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UBC campus food guide : a responsible food system communication tool Stewart, Brianna; Neale, Rosy; Rosenberg, Rachel; Bevandick, Kirsten; Tsai, Nancy 2012-04

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UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report      UBC Campus Food Guide                                                              A Responsible Food System Communication Tool                                                Brianna Stewart Rosy Neale Rachel Rosenberg Kirsten Bevandick Nancy Tsai University of British Columbia LFS 450 April 2012          Disclaimer: “UBC SEEDS provides students with the opportunity to share the findings of their studies, as well as their opinions, conclusions and recommendations with the UBC community. The reader should bear in mind that this is a student project/report and is not an official document of UBC. Furthermore readers should bear in mind that these reports may not reflect the current status of activities at UBC. We urge you to contact the research persons mentioned in a report or the SEEDS Coordinator about the current status of the subject matter of a project/report”.   U B C  F O O D  S Y S T E M  P R O J E C T  U B C C a m p u s F o o d G u i d e                                                               A Responsible Food System Communication Tool                                               A P R I L  2 0 1 2               Prepared b y:  Group 13 – Brianna Stew art, Ros y Neale, Ra chel Rosenber g, Kirsten Bev a ndick , and Nan c y Tsai   UBC Campus Food Guide – Group 13  2 A b s t r a c t  The University of British Columbia’s food system is a leader in sustainability efforts. By conti nuall y evolvi n g to address the nee ds of stude nts, staff and facult y th ro ugh va rious projects and ini ti ati ves placing sust ain abil it y at the fo ref ront of its oper ati ons, UBC has created a name for itself as one of the most pro gressi ve universit y campus es i n Canada. Unfo rtunatel y, man y of th ese efforts go unreco gniz ed b y the UBC comm unit y du e to a nu mber of bar riers involvi n g mark eti ng and knowled ge gaps within the UBC co mm unit y.  The Universit y of Britis h Col umbi a Food S ystem Project seeks to addr ess these needs b y uti li z ing the Faculty of Land and Food Systems’ Land, Food and Community (LFS 450) course series and its students. In Januar y 2012 , nine LFS 450 students  set out to create a UBC Campus Food Guide -  a comprehensive guid e det ail ing the sustainable foo d efforts on campus , and with the ult im ate goal of promot ing the gr eater sus tainabil it y eff orts b y the Universit y of Briti sh Columbi a. Using va rious surve yin g m ethods including ground - t ruthing, Int ernet resea rch, and fac e - t o - fac e int erviews, studen ts sought to obtain details regardin g sust ainable foo d sourcing and pro curem ent, producti on methods, and avail abil it y of food prod ucts on the UBC campus .  Whil e ex tensi ve research and data was gather ed, t he task of cr eati n g a ph ys ical food guide was found to require addit ional time and resour ces be yond the scope of the 201 2 UBCFS P . Recomm end ati ons were mad e su ggesti n g the inclusi on of the UBC C ampus Food Guide proj e ct fo r futur e LFS 450 cla sses in order to conti nue creat ing a foo d guide that ade quatel y repr esents U BC and its status as a le git im atel y sust ainable food s ystem.           UBC Campus Food Guide – Group 13  3 TABLE OF CONTENTS INTRODUCTION……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..43 PROBLEM STATEMENT…………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 5 REFLECTIONS ON UBCFSP VISION STATEMENT……………………………………………………………………………..6 VALUE ASSUMPTIONS……………………………………………………………………………………………………………....7  METHODOLOGY……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………...8 PRIMARY RESEARCH………………………………………………………………………………………………………………...9 SECONDARY RESEARCH……………………………………………………………………………………………………………11  FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… PRIMARY RESEARCH…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………....12 SECONDARY RESEARCH…………………………………………………………………………………………………………...17  SCENARIO EVALUATION………………………………………………………………………………………………………………....21  STAKEHOLDER RECOMMENDATIONS………………………………………………………………………………………………....2123  CONCLUSIONS……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….25  MEDIA RELEASE……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..…….26  LITERATURE CITED………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..……..27  APPENDICES………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..29         UBC Campus Food Guide – Group 13  4 In trod u ction  The University of British Columbia, in collaboration with the Faculty of Land and Food Systems’ Land, Food and Comm unit y (LFC ) Series and th e UBC SEEDS Program,  has cre ated a numb er of food s ystems proje cts that see k to address food se curit y iss ues with in the UBC food s ystem and its communi t y. Togeth er ,  these projects make up the UBC Food S ystems Project (U BC FS P ). The overall obje cti ve of the project is to “condu ct a campus - wide UBC food s ys tem sust ainabili t y asse ssm ent, where barrie rs that hinder and opportunities to make transitions towards food system sustainability are being collaboratively identified and implemented” (Rojas, Richter, & Wagner, 2007, p.86).  UB C is leading the way in campus sustainability initiatives. UBC was the first Canadian university to adopt a sustainable dev el opment poli c y (in 1997), with the ex pli cit intent of becomi ng a sust ainabili ty leader among North Ame rican universit ies, and in 1998  became the first university to create a campus Sustainability Office (Rojas, Richer, & Wagner, 2007, p. 87). For these reasons, UBC is seen by many as a model campus and ex ampl e for other inst it uti ons to strive for. Accordin g to Bartlett (2011, p. 23 ), the progress of hi ghe r educ at ion insti tutions can be ex tended and appli ed to the broader agri - food  s yst e m, and holds the potenti al to branch out and lead to more sust ainable food s ystems.  The UBC campus off ers man y oppo rtunit ies to support a more sust ainable campus food s ystem, including the pur chase of local, or ganic and Fair Trade produ cts. On - c ampu s food providers, such as UBC Food Servic es and the AMS Food and Bever a ge Department, hav e be en comm it ted to making improvements to their fo od offerin gs fo r over 10 yea rs, such th at UBC no w offe rs onl y Fairtr ade - c ertified coffe e, local or Fai rtrade - certified  whol e fruits, an d ca ge - fre e whole eggs s erved on campus  and at campus food outl ets (UBC F S P , 2012, p.24).  These improv ements often go una ckno wledged  b y the wide r UBC comm unit y, howev er, an d few people ar e aw are of the chan ges bein g made . A chall en ge in the curr e nt UBC food s ystem is the gen era l lack of aw aren ess amon gst the UBC comm unit y —the   benefits of local food,  UBC Campus Food Guide – Group 13  5 im portant concepts of fo od s ystem sust ainabili t y, and curr ent sus tainabil it y ini ti ati ves often go unan nounced and unreco gniz ed (Rojas, Richer, & Wagn er, 2007 , p. 87).  This past summer’s UBC Food System Project Workshop brought a con se nsus amongst the UBC Food S ystem Project partn ers that a cle ar comm unicati o n strate g y is ke y in order to continue to make improvements to the cam pus food system, and to encoura ge in cre ased pa rtic ipation b y comm unit y members. As a result , pr oject partne rs  identified a campus food guide as a useful tool to help increa se awar eness of pro gress an d developm ents to the UBC food s ystem. The ho pe is that such a guide ca n increase the wider community’s knowledge, attitudes, and practices around food system sustain abil it y, and can aid in incr easin g the visi bil it y of the UBC campus food s ystem sust ai nabil it y ini ti ati ves (UBC FS P , 2012, p.24).  