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Baseline inventory of the UBC food system : healthy food situation plan : audit of the top 10 vending… Ma, Vicki; Phipps, Grace; Tomczky, Matthew; Yiu, Camilla; Yp, Nancy Apr 30, 2012

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UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report       Baseline Inventory of the UBC Food System: Healthy Food Situation Plan Audit of the Top 10 Vending Machines  Vicki Ma Grace Phipps Matthew Tomczky Camilla Yiu Nancy Yp University of British Columbia LFS 450 April 2012         Disclaimer: “UBC SEEDS provides students with the opportunity to share the findings of their studies, as well as their opinions, conclusions and recommendations with the UBC community. The reader should bear in mind that this is a student project/report and is not an official document of UBC. Furthermore readers should bear in mind that these reports may not reflect the current status of activities at UBC. We urge you to contact the research persons mentioned in a report or the SEEDS Coordinator about the current status of the subject matter of a project/report”. Baseline Inventory of the UBC Food System: Healthy Food Situation Plan  Audit of the Top 10 Vending Machines The aim of this project is to promote a sustainable and healthy UBC Vancouver campus food system through the completion of an audit of the top 10 selling vending machines. The audit enabled us to provide recommendations to stakeholders who will facilitate sales of healthy vending machine snacks on campus in adherence to the Healthier Choices in Vending Machines in BC Public Buildings Policy. The audits of the top 10 vending machines, the healthy snack food trial run at Gage Residence’s vending machine and a Natural Source Vending machine at Creekside Community Center, were compiled onto an Excel Spreadsheet. The Brand Name Food List website was used to categorize vending machine items into food groups and “choose most”, “choose sometimes”, “choose least”, and “not recommended,” according to BC’s vending guidelines. Interviews with stakeholders were done face-to-face and via email, and a literature search was conducted using Google Scholar, PubMed and MedLine. Findings show that on average, 59% of items in the top ten vending machines are “not recommended”, 26% are “choose least”, 15% are “choose sometimes”, and no items are “choose most”. Further, the vending Checkmark system is either not applied or incorrectly applied in all vending machines. UBC Food Services (UBCFS) is five years into their ten year contract with VendMaster and the existing terms of the contract do not require UBC to adhere to the Healthier Choices in Vending Machines in BC Public Buildings Policy until the contract in finished. There are Scenario 1 Group 1:  Vicki Ma Grace Phipps, Matthew Tomczky Camilla Yiu Nancy Yp 1     many barriers to the implementation of healthy snacks in vending machines including: taste, cost, and packaging. Recommendations that can help UBCFS move toward adherence to the policy are: increasing the availability and decreasing the prices of “choose most” and “choose sometimes” items with the implementation of a colour-coding system. In addition, future LFS 450 students can conduct consumer surveys to determine snack preferences and coordinate taste tests of new products. During the next five years, we hope to see progress made toward adhering to the BC Vending Guidelines and the increased sales of healthy snacks from vending machines on the UBC Vancouver campus. 2  Table of Contents Introduction .................................................................................................................................................. 3 Methodology ................................................................................................................................................. 5 Findings and Outcomes ................................................................................................................................. 8 Discussion.................................................................................................................................................... 11 Stakeholder Recommendations .................................................................................................................. 14 Scenario Evaluation & Feedback ................................................................................................................. 15 Group Reflection ......................................................................................................................................... 16 Scenario Recommendations ....................................................................................................................... 17 Conclusion ................................................................................................................................................... 18 Media Release ............................................................................................................................................. 19 Reference .................................................................................................................................................... 20 Appendix ..................................................................................................................................................... 22                3  Introduction This paper’s primary purpose is to promote a sustainable and healthy campus food system by informing our stakeholders, students and faculty on the findings and recommendations from auditing the top 10 selling vending machines at the University of British Columbia Vancouver (UBCV) campus. There are over 70 vending machines located throughout the UBCV campus. These vending machines are used by thousands of students, faculty, and visitors weekly and are a popular choice in the evenings when nearby food outlets are closed (V. Wakefield, personal communication, March 21, 2012). To optimize profits, UBC is not following the “Nutritional Guidelines for Vending Machines in BC Public Buildings” that was introduced in 2006 (from now on referred to as the BC Vending Guidelines). The policy states that “vending machines in Public Buildings will contain no food or beverage choices from the “Not Recommended” or “Choose Least” categories according to the Nutritional Guidelines” (Ministry of Labour and Citizens’ Services, 2007, p.1). The policy further states that “at least 50% of all food and beverage choices within a bank of vending machines in any given location in a building covered by this policy must be from the “Choose Most” category” (Ministry of Labour and Citizens’ Services, 2007, p.2). This is a good example of how a policy that is not fully enforced can become shadowed by the drive to optimize profit. Most global food systems are driven by profit. Policies are in place to protect consumers and the environment from being taken advantage of by large corporations. If a policy fails, then the cost a local community pays becomes far greater than the benefits of that particular food system (Rocha, 2006). Some examples of policy failures globally are water degradation, soil erosion, and deforestation resulting in resources being used faster than they can be replaced (Rocha, 2006).  North American food corporations such as Pepsi and Coca-Cola also hold a lot of influence over the consumption of unhealthy products such as soft drinks and ingredients, 4  such as high-fructose corn syrup. This is due to the sheer size and political influence of these corporations (O’Brien, 2010). The UBC food system’s vending machines have a disproportionate amount of unhealthy products from these companies and others, which generate great profit.  