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UBC transportation planning : UBC Athletics and Recreation Colas, Olivier; Kholeif, Karim; Baker, Vicky; Runkle, Quinn Apr 30, 2012

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UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report          UBC Transportation Planning: UBC Athletics and Recreation Olivier Colas, Karim Kholeif, Vicky Baker, Quinn Runkle University of British Columbia Course name April 27, 2012             Disclaimer: “UBC SEEDS provides students with the opportunity to share the findings of their studies, as well as their opinions, conclusions and recommendations with the UBC community. The reader should bear in mind that this is a student project/report and is not an official document of UBC. Furthermore readers should bear in mind that these reports may not reflect the current status of activities at UBC. We urge you to contact the research persons mentioned in a report or the SEEDS Coordinator about the current status of the subject matter of a project/report”. 1 | P a g e    UBC Transportation Planning UBC Athletics and Recreation       April 2012         BY:                      Olivier Colas Karim Kholeif Vicky Baker Quinn Runkle       2 | P a g e   Contents INTRODUCTION ............................................................................................................... 1	  OPTION #1: FILMING GAMES FOR VIEWING ONLINE .................................................. 4	  Concept ...................................................................................................................... 4	  Impacts ........................................................................................................................ 4	  Benefits for UBC ........................................................................................................... 5	  Potential Challenges .................................................................................................. 5	  Stakeholders ................................................................................................................ 5	  OPTION #2: UBC TRANSPORTATION PLANNING APP .................................................. 6	  Concept ...................................................................................................................... 6	  Skwez ............................................................................................................................ 6	  Impacts ........................................................................................................................ 6	  Benefits for UBC ........................................................................................................... 7	  Potential Challenges .................................................................................................. 7	  Stakeholders ................................................................................................................ 7	  OPTION #3: ENCOURAGING CYCLING ........................................................................ 8	  Concept ...................................................................................................................... 8	  Impacts ........................................................................................................................ 8	  Benefits for UBC ........................................................................................................... 9	  Potential Challenges .................................................................................................. 9	  Stakeholders ................................................................................................................ 9	  OPTION #4: SHUTTLE RE-ROUTES .................................................................................. 10	  Concept .................................................................................................................... 10	  Impacts ...................................................................................................................... 10	  Benefits to UBC .......................................................................................................... 11	  Potential Challenges ................................................................................................ 11	  Stakeholders .............................................................................................................. 11	  OPTION #5: WALKING BUS ........................................................................................... 12	  Concept .................................................................................................................... 12	  Impacts ...................................................................................................................... 12	  Benefits to UBC .......................................................................................................... 12	  Potential Challenges ................................................................................................ 13	  Stakeholders .............................................................................................................. 13 OPTIONS	  EVALUATION……………...……………………………………………………………………………………………..14	  REFERENCES ................................................................................................................... 16	  APPENDIX A: CRITERIA MATRIX .................................................................................... 17	  APPENDIX B: OPTIONS EVALUATION MATRIX .............................................................. 