Through ou r particip ati on in the LFC series, we reco gniz e that our global, nati onal, regional, and lo cal food s ystems are inc re asi ngl y ch ara cteriz ed as soc iall y, ecologic all y, and economi call y inse cur e and unsust ainable. As a result , these food s ystems are ex periencing an arr a y of vulnerabil it ies (Rojas, Richer, & Wagner, 2007 , p. 88). We beli eve that the work carried out b y the L FC ser ies wit hin the UBC food s ystem and its associated comm unit ies is in the second of three sta ges on the conti nuum of food securit y: fo od s ystems in transit ion. B y participati ng in the UBC FS P , we ar e helpi n g to create and str en gthen the comm unit y food s ystem through partne rships and networks, and will hopef ull y help to shift the focu s from the curr ent unsustai nable and indus trializ ed s yste m  towards sta ge thre e: fo od s ystem redesi gn for sust ainabili t y (Slater, 20 07, p. 107).  Problem Statement The UBC campus food outl ets offer man y sust ain abl y prod uced opti ons, b ut these often go unanno unced and thus unknown to members of the UBC comm unit y . The community’s knowledge, attitudes, and  UBC Campus Food Guide – Group 13  6 practi ces around food s ys tem sust ainabili t y need t o be incre ased , and th e visi bil it y of the campus ini ti ati ves need s  to be publiciz ed.  As a group of students ex perienc ed with the UBC campus food s ystem and comm unit y - bas ed food s ystem res ear ch, our gro up has been ask ed to dev elop a UBC Campus Foo d Guide to help incre ase  awar eness and comm unicati on about wa ys to get invol ved with the UBC food s ystem.  In order to ad dress our pr oblem statement and mee t the goals of ou r UBCFS P , we identified the following resea rch questi ons:  1.  W hat out lets on the UBC campus offe r sustainable food opti ons? (e.g. UBC Farm an d LFS Orcha rd Ga rden produ ce, Fairtr ade - certified produ cts, local and  or ganic foo ds,  Ocean wise seafood, and hum anel y raised anim al products).  2.  W hat places or groups do es UBC of fer wh er e int er ested re aders can ex ercis e their ‘food citizenship’ and get involved with the local food system? 3.  How can we create an eff ecti ve and relevant comm unicati on tool to increa se food s yst em awar eness on UBC camp us?  Reflections on the UBCFSP Vision Statement As a group, we beli eve th at sus tainabil it y shoul d not have an endpoint , but t hat it shou ld alwa ys b e adapti ng and evolvi ng to meet the needs of a compl ex s yste m. Whil e reflecti ng on th e UBC FS P Visi on Statement (UBC FS P , 2011), our gr oup consi dered it a grea t foundati on, but stress that the goals must be conti nuall y reassess ed and modi fied to reflect chan gin g att it udes and ex pectations .   UBC Campus Food Guide – Group 13  7 The Visi on S tatement suggest s  an id eal UBC foo d s ystem -  a utopi a. We cauti on that the curr ent UBC food s ystem h as a lon g w a y to go befor e it is able to reach all of the goals id enti fied in the visi on statement, but through LFS 450 gro up work and coll abo rati o n with stakeholders ,  we beli eve that gaps could b e limi ted and one day approach this ideal. Doherty, Cawood, Dooris (2011, p.222) encourage institutions to ‘think big’ in developing a healthy universities approach, and we support this notion. We hope that our ability to conte mpl ate this kind of utopi an food s ystem will have ben eficial effe cts on the movement towards a more sust ainable UBC food s ystem.  W e acknowled ge th e suc cess of the UBCFS P Visi on Statement in coverin g man y of th e cent ral the mes of creati ng and maintaining a sustainable campus food system. We would add that the last point, “any student, staff, or facult y member desirin g the opp ortuni t y to learn about fo od producti on and prep ar ati on will have ac cess to such opportuni ti es through on - campus land based food produc tion sites” (UBCFSP, 2011) shoul d include eve r yon e who tak es part in the food s ystem on campu s, not just those wit h a particular int erest in it. We suggest that all students, staff, an d facult y obtain baseli ne  knowledge on the impact s of food producti on on  our food s ystem.  In addit ion, we would su ggest that the Visi on Stat ement shoul d address the importance of preservin g of farmland, pa rticularl y in the Low er Mainl and, which would have a direct ef fect on our abil it y to wor k towards a soci al, ecolo gi cal and  economi call y sus tainable food s ystem.  Value Assumptions As a group, we hi ghl y va lue sustainable food prod uced b y local, small - sc al e farm ers, and beli eve th at we shoul d be movi ng aw a y from the intensified agric u lt ural s ystem we ar e living with  toda y. We pl ac e a high er value on the environment al and so cial asp ects of sustainabil it y ov er those of economi cs , as we hav e been encoura ged to foster th ese areas as students of the FLFS .   UBC Campus Food Guide – Group 13  8 W e also value high er edu cati on. Throu gh our proj ect of creati n g a UBC Campus Food Guide we are able to take thi s passion and educ a te our fell ow comm unit y memb ers, and share the wealt h of know ledge we have obt ained as FLF S students.  We desire practi cal and tan gibl e soluti ons to food s ystem issues ; we beli eve that workin g wit hin the s ystem to brin g about chan ge is the most practi cal and const ructi ve wa y to do so. The creati on of thi s guide is one wa y in whi ch we are abl e to make a contribut ion to a more sust ainable campus food s ystem.  Method ology  The UBC Campus Food Guide project incl udes an assessment of sust aina bil it y ini ti ati ves on the UBC campus invol ving outl ets where sust ain able food choices can be procu red, and in additi on, resear ching locati ons, groups and pro gr ams wher e indi viduals can en ga ge in the produ c ti on of sust ainable f ood choices and projects. In order to best address bot h areas o f interest in the UBC Campus Food Guide, two student groups wo rked in collabo rati on to cre ate a comp re hensive food guide det ail ing the wide arr a y of sust ainable food choices avail able, as well as the many opportunities available for exercising one’s ‘food citizenship’ on the UBC campus . As stated by Wil kins (2005 ), food cit iz enshi p is defined as the practi ce of food - related behaviours that support t he developm ent of a soci all y, economi call y, and  ecologic all y sust ain able fo od s ystem.   The two groups included nine students with a ran ge of educ ati onal back gr ounds in the Facult y of Land and Food S ystems, includi ng Nutrit ional Scienc es , Animal Studi es, Agroe c olog y and Glob al Resour ce S ystems (GRS ). Th e dive rsit y of majors provides mul ti ple lenses wit h which to view the problem st atement and guid e primar y and se condar y resea rch, and hel ps provide a more compl ete food guide.  The project’s early stages featured multi - group co ll aborati on in order to cle ar l y id enti f y project go als, discuss the divi sion of labour, and set goals and deadli nes for the nex t few mont hs of the project. Whil e our group focused on th e res earch requir ed to identi f y the food outl ets on camp us that provide local and  UBC Campus Food Guide – Group 13  9 sust ainable food p roducts to the UBC Comm unit y, our partner group identif ied locati ons, groups and ini ti ati ves that provide opportuni ti es for indi viduals within the UBC food sys tem to ex ercise thei r fo od cit iz enshi p on campus . The two groups met throu ghout the semest er to k ee p each othe r updated on progress, and to aid one anothe r in solvi ng the various probl ems and compl icati ons that arose durin g the prima r y resea rch phas e of the pro ject. In Februa r y 2012, se lected members from bot h groups coll aborated on an AMS Sustainabil it y gr ant proposal -  a crucial step required in ord er to asses s the feasibi li t y of ou r project, and a step which upon co mpl eti on would ult im ately det ermine the suc cess o f our project b y funding t he print ing fe e for th e guide . Working closel y with o ne anoth er, both groups helped the other me et num erous goals, ad dress knowled ge gaps and unfo rese en ch all enges, and most signifi cantl y, helped one anothe r compl ete ex tensive rese a rch throu ghout the durati on of the project.  