Through the audit, collected graphical and quantitative data were presented to UBC Food Services (UBCFS) on how profit has contributed to a disproportionate amount of unhealthy food options in the top 10 selling vending machines. We feel that UBC, a heavily research based facility, is making a difference to the BC economy because they contribute 10 billion dollars to BC economy annually (UBC Public Affairs, 2009). According to the 2012 Times Higher Education Reputation Ranking, UBC has been rated as the top 25th school in the world (UBC Public Affairs, 2012). Domestically and globally, UBC has the power to influence sustainability projects at other institutions by setting a good example. One of these is the new Student Union Building (SUB) at UBC that will be a great hub for implementing sustainable projects such as the rooftop garden and healthy vending machines. We are UBC students investigating the vending machine component of UBC’s food system. We are all aware of nutritious, sustainable foods as we each have four years of education in this area and understand the complexity and rigidity of food systems as a whole. Through preliminary research we found that we cannot make a direct impact, but rather we can build a solid foundation where our efforts can support future LFS 450 students in implementing the BC Vending Guidelines. Our group is divided between completely eliminating unhealthy options versus minimizing unhealthy options in vending machines. A vending machine is a great alternative for a snack and sometimes an unhealthy snack is a better option than an unhealthy meal. The obesity epidemic however, tells us that any unhealthy options can have a negative 5  impact. As a group, we value protecting the health of the consumer while educating them on how each dollar spent on vending machines dictates the outcome of what is ultimately stocked in it. The sales of unhealthy products will continue to supply unhealthy products.  Having more healthy options in the vending machines will encourage the consumer to purchase a healthier item though greater selection. Our group agrees with all of the points in the UBC Food System Project (UBCFSP) Vision Statement.  We see that throughout the UBC campus, some of these goals are being reached. We believe that with determination and patience, all of the goals can be reached. However, some requires a long time frame, such as having the system be energy and emission neutral, as well as having all food to be locally grown, produced and processed. The audit of the top 10 vending machines should raise awareness of the situation at hand.  We hope that by including more healthy items in the vending machines, we may then trigger a change towards more local and sustainable options in years to come. Methodology A literature review was conducted through Google Scholar, PubMed and MedLine. This was done to learn more about healthier vending machine options, the current situation of vending machines in BC schools, and promotional strategies used to implement healthier options in vending machines. Key search words used were: healthy, vending machines, schools, strategies, policies, and interventions. Important sources that were found during the literature search included: Act Now BC, Ministry of Labour and Citizens’ Services, San Diego and Imperial Regional Nutrition Network, and Dietitians of Canada. A face-to-face interview with Victoria Wakefield, Purchasing Manager for UBCFS, took place on February 8, 2012 at IRC Woodward lecture room 1 to get a sense of the current 6  situation of the vending business at UBC. Email questionnaires were conducted to further understand the operations of the vending business. The first email was sent on January 25, 2012 to clarify the top 10 vending machine locations; response was received on January 29, 2012. A second email was sent on February 16, 2012 to request a product list from the UBC vending supplier and a list of times of high volume vending purchases, as well as to request an opportunity to implement a trial run of healthy options in one or more of the top 10 vending machines to include in our project. A response was received on February 29, 2012, which included the contact for the vending machine supplier, VendMaster Services. VendMaster was emailed on February 29, 2012 to request a product list. This was needed to know which products were available for supplying the vending machines. A sample product list from VendMaster was received on March 5, 2012. A third email was sent to V. Wakefield on March 21, 2012 to determine the status of the contract with VendMaster and to find out if the new SUB is part of the current contract. An email response was received on March 21, 2012. A fourth email was sent on March 27, 2012 to ask if she had any intentions to renew the contract with VendMaster; a response was received on the same day. An inventory of the top 10 selling vending machines on the UBCV campus was compiled to identify the types of snack foods being sold to consumers and whether or not UBC is adhering to the BC Vending Guidelines. Information such as product name, size (grams), price, and whether if the health Checkmark System was in place were collected and compiled onto a Microsoft Excel Spreadsheet (see Appendix A). The inventory was compiled over a two-week time frame, between the weeks of January 17, 2012 to January 31, 2012, at the following locations: Aquatics Centre, Brock Hall, Buchanan 2nd (B), Common Residence (Marine Drive), Gage Residence, Woodward, Koerner Library, SUB Pizza, Vanier Place, and Winter Sports 7  (Thunderbird). The Brand Name Food List (n.d) was used to categorize the inventory into “choose most”, “choose sometimes”, “choose least” and “not recommended” categories according to BC’s nutrition standards for schools and public buildings. Food items were also categorized into food groups: fruits and vegetables, grains, nuts and seeds, or candies with reference to the same website. This information was transferred into bar graphs to visualize the proportion of the food items in each category and whether or not UBC has achieved the BC Vending Guidelines. This completed the audit of the inventory.  Research was also completed to identify other vending machine suppliers that could offer healthy options. Through a Google search, we came across Natural Source Vending, a BC based vending company, which claims to offer a wide selection of products that adhere to the “BC’s 2007 Healthy Food and Beverage Guideline” (Natural Source Vending, 2010). We contacted them via their website on March 8, 2012, regarding the locations of their vending machines with a response received on the same day. Audits of the new vending machine at Gage Residence, undergoing a healthier food option trial run, and a vending machine by Natural Source Vending at Creekside Community Centre, were likewise compiled on March 27, 2012. The same inventory and auditing format for the top 10 vending machines was used. These audits were done for comparison purposes. Lastly, to evaluate our scenario, a meeting was scheduled on March 28, 2012 via email with V. Wakefield, for April 3, 2012 at 1:15pm. This meeting was called to present her with our audits, findings, and recommendations for the project. Her feedback was collected as an evaluation of our project. A strength in our method was taking the initiative to do audits of the vending machines at Gage Residence, undergoing a healthy option trial run, and the Creekside Community Centre. 8  These audits were done to help us develop a more rounded research and realistic recommendations.  A weakness in our method included poor time management in arranging email interviews with V. Wakefield. We were not persistent enough in contacting our stakeholder by email. Rather than follow up in a couple days to obtain a response, we often delayed for a week or more. If we had have been more timely in our follow ups or had have contacted her directly via phone interview, we may have been able to delve deeper into this scenario and possibly allowed us to take part in the vending machine trial run at Gage Residence, originally suggested by V. Wakefield in our first interview. Another weakness was not being able to obtain a full product list from VendMaster due to the competitive nature of the Vending business. Findings and Outcomes  In 2005, the Ministries of Health and Education of Act Now BC (2008) published the Guidelines for Food and Beverage Sales in BC Schools. These guidelines have played a large role in promoting healthy eating in primary and secondary schools through education and healthy food interventions. The guidelines were to be fully implemented by schools by 2009. All food categorized as “not recommended” or “choose least” has been completely eliminated in primary and secondary school vending machines (Ministry of Labour and Citizens’ Services, 2007). These programs and changes in vending machines have not yet been widely implemented in post-secondary schools and public buildings in BC. The government has also developed the Checkmark System to assist consumers in making informed choices at the point of sale. A legend should be located on the vending machines to help consumers identify healthier options and assist them in making more informed decisions about nutrition. Two check marks stand for “choose most” and one check mark stands 9  for “choose sometimes” (Act Now BC, 2008). We found that the Checkmark System was applied in only half of the top 10 vending machines: Koerner, Woodward, Thunderbird, Buchanan 2nd (B) and Common Residence (Marine Drive). In these machines, two check marks were not to be found on any products, rather only one, and some were incorrectly labelled (see Appendix A).  