount of CO 2  saved based on the locali z ati on of the food source  0.256 tons * 250 km ( distance of closest importer of potatoes) = 64 ton - km  64 ton - km * 207 g of CO 2 /t on - km = 0.013 ton of CO 2  or 1.22% CO 2  saved  Hence, to replac e all pota to imports at the UBC - V ancouver campus , via ro oftop ga rdenin g:  100/1.22 = 82 rooftop ga rdens  ar e need ed (at  the siz e of Place Vanie r Comm onsbl ock)  Based on the abov e calc ulation, it is evident that one rooftop ga rden will make a ver y small contribut ion to saving greenhouse gas emi ssi ons from transportati on. Furthermore, it is evident that  20  UBC cannot support 82 rooftop ga rdens; we dou bt there are that man y roofs on campus ! Wit h that being said, thi s cal culation effe cti vel y qu anti fies the amount of CO 2  that can be saved from locali z ing the food s ystem. We hope that thi s ma y pro mpt the UBC farm to conti nue to ex pan d its food producti on s ystems and conti nue to bui ld stronger relations hip wit h UBC fo od outl ets.  Rooftop gard ens requi re a lot of oversi ght and mana gement, which shoul d not be underesti mated. The ma nagement of one rooftop ga rden is ver y compl icated, so th e mana gem en t of mul ti ple gardens will req uire a lot of coll aborati on and labour. As the calculati on concludes, it is onl y with 82 full y - functi onal rooftop gard ens of rou ghl y 250 m2 plot s that UBC will become potato self -sufficient. It seems alm ost impos sib le to int roduce that man y gardens  The cal culations have been cali brated to a one - t im e, one - wa y t rip by on e truck, wh en that is obviously not the case. Trucks make several trips to and from the exporter’s processing plant (W ashington, in thi s case), which i ncr eases the amount of greenhouse gas emi ssi ons; these trips have not been quanti fied in ou r calcul ati ons. There fore, 45, 371 pounds of potat oes to UBC emi t more than 1.2 tons of CO2. More ca lculati ons and rese arch s hould be done to reali sti c all y quanti f y  Potatoes were eff ecti vel y chosen be cause of their popularit y in UBC Food Services kit chens. In fact, UBC Food Servi ces repo rts that it uses 45,371 pound of potatoes ever y ye ar (pers onal comm unicati on, UBC Food Services, 2009 ). Potato was used in these ca l culations because of (i ) its easiness to gro w in the Lower Frase r Vall e y cli ma te, (ii) the widel y av ail ab le literature on its yield and (iii) its abil it y to grow under a variet y of condit i ons. Meanwhile, the gro up understands that potatoes are not the onl y  crops i mported to our campus . Other crops ar e probabl y imported at a large r volum e and at gr eater dist anc e. More rese arch ne eds to be done to identif y those crops and to calculate their food miles.  2.4.4. Potential Barriers, Challenges and Uncertainties W it h all the benefits, there are s ev eral problems that ex ist  when consi dering rooftop gard ening. The first and foremost is the iss ue of wei ght. Roof tops have a wei ght restri cti on that sever el y limi ts the  21  types of foods that can be feasibl y planted. Fo r ex a mpl e, planning heav y, wate r - dens e foods such as potatoes and car rots does not opti miz e the use of the limi ted space of rooftop gardens (p ers onal comm unicati on, Ted Cathcart, 2009).  To  max imi z e sust ainabilit y, the t yp es of foods planted on rooftops need to be in su fficient quanti t y as to replace the food normall y transported to the univer sit y via trucks. Fo r ex ampl e, potatoes and comm on sa lad gr eens shoul d not be planted bec ause ev en if t he enti re ga rden spa ce is  devoted to growin g on e such ingredient, it ca n n ot replac e the la r ge vol ume needed  in our food s ystem. The same food will  sti ll have to be imported at lower quanti ti es, which does not make economi c sense consi derin g volu me discounted prices (p ersonal comm unicati on, Ted Cathcart, 2009). Instead, roofto p gard en resou rces shoul d be devoted to gr owing foods in low dem and, or low consum pti on , like  herbs and spices. The se plants are not heav y, are not consum ed in high quanti ti es ,  and the food s ystem will not be thr ea tened in an ev ent of gar den fail ure. Th e g ro wing o f aromati c herbs and spice s also has the effect of max im iz ing food quali t y. Replacing bulk shipp ed herbs and spices with fr esh vari et y yields mor e bene fit than doing the same wit h a staple crop  like potatoes.  