Primary Research As outl ined above, our gr oup was assi gned the tas k of identi f yin g outl ets o n campus wher e sust aina ble food can be pur chas ed. Our re search qu esti on was as fo ll ows:   What outlets on the UBC campus offer sustainable food options? Init iall y, all outl ets wer e identified that uti li z e or offer sustainabl e food pro ducts. Here we chos e sus tainable to include products that h ave be en sourc ed locall y, gro wn/produced or ganic all y, certified Ocean wise, hu manel y - raised m eat pr oducts and eggs, and cert ified Fairtr ade coff ee/t ea. Id enti ficati on wa s p rima ril y achieved b y determi nin g whether the outlet is asso ciated with either UBC Food Services or AMS Fo od and Beve ra ge Dep artment, an d thus operates unde r the gen eral sus tainabil it y pr acti ces of both or ganiz ati ons. In order to dete rmine which food out lets fell under each umbrell a or ganiz ati on we used both UBC Foo d Services and AMS Food and Bev er a ge websit es and campus maps. Preli mi nar y res ear ch int o indepe ndent operati ons involved the use of Goo gle search es an d group brainst ormi ng. For independent out l ets su ch as  UBC Campus Food Guide – Group 13  10 student - run oper ati ons like Agora and Sprouts, the strictl y ve getari an men u largel y governs the ava il abil it y of sust ainable products . Secondar y surv e yin g sought to identif y or gani c pr oducts offer ed at campus outl ets. As these products are lab el ed  and easil y identifiab le, the y provided ha rd data we could con fidentl y i nclude in our findi ngs. In addit ion, the inclusi on of orga nic items was featu red in the UBCFS P scen ario descriptio ns (U BC FS P , 2012, p.24), and su ggested that a focus be pl aced on org anic items as well as certified sust ainabl e items. Outlets that offered a limi ted selecti on of or gani c products, such as a sin gle processed item and no fresh produce, wer e ex cluded.  After ini ti al rese arch had been compl eted, outlets t hat had met our prim a r y criteria were contact ed via outl et stakeholder in orde r to obtain more ex tensive purchasin g info rmati on. Table 1 details the sele c ti on process and th e methods used for conta cti ng st ake holders directl y. A questi onnaire (se e Appe ndix A) detaili ng the food  sou rci ng and pu rchasin g info r mation we hoped to inclu de in the guid e was e - ma il ed following conta ct wit h stakeholders. Th e questi on naire sou ght to address ambi guit ies or knowled ge gaps regardin g foo d procu rem ent at the specific outl et, whil e also assessi n g the degree to whi ch these out lets participated in sust ainabi li t y ini ti ati ves on campus . Fac e - t o - f ac e int erviews were s cheduled to fu rther discuss the compl eted qu esti onnaires, and to allow the stakeholders to shar e an y addit ional information the y beli eve d was relev ant or beneficial to the UBC Campus Food Guide.  T abl e 1. Eval uat i on rubr ic displ ayi ng the basi c par amet ers used to det er mi ne incl usi on/ excl usi on of food out lets in the UBC Campus Food Gui de.  Do es the outle t ha ve certified su stai nab le pro d ucts fo r sale?  i.e . Fair tr ad e, Oce an wi se, organic mea t,  fr ee - r a nge mea t?  No→ T he outlet ser ves mea t but i t does no t mee t su stai nab ilit y guid eline s. Ou tl et no t incl ud ed in guid e.  Ye s, OR  No – The outl e t is vege tar i an:  Ļ   Do es the outle t ha ve organic p ro d ucts  fo r sale?  No→ Sus tainab le pro d ucts men tio ne d , but no focus place d on outlet.  Ye s  ↓    UBC Campus Food Guide – Group 13  11 Ar e t her e a var iet y o f organic pro d ucts fo r sale?  ( i.e . pro d uce and pro ce ssed pro d ucts)  No→ No , ther e is onl y o ne pro d uct/typ e o f pro d uct. Cer tifie d pro d ucts incl ud ed in guid e, but e xte nsi ve write - up no t incl ud ed .  Ye s  Ļ   Do es the outle t sell lo ca ll y so ur ce d pro d uce , dair y pro d ucts, or pro teins?  No→ No . Do not contact stake ho ld er via e - mail.  Ye s  Ļ   Send an e - mail to outlet s take ho ld er to obtain ad d itio nal info r matio n. Did t he sta ke ho ld er resp o nd and want to discus s pro j ec t fur ther ?  No→ No . Includ e whate ver info r ma tio n was se nt, do not resear ch outlet fur t her .  Ye s  ↓   Send the stake ho ld er e - mail q uestio nna ir e and sched ule inter v ie w.     For an outlet to be included in the UBC Campus Food Guide it had to offer a number of the following products on a regular basis:   Unprocess ed fresh or gani c produce   P rocessed organic food products   Loc all y sou rced produc e   Loc all y sou rced proc esse d foods   UBC Farm and/or LFS Orchard Gard en produc e   Fairtr ade certified co ffe e   Ocean wise sea food   Humanel y raised anim al products  Secondary Research S econdar y resea rch invol ved a literatur e revi ew fo cused on the desi gn com ponent of the UBC Campus Food Guide. Here ou r re s earch qu esti ons wer e two - fold:   What makes an effective communication tool?  What should a campus sustainable food guide contain?  UBC Campus Food Guide – Group 13  12 In rese archin g thes e ques ti ons we sourced schol arl y articles from a  wide  ra nge of dis cipl ines . In add it ion ,  we ex plored the suc c esse s and fail ures o f other su stainable campus food gu ides such thos e cr eated b y the Universit y of Cali fornia  Santa Cruz (2010) and Yale Universit y (n.d.). Th e se sources all owed us to make conclusi ons rega rding what elements to include i n the UBC Campus F ood Guide and what to su gge st for future guides. A discussi on of these elem ents is found below under Secondary Research .  Fin d in gs and Discu ssion  Primary Research W e identified 28 food outl ets on campus that met the inclusi on criteria outl ined above. Of these 28 outl ets ,  18 fell under the umbrell a of UBC Food S ervices; 3 fell under AM S Food and Bever a ge  Department ; and 6 were what we considered ‘Independents’. The ‘Independent’ category was composed of three student - run, pri maril y volunt ee r - bas ed operati ons; two small privatel y owned busi nesses; and one nati onal groc er y ch ai n. The Goo gle map belo w identi fies thos e food outl ets we chose to includ e in the UBC Campus Fo od Guide.   Figur e 1. Go o gle map disp la yi ng t he fo o d t  outlet s incl ud ed in the UB C Ca mp us Foo d Guid e. Gree n place  mar k s ind icate op er atio ns und er UB C Foo d Ser vices; blue place  mar k s sho w t ho se mana ged b y AMS Foo d and Bever age; place  mar k s i n red sho w i nd ep end ent fo o d outlets .     UBC Campus Food Guide – Group 13  13  A list of the food outl ets identi fied for the UBC Campus Food  Guide can be found in Appendix B.  In addit ion to 28 food outl ets we identified four lo cati ons on campus whe re food producti on is occurrin g: LFS O rch ard Garden, UBC Farm, Aca dia Communi t y Garden and the Universit y Neighbou rhood Associat ion Comm unit y Garden. A list detaili ng these loc a ti ons can be found in Ap pendix C.  Three ke y ar eas identi fie d by our primar y resea rc h are pro curem ent from alt ernati ve food s ystems, a lack of mark eti ng and ad vertisi ng at out lets, and li mi tations to procurement due to undeveloped supp l y -chains and volum e requir ements. These thr ee them es ar e discuss ed below.  