UBC Undergraduate Research

Life cycle assessment of a MURB : Bi Sharma, Navratna; Seif, Soroush; De Wit, Ben Apr 1, 2012

Your browser doesn't seem to have a PDF viewer, please download the PDF to view this item.

Item Metadata

Download

Media
18861-Sharma_N_et_al_SEEDS_2012.pdf [ 3.08MB ]
Metadata
JSON: 18861-1.0108594.json
JSON-LD: 18861-1.0108594-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 18861-1.0108594-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: 18861-1.0108594-rdf.json
Turtle: 18861-1.0108594-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 18861-1.0108594-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 18861-1.0108594-source.json
Full Text
18861-1.0108594-fulltext.txt
Citation
18861-1.0108594.ris

Full Text

UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report       Life Cycle Assessment of a MURB: Bi Navratna Sharma, Soroush Seif, Ben De Wit  University of British Columbia CIVIL 498E April 1, 2012           Disclaimer: “UBC SEEDS provides students with the opportunity to share the findings of their studies, as well as their opinions, conclusions and recommendations with the UBC community. The reader should bear in mind that this is a student project/report and is not an official document of UBC. Furthermore readers should bear in mind that these reports may not reflect the current status of activities at UBC. We urge you to contact the research persons mentioned in a report or the SEEDS Coordinator about the current status of the subject matter of a project/report”.  PROVISIO Th is stu d y is part of a larg er stu d y – the UBC LCA Pro ject – which is  con tin u all y developin g . As such ,  the findi ng s contain ed in this repo rt shou ld  be con s id ered prelimin ary as there may have been sub s eq uen t refi n emen ts  sin ce the init ial review  of th is repo rt .   If furth er info rmati o n is req uir ed or if you would lik e to use  resu lt s fro m this pleas e con tact rob .sian ch u k @g mail .co m.     2012 Prepared By: Navratna Sharma  Soroush Seif  Ben De Wit  CIVIL 498E: Life Cycle Assessment 1/4/2012 Life Cycle Assessment of a MURB: Bi   ABSTRACT A Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) study has been conducted on the Bi Building located on the University of British Columbia campus in Vancouver, Canada. The building is a Multi Unit Residential Building (MURB). It has been requested by the Sustainability Office at UBC. This LCA study looks at the cradle to grave life cycle of a building and generates the environmental impact of a product system. In this case, the building is considered the product system. The main components of the life cycle of this building system include the construction products manufacturing, construction, and maintenance over the 99 year life cycle, and end of life demolition. Also included are the annual and total operating energy consumptions of the building. The Impact Categories selected for this project are Global Warming potential, Acidification potential, Eutrophication potential, Ozone depletion potential, Photochemical Smog Potential, Human health respiratory effects potential, weighted raw resource use, and primary energy consumption. This study is based on the ISO 14040 and 14044 standards, including the goal and scope document. Analysis is conducted on the Bill of Materials, Inventory, as well as the Building Functions. This is in addition to a Sensitivity Analysis of 5 building components. The analysis has found that of the 5 building components, the Bi building is most sensitive from an environmental impact prospective due to changes to the 20 MPa concrete with average flyash. A major reason this study is carried out is to analyze the Fenestration Ratio from an LCA prospective. It has been found than increase in glazing results in the increase of overall environmental impact of the building system. There is however a decrease in impact during the end of life process.    2  Table of Contents ABSTRACT ...................................................................................................................................................... 1 1.0 Introduction ............................................................................................................................................ 5 2.0 Goal and Scope ....................................................................................................................................... 6 2.1 Goal ..................................................................................................................................................... 6 2.2 Scope ................................................................................................................................................... 7 3.0 Model Development ............................................................................................................................. 12 3.1 Structure and Envelope..................................................................................................................... 12 3.2 Use Phase .......................................................................................................................................... 17 4.0 Results and Interpretation .................................................................................................................... 17 4.1 Inventory Analysis ............................................................................................................................. 18 4.1.2 Bill of Materials .......................................................................................................................... 18 4.1.2 Energy Use ................................................................................................................................. 20 4.2 Impact Assessment ........................................................................................................................... 21 4.3 Uncertainty ....................................................................................................................................... 25 4.4 Sensitivity Analysis ............................................................................................................................ 26 4.5 Chain of Custody Inquiry ................................................................................................................... 29 4.6 Building Function .............................................................................................................................. 29 4.7 Functional Units ................................................................................................................................ 30 5.0 Fenestration Ratio Analysis ................................................................................................................... 32 5.1 Manufacturing .................................................................................................................................. 32 5.2 Construction ...................................................................................................................................... 33 5.3 Maintenance ..................................................................................................................................... 34 5.4 End of Life ......................................................................................................................................... 35 5.5 Operating Energy .............................................................................................................................. 35 5.6 Total Life Cycle .................................................................................................................................. 36 6.0 Conclusions ........................................................................................................................................... 37 7.0 References ............................................................................................................................................ 38 8.0 Authors Segment .................................................................................................................................. 38 8.1 Navratna Sharma ................................................................................. Error! Bookmark not defined. 8.2 Soroush Sief ......................................................................................... Error! Bookmark not defined.  3  8.3 Ben De Wit ........................................................................................... Error! Bookmark not defined. 9.0 Appendix ............................................................................................................................................... 39 APPENDIX A: Impact Estimator Inputs .................................................................................................... 40 APPENDIX B: Impact Estimator Input Assumptions ................................................................................ 63 APPENDIX C: Chain of Custody Document .............................................................................................. 74   List of Figures Figure 1: Exterior of Bi Building (taken March 29th 2012) ........................................................................... 5 Figure 2: Southeastern side of Bi ................................................................................................................ 13 Figure 3: Second Floor Framing Over Main Floor Walls ............................................................................. 14 Figure 4: Roof over 4th floor framing close up analysis ............................................................................. 15 Figure 5: Typical Wall Take-off .................................................................................................................... 