The second limi tation of rooftop ga rde nin g is siz e. Crops chosen for growing on rooftops shoul d take up as less horiz ontal gard en spac e as possi ble. Squash ma y be an ideal food for gro wing locall y bec ause it easil y replac es an y impo rt of it on campus , but it takes up too much sp ace on t he plot s to be feasibl e. To  max im iz e food producti on, crops  shoul d take up less space, such as berries that has vines growin g over t he planter’s ed ge, or pol e beans and tom atoes that grow ve rticall y (perso nal comm unicati on, Ted C a thcart, 2009). Vines ca n be grown  around ver ti cal supports to max im iz e ga rdenin g spa ce (p ersona l communi cati on, Ted Cathcart, 2009).  The final limi tation of ed ibl e landscap es is that of social problems. Th e YW CA rooftop gard ens have been mad e as acce ssi ble to the publi c as possi ble. Howev er, Ted understands the iss ue of t heft and vandali sm if edibl e landscapes are pla ced i n locati ons that are too publi c. This iss ue is easil y solved if the gardens ar e plac ed on rooftops; the y can easil y be se cure d, restricted, and moni t ored (personal comm un ic ati on, Ted Cathcart, 2009). Id eall y, howev er, edibl e landscap es shoul d not be  22  limi ted to onl y rooftops. Ted Cathca rt  (2009) , a former student of UBC’s agricultural sciences faculty, comm ents that if edibl e landscapes are to succe e d, ever y moder atel y siz e d patch of lawn shoul d be replac ed with garden sp ace ,  starti n g  with the en ti re median of main mall being conv erted to edi ble landscape s .   Part III: Recommendations 3.1 UBC Sustainability Office  R esearch and dev elop lit eratur e on carbon sequest rati on const a nts for ve get able crops, in an effort to unde rstand how the y ma y pl a y a role in achieving carbon neutrali t y . Du ring th e resea rch and calcul ati ons made for thi s proje ct, it became evident that ac ad emi c literature was ver y spars e on the capabi li t y of veget at ion and soil s to sequester carbon. Th is could pla y an important role in underst anding the relations hip o f urban ga rdens and emi tt ed carbon.  3.2 UBC Food Services & AMS Food and Beverage Department  W e urge  AMS F&BD an d UBC FS to bui ld busi ness connecti ons w it h co mm unit y garden . If comm unit y and roo ftop gardens will make an y impact in our fi ght to reduc e food miles, and bring UBC be yond carbo n neutral, food wil l have to be purchas ed locall y – strong loc al connecti ons will ensure viable and sust ainable bus iness .  3.3 UBC Waste Management  Again, we stress the imp ortance of stron g comm u nit y linka ges. C omm unit y ga rdens , esp eciall y as the y develop, wil l req uire plent y of support. We recomm end th at Wa s te Mana gement connect s  with eme r ging ga rdens to make its comp ost an d rich soil more av ail able to thos e who are int er ested.   23  3.5 UBC Farm  UBC fa rm should also be leading th e push for com muni t y gardenin g. Wit h its ex pertise and abil it y to acquir e fa rming materials, we recomm en d that the farm mak es itself avail able to p rovid e fertili z er, worksh ops and gardenin g mat eri al and ex pertise to the developm ent of edibl e landscapes .   W e also recomm end that the farm unde r go new an d enti cing proj ects on co mm unit y and rooftop garde ning, all owing comm unit y members to learn from the projec ts .  3.6 Campus and Community Planning  Edibl e landscapes can be included int o future plan ning of the UBC and co mm unit y.  