Procurement from Alternative Food Systems At the outlets identi fied on campus we found wide spread sust ainabili t y ini ti ati ves in food procur eme nt from alternati ve food s ys tems. Accordin g to Depu is and Goodman (2005, p.360), alt ernati ve f ood s ystems are those that reject the global, indust rial, and environmentall y de gradin g conventi onal food system in which most of the world operates. Th e most perva sive of those initi ati ves found on campus wer e the purchase of Fairtrad e ce r ti fied coffe e, c a ge - fre e eggs and lo cal food produ cts.  In 2011 UBC was awarded Canada’s first “Fairtrade Certified Campus” designation meaning all AMS and UBC Food Servic es outlets serve onl y Fai rtra de coff ee -  alt hough th e y have be en off erin g such products for the last de ca de (note: the Fairtrad e ce rtificati o n does not ex tend to franchise op erati ons on campus). Fairtrade is an ‘ethical consumption’ movement which aims at providing a higher percent return for producers while “establishing more long - term and meaningful trading relationships” (Fairtrade C anada, n .d.). Cof fee is o ne of the most heavil y tra ded and valuabl e comm o dit ies in the world (Si ck, 2008,  UBC Campus Food Guide – Group 13  14 p.196), theref ore Fairtr ad e certifi cati on can help to reduce th e mar ginaliz ati on of mill ions of farmers and their fami li es. Despit e thi s, som e authors (Sick, 20 08; Levi & Lint on, 2003) questi on the abil it y of th e organiz ati on to provide significant economi c and social benefits when com pared to conv enti onal ma rkets. The food poli c y make rs at UBC shoul d routi nel y assess the impact of such sust ainabili t y ini ti ati v es i n the global scop e while conti nuing to create eff ecti ve poli c y that ad equatel y re wards food produ ce rs.   In addition to being a “Fair Trade Campus”, UBC has also been named a “Cage - free Campus” (Chicken Out, n.d.), alon g with four oth er campus es in BC.  As of 2007 UBC uses onl y whole eggs from ca ge - fre e facil it ies -  high li ghti ng that UBC food poli c y mak ers see anim al welfar e iss ues as an impo rtant aspect of sust ainabl e foo d procurem ent. In the fut ure ,  UBC hopes to sourc e all eggs from ca ge - fr ee facil it ie s (Chi cken Out!, n.d.) and we would enco ura ge them to take a step further and sou rce free - r a nge or organic eggs wh er e possi ble. Free - r an ge eggs ori ginate from a mor e natur al producti on s ystem that all ows some acc ess to the outdoors, howeve r th e most humanel y - produc ed eggs fo und in Canada come fro m certified organic producers. Eggs from certified organic operations are produced in “higher welfare systems where hens can behave more naturally” (Chicken Out!, n.d.) and are routinely monitored by certific a ti on bodies such as the COABC (Ce rtified Organic Asso ciation of BC).  Loc al food pro curem ent is another ar ea wh er e man y UBC food provide rs fo cused sust ainabili t y initiatives (here the term ‘local’ refers to producers within BC). UBC Food Services, and Agor a Ca fe and Sprouts in particular, hav e made a comm it ment to sourcing from local farm ers -  notabl y UBC Farm and UBC Orchard Gard en. Through procur ement fro m bot h UBC Fa rm and UBC Orch ard Garden th ese busi ness are makin g a co mm it ment to the ex perienti al lear ning opportunities offered by these ‘living laboratories.’ Purchasing food products from local farmers, particularly through direct marketing, can facil it ate the dire ct sharin g of info rmati on betwe en producers and consum e r s (Foll ett , 2009, p.47). This  UBC Campus Food Guide – Group 13  15 t ype  of int e ra cti on can he lp to rebuil d the relations hip between these two pa rties, which  has all but disappear ed in the conve nti onal food system.  Depuis and Goodman (2 005, p.365), howeve r, wa rn that trust is a poli ti cal social interacti on and not necessa ril y  based on equi table relations hips. Acad emi cs often frame the loc al as the spac e, or cont ex t, where ethi cal norms can flourish, suggesti n g local iz ati on as a soluti on to the problems inherent in th e conventi onal food s yste m. Depuis and Goodman (2005, p.360) warn of the ‘unreflexive politics’ of the local food movement that occurs when a small group decides what is ‘best’ for society and then forces ever yone to acc ept their i deal. This can le ad to the romanticiz ing of a move ment that is compos ed of a set of no rms about a fix ed place rather th an the proc es ses that occur withi n. There are two ne gati ve consequences of such a movement (Depuis and Goodman, 2005, p.360): it denies the ‘politics of the local’, and results in food system solutions that are vulnerable t o co rporate coopti on. Due to their abil it y to purchase l ar ge volum es o f product, UBC food pro viders shoul d be particul arl y war y of the co rporat e cooption of ‘local’ foods. For example, in their Green Report Card (2011), UBC Food Services states that the y s our ce dair y product s locall y from Saputo in Burnab y, BC. Sourcin g from a lar ge - scal e dist ributor or producer should not be rega rded as a rej ecti on of t he indus trial food s ystem .   Lack of Marketing and Advertising Through on - c ampus grou nd - truthi ng ex ercis e s ,  we conti nuall y found a lack of marketi n g and advertisement of the foo d sust ainabili t y ini ti ati ve s being und ertaken at foo d outl ets. At most UBC Food Services and AMS Food and Bev er a ge loc ati ons ,  signa ge displ a yin g origin, producti on method, or other ind icators of sust ainable producti on was minim al to nonex ist ent. The lack of easil y ac cessi ble information required ou r group to send out emails to food outl et managers, purchase rs, and ch efs. Whil e thi s was more time consu mi ng for us, the mor e signi ficant pr oblem is that consum ers on campus do not readil y have ac cess to thi s information either.   UBC Campus Food Guide – Group 13  16 Davies (2011, p.459) su ggests that it is important for consum ers to hav e the opportuni t y to influenc e the food s yst em based on their own values and ex pectations . Labe li n g  food as ‘local’ or ‘organic’ can pla y a role in en abli ng in formed decisi ons and drive chan ges in the food s ystem. A stud y in the UK (Davies, 2011, p.456) fo und that alt hough man y people wer e relativel y una ware of food s ystem issues and the impact of f ood pr oducti on on the environ ment, most would be wil ling to make bett er choic e s if it was eas y to identi f y food produced in a sustainabl e manner. It is important for food provide rs on UBC campus to allow consum ers to ex ercise food choic e by m aking decisi on s easier with clear l abeli n g  and information about what t hese labels me an. The de velopm ent of a campus food guide, as outli ned in this paper, provid es one av en ue for creati n g awar eness among students, staf f an d facult y at UBC, but it shoul d be coupled wit h  proper si gna ge indi c ati ng where food is sourced fro m and wh y.  Undeveloped Supply-Chains, Volume Requirements and Procurement Through int e rviews and email communi cati ons with chefs and pur chase rs we found that food costs and the ‘bottom line of the business’ played a determining role in food procurement on campus. Often volum e requirements lim it the establi shment of direct relations hips with far mers outside the UBC campus . Although unive r sit ies, such as UBC, ofte n have form al agre ement s with ex ternal supp l iers, the y ga rner a certain posit ion of power as a lar ge pur ch aser (Dohert y, Cawood, & Dooris, 2011, p.218). Unfortunatel y thi s posi ti on can hav e a limi ted abil it y to influen ce the food on offer, du e to the cost and avail abil it y of sustainabl y produ ced ite ms. Sti ll , UBC food provide rs hav e the opportuni t y to moti vate chan ge in lar ge se ctors of the populati on (Dohert y, Cawood, & Doo ris, p.221) due to the shee r number of people the y fe ed on a dail y basis . Wit h the ex cepti on of Sprouts and Agora Cafe, UBC food  provide r s are mana ged as a busi ness fir st, integrati n g sust ainabil it y ini ti ati ves int o the business model where feasib le and appropri ate.   