The Ministry of Labour and Citizens’ Services (2007) has produced the Healthier Choices in Vending Machines in B.C. Public Buildings Policy along with nutritional guidelines for vending machines. The purpose of the policy is to promote an environment that encourages healthier eating by increasing the range of healthier food and beverage choices in public building vending machines. Post-secondary schools with vending machines located on property owned or leased by the public are required to follow this policy by 2009, excluding contracts signed before this date. Vendors are also made aware of this policy and have access to the information via the Ministry of Labour and Citizens’ Services website (2007). At present, UBCFS is five years into their 10 year contract with VendMaster (V. Wakefield, personal communication, March 21, 2012). The existing terms of the contract does not require UBCFS to follow the BC Vending Guidelines until the expiration date (Ministry of Labour and Citizens’ Services, 2007). Currently, the top 10 vending machines do not follow the BC Vending Guidelines, with more than 50% of the items categorized as “not recommended”. None of these machines stock any “choose most” items. On average, products in the top 10 vending machines are 15% “choose sometimes”, 26% “choose least, and 59% “not recommended”. The sample product list supplied by VendMaster contained 19% “choose most”, 20% “choose sometimes”, 20% “choose least” and 41% “not recommended” items. A summary of the percentages of items in each of the categories in each vending machine can be found in Appendix B. 10   According to Brand Name Food List (n.d), items from the vending machines are also classified into food groups. Only four vending machines (Sub Pizza, Gage Residence, Thunderbird and Brock Hall) carry items from the nuts and seeds food group, whereas the remaining six only sell items from the other three food groups.  The vending machine at Gage Residence, undergoing a healthy options trial run contained 7% “choose most” items, 36% “choose sometimes” items, 10% “choose least” items, and 47% “not recommended” items (see Appendix B). There was a significant increase in “choose most” and “choose sometime” items in comparison to the top 10 vending machines. The audit of the Creekside Community Center vending machine provided a good example of what a vending machine closer to adhering to the BC Vending Guidelines would look like. The vending machine had 28% “choose most”, 32% “choose sometimes”, 28% “choose least” and 12% “not recommended” items (see Appendix B).   There is no guarantee that the contract with VendMaster will be renewed in five years since the vending economy will be different, in addition, the fact that the new SUB vending machines will be managed by the UBC Alma Mater Society (AMS) rather than UBCFS (V. Wakefield, personal communication, March 27, 2012).  Promotional strategies were identified through the literature searches which were implemented in other schools to help encourage sales of healthier snacks from vending machines. Strategies to improve the sales of healthy products included: using labels and signs indicating which items are healthy, placement of healthier items at eye level, reducing the price of healthier options while increasing the price of unhealthy options, posting signage to promote new healthy snack options, and using a colour-coding system (San Diego and Imperial Regional Nutrition Network, n.d). A colour-coding system can enables consumers to quickly identify healthier 11  snacks and includes labeling of lower fat snacks and arranging food items into health categories with colour coded price tags. For example, all “choose most” items will be placed on the top row with green tags and signage, all “choose sometimes” and “choose least”  items on another row with yellow tags and signage, and all “not recommended” items on the bottom row with red tags and signage. A legend can be provided on the side of the vending machine to educate the consumer. In addition, a research study done in Ontario High Schools found that price, value, and taste still remain to be the major barriers to implementing these changes even though students say they preferred to have real healthy snacks such as yogurt, fruit, and vegetables. (Callaghan & Mandich, 2010). Discussion From our findings, we were able to determine which of the top 10 vending machines had the most healthy options and the most unhealthy options. Marine Drive Residence contained the highest percentage of items not from the “not recommended” category (52%), according to the 2011 vending sales, (see Appendix B), and it ranked first in sales. This leads us to assume that consumers are not against the idea of healthier snack items. The most unhealthy snack items however, were found at Aquatic Front, holding 74% of “not recommended” items. This vending machine was the third top selling machine (UBCFS, 2011).  We found that the proportion/size of a product affects which BC Vending Guidelines category it falls into. For example, a 48 gram bag of Lays Classic chips is categorized as “not recommended”, but a 28g bag of the same product is classified as “choose least” (Brand Name Food List, n.d). This shows that food items are not categorized by its nutritional value. This is important to note because if items are labeled according to their categories on the machines, it 12  may mislead consumers who are unaware of portion control, to believe that all Lays Classic chips are “choose least”, even when not purchasing from a vending machine. The Checkmark System policy states that one check mark represents “choose sometimes” and two check marks represent “choose most” (Ministry of Labour and Citizens’ Services, 2007). In the top 10 vending machines, the health Checkmark System is not being implemented correctly; one check mark is being used on items classified as “not recommended”. This problem occurs when the VendMaster staff restocks a different item in the place of one that did have a check mark, but forgets to change the check mark displayed. This misrepresents the products and promotes unhealthy choices to consumers who believe they are purchasing an item that is categorized as “choose sometimes”. It also creates an issue with respect to the sales of unhealthy items because it increases their supply and demand. This further decreases the chance to encourage consumers to choose healthier items. Between now and till the contract with VendMaster expires, the only available choices to put into the vending machines are what VendMaster offers. Implementing healthier changes is difficult when there are a limited number of healthy options to choose from. The best alternatives to high fat items are the baked chips and selected granola bars which are currently sold in the top 10 vending machines and are placed at eye level, a common strategy used to promote healthier items.  