17 Figure 6: Batt FiberGlass Sensitivity Analysis .............................................................................................. 26 Figure 7: Concrete 20 Mpa (Flyash Av) Sensitivity Analysis ........................................................................ 27 Figure 8: Rebar, Rod, Light Sections Sensitivity Analysis ............................................................................ 27 Figure 9: Softwood Plywood Sensitivity Analysis ........................................................................................ 28 Figure 10: 5/8” Regular Gypsum Board Sensitivity Analysis ....................................................................... 28 Figure 11: Manufacturing – Impact Change due to Fenestration Ratio Change ........................................ 33 Figure 12: Construction – Impact Change due to Fenestration Ratio Change ........................................... 34 Figure 13: Maintenance – Impact Change due to Fenestration Ratio Change ........................................... 34 Figure 14: End of Life – Impact Change due to Fenestration Ratio Change ............................................... 35 Figure 15: Operating Energy – Impact Change due to Fenestration Ratio Change .................................... 36 Figure 16: Total Life Cycle – Impact Change due to Fenestration Ratio Change ........................................ 36  List of Table Table 1: Building System Characteristics ...................................................................................................... 6 Table 2: Bill of Materials – Summary .......................................................................................................... 19 Table 3: Energy Consumption values for Building Life Cycle. ..................................................................... 21 Table 5: Global Warming Potential – Summary of Impact Results ............................................................. 21 Table 6: Ozone Layer Depletion – Summary of Impact Results .................................................................. 22 Table 7: Acidification Potential – Summary of Impact Results . ................................................................. 22 Table 8: Eutrophication Potential – Summary of Impact Results. .............................................................. 23 Table 9: Smog Potential – Summary of Impact Results .............................................................................. 23 Table 10: Human Health Respiratory Effects – Summary of Impact Results .............................................. 24 Table 13 – Summary of Functional Area ..................................................................................................... 29  4  Table 14: Functional Unit Summary – Per Gross Floor Area ....................................................................... 30 Table 15: Functional Unit Summary – Per Gross Floor Area ....................................................................... 31 Table 16: Functional Unit Summary – Per Gross Floor Area ....................................................................... 32 Table 17: Functional Unit Summary – Per Gross Floor Area ....................................................................... 32                        5  1.0 Introduction The following Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) study is conducted on the Bi Building in UBC. It has been completed as part of the course: Civil 498E. Over the last few years, development of residential buildings at the UBC campus in Vancouver, BC has expanded at a rapid rate.  A community has developed that contains low and high rise residential buildings as well as commercial buildings. Located within the community, the Bi Building is a low rise multi-unit residential building. It has 4 floors and underground parking. Contracted at over 15.75 million dollars the building was constructed less than two years to a completion date of April 16, 2008 (VanMar, 2010). It is completed under the ownership of the UBC Properties Trust. The principle architecture firm involved is, Raymond Letkeman Architects Inc.  Figure 1: Exterior of Bi Building (taken March 29th 2012)  In general, the building is wood framed construction, with underground concrete parking space. According to the UBC Residential Environmental Assessment Program (REAP), a green building rating system of residential buildings within UBC, it is certified as a bronze building (VanMar, 2010). A general summary of the building characteristics for each building system is shown below.     6  Building System Specific Building Characteristics Structure Wood Frame Structure Floors Parking: Concrete Slab on Grade (SOG), Other Floors: Wood Joists Exterior Walls Parking: Concrete Cast in Place, Main envelope: Wood Stud Walls, Lobby: Curtain Wall Interior Walls Parking: Concrete Cast in Place, Other Floors: Wood Stud, and Concrete Block Assembly Windows Standard Glazing Windows Roof Wood Joist, roofing Asphalt Mechanical Natural Ventilation, HVAC Table 1: Building System Characteristics  The following report, in accordance with ISO 14040 and 14044 standards, is a Life Cycle Assessment Study of the Bi building. It analyzes the cradle to grave life cycle of the building. This includes the manufacturing of building components, construction of the building, maintenance of the building over 99 years, and the end of life demolition. It is a part of a group of two other studies being conducted on two other buildings in the community. These studies are conducted around the same time and have similar requirements. Take-offs of the individual building systems (walls, floor, etc) has been conducted and the results have been input into the Athena Institute Impact Estimator Software. Through this process, the environmental Impact of the building is generated for specific Impact Categories specified by the US EPA TRACI and Athena Institute organizations. The goals and scope of this study is presented first, followed by a discussion of the Take-offs conducted. The results are then shown, including the Bill of Materials and Inventory and Sensitivity Analysis.  A major reason why this study is conducted is to analyze the Fenestration (Glazing) Ratio of the building. The analysis of changes to the fenestration ratio of the building through its life cycle is performed. As decision makers in UBC are creating more sustainable standards, a better understanding of the effects of glazing on residential buildings is required. 2.0 Goal and Scope The following report documents the Whole Building Life Cycle Assessment of the Bi Residential building at UBC.  As per ISO standards (14040 and 14044) for LCA, the intended Goal and Scope of the project is stated in this section. The intention and reasoning of the project is defined by the Goal parameters. The scope provides more detailed information regarding the modeling of the building project and how it is analyzed. 2.1 Goal 2.1.1 Intended Application The Intended Application defines the purpose of carrying out the LCA study.  The intended application for this LCA study is as followed:  7   To understanding the impact of increasing the glazing of a multi-unit residential building (MURB) over its life cycle.  To provide a demonstration of currently accepted practice concerning the life cycle assessment of building structures with the use of the latest impact accounting methods and software.  To contribute to a benchmark for future LCA studies of residential buildings. 2.1.2 Reason for carrying out the study Describe the motivation of carrying out the study The following study and report has been conducted on behalf of the UBC Civil 498E Class of 2012. This is in conjunction with UBC SEEDS, the sustainability focused program that publishes student driven reports to encourage transparent communication. It is a publically available educational asset that further promotes the use of LCA as a scientific method to determine the sustainability of a building system. This information could also be used to further inform decision making regarding the fenestration ratio standards for MURBs at UBC.  2.1.3 Intended Audience Describe those who the LCA study is intended to be interpreted by. Several audiences are targeted for the following study. This includes the stakeholder involved in building development within the UBC Campus. More specifically in involves the sustainability office, SEEDS, and the Residential Environmental Assessment Program. This is also intended for the building industry in general and decision makers involved in design such as: architects, engineers, developers, and building owners. General stakeholders in both private and public industries that are interested in sustainable development are also an intended audience. 2.1.4 Intended for Comparative Assertion State whether the results of this LCA study are to be compared with the results of other LCA studies This study is part of a group of two other studies conducted for residential buildings at UBC. These studies are compared and analyzed together. In addition to following ISO standards the studies focus on the fenestration analysis of their respective buildings. As this study is to be disclosed publically via the SEEDS website, it can be compared to external studies that follow ISO 14040 and 14044 standards. 2.2 Scope 2.2.1 Product System to be studied Describe the collection of unit processes that will be included in the study A unit process is defined as a measurable activity that in order to create a product or service, requires an input and output. During the lifecycle of a building system the main processes involved include Construction Product Manufacturing, Building Construction, Building Operation and Maintenance, as well as the End of Life of a building. Certain pre-construction processes, including site preparation and earthworks are not included.  