Whil e vast developm ent of campus buil dings and housi ngs are happenin g, gardenin g sit es can be incorporated into these projects. All bui ldi ngs in the campus could  be insp ected and s couted for suit able future sit es of ro of top ga rdens  and contai ner gard ens .    P otential rooftop ga rden at SUB  also serv es as an educati on al  tool for those who are un fami li ar with rooftop gardens, sin ce it is mor e visi ble to the public and thi s could mini mi z e vandali sm (personal communi c ati on, Tara Mor eau, 2009 ).    Fresh p roduce booth at the SUB with crops from t he potential SUB rooftop ga rden (p ersonal comm unicati on, Tara Mo reau, 2009).   3.7 AGSC 450 2010 colleagues  It is evident that on e gard en makes ve r y litt le impact on the cli mate acti on plan for UBC, therefor e we recomm end resea rchin g for mo re wh olesome approa ches. Whether lar ge - sc ale ex pansion of comm unit y ga rdenin g alon gside roo f top gard enin g or a push for  more food producti on from local agricultural fields, ie. The UBC farm.   W e recomm end fo cusing on crops that sequeste r high amount s of carbon. During the project, and in coordination wit h group 5, rese arch was do ne to attempt to compare crops based on th e  24  a mount of carbon th e y co uld sequester. Ver y litt le acad emi c literature could be found. Meanwhile, this informat ion would be incredibl y useful as it could serve to isol ate crops for ga rden - campus use; hold ing emi tt ed ca rbon in the se gardens.   W e also recomm e nd fu rther res ear ch and emphasis be placed tow ards crop s that originate from far distanc es. Potatoes arrive weekl y from Washington state, but we beli eve that crops comm onl y imported fro m Asia or Sout h America could be tar get ed for sus tainable and environme ntall y - fri endl y on - campus growth. We do not recomm end growi ng ban anas in hot houses at our campus , in an att empt to locali z e their producti on. Rather, we recomm end resea rchin g int o the grow ing patt erns and condit io ns of imported ve getable s to see if those could be grown loc all y, reducin g the carbon footp rint of these foods and th e enti re campus food s ystem.   C learl y, mor e calculati on s need to be done. We recogniz e that these calcul ati ons are basic and ver y inconsequ enti al bec ause of the man y in accu r acies. Fo r ex ampl e, we di d not consider the infusion of infrastructur e for the buildi ng mat erial s and fertili z ers for a new rooftop garde n, litt le lit erature was found concernin g the sequestr a ti on of carbon b y soil an d food, and man y inaccur acies lie in the av era ge  yi eld of vegetables (potatoes in BC) or th e release of carbon from diesel trucks (s ee emi ssi on factor) .    On this note, we recomm end rese arch on ene r g y s aving thanks to roo ftop gardenin g. Heat rises and will usuall y ex it through roo ftops. The pr esen ce of a  gard en ma y inhi bit and trap heat withi n buil dings saving ener g y bil ls and GHG emi ssi ons due to heati ng.  Fu ture coll ea gu es could impl ement these re sult s in the aforemention ed calcul ati ons and enco ura ge the Univ ersit y to fund and support rooft op ga rdenin g.    25  Conclusion  The incr easin g con cern of GHG emi ssi on s is prompt ing Universiti es acr oss the world to joi n hands with mot ivated st udents, environmental associati ons and impli cat ed facult y membe rs in an att empt to all eviate the effects of cli mate chan ge. Univ ersiti es, like UBC, are to be coll ecti ve models for our societ y and at t he for efront of the pus h towards ca rbon. Alth ough th e earl y rese ar ch and calculati ons made in thi s project are sketch y an d somewhat inconclusi ve, the project concludes the rooftop gard ening is an opportunit y to give the co mm unit y an important le arning tool , alt hough it ma y not yet be the most effe c ti ve means of contribut ing to UBC 's visi on of going be yond cli mate neu tral. Conclusi vel y, i t was fo und that the buil ding of  edibl e lands cap es  at UBC  is enti rel y possi ble. Meanwhile,  b uil dings wo uld have to be  inspe cted to ensure that the y are su it able for edibl e l andscap es, and much  time, fundin g , maintenance and volu nteers would hav e make themselves avail able.  