Factors that influence the implementation of healthier snack options into vending machines include the size and packaging of products, their cost, and their taste. Healthy items are often real foods that are not packaged in a format that is compatible with the spiral rings that vending machines have to store their products in. Snacks that are lower in fat and sugar and higher in nutritional value are often more expensive than conventional snacks which deters 13  consumers from buying the healthier option. Taste also must be considered when determining which products consumers will choose to purchase. If the selection offered does not satisfy students’ tastes, they will likely purchase from other venues which will affect profits. Possible ways to overcome these barriers are to decrease prices of healthier items in comparison to unhealthy items, as well as conducting taste tests of new products. The strengths of our project include the success of our assessment to meet our objective and our ability to make realistic recommendations to our stakeholders based on our findings. Limitations of our audit, on the other hand, were the uncontrollable variability of the food items in the vending machines and the fact that it only covered the top 10 selling vending machines. The top ten vending machines may not have given a full representation of the food items regularly stocked and sold from these machines and provided us with the full picture of the status of products in all vending machines on the UBCV campus. The trial run vending machine at Gage Residence for example, was not included in our original audit. Although our assessment may not represent the entire vending machine patterns at UBC, it does tell us that consumers at UBC purchase mostly “not recommended” items as they are the most common items found in the top 10 selling vending machines. This increases the demand of these items from large corporations creating a never-ending cycle of unhealthy snack food supply and demand.  We feel that vending machines are not a sustainable aspect of the food systems. They are associated with unhealthy snack items and consumers go to vending machines with the intention of purchasing items such as chips and candy bars. We feel an alternative option would be to consider implementing vending machines that dispense refrigerated foods such as: fruits, vegetables, and yogurt. These items may appeal to students when stores are closed and have no access to obtaining real food since vending machines are used most, after other store venues have 14  closed (V. Wakefield, personal communication, February 29, 2012). We understand however, that once a system is in place, it is very difficult to remove and replace it with an entirely new one. It is more realistic to modify parts slowly until a desired outcome is achieved. It is possible that if it is demonstrated that there is demand for and profit to be made by selling snacks with higher nutritional value, both from a financial and a social responsibility perspective, vending machine companies would be presented with an incentive to promote and sell healthier products. This could pressure the food industry to manufacture healthy snacks for vending machines which could improve the UBC food system as a whole. Stakeholder Recommendations   Recommendations to our stakeholder to implement over the summer of 2012 include: increasing the availability of “choose most” products in the top ten vending machines, decreasing the prices of the “choose sometimes” and “choose most” products while increasing the prices of the “choose least” and “not recommended” products, and implementing the color-coding system mentioned in the findings section. Greater availability and lower prices on targeted food items from vending machines can increase purchases of these items (San Diego and Imperial Regional Nutrition Network, n.d). This can start encouraging consumers to choose healthier options now and slowly ease them into change after the contract ends in 2017.  During the next 5 years of UBCFS’s contract with VendMaster, we suggest monitoring this company’s selection of “choose most” products to see if it increases. If it does not, we suggest looking into a different vending supplier that can help UBCFS better meet BC’s Vending Guidelines for schools and public buildings. This is not an ideal scenario however, as VendMaster is a valued, local supplier that allows great flexibility in the products stocked in their machines, but it is one that should be kept in mind.  15  We recommend that the UBCFS coordinator and the SEEDS office contact Victoria Wakefield over the summer to determine which projects can be done for UBCFS by next year’s LFS 450 class. Based on the stakeholder feedback meeting, there are more ways for these groups to work together to improve the availability of healthy snacks and drinks in vending machines.  Scenario Evaluation & Feedback  After presenting V. Wakefield with the status of the top 10 vending machines based on BC’s Vending Guidelines, she wanted to know our opinions on the guidelines. We feel that the strictness of the guidelines make them hard to reach in vending machines. Vending machine products are not whole foods; they are snack foods. Most of them are therefore lacking in the qualities needed to be classified as “choose most”.   V. Wakefield was not concerned with the fact that we did not delve into the findings on the proportions of food groups being offered in the top ten vending machines. She was in fact surprised to hear BC Vending Guidelines classify vending machine snack foods as any of the food groups, especially fruits and vegetables (see Appendix A). The first feedback question V. Wakefield posed was: “What is missing personally from the vending machines that you would buy?” (Personal communication, April 4, 2012). Mat described his experience at the Gage Residence vending machine undergoing the healthy snack food trial run. He determined that he could buy a balanced snack for about five or six dollars including: beef jerky for essential protein, nuts for omega-3 fatty acids, and a bag of baked chips for carbohydrate. This availability makes the healthy Gage machine a great improvement to the top 10 vending machines as well as a good beginning to making changes to improve the availability of healthy snacks in vending machines. 16   V. Wakefield was pleased with the realistic nature of the recommendations for both UBCFS and future LFS 450 classes. She mentioned that she was particularly interested in trying the method of increasing the prices of unhealthy snacks while lowering the prices of healthy snacks, as well as in working with the UBCFS coordinator and the SEEDS office to enlist the help of future LFS 450 students. Due to the success of our findings, V. Wakefield is interested in having next year’s LFS 450 students do a similar inventory and audit of UBC’s Coca-Cola pop vending machines. This was very exciting to us, as we believe in how dangerous aspartame is to our health and in the contribution of high-fructose corn syrup to obesity.  V. Wakefield also mentioned that she will be meeting with VendMaster to present them with our findings. UBCFS enjoys working with VendMaster in terms of sustainability because it is a local, family owned business, which provides greater flexibility as compared to multinational corporations. This means that come September 2012, we should see changes to the top 10 vending machines, such as price changes, being implemented. Overall V. Wakefield believes this project to be a great foundation to work with and build upon. Group Reflection Our team believes that in terms of health, vending machines are not a sustainable part of the food systems. Vending machines do not provide a large selection of foods high in essential nutrients, such as fiber or iron, while providing too many products with high fat and sodium contents. This contributes to the development of chronic diseases, such as obesity and heart disease. Health unfortunately, is only one aspect of sustainability. Vending machine sales contribute greatly to the financial sustainability of UBCFS since UBCFS is a self-sustaining organization.  We therefore found it challenging to suggest changing 17  the products being sold from the top ten vending machines when we were unsure of the financial outcomes. A test run is therefore necessary before making these changes; something our group did not have time to conduct.  We were successful in informing V. Wakefield of the status of the top 10 vending machines in terms of meeting the Nutritional Guidelines for Vending Machines in Public Buildings. This allowed us to make realistic recommendations based on our research which were well received by our stakeholder and will be implemented over the summer.  