19	  APPENDIX C: SHUTTLE RE-ROUTING OPTIONS ............................................................. 24	  1 | P a g e   INTRODUCTION  A Sustainable UBC In	  recent	  years,	  the	  University	  of	  British	  Columbia	  (UBC)	  has	  become	  a	  beacon	  of	  sustainability.	  With	  wide-­‐ranging	  initiatives	  such	  as	  the	  Climate	  Action	  Plan,	  Place	  and	  Promise:	  the	  UBC	  Plan,	  and	  the	  Sustainability	  Academic	  Strategy,	  UBC	  aims	  to	  be	  at	  the	  leading	  edge	  of	  sustainability	  in	  all	  aspects,	  from	  teaching	  and	  research,	  to	  operations.	  One	  of	  the	  major	  initiatives	  is	  the	  Transportation	  Plan,	  originally	  drafted	  in	  1998,	  and	  updated	  in	  2005.	  The	  plan	  examines	  direct	  transportation	  services	  (those	  provided	  by	  the	  university)	  as	  well	  as	  transportation	  of	  staff,	  students,	  and	  faculty	  to	  its	  Point	  Grey	  Campus	  and	  sets	  out	  targets	  for	  the	  upcoming	  years.	  The	  Transportation	  Status	  Reports	  measure	  the	  progress	  toward	  these	  goals.	  According	  to	  the	  2010	  Transportation	  Status	  Report,	  49%	  of	  the	  UBC	  community	  currently	  takes	  transit	  to	  campus	  (the	  large	  proportion	  is	  attributed	  to	  the	  introduction	  of	  the	  student	  UPass	  in	  2003),	  while	  the	  remaining	  majority	  (48%)	  arrives	  in	  vehicles,	  with	  either	  single	  or	  multiple	  occupants.	  Goals	  in	  the	  2005	  plan	  included	  expanding	  the	  UPass	  program	  to	  staff	  and	  faculty,	  implementing	  a	  campus	  shuttle	  service,	  and	  improving	  end-­‐of-­‐trip	  facilities	  for	  cyclists.	  While	  the	  first	  goal	  has	  not	  yet	  been	  achieved,	  some	  progress	  has	  been	  made	  toward	  the	  latter	  two.	  UBC	  is	  required	  to	  report	  emissions	  data	  to	  the	  provincial	  government.	  While	  emissions	  data	  from	  commuting	  is	  not	  included	  in	  these	  statistics,	  UBC	  includes	  them	  under	  ‘Scope	  3’	  (indirect	  emissions)	  in	  the	  Climate	  Action	  Plan	  (UBC	  2009).	   Athletics and Recreation (A&R) The	  Department	  of	  Athletics	  and	  Recreation,	  as	  a	  crucial	  constituent	  of	  campus	  life,	  is	  supporting	  the	  sustainability	  vision	  of	  the	  university	  by	  exploring	  ways	  in	  which	  it	  can	  reduce	  the	  footprint	  of	  its	  activities.	  An	  environmental	  impact	  study	  was	  commissioned	  (Dolf,	  forthcoming)	  and	  found	  that	  significant	  improvements	  can	  be	  made	  towards	  this	  goal	  by	  reducing	  the	  carbon	  emissions	  associated	  with	  travel	  to	  sports	  events.	  UBC	  A&R	  would	  therefore	  like	  to	  target	  this	  area,	  independently	  of	  work	  the	  university	  is	  undertaking,	  because	  these	  indirect	  travel	  emissions	  are	  not	  measured	  or	  reported	  under	  Scope	  3.	  Therefore,	  by	  analyzing	  the	  transportation	  patterns	  both	  at	  UBC	  and	  A&R	  events	  through	  the	  modes	  of	  transport,	  this	  project	  aims	  to	  come	  up	  with	  a	  better	  understanding	  of	  carbon	  emissions	  around	  campus,	  and	  will	  provide	  a	  more	  robust	  picture	  of	  the	  sustainability	  of	  travel	  at	  UBC	  as	  a	  whole.	  Below	  is	  a	  description	  of	  the	  context	  to	  be	  considered	  when	  examining	  alternative	  transportation	  options	  for	  team	  members	  and	  spectators.	   Scope Given	  the	  large	  number	  of	  spectators	  involved,	  this	  project	  will	  focus	  on	  UBC	  Athletics	  events,	  rather	  than	  activities	  of	  UBC	  Recreation.	  Although	  team	  travel	  has	  a	  large	  impact	  on	  the	  total	  emissions	  (Dolf,	  2012),	  we	  chose	  to	  focus	  on	  spectator	  travel	  to	  local	  games,	  as	  we	  believe	  that	  this	  can	  be	  more	  easily	  affected	  through	  behaviour	  change.	  	  This	  project	  proposes	  various	  options	  to	  address	  this.	  	  	  2 | P a g e   The	  accessibility	  of	  bus	  stops	  can	  be	  a	  factor	  that	  can	  determine	  the	  amount	  of	  bus	  travel	  to	  the	  games.	  Dolf	  (2012)	  found	  that	  when	  games	  occur	  at	  the	  War	  Memorial	  Gym,	  a	  higher	  percentage	  of	  participants	  bus	  to	  campus,	  likely	  due	  to	  the	  close	  proximity	  of	  the	  bus	  stop	  to	  the	  venue.	  Conversely,	  less	  people	  took	  the	  bus	  to	  games	  at	  the	  Thunderbird	  stadium,	  where	  there	  is	  a	  lack	  of	  nearby	  bus	  stops.	  Given	  this,	  the	  project	  will	  mainly	  focus	  on	  events	  that	  take	  place	  at	  the	  South	  Campus	  facilities.	   Current Transportation Situation According	  to	  the	  2010	  Transportation	  Status	  Report,	  the	  vast	  majority	  arrived	  at	  UBC	  by	  either	  transit	  or	  in	  vehicles	  (see	  Table	  1).	  For	  UBC	  Athletics	  and	  Recreation	  events,	  a	  second	  study	  compiled	  data	  from	  eight	  games	  (Dolf	  et	  al.,	  2011)	  and	  showed	  that,	  for	  spectators	  and	  staff,	  cars	  are	  by	  far	  the	  most	  frequent	  mode	  of	  transport.	  The	  next	  most	  frequent	  mode	  of	  transport	  is	  buses,	  followed	  by	  individuals	  who	  walk.	  	  The	  fourth	  most	  common	  means	  of	  transport	  includes	  the	  individuals	  who	  travel	  by	  plane,	  then	  people	  who	  cycle.	  The	  distances	  involved	  with	  each	  mode	  of	  transport	  differ.	  