UBC Campus Food Guide – Group 13  17 Accordin g to Barlett (20 09, p.107) adopti ng sust a inable food procu rement strate gies often requires inst it uti ons to cr eate new , or tap int o alt ernati ve, s uppl y - ch ains. Thi s poses a particula rl y compl ex chall en ge fo r sustainabil it y ini ti ati ves and limi ts their impact on the local fo od s ystem. Althou gh loca l suppl y of sustainable foo d is often limi ted, the eff orts of one in sti tut ion, parti cularl y one as la r ge as UBC, can en able others in the area to act more sust ainabl y (Ba rlett , 2009, p.108). UBC food provide rs hav e a unique opportuni t y to eff ect signifi cant cha n ge thr ough the developm ent of new suppl y chain nodes and dist r ibut ion channels. An ex ampl e from UC Davis (Ba rlett , 2009, p.107) hi ghli ghts the potential impact those inst it uti ons  with large food bud gets can have on the food s yst em. In 2009, UC Davis impl emented clear so cial and environ mental conce rns into its sustainabil it y poli c y, requ iring that 20% of food purchasin g came from su stainable sources b y 202 0. Wit h a budget of $88 mi ll ion dol lar s  per ye ar this comm it ment will result in a $20 - 25 mill ion dol lar shift to sustainabl y prod uced food. Th e impact is actuall y esti mated to be even lar ge r since franchis es, bever a ge op erati ons, and corpor ate sponsors are not ex empt from the guide lines. Nijaki and Worrel (2012, p.134) echo the potential for institutions to “utilize procurement that merges equity, environmental and economic goals” in the development of green economi es. The y fu rther suggest that sus tainable procurem ent can be empl o ye d as an economi c developm ent tool and dri ver of innovation (Nij aki & Worrel, 2012, p.135).  Although limi tations wer e found to result from the vast siz e of the universit y and th e chall en ges associated wit h feedin g a large and const antl y gro wing comm unit y, i nsti tutions such as UBC are in a unique position to “educate and facilitate learning towards the ‘global citizenship’ of the next generation of decisi on - makers“ (Doherty, Cawood, and Dooris, 2011, p.223) through changes to their own food s ystem.   Secondary Research What Makes a Successful Communication Tool?  UBC Campus Food Guide – Group 13  18 Through ou r res ear ch we discovered that the re are three gen eral component s to consider when creati ng an effe cti ve writ ten comm u nicati on tool ; these include cover pa ge and gene ra l design, content, and f ormatti ng. In order for a comm unicati on tool to be eff ecti ve, all of these components need to be crafted to involve the reade r and ensure the info rmati on pr esented is easil y unde rstood (Kaplan an d Kaplan, 1982, p. 28).  Cover Page and General Design Gilbert and Hou ghton (1 991, p. 20) note the importance of the front gr aphi c,  as it is this aspect that wil l draw the read er in and en coura ge th em to pick it up the brochur e. The resea rchers also suggest that when a custom er is browsin g brochures the y ar e a tt ra cte d to clarit y and simpl icity (Gilbert and Hou ghton, 1991, p. 20). It is importa nt that the reade r can t ell what the brochu re is off e ring at a quick glanc e. Th e y also advise that brand na mes and logos are benefi cial to include wit hin you r brochur e (Gi lbert and Houghton, 1991, p.20). Brandin g all ows the re ad er to reco gniz e  how a pro duct or servic e is relev an t to the needs of that read er (Herrod and Whit lark, 2000, p.85). Another impor tant aspect to include is  bright and vibrant colors. Gilbe rt and Hou gh ton suggest that a youth ta r get audien ce is attra cted to these t ypes of colors (1991, p.23). The vali dit y of the ima ges contained withi n the broc hure is also an important factor in the design. Th at is, a read er wil l not want to pick up a brochur e if the y f ind it to be artificial or suspi cious (Gilbert & Ho ughton, 1991, p.24; You ng & Wit ter, 1994, p. 30) . Use of drawn ill ustrati ons decre ased the effi cac y of educati onal bro chures. In stead, color photo graphs are su ggested to inc re ase the effe cti veness and us e of brochures (Youn g & Wit ter, 1994, p.30; Gil bert & Houghton, 1991, p.24). One final sugg esti on emphasiz es the importance of the ph ysical qu ali t y of th e brochure. Grant an d Hou ghton (1991, p.20) found that brochures o f high er ph ysic al qualit y were mor e lik e l y to be pick ed up than th ose of lesser quali t y. An ex a mpl e of a high vs. low qu ali t y brochu re would be the differ enc e betwe en brochures that are photo c opied onto a thi n sheet of paper vs. bro chures p rinted on heav y cardstock. It is  UBC Campus Food Guide – Group 13  19 im portant to keep in m ind that these suggesti ons not onl y appl y to the front gr aphic, but the enti r e brochure as well . Inte rest ingl y, Youn g and Wit ter (1994, p.31) discover ed t hat the gener al desi gn of a brochure had more impa ct on its effecti ven ess tha n did the actual content.   Content W igington (2008) su gges ts a number of factors to consi der when determi ni ng the content of your comm unicati on media. One suggesti on is that the number of messa ges one is tr yin g to get across should be limi ted to three (CDC, 2009, p.5). The most im portant of these messa ge s shoul d be placed ne ar the beginni n g of the comm unicati on tool (W igington, 2008, p.71). As well , Wigin gton (2008, p.71) advises that all unnecessa r y word s and jar gon be le ft out of comm unicati on mediums to ensure that onl y rel evant  content is included.  Weiner (2007, p.11) all ows the use of fi gur es of spe ec h, however reje cts the use of cli chés , mix ed metaphors or unint enti onal sarcasm . When using ac ron yms i n your writ ing it is important to writ e out the enti re na me once, at the begi nning, then simpl y us e the ap propriate acron ym ther e - after (Wigington, 2008, p.71). Another su ggesti on is the use of an acti ve voice in yo ur writ ing. When usin g an acti ve voice in your writ ing, the subje ct carries ou t the acti on. For ex ampl e, the sentence “Students can purchase sustainable food at Agora” uses and active voice whereas the sentence “Sustainable food can be purchased by students from Agora” uses a passive voice.  Young and Wit ter (1994) also offer su ggesti ons for writ ing the tex t of an ef fecti ve edu cati onal brochure. Th e y discove re d brochures th at had con necti ons from one secti on to another and promi se d “new information” later on in the brochure were more successfu l at comm unicati ng their m essa ge (Youn g and Wit ter, 1994, p.30). Bro chures with personaliz ed and eas y to u nderstand messa ges wer e also found to be more effe ctu al than ones that were no t. Lastl y, brochu res that h ad specific mana geme nt information and used c on crete wo rds we re most ef fecti ve. In ou r cas e, an ex ampl e of specific mana gement inform ati on could involve conve yin g to reade rs wher e and ho w the y can sour ce sust ain able  UBC Campus Food Guide – Group 13  20 food opti ons. It is important to remember th at in order fo r a comm unic ati on tool to b e effe cti ve the messages mus t be cle ar, as well as rel evant and appropriate fo r the audien ce (CDC, 2009, p.5).  