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UBC food processing facility Yu, Richmond; Liu, Li Nan; Sundell, David; Saad, Radwa; Ho, Peony 2011-04-08

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UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student ReportUBC Food Processing FacilityRichmond YuLi Nan LiuDavid SundellRadwa SaadPeony HoUniversity of British ColumbiaLFS 450April 8, 2011Disclaimer: “UBC SEEDS provides students with the opportunity to share the findings of their studies, as well as their opinions,conclusions and recommendations with the UBC community. The reader should bear in mind that this is a student project/report andis not an official document of UBC. Furthermore readers should bear in mind that these reports may not reflect the current status ofactivities at UBC. We urge you to contact the research persons mentioned in a report or the SEEDS Coordinator about the currentstatus of the subject matter of a project/report”.UBCFSP PROJECTScenario 7: UBC FoodProcessing FacilityLFS 450: Group 10Richmond Yu, Li Nan Liu, David Sundell, Radwa Saad, Peony Ho4/8/2011Table of ContentsUBC Farm Pilot Food Processing Center ..................................................................................................... 4Methodology ................................................................................................................................................. 4Problem Statement ........................................................................................................................................ 5Findings ........................................................................................................................................................ 6Literature Review on Different Campus Initiatives .................................................................................. 6Cornell University - Wine & Beer ........................................................................................................ 6Michigan State University- Fruits & Vegetables .................................................................................. 6University of Minnesota- Dairy ............................................................................................................ 7Needs Assessment..................................................................................................................................... 8Equipment & Machinery........................................................................................................................... 9Cheese ................................................................................................................................................. 10Juice .................................................................................................................................................... 10Freezing............................................................................................................................................... 10Food Safety: Certification and Inspection .............................................................................................. 11Discussion................................................................................................................................................... 12Triple Bottom Line Analysis .................................................................................................................. 12Environmental..................................................................................................................................... 12Economic ............................................................................................................................................ 13Social................................................................................................................................................... 15Recommendations....................................................................................................................................... 16Incorporation into Academics................................................................................................................. 16Workshops & Labs ............................................................................................................................. 17Community Kitchen Feasibility .......................................................................................................... 17Food Safety Workshop........................................................................................................................ 18Building Plans..................................................................................................................................... 19Conclusion .................................................................................................................................................. 19Appendices:................................................................................................................................................. 20Appendix A:............................................................................................................................................ 21Appendix B ............................................................................................................................................. 22Appendix C ............................................................................................................................................. 