Distances	  that	  people	  flew	  varied	  dramatically,	  while	  those	  that	  drove	  came	  from	  Vancouver	  and	  neighboring	  cities.	  Bus	  rides	  were	  more	  numerous	  with	  individuals	  who	  lived	  within	  the	  City	  of	  Vancouver.	  Cycling	  involved	  people	  who	  lived	  near	  campus,	  and	  finally	  walking	  was	  more	  popular	  with	  people	  very	  close	  to	  campus.	  	   Table	  1:	  Travel	  modes	  to	  UBC	  campus	  and	  UBC	  sporting	  events	  	  *includes	  single	  and	  high	  occupancy	  vehicles	  Note:	  totals	  may	  not	  add	  to	  100%	  due	  to	  rounding	    Combined	  with	  the	  introduction	  of	  the	  UPass,	  the	  university	  is	  reducing	  the	  number	  of	  vehicles	  that	  travel	  to/from	  the	  campus	  by	  readjusting	  parking	  prices	  and	  limiting	  the	  supply	  of	  parking	  spots	  that	  are	  available.	  According	  to	  the	  2003	  Campus	  Transit	  Plan,	  the	  campus	  comprises	  11,000	  parking	  spaces,	  4,900	  of	  which	  are	  located	  in	  the	  5	  parkades	  available,	  with	  the	  rest	  located	  in	  other	  parking	  areas	  and	  along	  the	  sides	  of	  streets.	  By	  encouraging	  different	  methods	  of	  transportation	  to/from	  the	  campus,	  the	  university	  has	  been	  able	  to	  reduce	  the	  amount	  of	  parking	  stalls	  available	  and	  use	  the	  space	  provided	  more	  efficiently.	  It	  is	  estimated	  that	  by	  2021,	  parking	  spots	  will	  be	  reduced	  by	  more	  than	  3,600	  spaces	  (UBC	  2003),	  including	  those	  at	  one	  parking	  lot	  at	  the	  UBC	  Thunderbird	  Stadium.	  	    Travel	  Mode	   UBC	  2010	  Transportation	  Status	  Update	   8	  UBC	  Games	  (Dolf	  ,	  2012)	  Bike	   1%	   3%	  Bus	  City	   49%	   10%	  Bus	  Coach	   	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  N/A	   6%	  Car*	   48%	   66%	  Plane	   	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  N/A	   5%	  Walk	   1%	   11%	  Other	   1%	   0%	  3 | P a g e   Impact on Neighbourhoods The	  West	  Point	  Grey	  Community	  Vision	  outlines	  that	  “residents	  have	  a	  strong	  interest	  in	  the	  environment”.	  It	  is	  hopeful	  that	  this	  would	  encourage	  local	  residents	  to	  use	  alternative	  transport	  methods	  to	  reduce	  the	  GHG	  emissions	  related	  to	  UBC	  Athletics	  events.	  	  	  The	  impacts	  of	  any	  proposed	  changes	  to	  transportation	  on	  the	  communities	  of	  West	  Point	  Grey	  and	  UTown	  could	  include	  increased	  bicycle	  traffic	  or	  decreased	  car	  traffic.	  In	  turn,	  air	  quality	  would	  be	  improved.	  	  Although	  the	  main	  population	  affected	  would	  be	  the	  spectators	  at	  UBC	  Athletics	  events	  (as	  it	  is	  their	  transport	  patterns	  we	  are	  looking	  to	  alter),	  the	  West	  Point	  Grey	  community	  and	  the	  populations	  at	  UBC	  who	  live	  near	  the	  South	  Campus	  athletics	  would	  also	  be	  affected.	  	  Therefore,	  representatives	  from	  these	  communities	  would	  need	  to	  be	  consulted	  to	  ensure	  their	  input	  is	  taken	  into	  consideration.	  	  Goal UBC	  Athletics	  and	  Recreation	  has	  the	  opportunity	  and	  challenge	  to	  change	  transportation	  habits	  of	  its	  spectators,	  and	  through	  this,	  reduce	  its	  indirect	  carbon	  emissions.	  Current	  transport	  initiatives	  undertaken	  by	  UBC,	  and	  existing	  relationships	  with	  agencies	  and	  neighbourhoods,	  will	  inform	  this	  project.	  The	  goal	  is	  to	  reduce	  the	  negative	  environmental	  impact	  due	  to	  travel	  to	  UBC	  Athletics	  events,	  while	  considering	  the	  potential	  economic	  impacts	  and	  at	  the	  same	  time,	  increasing	  the	  positive	  social	  aspects.	  	  	  After	  analyzing	  the	  data	  showing	  the	  mode	  and	  distance	  travelled	  by	  spectators,	  a	  number	  of	  options	  were	  suggested	  in	  order	  to	  reduce	  GHG	  emissions	  associated	  with	  UBC’s	  A&R	  department.	  The	  options	  proposed	  are	  online	  streaming,	  transportation	  planning	  app,	  cycling	  initiatives,	  shuttle	  reroutes,	  and	  a	  walking	  bus.	  Each	  will	  be	  explained	  in	  further	  detail	  in	  the	  following	  section.	  	  	  	   4 | P a g e   OPTION #1: FILMING GAMES FOR VIEWING ONLINE         Concept Dolf's	  study	  found	  that	  although	  the	  number	  of	  spectators	  that	  chose	  plane	  travel	  to	  arrive	  at	  games	  was	  low	  (4.5%	  at	  8	  games	  surveyed),	  the	  associated	  travel	  distance	  travelled	  is	  extremely	  high	  (61.7%),	  as	  are	  the	  associated	  carbon	  emissions.	  If	  these	  spectators	  had	  the	  opportunity	  to	  watch	  the	  athletes	  play	  without	  having	  to	  travel	  to	  the	  game,	  those	  emissions	  could	  be	  eliminated,	  assuming	  they	  were	  flying	  for	  the	  sole	  purpose	  of	  watching	  the	  game.	  	  	  Games	  could	  be	  streamed	  live,	  and/or	  recorded	  and	  posted	  on	  a	  website	  after	  the	  game.	  The	  first	  option	  may	  be	  lower	  quality	  but	  would	  not	  need	  extra	  infrastructure.	  The	  second	  option	  would	  allow	  for	  higher	  quality,	  but	  there	  would	  be	  a	  delay	  in	  viewing.	  At	  A&R	  venues	  in	  south	  campus,	  there	  is	  only	  a	  wireless	  connection,	  which	  could	  limit	  the	  quality	  of	  videos	  if	  live	  streamed.	  	  	  	  