Scenario Recommendations Future generations of LFS 450 classes should work with UBCFS over the next five years to help them meet the BC Vending Guidelines. This process should begin with next year’s LFS 450 students selecting products offered by VendMaster which are in the “choose sometimes” and “choose most” categories and developing a survey around these items to determine which ones consumers at UBC would purchase based on taste/desire, cost, and nutritional quality. This year’s class should also develop promotional signage for the products chosen by consumers, to promote the healthier products once put into the vending machines for a trial run. The trial run should be conducted either by next year’s LFS 450 class, if time permits, or the class of 2014. This will allow time during the last years of the contract with VendMaster to either, re-do test runs, if the first was unsuccessful, with either different products or promotional strategies. Or if the test run is a success, VendMaster can implement changes in all vending machines. If a new vending machine supplier will be signed in five years to come, we suggest requesting that the vendor provide samples of their new products for a taste test. Have future LFS 450 students help conduct a taste test of the new products to ascertain consumer’s likes and 18  dislikes, as taste influences a consumer’s choice in purchasing food. Taste tests can demonstrate to consumers that tasty, healthy foods can be found in a vending machine.  We recommend that the LFS teaching team contact AMS to include them in future scenarios pertaining to healthy snacks and drinks in vending machines. The AMS will be able to sign vending machine contracts to have these machines in the new SUB. It is important that these machines are able to meet the BC Vending Guidelines and future LFS classes could help with this. Conclusion An audit of the top 10 selling vending machines on the UBC Vancouver campus has been completed to inform UBC Food Services of how they are doing in providing healthy snack options. Our findings have been well received by our stakeholder and some recommendations will be implemented by this September 2012.  Improvements based on these findings will help improve the health of UBC’s consumers and therefore the sustainability of the UBC food system.         19  Media Release  UBC Food System Project  April 2012  Baseline Inventory of the UBC Food System:  Healthy Food Situation Assessment and Action. Audit of the Top 10 Selling Vending Machine                           An enthusiastic group of hard working LFS students were chosen to audit the top 10 selling vending machines on the UBC campus. This audit was done to determine the portions of food that are categorized into the choose most, choose sometimes, choose least and not recommended categories according to the “Nutritional Guidelines for Vending Machines in B.C. Public Buildings”. Through the audit, quantitative and graphical data was collected and presented to UBC Food Services which purchases the products that go into the vending machines on the UBC campus. The LFS students’ recommendations encouraged UBC Food Services to roll out another trial of vending machine containing healthy options such as the one found in Gage Residence, into the SUB starting in the fall term of 2012. Other initiatives taken into consideration were lowering the price of healthy items and raising the price of unhealthy items to promote healthy eating.  Located in the Gage lobby, hidden away is the healthiest vending machine located on campus for snacks. Students, staff, and visitors have the option of baked lays, locally produced beef jerky, mixed nuts, and granola bars that provide delicious and healthy options to appease everyone. “If you’re looking for a healthy vending snack after hours, Gage Towers student housing is where to go!” 20  Reference Act Now BC. (2008). Guidelines for Food and Beverage Sales in BC Schools. Retrieved from http://discoveryspace.upei.ca/cshr/sites/discoveryspace.upei.ca.cshr/files/BC%20School%20Food%20Guidelines.pdf Brand Name Food List. (n.d.). Brand Name Food List. Retrieved from http://www .brandnamefoodlist.ca/default.aspx Callaghan, C. & Mandich, G. (2010). Healthier Snacks in School Vending Machines: A Pilot Project in Four Ontario High Schools. Canadian Journal of Dietetic Practice and Research. 71 (4), 186-191. Ministry of Labour and Citizens’ Services. (2007). Healthier Choices in Vending Machines in B.C. Public Buildings Policy Paper. Retrieved from http://www.lcs.gov.bc.ca /HealthierChoices/pdf/CompletePolicy.pdf Natural Source Vending. (2010). Welcome. Retrieved from http:// naturalsourcevending.com/index.php O’Brien, R. (2010). How Coke & Pepsi Could Save Us From High Fructose Corn Syrup. Retrieved from http://www.huffingtonpost.com/robyn-o/why-coke-and-pepsi-should_b _707250.html Rocha, C. (2006). Food Insecurity as Market Failure: A Contribution from Economics. Retrieved from http://www.ryerson.ca/foodsecurity/projects/paperspres /FoodInsecurityMarketFailure.pdf San Diego and Imperial Regional Nutrition Network. (n.d). Literature review on strategies for healthy vending. Retrieved from http://www.banpac.org/pdfs/healthy_vending /healthy_vending_machine_literature_review.pdf 21  UBC Food Services (UBCFS). (2011). UBC VendMaster vending sales 2011 with card readers October [Sales Report]. UBC Food Services, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada. UBC Public Affairs. (2009). UBC has $10 billion impact on BC economy. Retrieved from http://www.publicaffairs.ubc.ca/2009/09/29/ubc-has-10-billion-impact-on-b-c-economy/ UBC Public Affairs. (2012). UBC’s reputation moves up six spots in global ranking. Retrieved from http://www.publicaffairs.ubc.ca/2012/03/14/ubcs-reputation-moves-up-six-spots -to-25th-in-global-ranking/                  22  Appendix Appendix A: - Audits of the Top 10 Selling Vending Machines on UBC Vancouver Campus Table 1 – Inventory of the Top 10 Vending Machine on UBC Vancouver Campus KOERNER      Product Name Size (g) Food Group Category Price ($) Health  Dutch Crunch Kettle Cooked  Jalapeno Cheddar 40 Veg/Fruit Choose Least 1.50 No English bay bakery chocolate chunk cookie 100 Grains Choose Least 1.50 No Lays Classic 40 Veg/Fruit Choose Least 1.50 Yes Miss Vickie's Jalapeno  40 Veg/Fruit Choose Least 1.50 No Miss Vickie's sea salt and malt vinegar 40 Veg/Fruit Choose Least 1.50 Yes Miss Vickie's sweet chilli and sour cream 40 Veg/Fruit Choose Least 1.50 Yes Nature Valley Trail mix bar- fruit and nuts 35 Grains Choose Least 1.25 Yes Sun Chips garden salsa 43 Grains  Choose Least 1.50 Yes Welches fruit snacks mixed fruit 64 Veg/Fruit Choose Least 1.50 Yes Excel peppermint gum 2.8 Candies Choose Sometimes 1.25 Yes Lays baked BBQ 32 Veg/Fruit Choose Sometimes 1.50 Yes Lays baked original 32 Veg/Fruit Choose Sometimes 1.50 Yes Norma's chocolate chunk cookie 100 Grains Choose Sometimes 1.50 No Ruffles baked cheddar and sour cream 32 Veg/Fruit Choose Sometimes 1.50 Yes Ruffles baked cheddar and sour cream 32 Veg/Fruit Choose Sometimes 1.00 (sale) Yes Frito Lays Smart food cheddar cheese popcorn 45 Grains Not Recommended 1.75 No Hickory Sticks 50 Veg/Fruit Not Recommended 1.50 No Lays Ketchup 43 Veg/Fruit Not Recommended 1.50 No Ruffles all dressed 40 Veg/Fruit Not Recommended 1.50 No Coffee crisp 50 Candies Not Recommended 1.75 No DAN-D-PAK rice crackers original 80 Grains Not Recommended 1.75 No Frito Lays Hoops BBQ 50 Grains Not Recommended 1.50 No Gummy zone sour gummy patch watermelons 130 Candies Not Recommended 2.25 Yes Hershey's almond 43 Candies Not Recommended 1.75 No Hershey's cookies and cream 43 Candies Not Recommended 1.75 No Humpty Dumpty Potato Sticks bacon hickory 50 Veg/Fruit Not Recommended 1.50 No Kit Kat 50 Candies Not Recommended 1.75 No Lays BBQ 40 Veg/Fruit Not Recommended 1.50 Yes Mars 52 Candies Not Recommended 1.75 No Oh Henry 62.5 Candies Not Recommended 1.75 No Old Dutch Crunchies nacho cheese 55 Grains Not Recommended 1.50 No Reece’s peanut butter cup  51 Candies Not Recommended 1.75 No Rold Gold thins minces pretzels 47 Grains  Not recommended 1.50 Yes Smarties 50 Candies