23Appendix D............................................................................................................................................. 24Appendix E ............................................................................................................................................. 25Compiled product needs of AMS food services ................................................................................. 25References................................................................................................................................................... 26AbstractThis paper’s objective is to design a food processing facility as well as assess thefeasibility of a UBC Farm food processing facility. We conducted a literature review tofind example on-campus food processing initiatives and food safety certificationrequirements, developed a needs assessment through interviews with our stakeholders,and designed a sample building plan. From our findings, we recommended start-upoperations focusing on three processes: cheese making, juicing, and freezing. Based ona triple bottom-line analysis, an analysis of a project’s economic, environmental, andsocial components, we concluded that it would be feasible to begin with therecommended three food processes. Key rationale for our decisions is the availability oflocal supply. A source for cheese and juice ingredients are abundant in the lowermainland and reduces the emissions and cost of transport is smaller relative to otherfood processes. To conclude, we recommend a study to determine the interest of otherfaculties in having a stake a UBC Farm processing facility. Educational opportunitiesfor providing such a facility are vast and open collaboration with other faculties canonly help this facility.UBC Farm Pilot Food Processing CenterThe UBC Food System Project has determined that the lack of locally grown and processed foodis a major barrier to local food security and food system sustainability. As such, the Center forSustainable Food Systems - UBC Farm has identified a pilot food processing center as an importantcomponent of the future Farm Center. In preparation for the pilot food processing center, the CampusSustainability Office’s UBC Climate Action Plan and LFS Community members have expressed interestin better understanding the potential benefits and challenges of on-campus food production. Manyquestions have been raised surrounding the actual environmental impact, economic feasibility, costs andpotential benefits, as well as the social costs of this proposed facility.MethodologyTo answer these questions, our main objective is to assess the feasibility of a pilot foodprocessing facility at the future UBC Farm Center. In order to do this, we have developed an outline:• To conduct a literature review of other universities that have food processing facilities on site. Assessthe strengths and weakness of each university’s facilities and how we can implement this into our system.This is to gain a better understanding of what is required in a food processing facility and to see how otheruniversities in similar situations to ours have gone about tackling the needs of such an undertaking.• To perform a needs assessment through discussions with project stakeholders. This is to ensure thatthe people who have the greatest stake in the facility will have a say in what will be produced. Also, thisgives us an opportunity to garner some of their expert opinions on what we can produce based on what wehave available and what we, as a university, want to produce.• To conduct a literature review of the different types of food processing methods and equipmentnecessary for a pilot project. We decided to learn more about the different types of food processingmethods so that we could gain a better understanding of what we could do at the farm in terms of valueadded products, as well as the types of machinery required for the processes that we decide to incorporate.• To design a pilot food processing facility based on discussions with stakeholders and compiledliterature reviews. Then, to use triple bottom line analysis to explore the economic, social andenvironmental impacts of the designed food processing facility. This is where we tie everything we havelearned together into the final concept for the processing facility. We use the triple bottom line analysis todetermine whether or not this facility is feasible based on its social, economic and environmentalsustainability.Problem StatementWe have been tasked with assessing the feasibility of a pilot food processing facility at the futureUBC Farm Center. Our main goal is to design and determine the requirements for a viable pilot foodprocessing facility while taking into account the needs of the UBC campus community.The current productivity level of the UBC Farm provides various produce for consumers both onand off-campus. Most of the produce are perishable and sold during the summer months at the UBC FarmMarket. In order to prolong the availability of produce supply for consumers as well as increase thevarieties, a food processing facility would be required. The facility could also provide service for farmersin the lower mainland who are interested in processing their produce for a fee.FindingsLiterature Review on Different Campus InitiativesSimilar on-campus food processing initiatives were researched to provide us with a frame ofreference to begin our assessment. Existing processing facilities at Cornell University, Michigan StateUniversity and the University of Minnesota were studied because of their different production processesand objectives of their