Formatting W igington (2008, p.71 - 7 2) suggests using 12 - 14 pt. serif t yp e fonts for the bod y of th e tex t. Headin gs/t it les ma y be la rger and us e no n - se rif fo nts and should also be descriptiv e (W igin gton, 2008, p.72). Weiner (2007, p.1 0) stresses the importanc e of headin gs, and advise s that the y be no lon ger than eight wor ds in length. Yo ung and Wit ter (1994, 30 ) also found that the use of headin gs, w it h lot s of connecti ons within the te x t, help to increase the ef fecti veness o f a bro chure . The use of bullet point s is also suggest ed, howev er, list should be kept short and concise wit h no mor e than seven bull et poi nts (Wigington, 2008, p.72). If it is no t poss ibl e to use bull et poi nts, paragraphs shoul d be kept short. The use of all capit al lett ers, italic s, or cursive writing is discoura ged (Wigin gton, 2008, p.72). Finall y, it can be useful to incorporat e graphics into your written media, alt hou gh, the y shou ld correspond with the message (W igin gton, 20 08,72).  What Should a UBC Campus Food Guide Contain? The second set o f res ear c h questi ons aim ed to inform the group on what to i nclude in our campus foo d guide:   What should a campus food guide contain?  What are some other examples of sustainable food guides we can draw from?  What lessons can be learned from looking at other food guides? To answer thes e questi on s we looked to two quit e different campus food gu ides: UC - S anta Cruz Campus Food Guide (2010 ) and Y ale Sustainable Food P urchasin g Guide (n.d.). Both of these guides off ere d valuable information wh en planning ou r own foo d guide.   UBC Campus Food Guide – Group 13  21  Both guides off ered a var iet y of dif fer ent desi gn components and formatt ing that we wanted to incorporate into our own food g uid e. In the UC Santa Cruz Food Guide, we found the use of photos, in both black and white, an d in colour to be appe ali ng. Pictures and profil es o f chefs and farmers also helped give ‘food a Face’. Giving food a face helps to bridge the gap between familie s and their foo d s ystem, as well as encou r agin g them to tak e an acti ve role wit h their food s ys tem (Gill espie & Smi th, 2008, p.342). We found the use of bull et poi nts to help increas e the readabil it y of the tex t, and notice d the y did a good job of usi ng br andin g throu ghout their guid e. Also, all tex t that was not in poi nt form was broken down into columns .  Yale Sustainable Food P urchasin g Guide mad e good use of tables and figures in their food guide. This helped to increas e t he read abil it y of th e guide and  made it easil y appr oachable. One final component that was parti cula rl y su cc essful in the food guide put out by Yale Universit y was the use of gener al information. We suggest thi s is a key compon ent to keepin g the food guide up - t o - date.  S cen ario Evalu ation  Evaluating the pro gress o f the UBC Campus Food Guide project required as sessi ng the proj ect in more detail than simpl y identif yi n g the print in g of the guide as a measu re of su cc ess. B y limi ti ng the determi nants of suc cess t o whether or not the g uid e was printed and distribut ed, we would ult im ately ex clude a number of imp ortant components of the project from inclusi on in the evaluation plan. Usin g the “SMART” evaluation plan, and determining specific, measurable, action - o riented, relev ant, and tim e -bound indi cators help to focus project go als and measure suc cess (Shutz bank, 2012), en abled our group to highli ght a great er nu mber of proje ct mil estones and helped identi f y l ac king components which were later addr essed in our pro ject recomm end ati ons.   A variet y of indic ators were created which define d success throu gh me asu ring the response of ke y groups to the guide. This method focused prim a rily on short - t erm, intermed iate, and lon g - term go als in  UBC Campus Food Guide – Group 13  22 order to addr ess the immense scal e of the proj ect. It wa s identi fied earl y on in the project -- throu gh t he vast vol ume of rese arch required to create and ma nage the guide - - that thi s was the first ye ar of a multi ple - yea r proje ct.   As noted in our rese ar ch methods, the compl eti on of primar y and s econda r y resea rch  invol ved ex tensive comm unicati on with UBC food outl ets and stakeholders; a practi ce that was both time and labour int ensive. Due to t he lar ge amount of time devoted to thi s resea rch, and the lar ge numb er of both indi viduals and busi nesses included, it was  important to include the sati sfac ti on of our stakeholders as a measure of whether the project’s goals were met. In order to confirm that key stakeholders of the UBC Food Guide proj ect we re sati sfied with the information presented in our gui de and final pa p er, e - mai l correspond ence was carri ed out and project rese ar ch was pr esented wit h th e hopes that stakeholde rs would read throu gh and assess our rese arch, and m ake cor re cti ons or addit ions as necess ar y. On ce stakeholders hav e ex pres sed their satisfacti on w it h the information we int e nded to include in the guide, we will be able to identif y our primar y, and sho rt - term go als, as bein g met.  Our second ar y, or inte rmediate proje ct go als, relat e directl y to the printi ng of the UBC Campus Food Guide. After ensu ring  that our ke y stakehold ers have first approv ed the content of the guide an d that both groups app rove the la yout and desi gn of the guid e, our int ermedi ate go al would involve see king the opinion and advice of our tar get audi ence. Be f ore fil li ng a comm er cial print order and be ginni ng dist ributi on, holdi ng a number of focus groups involvi ng students, staff and facult y from the UBC comm unit y in order to determi ne whethe r the guid e is user - f riendl y, concis e, and rep resent ati ve of the UBC campus comm unit y enables our group to determine whethe r our int er mediate goals have been met. Edits and corre cti ons usi ng the coll ected resea rch from the focus groups all ows our group to addr ess an y concerns from the comm unit y, and con firms that our guide is read y for pri nt and di stribut ion. It shou ld be noted that these int ermed iate go als ar e be yond the scope of this sta ge of the UBC Campus Food Guid e,  UBC Campus Food Guide – Group 13  23 and thi s stage shoul d like l y be compl eted b y the S EEDS office ov er the ne x t few months while the preli mi nar y draft of the food gui de is bein g consi d ered.  Finall y, th e long - term ev aluation of the UBC Campus Food Guide proje ct involves surve yin g ke y groups within the UBC community following the food guide’s distribution. Surveying of students, staff and facult y usin g a variet y of qu est ionnaire fo rmat s such as in - person and onli ne to tr y and determi n e the guide’s usefulness and availability will help determine what is lacking in the guide, and how im provements can be m ade. In addit ion, distribut ed questi onnaires and fac e - t o - fac e int ervie ws wit h stakeholders, ke y outl et o wners, mana gers, and em plo ye es will help to estab li sh whether the outlets included in the guide were affected by the guide’s presence. For example, asking business owners whether an in cre ase in co nsum er traffi c was noted, or whether a hi gher lev e l of interest in sust ainable and organic produ cts was obs erved sinc e the print ing and distribut ion of the guide in the comm unit y. Thi s stage of the proje ct is bes t left to a future LFS 450 class in order to all ow an adequate amount of time for the guide to be in use and circulatin g amon gst me mbers of the UBC comm unit y, and due to the time and resourc es requir ed in ord er to compl ete effe cti ve and efficient surv e yin g.  S takehol d er Reco mmen d ation s  On campus ground - truthi ng ex ercis es, com muni ca ti ons with project stakeholders and secondar y res earch findings hav e all owed us to make the foll owing recomm endati ons for the directi on of a UBC Camp us Food Guide:  1. Ob tain feed b ack from s takehol d ers prior to further develop men t, design and prin tin g.  