8  When considering the construction products manufacturing phase, resources (wood, stone, etc) and energy is considered the input. Through extraction and transportation, this process outputs emissions (air, water, and land) as well as construction products. These construction products, as well as other resources and energy is used as inputs for the Building Construction Process. Like the product manufacturing process, it outputs emissions. The building itself is also considered an output. The next life cycle phase is building maintenance. Much like the other processes, it required resources, energy, and construction products (for replacement and repair of building components). It includes the building operation and maintenance process, as well as transportation of construction products and waste disposal. The final process involves the end of life demolition of the building. The inputs considered include resources, energy, and the building itself. Through an equipment use and waste transportation process, the building is demolished. Outputs include the typical emissions (Air, Water, and Land) as well as the building waste products. 2.2.2 System Boundary Details the extent of a Product System that should be studied in terms of product components, lifecycle stages, and unit processes More specifically the report details the major components used within the building. This includes the Floors, Roofs, Wall, Columns and Beams, Slabs on grade and Footings. It also includes all associated doors, windows, and insulation, drywall, and vapour barriers. These components are considered assemblies of construction products. 2.2.3 Functions of the Product System Describes the functions served by the product focused on in the LCA study. The product system of focus in this LCA study is a Multi Unit Residential Building. Its main function involves providing shelter for occupants that live in Units of a certain size. A more detailed description of the Bi Building is provided in the introduction of this report 2.2.4 Functional Units A performance characteristic of the product system being studied that will be used as a reference unit to normalize the results of the study The following project will be analyzed based on the normalization of the LCA results through the functional units listed below:  Per typical residential building square foot constructed (area)  Per specific type of function (bathroom, bedroom, kitchen, parking etc) constructed  Per typical residential building cubic foot constructed (volume)  Per residential building occupant  9   More detailed discussion of the functional units as well as their application is shown in the Functions and Impact section of this report. 2.2.5 Allocation Procedures Describes how the input and output flows of the studied product system (and unit processes within it) are distributed between it and other related product systems. There are several ways by which an allocation problem could occur. This includes the production of more than one product, a waste treatment process that involves multiple waste products from different sources, or when materials are used (recycled or reused) in subsequent lifecycles. Input and Output flows of a product have to be allocated when these situations arise. They have to be shared amongst the products and subsequent life cycles. A cut-off allocation method is used in this study. The impacts due to the Bi Building are allocated directly to this building. Although materials from the site could be potentially reused in the future, when the building is decommissioned, it is outside the scope of this project. It does not take into account the waste treatment processes or use in subsequent life cycles. 2.2.6 LCIA methodology and types of impact State the methodology used to characterize the LCI results and the impact categories that will address the environmental and other issues of concern. To characterize the life cycle impacts of the Bi Building, the Tool for the Reduction and Assessment of Chemical and other environmental Impact (TRACI) is used as primary impact assessment method. It is developed by the US Environmental Protection Agency. To characterize the Weighted Raw Resource use and Fossil Fuel consumption the impact assessment methodology developed by the Athena Institute is used. The results are extrapolated through the Athena Impact Estimator, and ecosystem calculator. The impact categories include:  Global warming potential – kg CO2 equivalents  Acidification potential – H+ mol equivalents  Eutrophication potential – kg N equivalents  Ozone depletion potential – kg CFC-11 equivalents  Photochemical smog potential – kg NOx equivalents  Human health respiratory effects potential – kg PM2.5 equivalents  Weighted raw resource use – kg  Fossil fuel consumption – MJ  10  A more detailed description of these categories is discussed in the Results and Analysis section of this report. 2.2.7 Interpretation to be used Statement of significant issues, model evaluation results and concluding remarks. Assumptions and Interpretation is discussed in the Building Take-Off section of the report. This includes discussions of uncertainty, sensitivity and functional units. Concluding remarks are discussed in the conclusions section. 2.2.8 Assumptions Explicit statement of all assumptions used to by the modeler to measure, calculate or estimate information in order to complete the study of the product system. Most assumptions occur in the material take offs and the Impact Estimator software. These are discussed further in the Building Take-off section of the report, with more detail in the Input Assumptions document in Appendix B. In general, assumptions were needed when information was missing in the drawing and documents provided to outline building characteristics. This may cause and under or overestimation of materials used. In addition, the Impact Estimator may not contain the specific components used, and materials that are closest in terms of property are inputted instead. Assumptions regarding the software used, ATHENA Impact Estimator Version 4.1.13, are developed and built into the software by the Athena Institute. This information is proprietary and can be accessed through the ATHENA Institute webpage (Athena. 2011). 2.2.9 Value Choices and Optional Elements Details the application and use of normalization, grouping, weighting and further data quality analysis used to better understand the LCA study results. Due to the limited time available to complete this report, Value Choices and Optional Elements are not included in the report. There is however sufficient documentation to conduct further analysis. However, a Sensitivity analysis is conducted. 2.2.10 Limitation Describe the extents to which the results of the modeling carried out on the product system accurately estimate the impacts created by the product system defined by the system boundary of the study. The following limitations are to be found in the report and analysis: System Boundary: Land preparation, including earth work and removal of trees is omitted from the LCA, as this information is not available. In addition impact due to reuse, recycling or treatment of waste material is outside the scope of this study Data Sources and Assumptions:  11  The data is sourced fromn Architectural and Structural Drawings provided by the UBC Sustainability Office (SO).  The LCA results (from Impact Estimator) include a Bill of Materials unique to the Bi Building. The life cycle inventory and characterization is based on average industry processes and impacts in the North American Construction and Product Manufacturing Industries.  2.2.11 Data Quality Requirements Qualitative and quantitative description of the sourced data used in the study including its age, geographical and technological coverage, precision, completeness, reproducibility and uncertainty. Several Data Sources have been used to develop the LCA study. This includes the Bill of Materials, Life cycle Inventory (LCI) flows, and characterization of LCI flows. Bill of Materials: The UBC SO sourced Architectural and Structural Drawings from Raymond Letkeman Architects Incorporated and Bogdonov Pao Associates respectively, and Onscreen Takeoff software is used to conduct a takeoff of building components, which are entered into the ATHENA Impact Estimator. Takeoffs are completed by members of this LCA study. As this is the case, quality of the takeoffs are dependent on human accuracy. The Bill of Materials is calculated by the Impact Estimator software, based on take-off data and component properties inputted by a member of this study. These Bill of Material results can be reproduced by inputting data from the Inputs and Assumptions documents in Appendix A and B of this report. LCI Flows:  The source of LCI data is the Athena LCI Database. The data quality and modelling assumptions used to develop this database (built into the Impact Estimator) is outside the time and scope constraints of this report. This information is provided by the Inner Workings Transparency Document on the Athena Institute Website (Athena, 2010). The database is specific to a North American market, which creates geographic limitations. In general, LCI data include the construction product manufacturing and fuel refining and production. Construction product transportation as well as construction and demolition wastes transportation data is specific to Vancouver, British Columbia. The Athena Institute developed the LCI data and modeling parameters used in the Impact Estimator. Characterization Factors: As stated previously, impact categories are based on the US EPA TRACI and Athena Institute impact assessment methods. Specific documentation can be found on their respective websites, as shown in the References section of this report. In general, the characterized LCI flows are based on their potential to environmentally impact within North America. Detailed discussion of the uncertainties in the impact assessment results are in the Results section of this report.  