extension facilities.Cornell University - Wine & Beer Types of production: Wine and Beer production Facility Characteristicso Pilot plant facilityo Lab utilities are made to allow for the ease of movement of processing equipment. Objectives of Facilityo Student research projects on industrial-scale equipmento To provide a space for equipment manufacturers and distributors to demonstratenew equipment. Rental fees are paid for any tests/small production done at thelab.Michigan State University- Fruits & Vegetables Types of production: Fruits and Vegetables processing Facility Characteristicso Facility is approximately 4000 sq. Feet Small-scale equipmento Facility is flexible and deals with quality, storage, processing, marketing,distribution, safety and consumption of food crops. Objectives of Facilityo Researchers conduct basic and applied research in various areas of processed foodo Collaborate with various groups including growers, processors and relevantgovernment agencies through research projects completed in the facility.o Provide space for equipment manufacturers and distributors to demonstrate newequipment. Rental fees are paid for any tests/small production done at the lab.University of Minnesota- Dairy Type of production: Dairy processing Facility Characteristicso Certified and inspected by the State of Minnesota as a food production facility. Objectives of Facilityo Products processed and developed are used for market research as well as asource of revenue for the university.o Consultation and assistance in development of novel processes and productso Evaluation and analysis of samples or prototype products.Needs AssessmentAfter consulting with potential stakeholders and members of the UBC community andconducting a needs assessment, we were able to compile a list of types of products this facilitywould provide and the possible benefits of such a facility.One of our stakeholders, Jay Baker-French, believed that an on-campus processingfacility would be beneficial in its modelling of a real food system for students and thecommunity. It would also increase demand for local food processing. However, the UBC Farmand Orchard Garden would not be able to supply all the raw produce that the processing centerwill need. This is due to the fact that the primary focus of the farm and the garden is on studentengagement while production is considered secondary. Agora receives many of its products fromthe UBC farm and volunteers are in charge of processing, namely freezing and packaging.According to the manager, Alvin Tejuco, if Agora is one of the stakeholders, a processingfacility would allow it to receive a bigger variety and volume of produce from the farm andorchard garden. Several of our stakeholders suggested that the facility not be limited to just afood processing plant, but also be used for educational purposes. The processing facility can hoststudents from different faculties to take part in workshops and learning activities that will add totheir learning experience. For example, the FNH 200 curriculum involves a thorough discussionon processing techniques such as canning and freezing. A visit to the processing facility to seethese techniques and equipment first-hand would show students how these methods are used inreal-life settings. The food produced by the processing facility could potentially be sold to AMSfood outlets and also at the Saturday Farmers’ Markets to make profit. The processing facilitycan be divided into separate sections which can include an area used for machinery, one to beused as a community kitchen and learning station and one for storage of food products.Another stakeholder recommended food processing that is in harmony with UBC's goalfor sustainability. He suggested we focus our efforts on canning and freezing to preserve fruitand vegetables. During the harvesting season, a company called “Discovery Organic Produce”provides a large amount of affordable produce from which the processing facility can benefit.Equipment on wheels was highly suggested for ease of mobility and cleaning. We were steeredaway from the idea of having a brewery due to the requirement of a liquor licence and the factthat the new sub has plans for a small-scale brewery.We looked into the supply needs of AMS food outlets including Bernoulli’s Bagels,Bluechip, Agora, the Pendulum and Pie R² to get an idea of the types of processed foods theywould need from the pilot food processing facility. We arrived at the conclusion that cheese,juice, dried and frozen fruit as well as soy milk and tofu are in highest demand.Based on our needs assessment, we recommend the following food processes: cheesemaking, juicing and freezing. We will further evaluate these three processes based on the triplebottom line assessment later on in the report.Equipment & MachineryThe processing facility will start with cheese, juice processing and freezing. As shown inAppendix E, these three products are of highest demand by almost all the UBC food outlets atthe moment. As the budget, scale and expertise level grow, different processing equipment canbe added, allowing for more processed foods to be made. Eventually, the processing facilityshould be equipped to make wine, canned foods, tofu, and soy milk, and be capable of differenttypes of tomato processing methods (i.e. crushed tomatoes and tomato paste).CheeseA large tub-like vat is needed for curd making which involves the addition of rennet oracid to milk to cause coagulation. The vats of curdled milk are cut horizontally and verticallyusing sharp, multi-bladed, wire knives that look like oven racks. As the curds and