First and foremost, it will be imperative that each of the project’s stakeholders approv es  the written desc riptio ns that have be en cr eated fo r man y of the food outl et s. Asking stakehold ers questi ons about the clarit y of the tool shoul d also be done prior to print ing. This co uld include interviews or focus groups wit h a smal l number of students,  proje ct stakeholders, and th e general publ ic in ord er to work out some of the fla ws of  UBC Campus Food Guide – Group 13  24 a draft of th e guide. Alt h ough we ini ti ated preli mi nar y fe edba ck via email, follow up comm unicati ons are be yond th e time and scop e of this project and shou l d be car ried  out b y the UBCFS P c oordinator or fu ture LFS 450 students.  2. Upon comp letion of a fin al UBC Food Guid e, ann u al review and mod ification shou ld tak e place. Once it is cre ated we suggest the UBC Campus Fo od Guide be reviewed an d modi fied on an annual basis .  Although we have tried to onl y include gene ral information to limi t the number of chan ges, the re will conti nue be new pro gr ams and food outl ets starti ng up in the future tha t shou ld be included in the campus food guide. We predict that the const ru cti on of  the new Student Union Buil ding in 2014 wi ll have a si gnific ant impact on the food s yst em at UBC and will requir e that the UBC Food Guide be reassess ed. We suggest updati ng and improv emen t to the food guide be car ried out b y future LFS 45 0 groups.  3. Emp h asis shou ld be placed on the develop men t of a web - b ased UBC Ca mp u s Food Guid e over a hard cop y version . Due to the financial cost asso ciated with re - print ing th e guid e annuall y, it ma y be more fe asibl e to place an emphasis on a web - base d food guid e. This w eb - b ased food guide could be updated annuall y with lit tl e - t o - no financial cost as sociated. The web - bas ed food guid e could be incorporated into a blo g with news and ev ents.  4. We wou ld lik e to see the UBC Food Guid e ex p an d ed to inclu d e outlets, grou p s and food even ts in the Great er Vancouve r area. In the future we wo uld like to see the food guide ex pand be yond th e campus to include local restaurants, mark ets and food outl ets that have spe cific local/ sust ainable ini ti ati ves similar to those found at UBC. The  UBC Campus Food Guide could also contain information about urban farms with markets and comm unit y sponsored agricult ur e (C S A) opportuni ti es as well as other urban farm initi ati ves.   UBC Campus Food Guide – Group 13  25 Conclu sion s  From our UBC Food S ys tem Project, we identifie d the foll owing  con clusi ons:   The information collecti o n stage for the creati on of a campus fo od guide re quires ex tensive ground - truthi ng, email comm unicati on and fac e - t o - fac e int erviews with food purchase rs and poli c y mak ers.   Further procur ement iden ti ficati on ex ercises (abov e) ar e requi red; the suc ce ss of this project was significantl y limi ted due to tim e const raint s.   W e recomm end the conti nuati on of thi s project under the LFS 450 Land, Food, and Comm unit y series as a means of inc re asing awar eness about fo od s ystem iss ues on UBC campus am on g students, staff and facult y.                UBC Campus Food Guide – Group 13  26  MEDIA RELEASE  UBC Campus Food Guide: A Responsible Food System Communication Tool   Monday April 9th, 2012  The University of British Columbia, in collaboration with the Faculty of Land and Food Systems course series LFS 450 and the UBC SEEDS Program, created a number of Food Systems Projects (FSP) seeking to address a number of food security issues within the UBC food system and its community.  The UBC Campus Food Guide project researched the current availability of local and sustainable food products at food outlets on the UBC campus, as well as specific locations and initiatives focused on the creation and promotion of sustainable food options where individuals can become involved beyond their role as a consumer. The research and information was obtained through surveying and interviews conducted with major stakeholders such as AMS Food and Beverage Department, UBC Food Services, and the chefs and staff who play significant roles in the functioning of the UBC food system, and who possess the ability to make changes to improve the sustainability of the current UBC food system. Information gathered from research was then formatted into the first draft of a comprehensive UBC Campus Food Guide—A communication tool aimed at UBC students, staff and faculty to help spread awareness of current sustainability efforts on the UBC campus, and to help promote participation in the various sustainability programs currently taking place throughout UBC. Primary findings reinforced the growing sustainability efforts and achievements taking place at UBC, however limitations were found to result from the vast size of the university and the challenges associated with feeding a large and constantly growing community such as the UBC community.     UBC Campus Food Guide – Group 13  27 L iteratu re Ci ted   Barl ett , P.F. (2011). Cam pus sustainable food proj ects: critiqu e and en ga ge ment. American  Anthropologist, 113 (1), 101 - 115.  C enters for Dise ase Cont rol and Preventi on and Agen c y for Tox ic Subs tances and Dise ase Re gist r y  (CDC). (2009). Sim pl y put: a guide fo r cr eati n g eas y to und erstand mate rials. Atlanta: U.S .  Strategic and Proa cti ve Comm unicati on Bran ch. Retrieved from  http:/ / ealt hli terac y/pdf/S im pl y_P ut.pdf .  Chicken Out! (n.d.). Ca g e free campus es. Retriev ed from htt p:/ /www.chic /c ampai ml .  Depuis, M.E. & Goodm a n, D. (2005). Should we go home to eat? : toward a refl ex ive polit ics of  locali sm. Journal of Rural Studies, 21, 359 - 371.  Dohert y, S., Cawood, J ., & Dooris, M. (2011 ). Ap pl yin g the whole - s ystems setti ng appro ach to f ood  withi n universit ies. Perspectives in Public Health, 131 (5), 217 - 224.  Fairtr ade Canad a. (n.d.). What is fair trade? Retrieved from htt p:/ /fairtrade. ca/en/about - fairtrad e/wh at - fair - tr ade.   Foll ett , J .R. (2009). Choosing a food future: diff e renti ati ng among alt ernat ive food opti ons. Journal  of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics, 22 (1), 31 - 51.  Gilbert, D.C. & Hou ghto n, P. (1991). An ex plorator y investi gati on of form at, design , and use of U. K.  tour operators’ brochures. Journal of Travel Research, 30 , 20 - 25  Gill espie, A. & Smith, L. (2008). Food Decisi on - Making Fram ework: Con necti ng Sustainable Food  Systems to Healt h and W ell - Bein g. Journal of Hunger & Environmental Nutrition 3: 328 - 346.  Green Repo rt Card. (201 1). Universit y of Britis h Col umbi a -  dini ng surve y. Retriev ed from  http:/ /www.gre enrepo rtc ard.or g/repo rt - c ard - 2011/ schools /u niversit y - of - brit ish - colum bia/surve ys/di nin g - surve y.   Herrod, K., & Whit lark, D. (2000). Buil ding a brand that connects. Healthcare Business, 3 (3),  84 –8 6.  Kaplan, S., & Kaplan, R. (1982). Cognit ion and environment: functi oning in an uncertain wo rld. New  York: Prae ge r.  Levi, M. & Lint on, A. (2 003). Fair t rade: a cup at a time? Politics & Society, 31 (3), 407 - 432.    Nijaki, L.K. & Worrel, G. (2012). Procur ement for sust ainable local dev elopm ent. Journal of  Public Center Management, 25 (2), 133 - 153.  Rojas, A., Richter, L., & Wagner, J. (2007). Unive rsit y of Britis h Col umbi a Food S ystem Proje ct:  towards sustainable and s ecure campus food s yste ms. Eco Health, 4, 86 - 94 .  Shutzbank, M. (2012). So you’re going to be a co nsul tant? Managin g conc epts and bou ndaries. LFS  450 in - class lectur e serie s. Access ed via UBC Vist a: www.vist a.ubc.c a  Sick, D. (2008). Coffe e, farming fami li es, and fair trade in Costa Rica: new markets, same old  problems? Latin American Research Review, 43 (3 ), 193 - 208.   