12  2.2.12 Type of Critical Review A review of the methods, data, interpretations, transparency, and consistency of the LCA study. An ISO 14044 critical review has not been completed on this report.  The report content and results have received a general review by Rob Sianchuk using a standardized grading rubric developed for the course in which this study was developed.  If this report is to be used outside of intended application, it is strongly advised that the authors be included in communications. 2.2.13 Type and Format of the report required for the study Statement of the type and format followed by the report. The report follows an outline provided by the Instructor, Rob Sianchuk, of the LCA project course in the UBC Civil Engineering Department. 3.0 Model Development 3.1 Structure and Envelope  As stated above, the ATHENA Institute Impact Estimator software has been used to analyze the Bi Building, in terms of the Impact Categories. To perform analysis, specific building data is required. The most important of which, includes the measurements of the buildings Columns, Beams, Floors, Foundation, Footing, and Walls. Take-offs of the components has been conducted using the OnScreen Take-off software provided by UBC. Architectural, and Structural drawings, provided by, Raymond Letkeman Architects Incorporated and Bogdonov Pao Associates respectively, are feed into the OnScreen Take-off software, and using its tools accurate measurements of the components have been conducted by the individual members of this project. The following section details specific procedures used to perform the take-offs and discusses assumptions made as they relate to the drawings, and software used. In general, detailed and clean .pdf versions of the drawing have been provide to conduct the Take-offs. Some details required by the Impact Estimator have not been found on the drawings, and careful assumptions have been made. As the building is a private residential building, access inside has not been provided. The project members however have conducted several trips to observe the exterior of the building.   13   Figure 2: Southeastern side of Bi    3.1.1 Columns and Beams  The Impact Estimator internally calculates the sizing of the columns and beams based on the following inputs: number of columns, number of beams, bay size, supported span, floor to floor height, and live load. The number of concrete columns and beams on each floor of the Bi residence were determined using count conditions on the structural drawings S2.1, S2.2,  S2.5, S2.6, S2.7, S2.8, S2.9, S2.10, S2.11, and S2.12.  It was determined that the floors of the building were being supported by both concrete columns and wood posts.  The wood posts were scattered throughout the walls, and were often a cluster of between 4 and 7 wood studs.  This was an assumption because the impact estimator cannot differentiate between the different sizes of studs, or the different types of concrete columns, but rather takes the inputs provided above and calculates a appropriate size. A Live Load of 2.4 kPa was assumed for both the concrete and softwood lumber columns.  However, this was an assumption, and another assumption had to be made as to the portion of the floor space that was supported by softwood lumber posts and the portion supported by concrete columns.  It was assumed that 4 wood columns can support a load equivalent to the  14  load supported by 1 concrete column.  This assumption allowed for the supported area per floor to be determined, as well as the supported area per column, bay sizes, and supported spans. The bay sizes and supported spans were measured on the foundation level, but on subsequent levels they were calculated by determining the supported span per column, and then finding the bay size and supported span by taking the square root (which assumes the sporadic columns are spaced equally in a square pattern to support the calculated load.)  However, the impact estimator requires that the bay size be within the range of 3.05m ↔ 12.2m, so in cases where the square root of the supported area per column is less than 9.3025m² (3.05m x 3.05m), the bay size was stated to be the minimum (3.05m) while the supported span was adjusted so the product of the supported span and the bay size was equal to the supported area per column. The number of columns was determined using a count condition in the impact estimator, and the beams were input as extra basic materials so a linear condition was added to account for them.  Neither columns nor beams follow a pattern that is in a consistent grid format, so uncertainty was created in calculating the bill of materials assuming the columns do.  The beams were measured using the linear condition and measuring the Laminated Veneer Lumber, Parallel Strand Lumber, and Fascia Beams and then using their specified dimensions to determine the volume.  Certain materials had dimensions which were extremely similar (such as 1 ¾” x 9 ½” vs 1 ¾” x 9 ¼”), and these differences were unaccounted for as both were assumed to be the slightly larger dimension.  Figure 3 shows a screen shot from the Onscreen Take-Off software where a count for columns and linear measurement for extra materials (LVL, Glulam beams, and Fascia) has been performed.  Figure 3: Second Floor Framing Over Main Floor Walls  In the roof drawings there are lines which appear to be beams, but are noted as GT (girder truss) and are not accounted for as they are a part of the roof assembly and being counted already.   15  This scenario is also evident in treating the wood posts as load supporting columns.  The wood posts are located in the walls and often are built up around door frames, corners, and specific walls.  This creates some double counting as the studs are already being accounted for in the walls assembly, but some are being double counted because they are also included in the columns count.  As can be seen in Figure 4 the posts are labelled 4S (or 4 wood studs), and the LVL beams are not always consistent (one is 3 – 1 ¾” x 11 7/8” and the other is 2 - 1 ¾” x 11 7/8”).  Figure 4: Roof over 4th floor framing close up analysis   3.1.2 Foundation The foundation assembly of the Bi building is composed of concrete footings and concrete slab-on-grade. Foundation slabs were modeled using the OnScreen Takeoff by enclosing the floor plans of the foundation (drawings 66-69). The concrete footings have been named based on their types and thicknesses, where for example a twenty six-inch “A” slab was named “Footing_A_26” thickness”. For the footings measured with linear conditions, all of the column footings required width adjustments to maintain the same volume of footing because the IE limits the footing thickness to be between 7.5” and 19.7”. For the strip footings that had their thicknesses within the acceptable IE range, no adjustment has been made. For all the slab-on-grade, the measured areas from the OnScreen Takeoff required adjustments to be made to determine the appropriate width and length inputs for the IE to accommodate IE limitation of 4” and 8” slab thickness. A concrete strength of 4000 psi has been assumed due to IE limitation of 3000, 4000, and 9000 psi strengths. An average value of concrete flyash content has been assumed.  16  3.1.3Floor and Roof All the floors of the Bi are Wood I-Joist floor type and have been modeled using OnScreen Takeoff’s area condition. The floors width and span have been calculated by dividing the whole floor area into three categories: Residential, Hallway, and total floor area. Average span size of the residential and hallway areas have been measured using the OnScreen Takeoff’s measuring tool. The addition of multiplication of the residential and hallway areas to their related average span size and dividing it by the total floor area would give the supported span. The width is then calculated by dividing the total floor area by the average supported span. The floors’ live load was determined to be 40 psf but has been inputted as 50 psf to accommodate the IE input limitations. A Plywood decking type and 5/8” thickness has been inputted in the IE as determined in the drawings. An OSB web type and 3/8” thickness was also been set as determined in the drawings.     The roof of the Bi is a light frame wood truss. The width and span of the roof are all calculated in the same manner as the wood I-joist floors. A live load of 50 psf was inputted in the IE due to its input limitations as it was measured to be 38 psf in the structural drawings. A Pitched truss type and Plywood decking type with thickness of 5/8” has been inputted in the Impact Estimator. 3.1.4Walls  Several different wall types are within the building. In general, concrete cast in place, concrete block, and wood stud walls are found in the building. Depending on properties like height, envelope, use, and thickness, 14 Take-off conditions have been created for walls. Using a Linear Feet tool, measurements of wall length are taken. The Input Assumptions document in Appendix B details the take-offs as well as other inputs required by the Input Estimator. An important part of the wall system is the doors and windows. All doors and windows have been accounted for using the Count tool in OnScreen Take-off. Several assumptions have been made however regarding the walls. All take-offs have been based on Architectural drawings primarily. They however do not state which walls are considered Load Bearing or Non-Load Bearing. After careful inspection of the structural drawing it is determined that most walls carry load. An assumption has been made that all walls are load bearing. Its effect of Impact estimator measurements of Bill of Materials is minimal, but is overestimated. Interior Partition Walls from the Main Floor to the 3rd floor have 2 -2x4 studs at 12” OC. The minimal OC option in IE is 16” OC. It is therefore assumed that this wall type is 16” OC. This causes a reduction in the plywood in the building, which somewhat compensates for the extra plywood due to considering all walls load bearing. In term of materials within the wall envelope, Acoustic Insulation is considered Fiberglass BATT insulation. Insulation thickness is based on the Take-off of wall cross sections. The concrete walls have strength of 3600 psi. Due to unavailability of option in IE, this value is considered to be 4000 psi. Door properties are based on the Door Schedule provided. Since windows can only be considered fixed or operable within one wall condition, it is assumed that all windows are operable. This increases the amount of materials. The only Door input available in IE is for doors of a standard size (32”x7”). In this project however, all standard  17  doors are larger. Therefore, doors are assumed to be 32”x7” and double doors are counted twice.  