Impacts Environmental	  The	  significant	  carbon	  emissions	  associated	  with	  plane	  travel	  would	  be	  reduced,	  and	  replaced	  by	  those	  of	  a	  small	  number	  local	  individual	  (the	  camera	  people,	  technician,	  and	  commentator)	  travelling	  to	  the	  game.	  	  Economic	  The	  spectators	  who	  fly	  to	  games	  would	  save	  money	  otherwise	  spent	  on	  airfare.	  There	  would	  be	  a	  cost	  for	  UBC	  A&R	  to	  hire	  two	  camera	  people,	  a	  commentator	  and	  a	  production	  technician,	  as	  well	  as	  for	  necessary	  hardware	  (cameras,	  switcher)	  and	  software	  (to	  stream).	  This	  could	  be	  offset	  if	  local	  businesses	  were	  invited	  to	  advertise	  during	  the	  broadcast.	  Adding	  an	  internet	  connection	  to	  the	  venues	  for	  higher	  quality	  video	  would	  likely	  incur	  some	  costs.	  	  Social	  Some	  of	  the	  social	  impacts	  would	  be	  positive,	  while	  others	  might	  be	  negative.	  On	  one	  hand,	  they	  would	  be	  limited	  to	  seeing	  what	  is	  broadcast	  on	  the	  screen,	  but	  on	  the	  other,	  they	  will	  be	  able	  to	  watch	  in	  comfort,	  and	  save	  time	  by	  not	  having	  to	  travel.	  There	  is	  also	  a	  chance	  that	  attendance	  at	  games	  would	  be	  reduced	  if	  people	  choose	  to	  watch	  the	  game	  online	  rather	  than	  attending	  in-­‐person.	  However,	  for	  local	  people	  (e.g.	  students)	  that	  do	  5 | P a g e   not	  attend	  games,	  this	  initiative	  could	  pique	  their	  interest	  sufficiently	  for	  them	  to	  attend	  in-­‐person.	  The	  possibility	  of	  having	  the	  games	  online	  after	  the	  fact	  is	  also	  beneficial	  to	  the	  UBC	  A&R	  community	  because	  the	  teams	  could	  use	  the	  videos	  as	  a	  coaching	  tool.	  	  Benefits for UBC	  UBC	  Thunderbird	  teams	  may	  be	  able	  to	  use	  parts	  of	  the	  videos	  either	  for	  advertising	  or	  for	  teaching	  purposes.	  An	  enhanced	  website	  could	  also	  be	  a	  positive	  outcome,	  as	  it	  would	  draw	  more	  people	  in	  and	  allow	  for	  other	  initiatives	  to	  be	  announced.	  Community	  members	  would	  have	  the	  option	  of	  viewing	  games	  online,	  resulting	  in	  increased	  support	  for	  Thunderbird	  teams.	  	  	  Potential Challenges	  The	  quality	  of	  video	  without	  a	  wired	  connection	  could	  be	  low	  with	  current	  technologies,	  and	  could	  be	  improved	  if	  fibre	  optic	  cables	  were	  in	  place.	  	  Qualified	  personnel	  would	  need	  to	  be	  contracted	  to	  ensure	  the	  success	  of	  the	  broadcast.	  	  	  Stakeholders	  Stakeholders	  would	  include	  the	  spectators	  in	  question,	  along	  with	  the	  cameraman,	  who	  could	  be	  someone	  from	  Media	  Group	  at	  UBC	  for	  example,	  an	  outside	  contractor	  or	  volunteer.	  The	  A&R	  webmaster	  would	  also	  need	  to	  be	  consulted	  in	  order	  to	  ensure	  the	  technological	  capacity	  is	  sufficient.  6 | P a g e   OPTION #2: UBC TRANSPORTATION PLANNING APP          Concept	  UBC	  transportation	  planning	  has	  the	  opportunity	  to	  pilot	  a	  rideshare	  app	  through	  a	  joint	  venture.	  Carsurfing	  and	  Skwez	  are	  both	  companies	  that	  have	  expressed	  interest	  in	  working	  with	  UBC,	  and	  we	  feel	  that	  Skwez	  is	  a	  better	  option	  because	  it	  is	  a	  local	  company	  and	  has	  an	  existing	  partnership	  with	  Capilano	  University.	  	  The	  purpose	  of	  the	  rideshare	  app	  itself	  would	  be	  to	  allow	  for	  people	  who	  need	  rides	  to	  UBC	  to	  find	  vehicle	  owners	  going	  the	  same	  direction	  through	  the	  usage	  of	  the	  app.	  	  As	  of	  yet,	  UBC	  transportation	  planning	  has	  no	  apps	  available	  for	  smartphones,	  Facebook,	  Google	  or	  Tablets.	  This	  limits	  the	  amount	  of	  information	  UBC	  transportation	  planning	  can	  get	  out	  to	  individuals	  who	  are	  interested	  in	  attending	  the	  games.	  	  	  A	  joint	  venture	  with	  Skwez	  could	  serve	  as	  pilot	  project	  for	  a	  broader	  UBC	  transportation	  planning	  app,	  with	  more	  functionalities	  than	  just	  ridesharing,	  available	  to	  all	  UBC	  students.	  	  As	  mentioned,	  Skwez	  already	  operates	  a	  rideshare	  app	  for	  Capilano	  University.	  Visit	  http://www.csu.bc.ca/skwez/	  to	  see	  how	  it	  works.	  	  Skwez Skwez	  is	  a	  company	  that	  has	  developed,	  and	  manages,	  a	  rideshare	  application.	  They	  are	  Vancouver	  based	  and	  still	  new,	  which	  leaves	  plenty	  of	  opportunities	  for	  UBC	  to	  customize	  the	  app	  to	  suit	  their	  needs.	  Skwez	  hasn’t	  yet	  finished	  developing	  the	  app	  but	  an	  immediate	  implementation	  of	  a	  plugin,	  to	  view	  real	  time	  data	  of	  individuals	  coming	  in	  to	  and	  leaving	  campus,	  can	  be	  done	  very	  easily.	  This	  plugin	  can	  then	  be	  displayed	  on	  the	  A&R	  site	  or	  on	  the	  transportation	  planning	  site.	   Impacts Environmental	  There	  are	  only	  positive	  environmental	  consequences	  of	  following	  through	  with	  a	  UBC	  transportation	  app.	  	  Firstly,	  it	  would	  reduce	  the	  number	  of	  single	  occupancy	  vehicles	  coming	  to	  games.	  