whey separate,the whey is drained. The leftover curds are pressed into a block, cut into pieces and placed into acheese mould. Following the cutting and separating process, curds are heated to further theseparation. The Tetra Tebel Casomatic SC 7, pictured in Appendix D, is fully automatic and isable to drain whey, press curds, form cheese blocks and fill moulds, all in a sequence.Moisture must then be removed from the curds by pressing and applying pressure. Rate ofpressing and amount of pressure depends on the type of cheese that is being made. Cheese is thensalted and the salted curds are fused together under a vacuum to form cheese blocks.JuiceA Belt Press Filter is needed for the dewatering process of juice production. For smallerscale juice production, a Juice Screw Extractor can be used. This machine is smaller than theBelt Press Filter and therefore produces less juice. The Juice Screw Extractor can produce about0.5-1.5 tonnes of juice an hour while the Belt Press Filter produces 2.5-10 tonnes an hourdepending on the size of the machine. See Appendix D for pictures of both machines.A Bottle Overturn Sterilizer is needed to sterilize juice bottles and transfer them to acooling tunnel. A bottling machine will also be needed to package the juice into recyclable glassbottles which can be returned to the processing facility once used. A Vacuum Degasser isnecessary in fruit juice production to ensure juice is purified and to prevent the juice from beingoxidized, thereby extending its shelf-life.FreezingA blast freezer would be the best choice to serve the purpose of freezing fruits andvegetables. These freezers are intended to bring the temperature of foods down at a very fast rate,thereby maintaining their quality and texture. Once the food has been frozen in a blast freezer, itcan be moved to a walk-in freezer for storage and still maintain its quality.The intense cold that the food is exposed to inhibits microbial growth and therefore, if thefood is immediately transferred to a freezer, storage life is extended and contamination isavoided.Food Safety: Certification and InspectionRecent food safety incidences such as the listeria outbreak have led to consumer demandfor food safety assurances from processors. The Hazard Analysis & Critical Control Points(HACCP) system is one method of improving the food safety of processed products. HACCP hasbecome a universally recognized and accepted method for food safety and inspection.The World Health Organization (WHO) has recognized the importance of HACCPsystems for prevention of foodborne diseases for over 30 years and has played an important rolein its development and promotion. Codes Guidelines for the Application of HACCP system havebeen adopted by the FAO/WHO Codex Alimentarius Commission. All relevant Codes ofHygienic Practice include HACCP Principles, including the Codex Code on General Principlesof Food Hygiene. The Codes Guidelines play a crucial role in the international harmonization ofthe application of the Codex system. Codex standards, guidelines (including the Guidelines forthe Application of HACCP system) and recommendations constitute the reference for food safetyrequirements in international trade.Although HACCP systems are not yet required, many food processors are beginning toimplement these systems into their production processes. HACCP certification acts as anassurance scheme for consumers. There are two ways to be food safety certified: usinginternational food safety standards set by the International Standards Organization i.e. ISO 22000or Global Food Safety Initiative (GFSI) or using domestically acknowledged assurance schemessuch as the BC HACCP system. For our food processing center’s objectives, internationalassurance schemes are considered unnecessary because of our focus on providing products to thelocal community. Our most likely option is to get certified by BC HACCP. Implementing aHACCP system will qualify us for funding provided by the Government’s Food Safety Initiative(FSI) program. Appendix B includes a link to the BC Food Safety Initiative website and a list ofcontacts to discuss HACCP procedures and certification of the food processing facility.DiscussionTriple Bottom Line AnalysisEnvironmentalOne of the main goals of the UBCFSP is to identify barriers that arise in the transitiontowards a sustainable food system and to address them through project implementation. One ofthe barriers that may arise with a pilot food processing facility is the unfavourable impact it mayhave on the environment. In order for our processing facility to be feasible it has to have a verylow impact on the environment. Otherwise, it will not be able to continue its production withoutnegatively affecting the quality of the inputs from the farm used in the production process.Another main goal of the university is to be sustainable, and negatively affecting the surroundingenvironment is anything but sustainable. Therefore, we need to minimize any negative effects ofthe processing facility and if possible, increase the positive effects.One of the areas of concern when dealing with this facility is the increased energyconsumption that is unavoidable when dealing with processing. Even without equipment, thefacility will be drawing more energy simply by keeping the lights on and heating the facility forthe comfort of the workers. With the equipment, we need to consider the increased energyconsumption caused by the machinery for freezing, juicing, and especially refrigeration ofproducts prior to distribution. There are several methods to off-set the environmental cost, suchas solar panels