Figure 5: Typical Wall Take-off 3.2 Use Phase Energy is consumed on an annual basis by the building through its life cycle. This is noted as part of the basic building information required by the Athena Impact Estimator. This information has been provided by the Sustainability Office, in the form of electrical and fossil fuel consumption. These values were also related to the fenestration ratio of the building, and provided as energy use per floor area. The Bi Building with a fenestration ratio of approximately 30% uses 493,987.63 kwh/year of electrical energy. This is in addition to 62,409.37 m3/year of natural gas. It is assumed that theses values present an average year. No other energy inputs are provided and are therefore not included as part of the operating energy consumption of the building. 4.0 Results and Interpretation The following section details the main results generated by the Impact Estimator, on the building. As part of the Inventory Analysis, a Bill of Materials is presented in addition, to an energy use profile per  18  year and over the life of the building. Within the Impact Assessment section, the Impact Category results are presented. Uncertainty within the summary measure results is also discussed. A sensitivity analysis is also performed, by increasing the amount of significant materials, detailed in the Bill of Materials section, by 10%. A chain of custody inquiry is conducted regarding the insulation used in the building. Finally the building functions are discussed, and the Functional Units are applied to the results 4.1 Inventory Analysis  4.1.2 Bill of Materials The following section of the report details the Bill of Materials used to construct the Bi Building. The list is generated by the Athena Impact Estimator. The data located in the Inputs document (Appendix A) is input into the Impact Estimator, which estimates the types of materials that are used in the building, as well as their quantities. This list is shown below. It shows the materials used within each Assembly Group as well as the whole building.     Assembly Group   Construction Material Units  Foundation Walls Floors Columns & Beams Roof Extra Basic Material Building Total #15 Organic Felt m2   981.1851     21507.729  22488.9141 1/2"  Regular Gypsum Board m2   3898.9077        3898.9077 5/8"  Fire-Rated Type X Gypsum Board m2   25237.893        25237.893 5/8"  Gypsum Fiber Gypsum Board m2     13805.1212   1743.9131  15549.0343 6 mil Polyethylene m2 2570.6034 3546.5415     1681.7663  7798.9113 Aluminum Tonnes   45.3441        45.3441 Ballast (aggregate stone) Kg         176597.0464  176597.0464 Batt. Fiberglass m2 (25mm)   37661.6626 22673.9324   23944.0364  84279.6313 Cedar Wood Bevel Siding m2   14916.0966        14916.0966 Cold Rolled Sheet Tonnes   0.0292        0.0292 Concrete 20 MPa (flyash av) m3           1841.175 1841.175 Concrete 30 MPa (flyash av) m3 592.8977 339.8385   214.267    1147.0032 Concrete Blocks Blocks   3920.0599        3920.0599 EPDM membrane (black, 60 mil) Kg   10391.803        10391.803 Expanded Polystyrene m2 (25mm)   155.19        155.19  19  Foam Polyisocyanurate m2 (25mm) 1403.1783          1403.1783 Galvanized Sheet Tonnes   4.6651 5.4474   2.6897  12.8022 Glazing Panel Tonnes   16.6815        16.6815 GluLam Sections m3           0.7245 0.7245 Joint Compound Tonnes   29.0791 13.7778   1.7405  44.5973 Laminated Veneer Lumber m3     50.5757     43.6626 94.2382 Large Dimension Softwood Lumber, kiln-dried m3           5.3436 5.3436 Mortar m3   76.8879        76.8879 Nails Tonnes 0.0237 13.7371 1.8744   1.0941  16.7293 Natural Stone m2   151.8825        151.8825 Oriented Strand Board m2 (9mm)     1889.183      1889.183 Paper Tape Tonnes   0.3337 0.1581   0.02  0.5119 Parallel Strand Lumber m3           0.2311 0.2311 Rebar, Rod, Light Sections Tonnes 3.7057 28.36   102.1352    134.2008 Roofing Asphalt Kg         117324.6142  117324.6142 Screws Nuts & Bolts Tonnes   4.8796        4.8796 Small Dimension Softwood Lumber, Green m3   65.949        65.949 Small Dimension Softwood Lumber, kiln-dried m3   596.6477 42.7166 77.4908 34.437  751.292 Softwood Plywood m2 (9mm)   5853.482 10403.3808   2102.7086  18359.5714 Solvent Based Alkyd Paint L   18.2098        18.2098 Standard Glazing m2   9818.1776        9818.1776 Type III Glass Felt m2         43015.458  43015.458 Water Based Latex Paint L   8404.4333        8404.4333 Welded Wire Mesh / Ladder Wire Tonnes 2.19          2.19 Table 2: Bill of Materials – Summary  Due to its use in a majority of wall and floor systems, BATT Fiberglass insulation is a material of interest within this building. It is an envelope component in walls, floors, and roof assembly groups. There is approximately 84,280 m2 of 25 mm BATT Fiberglass used for the most part; R- 20  12, R-20, and acoustic insulation have been used in this project according to drawings provided. Due to lack of options within the Athena Impact Estimator, they are all assumed to be BATT Fiberglass insulation. Based on take-offs of wall cross-sections their individual thickness is determined In terms of weight, a major component is Concrete 20 MPa (with average flyash).   For all the Wood I-Joist floors there is 1 ½” concrete topping that are inputted as an extra basic material. To find the volume of the total concrete topping, the total area of the second, third, and fourth floor were measured and calculated by multiplying it to the concrete topping thickness. The concrete strength is inputted as 20 MPa as indicated in the structural drawings. The Impact Estimator has assumed an average flyash content for the concrete topping.  Reinforced Rebar is a major part of several assemblies in this building. In general all concrete cast in place structures contain rebar. This includes the concrete walls, foundation, and columns. In wall assemblies, since rebar type is not specified, it is assumed that #5 rebar is used. This is also the case when it comes to columns, as well as the foundation. As this is a wood frame building for the most part, there is significant usage of Softwood Plywood. It is used as wood studs in most types of walls, as well as part of the wood joist within the floors. Several wood post columns are also found in the building. As stated in the take-off assumptions section of this report, all walls are considered load bearing, which overestimates the amount of softwood plywood. In addition, interior partition walls on the main and second floor have wood studs that are 12” on center. Since the Impact Estimator can only specify to 16” on center, this is inputted. Due to this change there is also and underestimation of softwood plywood used. Drywall is used mostly in the walls, and floor. Of the different drywall types that make up a major part of this building, 5/8” regular Gypsum Board is used the most. It is used in the floors and roof system of the building. For the most part, assumptions have not been made for this specific envelope material.  4.1.2 Energy Use Shown below is the summary of the total Energy Consumption model for the Bi Building through its lifecycle. Of particular interest is the Operating Energy of the building. An annual and total energy value is given. It is assumed that the building has a service life of 99 years. Energy Type Manufacturing Construction Maintenance End of Life Operating Energy   Total Total Total Total Annual Total Total Electricity kWh 554708.2062 12084.80381 349876.1543 0 493987.6 48904775 49821445 Hydro MJ 1760625.317 43384.61706 2367509.094 415.6221127 1757082 1.74E+08 1.78E+08 Coal MJ 1837103.701 6708.242534 1033061.924 6064.894732 35759 3540141 6423079 Diesel MJ 1542528.863 1335801.488 922326.3212 902122.9986 35219.32 3486713 8189492 Feedstock MJ 3147689.793 0 6406757.196 0 0 0 9554447  21  Gasoline MJ 20407.62293 0 52715.04996 0 0 0 73122.67 Heavy Fuel Oil MJ 1180737.183 19656.89532 598920.6107 20080.05821 2655.098 262854.7 2082249 LPG MJ 11537.34793 893.0218897 16956.72745 905.0508825 1097.625 108664.8 138957 Natural Gas MJ 7472347.792 43690.10276 2848136.013 36957.47738 2890674 2.86E+08 2.97E+08 Nuclear MJ 11909371.48 1822.115101 55907115.47 1553.501171 11214.28 1110214 68930076 Wood MJ 868151.4694 0 280060.0008 0 0 0 1148211 Total Primary Energy Consumption MJ 29750500.57 1451956.482 70433558.41 968099.6031 4733701 4.69E+08 5.71E+08 Table 3: Energy Consumption values for Building Life Cycle. 4.2 Impact Assessment The following section of this report details the Impact results of the building through its life cycle stages. The results are split into the major assembly groups, including the foundation, walls, floors, columns & beams, roof, and extra basic material. The subsections detailed each Impact Category chosen for the project, as stated in the Goals and Scope. They are based on TRACI (TRACI, 2012) and the Athena Institute characterizations.  4.2.1Global Warming Potential Global Warming occurs due to heat being trapped within the earth’s atmosphere. This is due to a buildup of chemicals in the atmosphere. This impact category refers to the potential buildup of air emissions (characterized as Carbon Dioxide equivalents) that cause Global Warming. Shown below is a summary of global warming potential impact due to each building component during the life cycle of this building.  