UBC Campus Food Guide – Group 13  28 S later, J. (2007). Com munit y food se curit y: Posit ion of dieti ti ans of Canad a. Publi c poli c y statemen ts.  p. 21 - 30.  Universit y of Briti sh Columbi a Food Services (UBC FS ). (2012 ). About us . Retrieved from  http:/ / .  Universit y of Briti sh Columbi a Food S ystem Proj ect (U BC FS P ). (2011). UBC Food System Project  Vision Statement for a Sustainable UBC Food System. R etrieved from  http:/ /bl ogs.landfood.ubc .ca/foods ystemproje ct/ ab out - the - project/  Universit y of Briti sh Columbi a Food S ystem Proj ect (U BC FS P ). (2012). Description of the UBC food  system project and scenarios for 2012. R etrieved from   https:/ /www.vist urw/tp859991335 1281.lc8599913313281/cobalt MainFram webct .  Universit y of Cali fornia - S anta Cruz . (2010). Campus food guide. R etrieve d from  http:/ / wpcontent/upl oads/20 10/07/ campus food guide_2010_ 11.pdf  Weiner, R. (2007). The s even rules of eff ecti ve co mm unicati on. Public Relations Quarterly, 52, 9 - 11  Wil kin, J . L. (2005 ). Eati ng ri ght he re: Moving fro m consumer to food cit iz en. Agriculture and Human Values 22: 269 –273   W igington, P. (2008). Cl ear messa ges for eff ecti v e comm unicati on. Journal of Environmental Health  70, 71 - 73.  Yale Universit y. (n.d. ). Yale sust ainable food pu rchasin g guide. Retriev e d from  http:/ /www. yale. edu/su stainablefood/pur chasin g_ guide_002.pd f.pdf   Young, C. F., & Wit ter, J .A. (1994). Dev elopi ng Brochures f or incr easin g knowledge of  environmentalproblems. Journal of Environmental Education, 25 (3), 27 -  34 .             UBC Campus Food Guide – Group 13  29 App en d ix A  Gener al UBC Food Outl et Food Sourcin g Qu esti onnaire  1.  How much indivi dual purchasin g powe r do(es ) you/your outlet have withi n UBC Student Housing and Hospitality’s food purchasing for the year? a.  W hat products does thi s include?   2.  Outsi de of UBC - wide su stainabil it y practi ces suc h as Fairt rade coff ees an d teas, does your outlet have an y unique sustain a bil it y pr acti c es?   3.  How much of the produ c e used at your outlet (wh ole fruits, cooking produ ce, salad/f ruit bar) is sourced loc all y  or or gani call y  throu ghout the ye a r ?  a.  W hat  local producers is t his food  sourced from, and where are th e y locate d?   4.  How much of the prot ein source s used at your outlet (meat, poul tr y, fish, se afood, eggs) are sou rced from local produc ers?  a.  W hat producers do you use on a regul ar basis , and where are th e y located?  b.  Are the eggs all gu arant e ed or ganic, ca ge - fr ee, free - run, or fre e - r an ge? Are a cert ain per centa ge gua rante ed or gani c, ca ge - fre e, fr ee - run, or free - ra nge?  c.  Is the seafood Oce anwise ?  d.  Are the me at products et hicall y raised?   5.  How much of the dair y products used at your outlet (yo ghu rt, milk, cheese, butt er) ar e sourc ed from local produce rs?  a.  W ha t producers do you use on a regul ar basis , and where are th e y located?  b.  Are an y of these or ganic producers?   6.  W hat other products ar e made fr esh on - sit e that the UBC comm unit y shoul d be awa re of (bre ad, pastries, soups etc.)?             UBC Campus Food Guide – Group 13  30 A p p e n d i x B    Table 2. List of outl ets of ferin g sust ain able food opti ons  on UBC campus  Na m e  Contac t  Ca t e gory  Ago r a in H.R. MacM illan Bu ild in g   5 9 - 2 3 5 7 Main Mall   http ://b lo g s. land fo o d . ub c. ca /ago r a /  I nd ep end ent: st ud en t - r un, vo l unteer based , no n - p r o fit  Bernoulli’s 6 1 3 8 Stud ent Unio n Bo ule var d   AM S Foo d and Bever age  B o o ksto r e Cafe  6 2 0 0 Univer sit y Bo ule var d  ( 6 0 4 ) 822 - 0 5 2 2  UB C Foo d Ser vices  T he Bo ulevar d Co f fee and Ro as tin g Co .  5 9 7 0 Un iver sit y Bo ule var d   http :// www. theb o ule var d . ca /  I nd ep end ent: small pri vatel y o wn ed busi ness  Cafe Mo a  6 3 9 3 No r th West Mar ine Driv e (Museu m o f Ant hr o p o lo g y)   UB C Foo d Ser vices  Caf fe  Per ugia  2 3 5 0 Hea lth Science s Mall ( Li fe Scie nce Ce ntr e)  ( 6 0 4 ) 827 - 3 2 9 1  UB C Foo d Ser vices  Gr anvi lle Isla nd Prod uce  5 7 6 7 Dalho usie Ro ad (Univer sit y V illa ge)     No te: loca ted outsid e ca mp u s bo und ar y  I nd ep end ent: small pri vatel y o wn ed busi ne ss  Ike’s Cafe 1 9 6 1 East Mall (Ir ving K. Bar b er Lea r nin g Center , So uth Wi ng, Seco nd Flo o r )   UB C Foo d Ser vices  I RC Snac k Bar  2 1 9 4 Hea lth Science s Mall (In str uctio nal Reso ur ce s Ce ntr e, Main Floo r )   UB C Foo d Ser vices  La w Cafe at Al lar d Hall  1 8 2 2 East Mall (Seco nd Floo r )   UB C Foo d Ser vices  T he Lo o p Cafe at CIRS  2 2 6 0 West Mall (Ma in Floo r )   UB C Foo d Ser vices  Neville’s  2 1 2 5 Main Mall (Neville Sca r fe Build i ng -  Lib r ar y, Main Floo r )   UB C Foo d Ser vices  Niche Ca fe  2 2 1 2 Main Mall (T he Bea tty Bio d iver sit y Muse u m)   UB C Foo d Ser vices  P ac ific Spir it P lace  6 1 3 8 Stud ent Unio n Bo ule var d (Stud ent U nio n Build in g, Main Floo r )  UB C Foo d Ser vices  T he Pend ulu m  6 1 3 8 Stud ent Unio n Bo ule var d   AM S Foo d and Bever age  P ie R Squar ed  6 1 3 8 Stud ent Unio n Bo ule var d   AM S Foo d and Bever age  T he Point Grill  B uild in g 4 -  220 5 Lo wer Mall (Ma r ine Drive Resid ence )   UB C Foo d Ser vices  P o nd Cafe  2 0 7 1 West Mall (P o nd ero sa Centr e)   UB C Foo d Ser vices  Reb o o t Cafe  2 3 6 6 Main Mall (ICI CS Ad d it io n, Main Floo r )   UB C Foo d Ser vices  Sage Bistr o  6 3 3 1 Crescent Road (Univer si t y Ce ntr e)  UB C Foo d Ser vices   UBC Campus Food Guide – Group 13  31  http :// sage . ub c. ca   Saud er Excha n ge Cafe  2 0 5 3 Main Mall (Henr y An g u s Build in g, Mai n Floo r )   UB C Foo d Ser vices  Save - O n Foo d s  5 9 4 5 Ber to n Ave nue   I nd ep end ent: natio nal gro ce r y chain  Sp r o uts  6 1 3 8 Stud ent Unio n Bo ule var d   http :// ub csp r o uts. ca /  I nd ep end ent: St ud en t - r un, vo l unteer -b ased , no n - p r o fit  Stir It Up  1 8 6 6 Main Mall (ART S -  Buc hana n Blo ck A)   UB C Foo d Ser vices  T o tem Par k (Resid ence Di ni n g)  2 5 2 5 West Mall, To tem Par k (Co q uiha la Co mmo n Blo ck, Di ni ng Ro o m)   UB C Foo d Ser vices  UB C Far m Mar ke ts  Satur d a y Far m Mar ket : 61 8 2 Sout h Ca mp u s Ro ad  W ed nesd a y Ca mp u s Mar ket: 62 0 0 Univer sit y Bo ulevar d   http :// ub cfar m. ub c. ca /   I nd ep end ent: co llab o r atio n betwee n UB C and Ce ntr e fo r Sustai nab le Foo d Syste ms  Vanier’s (Residence Dini n g)  1 9 3 5 Lo wer Mall, Place Vani er (Go r do n Shr u m Co mmo n s Blo ck, Dini n g Ro o m)   UB C Foo d Ser vices  W estcad ia Cater in g   2 5 2 5 West Mall, To tem Par k (Co mmo n s Blo ck, Seco nd Floo r )   http :// www. ca ter in g. ub c. ca /   UB C Foo d Ser vices   A p p e n d i x C   Tabl e 3. List of locations where food production is occurring on UBC campus .  Loc a t i on  Contac t  *Aca d ia Co mmu n it y Gar d en  Aca d ia Par k La ne /UB C   LF S Or char d Gar d en  Lo ca ted Behind H.R. MacM i ll an Build i ng  2 3 5 7 Main Mall  http ://b lo g s. land fo o d . ub c. ca /lfso g/   UB C Far m  6 1 8 2 South Ca mp us Ro ad   http :// ub cfar m. ub c. ca /   *U niver sit y Neig hb o ur ho o d Asso ciatio n Co mmu n it y Gar d en  Ha wtho r ne Place  * W e wer e no t ab le to co ntact Aca d ia Co m mu nit y Gar d en or T he Univer sit y Nei g hb o ur ho o d Asso ciatio n Co mmu n it y Gar d en to deter mi ne wh at fo o d prod ucts wer e being pro d uc ed . It is assu med the se pro d ucts ar e fo r per so nal co nsu mp tio n onl y a nd no t a va ilab le fo r co nsu mp tio n b y the wid er UB C co mmu n it y .   


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