Not Recommended 1.75 No Sour Super Wormies 130 Candies Not Recommended 2.25 No       PLACE VANIER       Product Name Size (g) Food Group Category Price ($) Health  English bay bakery chocolate chunk cookie 100 Grains Choose Least 1.50 No Lays Classic 40 Veg/Fruit Choose Least 1.50 No Miss Vickie's sea salt and malt vinegar 40 Veg/Fruit Choose Least 1.50 No Ruffles sour cream and onion 40 Veg/Fruit Choose Least 1.50 No Sun Chips Harvest Cheddar 40 Grains Choose Least 1.50 No Welches fruit snacks mixed fruit 64 Veg/Fruit Choose Least 1.50 No Lays baked BBQ 32 Veg/Fruit Choose Sometimes 1.50 No Lays baked original 32 Veg/Fruit Choose Sometimes 1.50 No Norma's chocolate chunk cookie 100 Grains Choose Sometimes 1.50 No Frito lays Smart food white cheddar popcorn 45 Grains Not Recommended 1.75 No Lays Ketchup 43 Veg/Fruit Not Recommended 1.50 No 23  Aero  42 Candies Not Recommended 1.75 No Cheetos Crunchy 51 Grains Not Recommended 1.50 No Coffee crisp 50 Candies Not Recommended 1.75 No Crispers Ranch 50 Grains Not Recommended 1.50 No Doritos  Nacho 45 Grains Not Recommended 1.50 No Fritos Hoops BBQ 50 Grains Not Recommended 1.50 No Hershey's cookies and cream 43 Candies Not Recommended 1.75 No Kit Kat 50 Candies Not Recommended 1.75 No Mike and Ike 60 Candies Not Recommended 1.75 No Oh Henry 62.5 Candies Not Recommended 1.75 No Old Dutch Crunchies nacho cheese 55 Grains Not Recommended 1.50 No Old Dutch salt and vinegar 40 Veg/Fruit Not Recommended 1.50 No Quaker Yogurt Granola Bar Vanilla 35 Grains Not Recommended 1.25 No Reece’s peanut butter cup  51 Candies Not Recommended 1.75 No Rold Gold thins minces pretzels 47 Grains  Not recommended 1.50 No Skore 49 Candies Not Recommended 1.75 No Snickers 42 Candies Not Recommended 1.75 No Sour tongue Tinglers 120 Candies Not Recommended 2.25 No       WOODWARD       Product Name Size (g) Food Group Category Price ($) Health  Miss Vickie's Jalapeno 40 Veg/Fruit Choose Least 1.50 No Miss Vickie's Sea Salt and Malt Vinegar 40 Veg/Fruit Choose Least 1.50 No Miss Vickie's Sweet Chili and Sour Cream 40 Veg/Fruit Choose Least 1.50 No Munchies 40 Grains Choose Least 1.50 No Nature Valley 35 Grains Choose Least 1.25 Yes Old Dutch Rip L Chips Sour Cream & Onion 40 Veg/Fruit Choose Least 1.50 No Stacy's Pita Chips Parmesan Garlic and Herb 38.9 Grains Choose Least 1.50 No Sunchip Harvest Cheddar 40 Grains Choose Least 1.50 Yes Welches Fruit Snacks 64 Veg/Fruit Choose Least 1.50 No English Bay Cookie 43 Grains Choose Sometimes 1.50 No Excel Gum 2.8 Candies Choose Sometimes 1.50 Yes Lay's Baked Chips BarBQ 32 Veg/Fruit Choose Sometimes 1.50 Yes Lay's Baked Chips Original 32 Veg/Fruit Choose Sometimes 1.50 Yes Norma's Cookie 40 Grains Choose Sometimes 1.50 No Ruffles Baked Chips Cheddar and Sour Cream 32 Veg/Fruit Choose Sometimes 1.50 Yes Aero 42 Candies Not Recommended 1.75 No Coffee Crisp 50 Candies Not Recommended 1.75 No Doritos Nacho Cheese 40 Grains Not Recommended 1.75 No Fritos Hoops BarBQ 40 Grains Not Recommended 1.50 No Hersheys Almond 43 Candies Not Recommended 1.75 No Hickory Sticks Original 50 Veg/Fruit Not Recommended 1.50 No KitKat 50 Candies Not Recommended 1.75 No Lay's Potato Chips Classic 40 Veg/Fruit Not Recommended 1.50 No Lay's Potato Chips Ketchup  40 Veg/Fruit Not Recommended 1.50 No Oh Henry 62.5 Candies Not Recommended 1.75 No Old Dutch Crunchys Nacho Cheese 55 Grains Not Recommended 1.50 No Quaker Yogurt Bar 35 Grains Not Recommended 1.25 Yes Reese 51 Candies Not Recommended 1.75 No Rold Gold Pretzel 47 Grains Not Recommended 1.50 Yes Ruffles Chips All Dressed 40 Veg/Fruit Not Recommended 1.50 No Skittles 61.5 Candies Not Recommended 1.75 No Smartfood Popcorn White Cheddar 45 Grains Not Recommended 1.50 No Snickers 59 Candies Not Recommended 1.75 No Sour Tongue Tingler 120 Candies Not Recommended 1.25 No Super Wormies 142 Candies Not Recommended 2.25 Yes 24        SUB PIZZA      Product Name Size (g) Food Group Category Price ($) Health  Dutch Crunch Jalapeno and Cheddar 43 Fruit/Veg Choose Least 1.50 No English Bay Milk Chocolate Chip 43 Grains Choose Least 2.50 No Food Should Taste Good Multigrains 43 Grains Choose Least 1.50 No Miss Vickie's Jalapeno 43 Fruit/Veg Choose Least 1.50 No Miss Vickie's Sea Salt and Vinegar 43 Fruit/Veg Choose Least 1.50 No Miss Vickie's Sweet Chilli and Sour Cream 43 Fruit/Veg Choose Least 1.50 No Munchie's Roasted Peanuts` 60 Nut/seed Choose Least 1.75 No Sun Chips Harvest Cheddar 43 Grains Choose Least 1.50 No Welches Fruit Snacks 64 Candies Choose Least 1.50 No Excel  2.8 Candies Choose Sometimes 1.50 No Lays Baked BBQ 32 Fruit/Veg Choose Sometimes 1.50 No Lays Baked Classic 32 Fruit/Veg Choose Sometimes 1.50 No Lays Baked Sour Cream and Cheddar 32 Fruit/Veg Choose Sometimes 1.50 No Nature Valley Crunchy Almond  42 Grains Choose Sometimes 1.25 No Norma's Chocolate Chunk Cookie 40 Grains Choose Sometimes 2.50 No Nutri Grain Cereal Bar Mixed Berry 37 Grains Choose Sometimes 1.25 No Nutri Grain Cereal Bar Raspberry 37 Grains Choose Sometimes 1.25 No 3 Musketeers 60 Candies Not Recommended 1.75 No Aero 42 Candies Not Recommended 1.75 No Caramilk 52 Candies Not Recommended 1.75 No Coffee Crisp 50 Candies Not Recommended 1.75 No Dan-D-Pak Rice Crackers 80 Grains Not Recommended 1.75 No Diary Milk 53 Candies Not Recommended 1.75 No Dorito's Nachos 50 Grains Not Recommended 1.50 No Fritos Hoops BBQ 50 Grains Not Recommended 1.50 No Hershey’s Cookies and Cream 43 Candies Not Recommended 1.75 No Hershey's Milk Chocolate with Almond 43 Candies Not Recommended 1.75 No Hickory Sticks 50 Fruit/Veg Not Recommended 1.50 No Kit Kat 50 Candies Not Recommended 1.75 No Lays Classic 43 Fruit/Veg Not Recommended 1.5 No Lays Ketchup 43 Fruit/Veg Not Recommended 1.50 No Mars 53 Candies Not Recommended 1.75 No Mike and Ike 60 Candies Not Recommended 1.75 No Mr. Bi 60 Candies Not Recommended 1.75 No Oh Henry 62.5 Candies Not Recommended 1.75 No Old Dutch Crunchys  50 Grains Not Recommended 1.50 No Quaker Chewy Yogurt Blueberry 36 Grains Not Recommended 1.25 No Ruffles All Dressed 43 Fruit/Veg Not Recommended 1.50 No Skittles Explosion 61 Candies Not Recommended 1.75 No Smarties 50 Candies Not Recommended 1.75 No Snickers 53 Candies Not Recommended 1.75 No Super Tongue Tinglers 143 Candies Not Recommended 2.25 No Super Wormies  143 Candies Not Recommended 2.25 No Twix 56.7 Candies Not Recommended 1.75 No Wonder Bar 60 Candies Not Recommended 1.75 No       AQUATIC FRONT      Product Name Size (g) Food Group Category Price ($) Health  Food Should Taste Good Sweet Potato Chips 43 Grains Choose Least 1.50 No Miss Vickie's Sea Salt and Vinegar 43 Fruits/Veg Choose Least 1.50 No Miss Vickie's Sweet Chilli and Sour Cream 43 Fruits/Veg Choose Least 1.50 No Old Dutch Kettle Cooked Jalapeno 43 Grains Choose Least 1.50 No Stacy's Pita Chips 38.9 Grains Choose Least 1.50 No 25  Sun Chips Harvest Cheddar 43 Grains Choose Least 1.50 No Lays Baked BBQ 32 Fruits/Veg Choose Sometimes 1.50 No Lays Baked Sour Cream and Cheddar 32 Fruits/Veg Choose Sometimes 1.50 No Aero 42 Candies Not Recommended 1.75 No Caramilk 52 Candies Not Recommended 1.75 No Cheetos Crunchy 60 Fruits/Veg Not Recommended 1.50 No Diary Milk 53 Candies Not Recommended 1.75 No Frito Hoops BBQ 50 Fruits/Veg Not Recommended 1.50 No Hershey's Cookies and Cream 43 Candies Not Recommended 1.75 No Hickory Sticks 50 Grains Not Recommended 1.50 No Humpty Dumpty Potato Sticks 50 Fruits/Veg Not Recommended 1.50 No Kit Kat 50 Candies Not Recommended 1.75 No Lays BBQ 43 Fruits/Veg Not Recommended 1.50 No Lays Classic 43 Fruits/Veg Not Recommended 1.50 No Lindt Dark Chocolate 30 Candies Not Recommended 1.75 No Oh Henry 62.5 Candies Not Recommended 1.75 No Old Dutch Crunchys 50 Grains Not Recommended 1.50 No Reese's 51 Candies Not Recommended 1.75 No Rold Gold Pretzels 50 Fruits/Veg Not Recommended 1.50 No Ruffles Sour Cream and Onion 43 Fruits/Veg Not Recommended 1.50 No Skittles Explosion 61 Candies Not Recommended 1.75 No Skittles Original 61 Candies Not Recommended 1.75 No Skittles Tropical 61 Candies Not Recommended 1.75 No Smart Food White Cheddar Popcorn 50 Grains Not Recommended 1.50 No Snickers 53 Candies Not Recommended 1.75 No Wonderbar 60 Candies Not Recommended 1.75 No       GAGE RESIDENCE      Product Name Size (g) Food Group Category Price ($) Health  