Table 5: Global Warming potential – Summary of Impact Results during Life Cycle of each assembly group.  22  4.2.2 Ozone Layer Depletion In  TRACI, the following impact category refers to the destruction of the Ozone Layer due to chemical substances such as CFC. The category indicator for Ozone Layer Depletion is “kg CFC-11 eq”, and the summarized results are as shown below.  Table 6: Ozone Layer Depletion – Summary of Impact Results during Life Cycle of each assembly group.  4.2.3 Acidification Potential Acidification Potential is defined as the potential for the increase in total acidity through the emission of substances (measured in moles of Hydrogen ion equivalents) within soil and water systems. This may be caused by chemical substances such as nitrogen oxides (NO2) and sulfur dioxide (SO2) being emitted from process activities. Its impact on this building is shown below.  Table 7: Acidification Potential – Summary of Impact Results during Life Cycle of each assembly group.    23  4.2.4 Eutrophication Potential Air and Water Emissions have the potential to contribute to the impairment of water bodies. This is defined as Eutrophication. Many chemicals such as phosphorus, nitrogen dioxide, nitric oxide, nitrogen and ammonium can contribute to Eutrophication. It is expressed in terms of kilograms of Nitrogen released.  Table 8: Eutrophication Potential – Summary of Impact Results during Life Cycle of each assembly group.  4.2.5 Smog Potential Volatile organic compounds (VOC) or emissions like NOx have the potential to help create smog. It is measured in terms of kilograms of NOx created during the life cycle processes.  Table 9: Smog Potential – Summary of Impact Results during Life Cycle of each assembly group.  4.2.6 Human Health Respiratory Effects Particulate matter formed from emissions of gases such as sulfur dioxide and VOCs, are associated with disturbance of the human respiratory system. While coarser particles can create some problems within the respiratory system, such as asthma, finer particles (PM2.5) are associated with more serious problems, like chronic bronchitis. For this reason, Human Health Respiratory Effects are expressed as kilograms of PM2.5 equivalents as per TRACI.  24   Table 10: Human Health Respiratory Effects – Summary of Impact Results during Life Cycle of each assembly group.  4.2.7 Weighted Resource Use Resources have been used as inputs for the unit processes of the building. This includes many types of resources such as wood, iron ore, stone, and much more. The extraction of these resources are ranked in terms of their ecological carrying capacity, and characterized in terms of kg extracted.  This method was developed by the Athena Sustainable Materials Institute. They are converted to a Weighted Resource Use based on the relative impact due to their extraction.  Table 11: Weighted Resource Use – Summary of Impact Results during Life Cycle of each assembly group.  4.2.8 Fossil Fuel Use Fossil Fuel is a major input for the unit processes involved. It is calculated based on the total fossil fuel energy (MJ) consumed during the various life cycle stages and unit processes of the Bi Residential Building.   25  Table 12: Fossil Fuel Use – Summary of Impact Results during Life Cycle of each assembly group.   4.3 Uncertainty Due to the complex nature of impact assessment within this LCA study, there are a few uncertainties and assumptions involved. They can affect the results of this study, and are therefore discussed in this section. In general, there is uncertainty involved with the Data, Model, Temporal Variability and Spatial variability. Several unknowns exist that may cause Data Uncertainty. The service life of the building is assumed to be 99 years, but the actual value is not known. Transportation data is based on a regional average and the travel potential of emissions are not accounted. The report is limited to the impact categories stated in the goal and scope. For this reason, only a limited amount of impacts are analyzed and complete assessments of all potential issues are not discussed. The Potential impacts not included may be specific to the Vancouver region. Furthermore, impacts are not discussed from an aesthetic, political, or economic view. Temporal Variability within Impact Assessments can be caused by the interpretation of impacts over time. Since there is high variability within impacts, the element of time may create uncertainty. Changes in the temperature and general climate may affect the impact of this building.  In terms of Spatial Variability, the impacts of concern can be grouped in a regional way. Global Warming and ozone depletion are global effects, while acidification, smog and eutrophication happens on a regional level. A North American average is used to characterize theses effectives, even if they may be sensitive to certain regions. In a similar note, emission distribution patterns are also affected by the location. Finally, uncertainty can be created due to variability between object and source. The impact of emissions on humans is dependent on emissions patterns. For example, the building is constructed at an area with a relatively low human density. This is not taken into account in the Impact Estimation.   26  4.4 Sensitivity Analysis A Sensitivity analysis allows for the results to be interpreted and enables a better understanding of how each material affects the overall building impact. Five analyses are performed where the amount of the material being analysed is increased by 10% in the Impact estimator.  The Primary Energy Consumption, Weighted Resource Use, Global Warming Potential, Acidification Potential, HH Respiratory Effects Potential, Eutrophication Potential, Ozone Depletion Potential, and Smog Potential were all considered and how their value is influenced by varying each material quantity. The relationship between these inputs and outputs are assumed to be linear, and the data can be expanded on to determine how a 20% change in material use would influence the outputs, or how a 40% decrease would influence the outputs. The Batt Fiberglass insulation appears to impact the HH Respiratory Effects potential slightly, but it also slightly affects the overall Global Warming Potential, Primary Energy consumption, and Acidification Potential.  However, these latter values are less than 0.5% so they have relatively little effect overall.   Figure 6: Batt Fiberglass Sensitivity Analysis  The Concrete 20 MPa (flyash av) has a relatively large influence of 4% on the weighted resource use, as well as many other factors as seen in the chart above.  Ozone depletion, smog potential, global warming potential, acidification potential, and Eutrophication potential are all increased by 1 to 3% when the volume of Concrete 20MPa is increased by 10%.  The dependant relationship where Weighted resource use is affected by 4% with a 10% increase in concrete 20MPa means that output is greatly affected by the concrete 20MPa input. Batt FiberGlass Sensitivity Analysis0.00%0.10%0.20%0.30%0.40%0.50%0.60%0.70%0.80%0.90%0% 2% 4% 6% 8% 10% 12%Change InputChange OutputPrimary Energy ConsumptionWeighted Resource UseGlobal Warming PotentialAcidif ication PotentialHH Respiratory EffectsPotentialEutrophication PotentialOzone Depletion PotentialSmog Potential 27   Figure 7: Concrete 20 Mpa (Flyash Av) Sensit ivity Ana lysis The Rebar, Rod, and Light Sections sensitivity analysis shows that these materials generally only have a significant effect on the Eutrophication potential of the project.  With a 10% change in input, the Eutrophication potential is affected by 3%.  Other factors are all below 1% with a 10% increase in material use.   Figure 8: Rebar,  Rod, Light Sections Sensit ivity Analysis   Concrete 20 Mpa (Flyash av) Sensitivity Analysis0.00%0.50%1.00%1.50%2.00%2.50%3.00%3.50%4.00%4.50%0% 2% 4% 6% 8% 10% 12%Change InputChange OutputPrimary EnergyConsumptionWeighted Resource UseGlobal Warming PotentialAcidification PotentialHH Respiratory EffectsPotentialEutrophication PotentialOzone Depletion PotentialSmog PotentialRebar, Rod, Light Sections Sensitivity Analysis0.00%0.50%1.00%1.50%2.00%2.50%3.00%3.50%0% 2% 4% 6% 8% 10% 12%Change InputChange OutputPrimary EnergyConsumptionWeighted Resource UseGlobal Warming PotentialAcidification PotentialHH Respiratory EffectsPotentialEutrophication PotentialOzone Depletion PotentialSmog Potential 28  The Softwood Plywood input has relatively little influence on the overall impact of outputs as seen in the chart above.  The most significant affect due to a 10% increase in material use is a 0.25% change in the weighted resource use which is almost insignificant.  Figure 9: Softwood Plywood Sensitivity Analysis  The Gypsum Board input has relatively little influence on the overall impact of outputs as seen in the chart above.  The most significant affect due to a 10% increase in material use is a change of 0.3% in primary energy consumption which is almost insignificant.  Figure 10 : 5/8” Regular Gypsum Board Sensitivity Ana lysis Softwood Plywood (msf (3/8 Basis)) Sensitivity Analysis0.00%0.05%0.10%0.15%0.20%0.25%0% 2% 4% 6% 8% 10% 12%Change InputChange OutputPrimary EnergyConsumptionWeighted Resource UseGlobal Warming PotentialAcidification PotentialHH Respiratory EffectsPotentialEutrophication PotentialOzone Depletion PotentialSmog Potential5/8" regular Gypsum Board Sensitivity Analysis0.00%0.050.10%.150.200.25%0.30%0.35%0% 2% 4% 6% 8% 10% 12%Change InputChange OutputPrimary EnergyConsumptionWeighted Resource UseGlobal Warming PotentialAcidification PotentialHH Respirat ry EffectsPotentialEutrophication PotentialOzone Depletion PotentialSmog Potential 29  4.5 Chain of Custody Inquiry The Material selected for our sensitivity analysis was fibreglass insulation, which is used throughout our building.  