Also,	  with	  a	  further	  development	  of	  the	  app	  with	  UBC,	  it	  would	  be	  feasible	  to	  make	  room	  to	  include	  promotions	  and	  updates	  concerning	  future	  games,	  which	  would	  trump	  the	  usage	  of	  fliers,	  and	  posters,	  due	  to	  the	  app’s	  wide	  reach	  to	  anyone	  who	  simply	  downloads	  it,	  and	  so	  would	  reduce	  the	  paper	  wastage	  for	  UBC.	  	  7 | P a g e   	  	  Economic	  	  Riders	  pay	  the	  drivers	  based	  on	  distance;	  riders	  are	  required	  to	  pay	  them	  with	  an	  exact	  amount	  of	  cash	  but	  in	  the	  future	  Skwez	  hopes	  to	  introduce	  an	  online	  transaction	  system.	  The	  implementation	  of	  Skwez	  by	  UBC	  A&R	  would	  be	  completely	  free	  of	  charge,	  and	  maintenance	  of	  the	  associated	  technology	  is	  minimal,	  ensuring	  long-­‐term	  economic	  feasibility.	  Social	  UBC	  A&R	  would	  be	  able	  to	  filter	  out	  information	  to	  spectators	  when	  people	  will	  be	  riding	  out	  to	  games	  so	  people	  can	  share	  a	  ride	  to	  and	  from	  games.	  Users	  of	  the	  app	  could	  have	  it	  linked	  to	  their	  Facebook	  account	  to	  have	  social	  interactions	  with	  their	  friends	  to	  see	  who	  will	  be	  attending	  games,	  thus	  encouraging	  others	  to	  follow	  through.	  Social	  media	  is	  a	  powerful	  motivator	  and	  a	  tool	  to	  increase	  the	  awareness	  in	  the	  community	  at	  UBC	  of	  the	  particular	  games	  available.	  The	  Skwez	  app	  allows	  people	  to	  only	  show	  as	  much	  or	  as	  little	  information	  as	  they	  wish	  on	  their	  profile,	  and	  allowing	  comments	  on	  rides	  and	  drivers	  decreases	  the	  risk	  of	  negative	  experiences	  for	  the	  users.	  	  	  Benefits for UBC	  A	  positive	  externality	  of	  the	  UBC	  transportation	  app	  would	  be	  its	  application	  towards	  individuals	  who	  seek	  transportation	  to	  and	  out	  of	  UBC,	  but	  that	  are	  not	  necessarily	  going	  to	  games.	  Because	  the	  app	  would	  be	  available	  to	  all	  who	  download	  it,	  it	  would	  allow	  individuals	  who	  need	  to	  get	  to	  UBC,	  find	  transportation	  to	  do	  so,	  through	  Skwez.	  The	  app	  would	  also	  provide	  information	  of	  how	  to	  get	  out	  of	  UBC	  and	  therefore	  could	  be	  used	  for	  individuals	  who	  need	  a	  way	  out	  of	  campus	  as	  well.	  	  Potential Challenges	  Because	  the	  app	  is	  still	  in	  development	  by	  Skwez,	  it	  would	  require	  some	  of	  UBC’s	  resources	  to	  collaborate	  with	  them	  to	  develop	  an	  app	  that	  customized	  for	  UBC.	  	  	  Stakeholders	  The	  stakeholders	  involve	  individuals	  collaborating	  with	  Skwez,	  specifically	  a	  member	  of	  UBC	  IT,	  UBC	  Transportation	  planning	  and	  UBC	  A&R.	  The	  main	  stakeholders	  of	  the	  app	  would	  be	  the	  UBC	  students,	  as	  they	  will	  be	  the	  users.	  The	  app	  could	  also	  help	  UBC	  Transportation	  Planning	  gather	  data	  about	  how	  many	  individuals	  are	  getting	  to	  campus	  more	  efficiently.	  Finally,	  the	  community	  around	  campus	  would	  see	  a	  reduction	  of	  cars	  due	  to	  the	  increase	  in	  carpooling	  as	  well.	       8 | P a g e   OPTION #3: ENCOURAGING CYCLING          Concept	  Targeting	  cycling	  is	  a	  simple	  action	  to	  encourage	  participants	  to	  reduce	  the	  carbon	  footprint	  of	  matches.	  The	  “targeting”	  or	  “encouraging”	  of	  cycling	  as	  a	  mode	  of	  transport	  will	  be	  conducted	  through:	  having	  a	  bike	  valet	  service	  available,	  incentivizing	  the	  action	  by	  providing	  a	  small	  prize	  to	  anyone	  using	  the	  valet,	  publically	  awarding	  a	  prize	  to	  a	  bicyclist	  through	  a	  random	  draw	  at	  the	  halftime	  show,	  and	  ensuring	  the	  safety	  of	  cyclists	  by	  indicating	  well-­‐lit,	  bike-­‐only	  routes.	  	  Of	  eight	  UBC	  Games	  surveyed,	  3.1%	  if	  spectators	  arrived	  by	  bike	  	  (Dolf	  2012).	  This	  is	  already	  higher	  than	  the	  1%	  of	  regular	  trips	  to	  campus	  made	  by	  bike	  (UBC	  2011).	  UBC	  A&R	  can	  use	  this	  to	  encourage	  a	  more	  fitness-­‐minded	  audience	  that	  is	  willing	  to	  use	  alternative	  transport.	  This	  would	  be	  important	  to	  harness	  in	  new	  programming.	  	  Better	  Environmentally	  Sound	  Transportation	  (BEST)	  runs	  bike	  valets	  for	  many	  events,	  small	  and	  large.	  They	  supply	  insurance,	  and	  have	  tips	  to	  offset	  costs	  through	  sponsorship	  opportunities.	  See	  http://thebicyclevalet.ca/organizers.html	  for	  more	  information.	  	  	  Impacts Environmental	  The	  environmental	  impacts	  of	  the	  project	  are	  all	  positive.	  The	  overarching	  effect	  will	  be	  reduced	  car	  use	  as	  a	  primary	  mode	  of	  transport	  to	  games	  thereby	  reducing	  the	  greenhouse	  gases	  emissions	  related	  to	  UBC	  Athletics	  Events.	  An	  indirect	  environmental	  impact	  is	  that	  a	  greater	  use	  of	  bikes	  for	  transport	  to	  games	  will	  likely	  encourage	  bicyclists	  to	  use	  this	  mode	  more	  often	  as	  well	  as	  before	  and	  after	  games,	  reducing	  the	  entire	  campus’	  GHG	  emissions	  related	  to	  other	  trips.	  	  Economic	  The	  economic	  impacts	  of	  this	  program	  would	  be	  the	  cost	  of	  bike	  valet	  supplies	  (tent,	  fencing,	  and	  racks),	  security	  to	  protect	  the	  bicycles	  (however	  this	  could	  be	  a	  volunteer),	  the	  awards,	  and	  the	  safety	  measures.	  