Dutch Crunch Jalapeno and Cheddar 40 Veg/Fruit Choose Least 1.50 No Food Should Taste Good Multigrain Chips 43 Grains Choose Least 1.50 No Friday's Potato Skin Cheddar and Bacon 49.7 Veg/Fruit Choose Least 1.50 No Miss Vickie's Jalapeno 40 Veg/Fruit Choose Least 1.50 No Miss Vickie’s Sea Salt and Malt Vinegar 40 Veg/Fruit Choose Least 1.50 No Miss Vickie’s Sweet Chili and Sour Cream 40 Veg/Fruit Choose Least 1.50 No Nature Valley 35 Grains Choose Least 1.25 No Ruffles Chips Sour Cream and Onion 40 Veg/Fruit Choose Least 1.50 No Stacy's Pita Chips Simply Naked 38.9 Grains Choose Least 1.50 No Sunchip Harvest Cheddar 40 Grains Choose Least 1.50 No Welches Fruit Snacks 64 Veg/Fruit Choose Least 1.50 No English Bay Cookie 43 Grains Choose Sometimes 1.50 No Norma's Cookie 40 Grains Choose Sometimes 1.50 No Aero 42 Candies Not Recommended 1.75 No Cheetos Cruchy Cheese 56.7 Grains Not Recommended 1.50 No DanDPak Mountain Trail Mix 100 Nuts Not Recommended 2.25 No Fritos Hoops BarBQ 60 Grains Not Recommended 1.50 No Hershey's Almond 43 Candies Not Recommended 1.75 No Hickory Sticks Original 50 Veg/Fruit Not Recommended 1.50 No Humpty Dumpty Potato Sticks Bacon Hickory 50 Veg/Fruit Not Recommended 1.50 No KitKat 50 Candies Not Recommended 1.75 No Lay's Potato Chips BarBQ 40 Veg/Fruit Not Recommended 1.50 No Lay's Potato Chips Classic 40 Veg/Fruit Not Recommended 1.50 No Mars 53 Candies Not Recommended 1.75 No Oh Henry 62.5 Candies Not Recommended 1.75 No Old Dutch Crunchys Nacho Cheese 55 Grains Not Recommended 1.50 No Old Dutch Potato Chips Ketchup 40 Veg/Fruit Not Recommended 1.50 No 26  Old Dutch Potato Chips Salt and Vinegar 40 Veg/Fruit Not Recommended 1.50 No Quaker Yogurt Bar 35 Grains Not Recommended 1.25 No Rold Gold Pretzel 47 Grains Not Recommended 1.50 No Skor 39 Candies Not Recommended 1.75 No Smarties 50 Candies Not Recommended 1.75 No Snickers 59 Candies Not Recommended 1.75 No Super Wormies 142 Candies Not Recommended 2.25 No       THUNDERBIRD      Product Name Size (g) Food Group Category Price ($) Health  Dutch Crunch Jalapeno and Cheddar 40 Veg/Fruit Choose Least 1.50 No English Bay Milk Chocolate Chip 43 Grains Choose Least 2.50 No Miss Vickie’s Jalapeno 43 Veg/Fruit Choose Least 1.50 No Miss Vickie’s Sea Salt and Malt Vinegar 43 Veg/Fruit Choose Least 1.50 No Miss Vickie’s Sweet Chili and Sour Cream 43 Veg/Fruit Choose Least 1.50 No Munchies Nuts 60 Nut/Seed Choose Least 1.75 No Nature Valley Crunchy Chocolate  35 Grains Choose Least 1.75 Yes Old Dutch Sour Cream and Green Onion 40 Veg/Fruit Choose Least 1.50 No Sun Chips Harvest Cheddar 43 Grains Choose Least 1.50 Yes Baked Lays Bar-B-Q 32 Veg/Fruit Choose Sometimes 1.50 Yes Baked Lays Regular 32 Veg/Fruit Choose Sometimes 1.50 Yes Baked Lays Ruffles 32 Veg/Fruit Choose Sometimes 1.50 Yes Excel Gum 2.8 Candies Choose Sometimes 1.50 No Norma's Chocolate Chunk Cookie 40 Grains Choose Sometimes 2.50 No Welches Fruit Snack 64 Candies Choose Sometimes 1.50 No Coffee Crisp 50 Candies Not Recommended 1.75 No Dutch Crunchy Nacho Cheese 50 Grains Not Recommended 1.50 No Fritos Hoops Bar-B-Q 50 Veg/Fruit Not Recommended 1.50 No Hershey's Almond 43 Candies Not Recommended 1.75 Yes Hickory Sticks 50 Veg/Fruit Not Recommended 1.50 No Kit Kat 50 Candies Not Recommended 1.75 No Lays Bar-B-Q 43 Veg/Fruit Not Recommended 1.50 No Lays Classic 43 Veg/Fruit Not Recommended 1.50 No Lays Ketchup 43 Veg/Fruit Not Recommended 1.50 No Mars 53 Candies Not Recommended 1.75 No Oh Henry 62.5 Candies Not Recommended 1.75 No Original Munchies 43 Grains Not Recommended 1.50 No Quaker Yogurt Chewy Vanilla 35 Grains Not Recommended 1.75 Yes Reese 51 Candies Not Recommended 1.75 No Rold Gold Pretzels  50 Veg/Fruit Not Recommended 1.50 Yes Ruffles All Dressed 43 Grains Not Recommended 1.50 No Smart Food White Cheddar popcorn 50 Grains Not Recommended 1.75 No Smarties 50 Candies Not Recommended 1.75 No Sour Tongue Tinglers 143 Candies Not Recommended 2.25 No       BROCKHALL      Product Name Size (g) Food Group Category Price ($) Health  Dutch Crunch Jalapeno and Cheddar 40 Veg/Fruit Choose Least 1.50 No Food Should Taste Good Sweet Potato Chips 40 Veg/Fruit Choose Least 1.50 Yes Miss Vickie's sea salt and malt vinegar 40 Veg/Fruit Choose Least 1.50 No Miss Vickie's Sweet Chili and Sour Cream 40 Veg/Fruit Choose Least 1.50 No Stacy's Pita Chips Parmesan Garlic and Herb 38.9 Grains Choose Least 1.50 No Sun Chips garden salsa 40 Grains  Choose Least 1.50 Yes Sun Chips Harvest Cheddar 40 Grains Choose Least 1.50 No Welches Fruit Snacks 64 Veg/Fruit Choose Least 1.50 No English Bay Cookie 43 Grains Choose Sometimes 1.50 No 27  Lays baked BBQ 32 Veg/Fruit Choose Sometimes 1.50 Yes Norma's Cookie 40 Grains Choose Sometimes 1.50 No Riceworks Sea Salt Gourmet Brown Rice Crisp 43 Grains Choose Sometimes 1.50 No Ruffles baked cheddar and sour cream 32 Veg/Fruit Choose Sometimes 1.50 Yes Aero 42 Candies Not Recommended 1.75 No Coffee Crisp 50 Candies Not Recommended 1.75 No DanDPak Mountain Trail Mix 100 Nuts Not Recommended 2.25 No Fritos Hoops Bar-B-Q 50 Veg/Fruit Not Recommended 1.50 No Hershey’s Almond 43 Candies Not Recommended 1.75 No Oh Henry 62.5 Candies Not Recommended 1.75 No Reese 51 Candies Not Recommended 1.75 No Skor 39 Candies Not Recommended 1.75 No Super Wormies 142 Candies Not Recommended 2.25 No Cheetos Crunchy 51 Grains Not Recommended 1.50 No Hershey's Cookies and Cream 43 Candies Not Recommended 1.75 No Hickory Sticks 50 Grains Not Recommended 1.50 No Lays BBQ 40 Veg/Fruit Not Recommended 1.50 No Snickers 53 Candies Not Recommended 1.75 No       BUCHANAN 2nd (B)      Product Name Size (g) Food Group Category Price ($) Health  Dutch Crunch Kettle Cooked  Jalapeno Cheddar 40 Veg/Fruit Choose Least 1.50 No English Bay Milk Chocolate Chip 43 Grains Choose Least 1.50 No Friday's Potato Skin Cheddar and Bacon 49.7 Veg/Fruit Choose Least 1.50 No Miss Vickie's Jalapeno 40 Veg/Fruit Choose Least 1.50 No Miss Vickie's sea salt and malt vinegar 40 Veg/Fruit Choose Least 1.50 No Old Dutch Sour Cream and Green Onion 40 Veg/Fruit Choose Least 1.50 No Riceworks Sweet Chilli Rice Crisp 43 Grains Choose Least 1.50 No Sunchip French Onion 40 Grains Choose Least 1.50 No Welches Fruit Snacks 64 Veg/Fruit Choose Least 1.50 No Excel  2.8 Candies Choose Sometimes 1.50 No Nutri Grain Cereal Bar Mixed Berry 37 Grains Choose Sometimes 1.25 No Nutri Grain Cereal Bar Raspberry 37 Grains Choose Sometimes 1.25 No Ruffles Baked Chips Cheddar and Sour Cream 32 Veg/Fruit Choose Sometimes 1.50 No Hersheys Almond 43 Candies Not Recommended 1.75 No Lay's Potato Chips Classic 40 Veg/Fruit Not Recommended 1.50 No Old Dutch Crunchys Nacho Cheese 55 Grains Not Recommended 1.50 No Reese 51 Candies Not Recommended 1.75 No Skittles 61.5 Candies Not Recommended 1.75 No Skor 39 Candies Not Recommended 1.75 No Smart Food White Cheddar popcorn 45 Grains Not Recommended 1.75 No Super Wormies 142 Candies Not Recommended 2.25 No Burger King Onion Rings 50 Grains Not Recommended 1.50 No Caramilk 52 Candies Not Recommended 1.75 No Hershey's Cookies and Cream 43 Candies Not Recommended 1.75 No Kit Kat 43 Candies Not Recommended 1.75 No Lays BBQ 40 Veg/Fruit Not Recommended 1.50 No Old Dutch salt and vinegar 40 Veg/Fruit Not Recommended 1.50 No Rold Gold Pretzels 47 Grain Not Recommended 1.50 Yes Snickers 53 Candies Not Recommended 1.75 No       COMMON RESIDENCE (MARINE DRIVE)      Product Name Size (g) Food Group Category Price ($) Health  Miss Vickie's Sweet Chili & Sour Cream 43 Veg/Fruit Choose Least 1.50 No Nature Valley Trail Mix 30 Grain Choose Least 1.25 No RiceWorks Sweet Chili 43 Grain Choose Least 1.50 No 28   Table 2 – Inventory of VendMaster’s Sample Product List VENDMASTER SAMPLE PRODUCT LIST    Product  Size (g) Food Group Category Blue Diamond Almonds - Smokehouse  23 Nut/Seed Choose Most Cliff Energy mixed  55  Energy Bars Choose Most Frito Lay Munchies - Honey sweet Trail  40  Nut/Seed Choose Most Kashi Chewy granola  35  Grains Choose Most Kellogg’s All-Bran Bars - Original  30  Grains Choose Most Mrs. Palmers Pantry Pita Chips Cinnamon  50  Grains Choose Most Mrs. Palmers Pantry Pita Chips Parmesan & Garlic  50  Grains Choose Most Mrs. Palmers Pantry Pita Chips Salt & Vinegar  50  Grains Choose Most Norma’s Bakery – Cranberry Flax Bar  45  Grains Choose Most Perfect 