This project has outl ined th e s te ps and ne cessa r y condi ti ons that would all ow a rooftop gard en to be cr ea ted on campus . Again, our earl y calculati ons prompt us to thi nk that rooftop (and comm unit y) gard eni ng ma y not be helpful in the push towards carbon ne utrali t y, yet we emph asiz e that o ur calculati ons ha ve evidentl y le ft out important factors and condit ions and further rese ar ch need s to be done.           26  References Adams, T. All yn, H., B yl and, M., Gosset, L., Hol mes, E., St. J ules, D., & Zach, J . (2008). The UBC Food S ystem and Gre enh ouse  Gas Emi ssi ons: A summ ar y report of th e fin dings from the 2008 UBC Food S ystem Proje ct. UBC Sustainabil it y Office & Facult y of Land and Food S ystems.  AGS C 450, Group 12. (2 007). UBC Food S ystem s Project. Unpubli shed manuscript. Universit y of  Britis h Col um bia, Vanco uver, BC.  Alberta Agri cult ure and Rural Developm ent. (200 7). Climate change and agriculture.  Retrieved  March 9, 2009, from htt p:/ /www1.agric. gov.ab. ca/ $department/ d eptdocs.ns f/all /cl9706  APP : The Asian Pacific Post.  (2008). UBC numbers rising . Retrieved Mar ch 9, 2009, from  http:/ /74.125.95.132/ search? q=cache:Ot8ce8 N IBP IJ :ww w.asianp acificpost. com/ portal2/ c1ee8 c441c2e940a011 c2edc4 ab 4006c.do.htm l+UBC + res idents+rising&hl=en &ct=clnk& cd=1 &gl= ca  BBC Hom e. (2009). Climate Change: wildlife . R etrieved Ma rch 9, 2009, from htt p:/ /www.bbc.co.uk/clim ate/im pact/ wildl ife.sht ml  Bentley, S., & Barker, R. (2005). Fighting Global Warming at the Farmer’s Market: The Role of Local Food S ys tems in Reduci ng Greenhous e Gas Emi s sions .  Carbon Neutr al Assessment Project. (2004) Unive rsit y of Florida, from  http:/ /www.icbe.com/ abo ut/ uf/documents/ UF_Car bon_Neutral_Assessment _P roject.pdf  Environmental Issues.  (2 009). What are greenhouse gases? Retri eved M ar ch 9, 2009, from  http:/ /environment.about.com/od/ faqglob alwarmin g/f/ gr een gas es.ht m  FOT F: F riends o f the UBC Farm. (2008 ). Food Security. Retrieved Ma rch 9, 2009, fr om htt p:/ /www.ams.ub c.ca/c lubs/ friendsubcfa rm/S it e/Home.html  IPCC .  (2007). Cli mate Change 2007: S ynthesis R eport. Cont ributi on of Working Groups I, II and III to the Fourth Assessme nt R eport of the Inte r govern mental Panel of Clim ate Change  [Core Writing Team, Pachau ri, R.K. an d Reisi nger, A. (eds.)] . IPC C , Geneva Switz erland, 104 pp.   27  NOAA Satelli te and In fo rmati on Service. (2008 ). National climatic data center. Retrieved Mar ch  9, 20 09, from htt p:/ /www.ncdc.noa a. gov/oa/ncd c .htm l  Nierenbe r g, D. (2005 ). Happier meals: rethinking the global meat industry. Worldwatch paper 171. Worldwatch Institute . Re trieved Mar ch 9, 2009, fr om htt p:/ /www.worldwatch. org/pubs /pap er/171  Richer, L., Roj as, A., & project partn ers. (2009). UBC Food S ystem Proje ct (UBC FS P ) VI: Scena rio 1. Universit y of Briti sh Columbi a, Vancouve r, BC.  The Urban Fa rme r.  (200 5).  Edibl e Landsc aping.  Retrieved Mar ch 31, 20 09, from htt p:/ /www.theurbanfarm er.ca/ edibl e_landscapin g. htm l .  The Charter - human - r esp onsi bil it ies (2007) Universit y Poli c y Aims to  Become ’Climate Neutral’ Insti tut ion. Retrieved Ma rch 15, 2009 from  http:/ /www.charter - hum a n - responsi bil it ies.net/ spip.p hp? article1408  UBC Farm. (2008 ). UBC Farm – working vision document . Retriev ed Mar c h 9, 2009, from htt p:/ /www.landfood.ubc.ca/ubcf arm/vi sion.p hp  UBCS H: UBC Sustainab le Home. (2008). Sustainability Office . Retrieved March 9, 2009, from htt p:/ /www.sust ain.ubc.ca/  W alker, C. (2008). Hope sprouts for UBC farm . Retrieved Ma rch 9, 2009, from   http:/ /t het ye e.ca/N ews/2 008/07/ 28/UBC Farm/   

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