After contacting the architectural engineering firm, Raymond Letkeman Architects Inc, and their general contractor, it was discovered that the insulation was provided by JohnsManville.  The product specialist at JohnsManville said that the insulation in our building most likely came from the manufacturing facility which is located in Innisfail Alberta, which is between Edmonton and Calgary.  This plant is the only insulation factory in the northwest, and often supplies insulation to Vancouver. The insulation is transported by both Truck (68.7%) and Railcar (31.3%), and the source material is from sand quarries within 500 miles of their manufacturing facility.  The representatives from JohnsManville were hesitant to provide the source of the sand they use, but it is very possible that it came from the Canadian Silica Industries plants which are located throughout northern Alberta, particularly in the north-west and into north-eastern BC. JohnsManville has also provided a LEED document for their point of origin, which details a few more facts about their product as it relates to environmental impact.  This document is in Appendix C. The information provided by JohnsManville was relatively easy to obtain, but not very detailed.  To find out further information required many more phone calls, and it as often mentioned that the information being requested was privileged.  Completing this for every material in the Bi building would be time consuming, and would likely lead to many dead ends.  Companies seem hesitant to provide anything quickly or without getting input from someone else at their company.  This reluctance might change if the method of collection was from a recognizable accredited organization rather than a university student.  The companies may then treat the LCA practitioners as professionals rather than people from the general public 4.6 Building Function The Bi Building is considered a multi-unit residential building. While its main function is to provide shelter, there are many secondary functions. Each of them have been given a functional area, and it is presented below Functional Area Type Gross Floor Area (ft2) Percent of Building Bedroom 19512 17% Bathroom 6960 6% Kitchen 7372 7% Living Area/Balconies 41248 37% Hallway/Stairwell/Elevator 9940 9% Parking 21416 19% Storage/Mechanical/Operational 6137 5% Whole Building 112585 100% Table 13: Summary of Functional Area  30  A majority of this building consists of Living Area and Balcony, as well as the Bedrooms and Parking. This makes sense as it is a residential building. The basement floor is almost exclusively parking. A majority of the units have at least 2 bedrooms, indicating a large residential population potential. In this building, it is assumed that dens are part of the building living area, as well as area that is not exclusively part of the Kitchen, Bathroom, or Bedrooms within each unit. Closest are considered to be part of their respective functional area.  4.7 Functional Units Functional units are used as reference units for the quantified impact of a product system. In this case, the product system is the Bi Building. Functional Units have several uses. By providing a reference point, the functional unit makes it easier for the comparison of several different product systems. The Bi building is defined as a low rise residential building. The environmental impact of the building can be compared to other low rise residential buildings with similar properties. There are however key differences such as the gross floor area that make direct comparisons of absolute values pointless. As this is a complicated product system with various functions, four specific functional units are used. The total effects of each impact category on the building are divided by these units, so they can provide a better comparative analysis in the future. 4.7.1Per Typical Residential Building Square Foot constructed The gross floor area is shown to be 112585, including parking. This value is divided by the Impact Assessment results to provide impact per square feet of the building. This is a common functional unit for many different building types, as shelter is directly correlated to floor space.  Total Effects Per Gross Floor Area (/ft2) Fossil Fuel Consumption MJ 323039220 2869.291824 Weighted Resource Use kg 17292875.16 153.5983938 Global Warming Potential (kg CO2 eq) 18557165.78 164.828048 Acidification Potential (moles of H+ eq) 7796762.905 69.25223524 HH Respiratory Effects Potential (kg PM2.5 eq) 42190.2069 0.374740924 Eutrophication Potential (kg N eq) 1353.036841 0.012017914 Ozone Depletion Potential (kg CFC-11 eq) 0.002559055 2.273E-08 Smog Potential (kg NOx eq) 15581.06947 0.138393831 Table 14: Functional Unit Summary – Per Gross Floor Area 4.7.2 Per Specific type of function Apart from providing basic shelter, there are more specific functions within a residential building. Each unit contains at least two bedrooms, two bedrooms, a kitchen, and a living area/balcony. Other function types include corridors, parking, and storage. Each impact category is allocated to the specific unit type and divided by its total area. For example,  31  bedrooms contribute to 17% of the building. This percentage is multiplied by the impact results for each category. The number is then divided by the total area of bedroom in the building.    Total Effects Bedroom Bathroom Kitchen Living Area/Balcony Hallway/ Stairwell/ Elevator Parking Storage /Mechanical /Operational Whole Building     17% 6% 7% 37% 9% 19% 5% 100% Fossil Fuel Consumption MJ 323039220 2,814.51 2,784.82 3,067.38 2,897.70 2,924.90 2,865.96 2,631.90 2,869.29 Weighted Resource Use kg 17292875.16 150.67 149.08 164.20 155.12 156.58 153.42 140.89 153.60 Global Warming Potential (kg CO2 eq) 18557165.78 161.68 159.98 176.21 166.46 168.02 164.64 151.19 164.83 Acidification Potential (moles of H+ eq) 7796762.905 67.93 67.21 74.03 69.94 70.59 69.17 63.52 69.25 HH Respiratory Effects Potential (kg PM2.5 eq) 42190.2069 0.37 0.36 0.40 0.38 0.38 0.37 0.34 0.37 Eutrophication Potential (kg N eq) 1353.036841 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 Ozone Depletion Potential (kg CFC-11 eq) 0.002559055 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 Smog Potential (kg NOx eq) 15581.06947 0.14 0.13 0.15 0.14 0.14 0.14 0.13 0.14 Table 15: Functional Unit Summary – Per Gross Floor Area  4.7.3 Per Typical Residential Building cubit foot constructed The total volume of the building is estimated to be 1,118,419.39 ft3. As the building is large it occupies a greater amount of space. This needs to be taken into account when analyzing the impact of the building. The summary below, shows the impact per cubic feet of building space  Total Effects Per building Volume (/ft3) Fossil Fuel Consumption MJ 323039220              288.84  Weighted Resource Use kg 17292875.16                15.46  Global Warming Potential (kg CO2 eq) 18557165.78                16.59  Acidification Potential (moles of H+ eq) 7796762.905                   6.97  HH Respiratory Effects Potential (kg PM2.5 eq) 42190.2069                   0.04  Eutrophication Potential (kg N eq) 1353.036841                   0.00  Ozone Depletion Potential (kg CFC-11 eq) 0.002559055                   0.00  Smog Potential (kg NOx eq) 15581.06947                   0.01   32  Table 16: Functional Unit Summary – Per Gross Floor Area   4.7.4 Per Residential Building occupant The current occupancy of the building is not known as of the writing of this result. In addition the occupancy can fluctuate over the life cycle of this building. For this reason, the average occupancy is approximated. This is a conservative estimation. An average occupancy of 320 people is taken. As the building is directly used by people almost exclusively, the impact is divided by the amount of people. It is shown as impact per person. Pets are not taken into account.  Total Effects Per Occupancy (/person) Fossil Fuel Consumption MJ 323039220 1009497.562 Weighted Resource Use kg 17292875.16 54040.23488 Global Warming Potential (kg CO2 eq) 18557165.78 57991.14307 Acidification Potential (moles of H+ eq) 7796762.905 24364.88408 HH Respiratory Effects Potential (kg PM2.5 eq) 42190.2069 131.8443966 Eutrophication Potential (kg N eq) 1353.036841 4.228240128 Ozone Depletion Potential (kg CFC-11 eq) 0.002559055 7.99705E-06 Smog Potential (kg NOx eq) 15581.06947 48.6908421 Table 17: Functional Unit Summary – Per Gross Floor Area  5.0 Fenestration Ratio Analysis As the UBC community expands, the need for more sustainable building practice has arisen. As part of this report, the fenestration or glazing ratio of the Bi Building is analyzed from a Life Cycle Assessment prospective. To find the base case fenestration ratio for the building, the total window area is divided by the wall envelope area. A Fenestration Ratio (FR) of 31% has been found. Using this value, the annual operating energy is found. In this section of the report, the change in percentage of each Impact Category is shown for percent change in FR. This value is shown in the form a stacked chart, with each section representing change in respective Impact Category 5.1 Manufacturing The Manufacturing Phase in a Building Life Cycle represents the creation of individual materials that go into the building. An increase in window area while keeping the wall envelope constant, increases the amount of Glazing, while decreasing other components such as plywood. This however represents an increase in the Impact due to Manufacturing. The largest change is in Impact to Human Health  33  Respiratory Effects. This may indicate that the manufacturing of Standard Glazing has a greater Human Health effect.  