to collect energy to reduce the draw of power from the grid, or an undergroundrefrigeration unit since it is naturally cooler and will thus require less energy to lower thetemperature.With the processing of vegetables and fruits there is the possibility of excess waste frompeeling and cutting etc. With the farm being in close proximity to the processing facility, organicwaste from the facility can be used as compost material to benefit the growth of future plants.The excess waste from any packaging that is done at the facility however is unlikely to be usefulin any composting initiatives unless we use biodegradable options.Cleaning the fruits and vegetables has the potential to increase the water usage of thefacility. However, if we collect the water after it is used to clean the vegetables and fruit we canthen use it to feed other plants on the farm along with any nutrients and biomass that comes offthe plants through the process of cleaning.The transportation of the goods may increase the transportation costs of the farm andfarm-related outlets. The reduced transport costs of people buying local food will hopefullyoffset the overall transport emission costs.EconomicAs part of the triple bottom line analysis, the existence of the future processing centerdepends on its ability to satisfy economic requirements. In order for the processing center to beself-sufficient it must at least break even. The cost of operating the processing center includespurchase of raw food supplies not available at the farm, transportation, equipment, maintenanceof the facility, sanitation, employee salaries, and personnel training. The processing center willadd value to products obtained from the UBC farm.Demand and SupplyBased on our findings on availability of supply and consumer demand, the food processeswe chose would be the ideal for the processing facility’s start up production.CheeseMilk supply is readily available through our Agassiz dairy research centre as well asthrough outsourcing from local dairy production facilities (i.e. Kitzel Farm). Referring toappendix E, a large number of AMS food service outlets require cheese as an ingredient for theirfood products.JuicingJuicing can be done for a wide variety of produce harvested from the UBC farm. Localoutsourcing can be done for products such as blueberries, cranberries and other seasonalproducts. Although demand has not been realized yet for juicing production, students may beinterested in buying fresh local juices, provided their quality is comparable to juice products thatare currently offered.Freezing/PreservingFreezing is considered a complement to the above products. It is necessary to maintainsupply of produce past their seasons. Preservation is one way to improve the cost structure of thefacility as well as improve stability of supply of ingredients and processed goods. We are able toprocess goods at volumes greater than demand for the purpose of economies of scale. Storingthese processed products such as blueberry juice would mean we can continue to meet consumerdemand even after the blueberry harvest season.Labour ProductivityAlthough Mason et al.’s study focused on comparisons of productivities across severalEuropean processing facilities, the findings are relevant in evaluating the economic aspects of anon-campus processing center (1994). If one is to produce high value goods, staff and training areessential. We must provide sufficient training for workers and employ staff with expertise invarious disciplines in order to increase productivity and profit. Since we are in a universitysetting, we have the advantage of recruiting staff and students who might provide valuableknowledge to the UBC processing plant project. However, due to the fact that this is a pilotproject, technical advice should be taken from professionals in the food processing industry.Marketing MixWe assessed the economic conditions under the four P’s: price, product, place andpromotion. Price of the value-added products will be based on processing cost plus premium.Premium will be based on a break-even analysis of farm production. Other revenue generatingactivities will be discussed later on. Based on the needs analysis, the products we decided toincorporate in the facility are cheese, juice and frozen foods. Place: Since our market, which isthe UBC community, is within close proximity of our processing facility, an on-campusprocessing facility will decrease logistical and transportation costs for locally sourced products.Demand for the aforementioned products is based on our needs assessment and analysis of UBCfood services and product usage charts. The sales would be promoted under the UBC Farmbrand which would further increase premium and raise awareness among UBC students.SocialWith the new facility, the farm will require more labour, which could serve as anopportunity to increase student involvement at the farm and to encourage more communityinterest. The UBC processing facility could also be used by local farms that are in need ofprocessing for their products. We could either make them partners so that the facility has a largerpool of land to use for inputs or rent out the facility to those local farms to help increase theprofits of the farm.The processing facility could also be used to educate local elementary and high schoolstudents on where their food comes from and what happens to their food from the farm and totheir plate. Educating future generations is one of the basic principles of what a university issupposed to do.Since the facility is a university initiative, it would make sense that research be conductedat