However,	  the	  economic	  benefits	  of	  a	  new	  and	  fun	  outreach	  campaign	  would	  likely	  bring	  in	  more	  audience	  members	  and	  thus	  (at	  least	  partially)	  offset	  the	  costs.	  	  	  9 | P a g e   Social	  The	  social	  impacts	  of	  this	  initiative	  will	  be	  community	  building	  and	  community	  based	  social	  marketing.	  By	  engaging	  the	  entire	  community	  in	  encouraging	  bicyclists	  through	  the	  prizes	  given	  at	  half	  time,	  a	  community	  norm	  of	  cycling	  to	  games	  is	  developed.	  Cycling	  becomes	  a	  celebrated	  and	  positive	  action	  and	  the	  athletics	  community	  will	  begin	  to	  foster	  the	  change	  of	  mode.	  As	  well,	  by	  having	  more	  cyclists,	  the	  lobby	  for	  safer	  routes	  to	  the	  south	  campus	  facilities	  becomes	  a	  much	  stronger	  voice.	  	  	  Benefits for UBC	  A	  co-­‐benefit	  is	  that	  with	  more	  cycling	  to	  Athletics	  Events,	  more	  people	  would	  be	  encouraged	  to	  cycle	  in	  general.	  This	  culture	  of	  cycling	  fosters	  healthier	  lifestyles	  thus	  indirectly	  decreasing	  health	  costs.	  As	  well,	  a	  partnership	  with	  other	  bike	  programs	  at	  both	  UBC	  and	  beyond	  could	  be	  highly	  beneficial	  to	  UBC	  Athletics.	  These	  programs	  could	  include	  the	  AMS	  Bike	  Co-­‐Op,	  the	  Bike	  Kitchen,	  or	  the	  City	  of	  Vancouver’s	  soon-­‐to-­‐pilot	  bike-­‐share	  program	  run	  hand-­‐in-­‐hand	  with	  a	  bike-­‐share	  on	  campus.	  If	  successful,	  the	  bike	  lanes	  around	  south	  campus	  could	  be	  made	  safer,	  and	  leave	  a	  positive	  legacy	  to	  cyclists	  at	  UBC.	  	  Potential Challenges The	  potential	  challenges	  of	  such	  a	  concept	  is	  its	  longevity.	  In	  order	  to	  keep	  up	  the	  bike	  valet,	  security,	  and	  prizes,	  a	  constant	  item	  in	  the	  budget	  must	  exist.	  However,	  over	  time	  the	  prizes	  will	  not	  be	  necessary	  and	  perhaps	  parking	  services	  could	  take	  over	  the	  bike	  valet	  as	  car	  parking	  demand	  decreases.	  	  	  Stakeholders	  The	  key	  stakeholders	  in	  this	  project	  are	  the	  UBC	  Athletics	  staff,	  who	  would	  be	  implementing	  the	  program;	  Transportation	  Planning,	  which	  would	  be	  responsible	  for	  providing	  the	  additional	  bike	  racks;	  and	  Campus	  and	  Community	  planning	  who	  could	  help	  with	  improving	  the	  safety	  and	  lighting	  along	  bike	  routes.	  In	  regard	  to	  safety,	  Campus	  Security	  and	  AMS	  Safewalk	  (safebike)	  programs	  could	  also	  be	  engaged.	  	  	  	  	  10 | P a g e   OPTION #4: SHUTTLE RE-ROUTES          Concept	  According	  to	  the	  spectator-­‐staff	  travel	  survey	  (Dolf,	  2012),	  the	  results	  collected	  show	  that	  there	  is	  a	  huge	  number	  of	  people	  (exceeding	  70%)	  that	  are	  still	  travelling	  to/from	  the	  varsity	  events	  using	  transportation	  methods	  that	  leave	  a	  large	  carbon	  footprint.	  The	  amount	  of	  people	  driving	  to	  the	  games	  is	  at	  65.7%.	  	  These	  results	  were	  surveyed	  over	  8	  different	  games	  with	  6	  of	  them	  taking	  place	  at	  the	  south	  of	  the	  campus	  while	  the	  other	  two	  by	  the	  north	  bus	  loop.	  The	  results	  obtained	  uncover	  an	  important	  feature,	  which	  is	  that	  the	  number	  of	  people	  travelling	  by	  car	  to	  the	  Basketball	  event	  on	  the	  28th	  of	  October	  is	  at	  35.8%,	  which	  is	  much	  less	  than	  the	  average.	  This	  is	  likely	  because	  this	  event	  takes	  place	  at	  the	  War	  Memorial	  gym	  that	  is	  adjacent	  to	  the	  north	  bus	  loop.	  	  	  The	  number	  of	  people	  using	  their	  cars	  for	  events	  that	  are	  on	  the	  south	  side	  of	  the	  campus	  is	  significant	  because	  the	  service	  along	  Wesbrook	  is	  not	  consistent	  during	  the	  weekends,	  which	  is	  when	  most	  of	  the	  events	  take	  place.	  A	  proposed	  solution	  is	  to	  alter	  the	  bus	  routes	  of	  some	  of	  the	  community	  shuttles	  travelling	  around	  the	  campus	  so	  that	  more	  people	  can	  use	  them	  to	  get	  to	  these	  events.	  Specifically,	  shuttle	  C20	  could	  be	  routed	  to	  go	  down	  West	  Mall	  and	  Stadium	  Road,	  while	  shuttle	  C22	  could	  travel	  to	  16th	  Ave,	  down	  East	  Mall,	  and	  then	  back	  up	  Thunderbird	  Ave	  to	  continue	  the	  route	  (see	  Appendix	  C	  for	  proposed	  changes).	  These	  events	  will	  become	  more	  accessible	  for	  the	  community	  to	  engage	  in,	  therefore	  resulting	  in	  increased	  attendance/support	  for	  various	  UBC	  Thunderbird	  teams.	  	  Impacts Environmental	  Carbon	  emissions	  associated	  with	  the	  spectators	  attending	  the	  games	  will	  decrease	  dramatically	  because	  more	  people	  will	  start	  taking	  the	  bus	  therefore	  there	  are	  less	  number	  of	  cars	  on	  the	  road.	  Economic	  Spectators	  attending	  games	  will	  also	  be	  able	  to	  save	  money	  by	  leaving	  their	  cars	  at	  home	  since	  they	  will	  not	  have	  to	  pay	  for	  more	  gas.	  There	  would	  be	  no	  additional	  cost	  to	  Translink	  to	  reroute	  either	  shuttle.	  	  11 | P a g e   Social	  Some	  residents	  may	  be	  slightly	  inconvenienced	  by	  the	  proposed	  re-­‐route.	  	  Benefits to UBC	  UBC	  would	  benefit	  from	  increased	  attendance	  at	  some	  of	  the	  games	  since	  accessibility	  does	  discourage	  some	  from	  attending	  games.	  