10 Bar - Apple & Cinnamon  50 Nut/Seed Choose Most All-Bran Bars Chocolate Chip  30  Grains Choose Sometimes All-Bran Bars Honey Nut  30  Grains Choose Sometimes All-Bran Bars Oatmeal Cinnamon  30  Grains Choose Sometimes Kellogg’s – Nutrigrain Brown Sugar Cinnamon  30  Grains Choose Sometimes Kellogg’s – Rice Krispies Squares  37  Grains Choose Sometimes Kellogg’s Nutri-Grain Munch’ems Honey Oat  30  Grains Choose Sometimes Kellogg's Nutri-Grain Cereal Bar Apple Cinnamon  37  Grains Choose Sometimes Kellogg's Nutri-Grain Cereal Bar Blueberry  37  Grains Choose Sometimes Kellogg's Nutri-Grain Cereal Bar Mixed Berry  37  Grains Choose Sometimes Kernels Popcorn Butter Salt  25  Grains Choose Sometimes Ruffles Sour Cream'n Onion 40 Veg/Fruit Choose Least 1.50 No Stacy's simply Naked Baked 38.9 Veg/Fruit Choose Least 1.50 No Sun Chips French Onion 40 Veg/Fruit Choose Least 1.50 No Sun Chips Garden Salsa 40 Grain Choose Least 1.50 No Sun Chips Harvest Cheddar 40 Grain Choose Least 1.50 Yes Welches Fruit Snack 64 Candies Choose Least 1.50 No Yogurt Blueberry Bar 35 Grain Choose Least 1.25 No Apple Chips 22 Veg/Fruit Choose Sometimes 1.50 No Chocolate Chunk 30 Grain Choose Sometimes 1.75 No Crispers Ranch Baked 50 Veg/Fruit Choose Sometimes 1.50 No Excel 2.8 Candies Choose Sometimes 1.50 No Lay's Bar-B-Q Baked 32 Veg/Fruit Choose Sometimes 1.50 Yes Lays Creamy Dill Baked 32 Veg/Fruit Choose Sometimes 1.50 Yes Lay's Original Baked 32 Veg/Fruit Choose Sometimes 1.50 Yes Norma's chocolate chunk cookie 100 Grains Choose Sometimes 1.50 No Cheetos Crunchy 57 Veg/Fruit Not Recommended 1.50 No Coffee Crisp 50 Candies Not Recommended 1.75 No Doritos Nacho Cheese 45 Grain Not Recommended 1.50 No Hershey's Cookies'n Cream 43 Candies Not Recommended 1.75 No Hickory Sticks Original 47 Veg/Fruit Not Recommended 1.50 No Lays Bar-B-Q 40 Veg/Fruit Not Recommended 1.50 No Lays Ketchop 40 Veg/Fruit Not Recommended 1.50 No Lindt Excellence Dark Chocolate 30 Candies Not Recommended 1.75 No Oh Henry 62.5 Candies Not Recommended 1.75 No Old Dutch Crunchys Nacho Cheese 55 Veg/Fruit Not Recommended 1.5 No Reese 51 Candies Not Recommended 1.75 No Rold Gold Pretzels 47 Grain Not Recommended 1.50 Yes Skittles Berry Explosion 61.5 Candies Not Recommended 1.75 No Skor 39 Candies Not Recommended 1.75 No Smartfood White Cheddar Popcorn 45 Grain Not Recommended 1.75 No Snickers 53 Candies Not Recommended 1.75 No Super Wormies 142 Candies Not Recommended 2.25 No 29  Nature Valley Crunchy Granola Bar Apple Crisp  42  Grains Choose Sometimes Nature Valley Crunchy Granola Bar Maple Brown Sugar  42 Grains Choose Sometimes Norma’s Bakery – Chocolate Chip Cookie  40  Grains Choose Sometimes Norma’s Bakery – Chocolate Chip Peanut Cookie  40  Grains Choose Sometimes Norma’s Bakery – Chocolate Crispy Treat  48  Grains Choose Sometimes Norma’s Bakery – Crispy Treat  48  Grains Choose Sometimes Norma’s Bakery – Oatmeal Raisin Cookie  40  Grains Choose Sometimes Norma’s Bakery – Rainbow Cookie  40  Grains Choose Sometimes Norma’s bakery Smart Bites Chocolate cookie  40  Grains Choose Sometimes Quaker Oat to Go Cinnamon Roll  47  Grains Choose Sometimes Quaker Oat to Go Oat & Honey 47  Grains Choose Sometimes Quaker Oat to Go Wildberry  47  Grains Choose Sometimes Cheesies, Corn Snack  28  Grains Choose Least Kellogg’s Special K Cereal Bar  30  Grains Choose Least Kellogg's Original Cereal Bars  22  Grains Choose Least Munchies Honey Roasted Peanut  60  Nut/Seed Choose Least Munchies Salted Peanuts  60  Nut/Seed Choose Least Munchies Smoked Almonds  57  Nut/Seed Choose Least Nature Valley Chewy Nut Bar Sweet & Salty Almond  35  Nut/Seed Choose Least Nature Valley Chewy Nut Bar Sweet & Salty Peanut  35  Nut/Seed Choose Least Sun Chips French Onion  43  Grains Choose Least Sun Chips Garden Salsa  43  Grains Choose Least Sun Chips Harvest Cheddar  43  Grains Choose Least All top selling bars  50  Other Not Recommended Cheerios Snack Mix  28  Grains Not Recommended Dan-D-Pak Rice Crackers Original  80  Grains Not Recommended Doritos Cool Ranch  50  Grains Not Recommended Doritos Spicy Nacho  50  Grains Not Recommended Doritos Sweet Chill Heat  50  Grains Not Recommended General Mills Cheerios Snack Mix Honey Nut Crunch  50  Grains Not Recommended Mountain Trail Mix  100  Nut/Seed Not Recommended Old Dutch Cheese Pleasers  50  Grains Not Recommended Rold Gold Classic Style - Thins  50  Grains Not Recommended Sierra Mountain Mix  100  Nut/Seed Not Recommended  Table 3 – Inventory of Natural Source Vending’s Creekside Community Centre Vending Machine CREEKSIDE (NATURAL SOURCE VENDING)     Product Size (g) Food Group Category Price ($) Clif Kid Zbar 36 Energy Bars Choose Most 1.75 Larabar Fruit and Nut Energy Bar 48 Nuts/Seeds Choose Most 2.25 Mrs Palmer's Pantry Pita Chips Cinnamon 50 Grains Choose Most 1.75 Mrs Palmer's Pantry Pita Chips Parmesan and Garlic 50 Grains Choose Most 1.75 Mrs Palmer's Pantry Pita Chips Sea Salt and Vinegar 50 Grains Choose Most 1.75 Planter's Almond 50 Nuts/Seeds Choose Most 2.00 Trumps Food Banana Slims 20 Veg/Fruit Choose Most 1.75 Deep River Baked Fries Jalapeno & Cheddar 21 Veg/Fruit Choose Sometimes 1.50 Deep River Baked Fries Mesquite BBQ 21 Veg/Fruit Choose Sometimes 1.50 HevyD's Kettle Corn 35 Grains Choose Sometimes 1.75 Palace Deli Dry Roasted Edamame 30 Meat/Alternatives Choose Sometimes 1.75 Popchips Barbeque 23 Veg/Fruit Choose Sometimes 1.75 Popchips Originals 23 Veg/Fruit Choose Sometimes 1.75 Popchips Sour Cream 23 Veg/Fruit Choose Sometimes 1.75 Praeventia Chocolate Chip Cookies 30 Grains Choose Sometimes 1.50 Clif Bar 68 Energy Bars Choose Least 2.25 Clif Builder's Bar 68 Energy Bars Choose Least 2.50 Nature's Path Envirokidz Organic Crispy Rice Bar 28 Grains Choose Least 1.75 30  Que Pasa Tortilla Chip Tomato Salsa 50 Grains Choose Least 1.75 Que Pasa Tortilla Chip Jalapeno Cheddar 50 Grains Choose Least 1.75 RiceWorks Brown Rice Crisps Salsa Fresca 43 Grains Choose Least 1.75 RiceWorks Brown Rice Crisps Sweet Chili 43 Grains Choose Least 1.75 Barkley's Chocolate Truffle Bar 50 Candies Not Recommended 2.00 Dan-D-Pak Rice Crackers Original  80  Grains Not Recommended 2.00 Dan-D-Pak Sierra Mountain Mix 100 Nuts/Seeds Not Recommended 2.50  Table 4 – Inventory of Gage Residence’s Vending Machine Undergoing a Healthy Option Trial-Run Healthy Gage     Product Name Size (g) Food Group Category Price ($) Health  Trumps Food Banana Slims 20 Veg/Fruit Choose Most 1.75 No Lay's Baked Chips BarBQ 32 Veg/Fruit Choose Sometimes 1.50 No Lay's Baked Chips Original 32 Veg/Fruit Choose Sometimes 1.50 No Ruffles Baked Chips Cheddar & Sour Cream 32 Veg/Fruit Choose Sometimes 1.50 No Quaker Oat to Go Oat & Honey 47  Grains Choose Sometimes 1.50 No Planters Peanuts Barbeque 49 Nuts/Seeds Choose Sometimes 1.50 No Planters Peanuts Salted 49 Nuts/Seeds Choose Sometimes 1.50 No Quaker Oat to Go Cinnamon Roll  47  Grains Choose Sometimes 1.50 No Quaker Oat to Go Wildberry  47  Grains Choose Sometimes 1.50 No Billy Bob's Beef Jerky 15 Meat/Alternatives Choose Sometimes 2.25 No Norma's Cookie 40 Grains Choose Sometimes 1.50 No English Bay Cookie 43 Grains Choose Sometimes 1.50 No Miss Vickie’s Sea Salt and Malt Vinegar 40 Veg/Fruit Choose Least 1.50 No Miss Vickie's Sweet Chili and Sour Cream 40 Veg/Fruit Choose Least 1.50 No Sunchip Harvest Cheddar 40 Grains Choose Least 1.50 Yes Old Dutch Crunchys Nacho Cheese 55 Grains Not Recommended 1.75 No Smartfood Popcorn White Cheddar 45 Grains Not Recommended 1.75 No Cheetos Cruchy Cheese 56.7 Grains Not Recommended 1.75 No Christies Corn Nuts 48 Grains Not Recommended 1.50 No Super Wormies 142 Candies Not Recommended 2.25 No Dan-D-Pak Raw Energy Mix 100 Nuts/Seeds Not Recommended 2.25 No Lay's Potato Chips BarBQ 40 Veg/Fruit Not Recommended 1.50 No Reese 51 Candies Not Recommended 1.75 No KitKat 50 Candies Not Recommended 1.75 No Cadbury Burnt Almond 42 Candies Not Recommended 1.75 No Hershey's Cookies 'n' Cream 43 Candies Not Recommended 1.75 No Snickers 59 Candies Not Recommended 1.75 No Hershey's Twizzlers Licorice Candy 18 Candies Not Recommended 1.75 No Cadbury Dairy Milk 42 Candies Not Recommended 1.75 No Appendix B - Percentages of items in each of the categories of the following vending machines  

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