the new farm center on new processes and the benefits that come with some of the productsproduced at the facility. Research into future products that the facility may be interested inmaking such as wine would also be a viable undertaking.This project is going to be a part of the University of British Columbia, one of the topuniversities in Canada, and for this reason, the social aspects of it, including research and studentinvolvement should be highlighted as the main alternative uses of the facility. We should have noproblems in finding ways to make this facility socially sustainable.RecommendationsIncorporation into AcademicsMany professors and staff would be interested in being involved in such a facility. Forexample, Dr.Christine H. Scaman is an associate professor in Food Nutrition & Health (FNH) atUBC who believes that having an on-campus food processing facility is very promising. She iscurrently working on projects including Investigation of alpha-Glucosidase I (GluI I),Tyrosine/Phenylalanine Ammonia Lyase (T/PAL) and Tinamou Egg Proteins. She teaches FoodScience courses to both undergraduate as well as graduate students. Dr. Scaman believes thatsuch a facility will be important for educating students, making UBC farm produce available forcampus consumption, and making these types of processing equipment available to the entirecommunity. She suggested the facility be incorporated in the curriculum of some graduatecourses such as FNH 425. This course is comprised of a group of four to five students who studyfood production issues. These students are usually sponsored by companies that have facilitiesthey can use. The facility could also compliment several undergraduate courses. She suggestedthe following processing methods: canning, fermentation, dehydration, wine making and juicing.The facility can also be used across different faculties. For instance, engineering students candesign and build equipment according to the needs of the facility. Commerce students can use the facilityto design business plans and deal with budgeting issues. LFS students can work on waste management forthe facility. Dietetics and food science students can use the facility to experiment with new food products,manipulating nutritional content to test shelf-life among other things.Alternative Uses of the FacilityWorkshops & LabsMembers of the local community could take part in workshops and labs designed bystudents. These workshops would teach people about the UBC farm and how to make differentprocessed foods such cheese, tofu, and frozen fruits and vegetables.Community Kitchen FeasibilityWe evaluated the possibility of including a community kitchen as part of our processingcenter at UBC. Since the UBC farm is working closely with the Aboriginal community, one ofour goals is to determine how a community kitchen on campus would benefit this population.The general health of the Aboriginal population is poor due to low social, economic, andpolitical status (Mundel and Chapmen, 2010). They have a higher risk of developing chronicrespiratory disease, diabetes, obesity, and cardiovascular disease than the rest of Canadianpopulation (Mundel and Chapmen, 2010). Sometimes, vegetables, fruits and herbs grown at theUBC farm are used to prepare meals to serve to underprivileged populations (Mundel andChapmen, 2010). Through the Garden-Community Kitchen project, participants would be giventhe opportunity to cook their own meals and also build supportive social networks with UBCstudents, staff and people like themselves. Their ability to prepare and grow their own foodwould also improve through this type of interactive education. UBC students who participated inthe project were often invited to join in the community dinners, allowing them to enjoy theoutcomes, meet people and see firsthand, how their work benefits their local communities(Mundel and Chapmen, 2010).Food Safety WorkshopThe processing center at UBC farm can also by utilize for students to learn more aboutfood safety. According to a study conducted by Abbot et al. young adults are at a greater risk forfood-borne disease due to improper cooking skills; therefore it is important to develop foodsafety practices through education. In that study more than 100 young adults recruited by anAmerican university participated in a study of food safety practices. Participants prepared a mealunder observation in a controlled laboratory setting and then completed an online surveyassessing food safety knowledge, behaviour and other psychosocial characteristics. Theuniversity students reported positive food safety beliefs and high food safety self-efficacy.However, less than half of participants engaged in safe food handling practices (Abbott et al.,2009). This shows that there is a need to increase awareness of food-borne diseases andknowledge of proper cross-contamination prevention procedures. A food safety workshop at theprocessing facility would accomplish this. Volunteers at the food processing plant can receivefood safety training, enabling them to perform safe kitchen practices. This knowledge not onlyensure that the safe production at the plant, but will also benefit the students on a personal basis.Building PlansRefer to Appendix A for a sample building outline. We propose setting the processingfacility to 10,000 sq feet. This is done to provide the necessary space for the various types ofproduction activities that will be done simultaneously. Furthermore, educational workshops andproduct development would require different spaces so that they will not interfere withproduction and to comply with federal regulations. The