This	  would	  also	  promote	  UBC’s	  image	  towards	  becoming	  a	  more	  sustainable	  institution.	  As	  for	  Translink	  it	  would	  allow	  it	  to	  serve	  the	  public	  better	  by	  providing	  better	  service	  and	  offsetting	  costs.	  This	  would	  help	  UBC	  in	  its	  target	  to	  reduce	  emissions	  since	  this	  is	  another	  area	  that	  can	  certainly	  be	  improved	  upon	  and	  therefore	  can	  only	  yield	  positive	  results.	   Potential Challenges 	  There	  is	  a	  possibility	  that	  Translink	  will	  not	  agree	  to	  alter	  the	  shuttle	  routes.	  	   Stakeholders	  The	  people	  involved	  in	  this	  project	  would	  be	  representatives	  from	  Translink,	  individuals	  from	  the	  UBC	  Athletics	  department,	  and	  UBC	  transportation	  planning.	  	  12 | P a g e   OPTION #5: WALKING BUS         Concept  To	  encourage	  more	  people	  to	  walk	  to	  games,	  a	  coordinator	  could	  meet	  to	  walk	  groups	  of	  students/residents	  to	  the	  game,	  while	  at	  the	  same	  time	  increasing	  excitement	  for	  the	  games	  with	  spirit-­‐building	  activities	  (e.g.	  cheering).	  Volunteers	  from	  A&R	  could	  be	  assigned	  to	  strategic	  locations	  around	  campus	  (residences,	  south	  campus)	  to	  lead	  larger	  groups	  of	  people	  to	  the	  game.	  As	  they	  walk,	  the	  volunteer	  could	  engage	  them	  through	  activities	  like	  cheers	  or	  trivia.	  Although	  the	  ‘walking	  bus’	  concept	  is	  gaining	  popularity,	  there	  is	  no	  comparable	  initiative	  on	  campus.	  	  However,	  the	  initiative	  has	  been	  successful	  in	  Vancouver,	  as	  fans	  of	  the	  Vancouver	  Whitecaps	  can	  ‘March	  to	  the	  Match’	  (see	  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pvsJ7T_eaUo).	    Impacts Environmental	  There	  would	  be	  zero	  emissions	  associated	  with	  this	  initiative,	  making	  it	  a	  very	  sustainable	  option.	  It	  is	  intended	  that	  some	  people	  that	  would	  normally	  drive	  or	  take	  the	  bus	  would	  instead	  walk,	  thereby	  reducing	  overall	  emissions.	  	  Economic	  Volunteers	  would	  gain	  valuable	  experience	  in	  community-­‐building.	  Those	  who	  choose	  to	  join	  the	  ‘walking	  bus’	  rather	  than	  bus/drive	  would	  save	  money.	  Also,	  A&R	  may	  increase	  revenues	  from	  increased	  attendance.  	  Social	  The	  social	  impacts	  would	  be	  significant.	  Firstly,	  attendance	  at	  the	  games	  would	  likely	  increase.	  Those	  that	  do	  attend	  would	  feel	  a	  better	  sense	  of	  connectedness	  through	  a	  shared	  experience.	  Fun	  competitions	  could	  be	  introduced	  at	  the	  game	  to	  further	  this	  cohesion,	  and	  provide	  a	  more	  positive	  experience	  overall.	  Lastly,	  safety	  of	  pedestrians	  would	  be	  increased	  through	  group	  travel.	  The	  exercise	  would	  provide	  immediate	  benefits,	  and	  a	  healthy	  lifestyle	  would	  be	  encouraged.	  	  Benefits to UBC Internal	  capacity	  would	  be	  developed	  to	  use	  the	  same	  for	  other	  events	  /	  departments	  on	  campus.	  UBC	  would	  be	  able	  to	  add	  this	  transport	  to	  its	  list	  of	  sustainability	  achievements.	  	   13 | P a g e   Potential Challenges This	  may	  not	  be	  an	  option	  for	  those	  who	  are	  not	  able	  to	  keep	  pace	  with	  the	  group	  (elderly,	  small	  children),	  although	  they	  could	  still	  attend	  independently.	  There	  may	  also	  be	  issues	  of	  increased	  noise	  along	  the	  chosen	  route.	    Stakeholders Volunteers	  at	  A&R	  would	  be	  needed.	  Student	  groups	  in	  residences	  and	  the	  University	  Neighbourhoods	  Association	  could	  also	  play	  a	  significant	  role	  14 | P a g e   OPTIONS EVALUATION  The	  options	  for	  alternative	  transportation	  to	  A&R	  games	  presented	  in	  the	  preceding	  pages	  were	  analyzed	  against	  different	  criteria	  and	  indicators	  using	  a	  rating	  system.	  To	  effectively	  evaluate	  the	  options	  proposed,	  criteria	  were	  divided	  into	  three	  categories:	  environmental,	  economic	  and	  social	  impacts.	  Each	  of	  these	  categories	  has	  its	  own	  indicators	  with	  the	  performance	  of	  each	  option	  proposed	  measured	  against	  each	  indicator.	  	  See	  Appendix	  A	  for	  the	  full	  matrix.	  	  Because	  there	  is	  no	  hard	  data	  available	  to	  gauge	  the	  effectiveness	  of	  the	  criteria,	  relative	  indicators	  were	  used,	  rather	  than	  specific	  or	  absolute	  ones.	  Generally,	  if	  an	  indicator	  had	  no	  effect	  on	  the	  criteria,	  it	  was	  assigned	  a	  0.	  If	  the	  effect	  was	  positive,	  it	  received	  a	  score	  of	  1	  (or	  2),	  and	  if	  the	  effect	  was	  negative,	  it	  was	  assigned	  a	  score	  of	  -­‐1.	  Some	  indicators	  were	  originally	  Yes/No,	  so	  in	  this	  way,	  if	  the	  option	  received	  a	  Yes,	  it	  was	  assigned	  a	  score	  of	  1,	  or	  a	  0	  if	  it	  received	  a	  No.	  	  See	  Appendix	  B	  for	  the	  full	  options	  evaluation	  matrix.	  Because	  the	  project	  brief	  listed	  environmental	  impact	  as	  the	  primary	  goal,	  focusing	  on	  reducing	  greenhouse	  gas	  emissions,	  environmental	  criteria	  were	  weighted	  at	  40%,	  while	  economic	  and	  social	  considerations	  were	  weighted	  at	  30%	  each,	  for	  a	  total	  of	  100%.	  	  	  