building outline provided has optionaladministrative spaces which we will not include.ConclusionAfter careful consideration of the requirements and consequences of introducing an on-campus processing facility, we have concluded that this project is feasible. The most viableoption for a pilot on-campus food production project is one that starts off small in scale andfocuses on two to three processing techniques with the help of students and staff and couldeventually grow into a large-scale multipurpose facility. We decided to start with cheese, juiceand frozen food production since these three processes were in line with the needs of UBC foodoutlets, potential stakeholders and local community members. The facility would ideally be usedas an educational tool in many courses offered at UBC, a place to host workshops and foodsafety courses that can be designed by students and offered to the public, a community kitchenand also as a means of gaining profit through the sale of processed foods. Through the use of atriple bottom line analysis, we were able to assess the environmental, social and economicimpact this facility would have and minimize the negative effects associated with it in order tomake it sustainable in all respects. Vancouver is in need of a refreshing turn in local foodproduction and we believe that UBC, with its goal of achieving a sustainable campus foodsystem, is the best place to implement this project.Appendices:Appendix A: Building OutlineAppendix B: Food Safety ContactsOrganizations Contact Telephone EmailVancouver CoastalHealthVirginia Jorgensen 604-675-6912fsi@vch.caBC Centre fordisease controlSion Shyng (abattoirs & dairyplants only)604-660-0260Sion.Shyng@bccdc.caSmall Scale FoodprocessorManager (Food safety initiativefunding)1-866-473-7372fsi@ssfpa.netVancouver CoastalHealthJasmina Egeler (Regional FoodSafety Coordinator)604-675-3810Jasmina.Egeler@vch.caLinks:Food Safety Initiative: BC HACCP Brochurehttp://www.bccdc.ca/foodhealth/foodguidelines/FoodSafetyInitiative.htmAppendix CProcessing methods (Cheese, juice, tofu, drying, canning, wine, freezing)Processing Technique Machine PriceCheeseLarge Vat $3500 – $13 000Wire Knives $25 - $50Tetra Tebel Casomatic SC 7 N/AJuiceBelt Press Filter $20 000 - $60 000Juice Screw Extractor $1200 - $1500 USDBottle Overturn Sterilizer $10 000 USDVacuum Degasser N/AFreezingBlast freezer $10 000 - $12 000 USDWalk-in freezer $5000 - $9000Appendix DTetra Tebel Casomatic SC7Belt Press FilterJuice Screw Extractor Bottle Overturn SterilizerVacuum Degasser Blast FreezerAppendix ECompiled product needs of AMS food servicesFood Outlet Product NeedsBernoulli’s BagelsCranberry and Orange juice, Tea, dried apricots,blueberries, cranberries, olive oil, peanut butter,poppy seeds, pumpkin seeds, raisins, apple sauce,pumpkin puree, tomato sauce, grape jelly,strawberry jam, sundried tomatoes, onion flakes,cheddar, mozzarella, parmesan and cream cheese,butter, soy milkPit Pub Beer, cheeseBluechip Juice, dried apricots and cranberries, raisins,vinegar, butter, cream cheese, soy milkHonor Roll JuiceMoon Juice, ketchup, vinegar, dried garlic, garlic powderAgora Frozen blueberries, carrots, corn, spinachPendulumWine, beer, juice, tea, dried apricots, blueberriesand cranberries, lemon juice, apple sauce, tomatopaste, cheddar cheese sauce, crushed tomatoes,tomato sauce, roasted red peppers, ketchup, peanutbutter, strawberry jam, butter, cheddar, gouda,mozzarella and cream cheese, soy milkPie R2Juice, lemon juice, canned artichoke hearts, olives,pineapple slices, and pizza sauce, cheddar,parmesan, feta, gouda and mozzarella cheese,yogurtReferencesBaker, B. A. (2001, September). Food Processing & Food Security. In Carleton University.Retrieved February 24, 2011, from http://www.carleton.ca/cedtap/whatsnew/_files/food_e.pdfBarbosa-Cánovas, G. V., Altunakar, B., & Mejía-Lorío, D. J. (2005). Freezing of fruits andvegetables: an agribusiness alternative for rural and semi-rural areas. Retrieved March 30,2011, from http://books.google.ca/books?id=-1sbtu9jv5YC&pg=PA17&lpg=PA17&dq=mass+freezing+equipment&source=bl&ots=_w89knBej0&sig=ZrEnI-r2c95QP3_9r3Ug9v2sMJA&hl=en&ei=84tlTa_VLoTUtQOkwviBBQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ctCornell University. (2010). Vinification & Brewing Technology Laboratory. Retrieved 03 2011,from Cornell University Department of Food Science:http://foodscience.cornell.edu/cals/foodsci/research/vinification-brewing.cfmMason, G., Ark, B., Wagner, K., 1994. Productivity, Product Quality and Workforce Skills: FoodProcessing in Four European Countries. National Economic Review147, 62-83.Michigan State University. (2006). Facilities. Retrieved 03 2011, from Michigan StateUniversity: Food Science and Nutrition: http://fshn.msu.edu/facilities/foodprocessing.htmlProcessing Equipment . (2011). In Tetra Pak. Retrieved March 26, 2011, fromhttp://www.tetrapak.com/ph/products_and_services/processing_equipment/cheese_equipment/draining_mould_filling/casomatic_sc-7/Pages/default.aspxProduct List. (2009). In Spotlit. Retrieved March 31, 2011, fromhttp://www.noendexport.com/sunrisedrinking/product-listmednjWaJsEcl/fruit-juice-processing-equipment-catalog-1.htmlUniversity of Minnesota. (2010). Pilot Plant. Retrieved 03 2011, from University of Minnesota:Food Science and Nutrition: http://fscn.cfans.umn.edu/researchandservices/pilotplant/index.htmWorld Health Organization. (2011). Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points. Retrieved 032011, from WHO: Food Safety: http://www.who.int/foodsafety/fs_management/haccp/en/

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