Table	  2:	  Individual	  Scores	  for	  each	  criteria	  Criteria	   Option	  1-­‐streaming	   Option	  2	  -­‐	  app	   Option	  3	  -­‐	  cycling	   Option	  4	  -­‐	  shuttle	  Option	  5	  -­‐	  walking	  bus	  ENVIRONMENTAL	   	   	   	   	   	  Reduced	  GHG	  emissions	   3	   2	   2	   0	   2	  Indirect	  Environmental	  Impact	   1	   1	   1	   0	   0	  ECONOMIC	   	   	   	   	   	  Professional	  Development	   1	   1	   1	   0	   1	  Contribution	  to	  the	  development	  of	  local	  economies	   1	   1	   1	   0	   1	  Affordability	  for	  UBC	   -­‐2	   0	   0	   0	   0	  Affordability	  for	  spectators	   1	   0	   0	   0	   0	  Infrastructure	  development	   1	   1	   2	   0	   0	  SOCIAL	   	   	   	   	   	  Attendance	  	   -­‐1	   1	   0	   1	   1	  Collective	  Travel	   0	   0	   1	   1	   1	  Awareness	  -­‐	  knowledge	  and	  action	   1	   1	   1	   0	   1	  Accessibility	   1	   1	   0	   1	   0	  Healthier	  	   0	   0	   1	   0	   1	  15 | P a g e    Figure	  1:	  Aggregate	  scores	  for	  each	  category,	  as	  a	  percentage	  of	  best	  score	     	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	   	  Depending	  on	  the	  priorities	  of	  the	  department	  of	  Athletics	  and	  Recreation,	  one	  of	  the	  categories	  can	  take	  precedence	  over	  the	  other.	  	  The	  UBC	  Climate	  Action	  Plan	  (2009a)	  states	  that	  “the	  University	  of	  British	  Columbia	  will	  advance	  solutions	  on	  campus	  that	  eliminate	  emissions”.	  If	  the	  Athletics	  &	  Recreation	  department	  places	  an	  emphasis	  supporting	  UBC’s	  long-­‐term	  environmental	  objectives,	  then	  the	  best	  option	  is	  to	  stream	  the	  games/events	  online.	  	  	  The	  report	  Place	  and	  Promise:	  the	  UBC	  Plan	  (2009b)	  contains	  as	  an	  action	  “Develop	  and	  implement	  campus	  and	  community	  plans	  that	  promote	  pedestrian	  friendly	  campuses	  with	  an	  integrated	  transportation	  infrastructure	  and	  a	  lively	  public	  realm.”	  Given	  the	  desire	  for	  transportation	  infrastructure,	  the	  cycling	  initiatives	  were	  found	  to	  be	  more	  economically	  sustainable	  in	  the	  long	  term.	  	  	  	  The	  Place	  and	  Promise	  report	  also	  indicates	  that	  UBC	  would	  like	  to	  “Foster	  social	  sustainability	  through	  teaching,	  research,	  and	  community	  engagement	  that	  promote	  vibrant	  human	  interaction	  and	  community	  cohesion.”	  The	  analysis	  shows	  that	  for	  this	  reason,	  the	  walking	  bus	  would	  be	  most	  effective	  with	  respect	  to	  social	  sustainability.	  	  	  Some	  options	  require	  more	  resources	  to	  implement	  –	  namely	  the	  streaming	  option	  –	  while	  others	  are	  less	  costly	  to	  implement	  –	  such	  as	  the	  walking	  bus.	  This	  is	  important	  if	  human	  or	  financial	  resources	  are	  scarce.	  	  While	  various	  options	  have	  been	  proposed	  under	  different	  scenarios,	  these	  options	  are	  not	  mutually	  exclusive.	  This	  project	  recommends	  that	  all	  proposed	  options	  be	  undertaken.	  	  We	  also	  recommend	  that	  UBC	  Athletics	  continue	  research	  in	  to	  different	  travel	  modes	  in	  order	  to	  collect	  data	  and	  monitor	  trends	  to	  allow	  for	  continuous	  improvement.	  	  0	  20	  40	  60	  80	  100	  120	  Environmental	  Sustainability	  Economic	  Sustainability	  Social	  Sustainability	  OVERALL	  TOTAL	  16 | P a g e   REFERENCES  City	  of	  Vancouver	  (2010a).	  Planning:	  City	  Plans	  -­‐	  West	  Point	  Grey	  (WPG)	  Community	  Vision.	  Retrieved	  from	  http://vancouver.ca/commsvcs/planning/cityplan/visions/wpg/index.htm.	  	  	  City	  of	  Vancouver	  (2010b).	  West	  Point	  Grey	  (WPG)	  Community	  Vision.	  Retrieved	  from	  	  http://vancouver.ca/commsvcs/planning/cityplan/visions/wpg/pdf/wpgvision.pdf.	  	  	  Dolf	  ,	  M.,	  A.Vigneault,	  S.	  Storey,	  R.	  Sianchuk,	  P.	  Teehan,	  S.	  Zhang	  and	  T.	  Adams	  (2011).	  Measuring	  the	  Climate	  Change	  Potential	  Impacts	  of	  a	  UBC	  Thunderbirds	  Men’s	  Basketball	  Game.	  Retrieved	  from	  http://css.ubc.ca/projects/ubc-­‐athletics-­‐recreation	  	  	  Dolf,	  M.	  (2012).	  A	  Life	  Cycle	  Assessment	  framework	  to	  assess	  the	  environmental	  impact	  of	  UBC	  Athletics	  &	  Recreation	  ‘Thunderbirds’	  teams,	  events,	  and	  venues.	  UBC	  Centre	  for	  Sport	  and	  Sustainability.	  	  	  	  UBC	  (2003).	  Campus	  Transit	  Plan.	  Retrieved	  from	  http://trek.ubc.ca/transportation-­‐planning/files/2010/08/CampusTransitPlan.pdf	  	  	  UBC	  (2009a).	  Climate	  Action	  Plan.	  Retrieved	  from	  http://sustain.ubc.ca/sites/sustain.ubc.ca/files/uploads/pdfs/Plans%20and%20Reports/UBC%20Vancouver%20CAP%20Final.pdf	  	  	  UBC	  (2009b).	  Place	  and	  Promise:	  The	  UBC	  Plan.	  Retrieved	  from	  http://strategicplan.ubc.ca/files/2009/11/UBCStrategicPlan.pdf	  	  UBC	  (2010a).	  Transportation	  Consultation	  2010	  -­‐	  Option	  1.	  Retrieved	  from	  http://www.planning.ubc.ca/vancouver_home/consultations/transportation_consultation_2010/articles372.php	  	  	  UBC	  (2010b).	  Transportation	  Consultation	  2010,	  Phase	  2.	  Retrieved	  from	  http://www.planning.ubc.ca/database/rte/files/Final_TransportationConsultation_Phase2.pdf	  	  	  UBC	  (2011).	  Fall	  2010	  Transportation	  Status	  Report.	  Retrieved	  from	  http://trek.ubc.ca/files/2011/04/TSR_Fall2010_03Aprl11.pdf	  	  	  

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