Figure 11: Manufacturing –  Impact Change due to Fenestration Ratio Change  5.2 Construction During construction, there is impact associated with transportation and construction activities. As shown below, as the fenestration ratio increases, so does Impact associated with Construction. As there are larger windows, greater challenges may arise in fitting window sections into the wall envelope. The change however is small, with a less than 6% difference when increasing the ratio from 30% to 60%. -5% 0% 5% 10% 15% 20% 25% 30% 40% FR 50% FR 60% FR Manufacturing: Impact due to Fenestration Ratio Change Smog Potential Ozone Deplection Potential Eutrophication Potential HH Respiratory Effects Acidification Potential Global Warming Potential Weighted Resource Use Fossil Fuel Consumption  34   Figure 12: Construction –  Impact Change due to Fenestration Ratio Change   5.3 Maintenance When considering the Maintenance of a building over a period of time, elements of the building need to be repaired, replaced, or generally maintained. There is cost associated with these activities in terms of their environmental impact. When increasing the fenestration ratio, there is more maintenance involved since the number of windows and window size increases. These windows have to be repaired, replaced, or generally cleaned at a higher rate. For this reason, out of the life cycle sections for a building the greatest percent difference associated with an increase in fenestration ratio is found in the Maintenance section.  Figure 13: Maintenance –  Impact Change due to Fenestration Ratio Change  0% 1% 2% 3% 4% 5% 6% 40% FR 50% FR 60% FR Construction: Impact due to Fenestration Ratio Change Smog Potential Ozone Deplection Potential Eutrophication Potential HH Respiratory Effects Acidification Potential Global Warming Potential Weighted Resource Use Fossil Fuel Consumption 0% 50% 100% 150% 200% 250% 300% 350% 400% 40% FR 50% FR 60% FR Maintenance:  Impact due to Fenstration Ratio Change Smog Potential Ozone Deplection Potential Eutrophication Potential HH Respiratory Effects Acidification Potential Global Warming Potential Weighted Resource Use Fossil Fuel Consumption  35   5.4 End of Life Under the ATHENA Impact Estimator, the end of life calculation takes into account the environmental cost associated with demolition of a building. It estimates the energy required to demolish the structural systems components (wood, steel, and concrete). Due to an increase in window area, there is less overall wood used in the building. For this reason, the end of life impact in a building with a greater fenestration ratio is less.   Figure 14: End of Life –  Impact Change due to Fenestration Ratio Change  5.5 Operating Energy When inputting changes in Impact Estimator to analyze Fenestration Ratio change, the total energy use Intensity in terms of Electric and Natural Gas is also inputted. These values have been provided by the instructor of this course. As there is less insulation due to an increase in window area, more energy is required to maintain sufficient temperature and insulation requirements.  -3% -2% -2% -1% -1% 0% 40% FR 50% FR 60% FR End of Life: Impact due to Fenstration Ratio Change Smog Potential Ozone Deplection Potential Eutrophication Potential HH Respiratory Effects Acidification Potential Global Warming Potential Weighted Resource Use Fossil Fuel Consumption  36   Figure 15: Operating Energy –  Impact Change due to Fenestration Ratio Change   5.6 Total Life Cycle In total, there is an increase in all Impact Categories as the fenestration ratio increases. This is significant change. As shown below, when doubling the FR (from 30% to 60%) there is an overall change of almost double.  Figure 16: Total Life Cycle –  Impact Change due to Fenestration Ratio Change   0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% 40% FR 50% FR 60% FR Operating Energy: Impact due to Fenestration Ratio Change Smog Potential Ozone Deplection Potential Eutrophication Potential HH Respiratory Effects Acidification Potential Global Warming Potential Weighted Resource Use Fossil Fuel Consumption 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% 120% 40% FR 50% FR 60% FR Total Life Cycle: Impact due to Fenstration Ratio Change Smog Potential Ozone Deplection Potential Eutrophication Potential HH Respiratory Effects Acidification Potential Global Warming Potential  37  6.0 Conclusions The report has been completed as per this study’s Goal and Scope. Take-offs of the major building components are inputted into the Athena Institute Impact Estimator and the building model has been generated.  5 major components of the building were chosen to conduct the sensitivity analysis. This included, 20 MPa concrete with average flyash, Rebar, Softwood Plywood, 5/8” Regular Gypsum Board, and Fiberglass Insulation. It has been found that the 20 MPa concrete has the greatest effect on the environmental impact of the building. A 10% increase in concrete results in a 4% increase in weighted resource use, for example.  The fenestration analysis conducted has shown that for the most part, increase in fenestration ratio results in an overall increase of the impact categories within most life cycle stages. Maintenance of the building shows the greatest increase, as glazing has to be repaired or maintained more often than the wall envelope. There is however a decrease in end of life impacts of the building with an increase in Fenestration Ratio. This is due to the fact that less wall components are required, including wood studs. This allows for less general demolition of the building components. There is a relatively small increase in construction due to an increase in window size. Preliminary comparison with other studies however has shown that this is not always the case. Due to less wood framing required there should be a decrease in construction impacts. Due to time constraints more detailed analysis of this difference has not been conducted, and should be revisited at a later date. In conclusion, to decrease the overall impact of the building, it is recommended that additional building upgrades could be performed during the service life of the building to decrease maintenance impacts. Due to changing technologies, the building could perform better on an environmental level in the future.          38  7.0 References TRACI. (2012). Tool for the Reduction and Assessment of Chemical and Other Environmental Impacts (TRACI). United States Environmental Protection Agency Retrieved from http://www.epa.gov/nrmrl/std/traci/traci.html Athena Institute. (2011). The Impact Estimator for Buildings. Retrieved from http://www.athenasmi.org/tools/impactEstimator/ VanMar Constructors. (2010). The Kennleyside Project Profile. Retrieved from http://www.vanmarconstructors.com/project-profiles/pdf/market-housing/Bi%20Project%20Profile%20UBC.pdf                   39        9.0 Appendix                40  APPENDIX A: Impact Estimator Inputs Assembly Assembly Type Assembly Name Input Field Known/Measured IE Input 1  Foundation             1.1  Concrete Footing            1.1.1  Footing_A_26”            Length (ft) 228.00 228.00      Width (ft) 6.00 8.21      Thickness (in) 26 19      Concrete (psi) 3625.92 4000      Concrete flyash % - Average      Rebar #5 #5      Category Insulation Insulation      Material Polylsocyanurate Foam Polylsocyanurate Foam      Thickness(in) 3.5 3.5    1.1.2  Footing_B_26”          Length (ft) 7.00 7.00      Width (ft) 7.00 9.58      Thickness (in) 26 19      Concrete (psi) 3625.92 4000      Concrete flyash % - Average      Rebar #5 #5      Category Insulation Insulation      Material Polylsocyanurate Foam Polylsocyanurate Foam      Thickness(in) 3.5 3.5    1.1.3  Footing_C_36”          Length (ft) 10.00 10.00      Width (ft) 10.00 18.95      Thickness (in) 36 19      Concrete (psi) 3625.92 4000      Concrete flyash % - Average      Rebar #5 #5      Category Insulation Insulation      Material Polylsocyanurate Foam Polylsocyanurate Foam      Thickness(in) 3.5 3.5    1.1.4  Footing_S1_10”          Length (ft) 1,807.74 1,807.74  41       Width (ft) 2.00 2.00      Thickness (in) 10 10      Concrete (psi) 3625.92 4000      Concrete flyash % - Average      Rebar #5 #5      Category Insulation Insulation      Material Polylsocyanurate Foam Polylsocyanurate Foam      Thickness(in) 3.5 3.5    1.1.5  Footing_S2”          Length (ft) 160.76 160.76      Width (ft) 1.33 1.33      Thickness (in) 10 10      Concrete (psi) 3625.92 4000      Concrete flyash % - Average      Rebar #5 #5      Category Insulation Insulation      Material Polylsocyanurate Foam Polylsocyanurate Foam      Thickness(in) 3.5 3.5   1.2  Concrete Slab-on-Grade            1.2.1  SOG_5.5"            Length (ft) 50.89 50.89      Width (ft) 50.89 50.89      Thickness (in) 5.5 4      Concrete (psi) 4351.105 4000      Concrete flyash % average Average      Category Vapour Barrier Vapour Barrier      Material Polyethylene 6 mil Polyethylene 6 mil      Thickness - -    1.2.2  SOG_6.5"          Length (ft) 15.93 15.93      Width (ft) 15.93 15.93      Thickness (in) 6.5 8      Concrete (psi) 4351.105 4000      Concrete flyash % average Average      Category Vapour Barrier Vapour Barrier      Material Polyethylene 6 Polyethylene  42  mil 6 mil      Thickness - -    1.2.3  SOG_7"          Length (ft) 61.69 61.69      Width (ft) 61.69 61.69      Thickness (in) 7 8      Concrete (psi) 4351.105 4000      Concrete flyash % average Average      Category Vapour Barrier Vapour Barrier      Material Polyethylene 6 mil Polyethylene 6 mil      Thickness - -    1.2.4  SOG_8"          Length (ft) 98.97 98.97      Width (ft) 98.97 98.97      Thickness (in) 8 8      Concrete (psi) 4351.105 4000      Concrete flyash % average Average      Category Vapour Barrier Vapour Barrier      Material Polyethylene 6 mil Polyethylene 6 mil      Thickness - -    1.2.5  SOG_9"          Length (ft) 36.99 36.99      Width (ft) 36.99 36.99      Thickness (in) 9 8      Concrete (psi) 4351.105 4000      Concrete flyash % average Average      Category Vapour Barrier Vapour Barrier      Material Polyethylene 6 mil Polyethylene 6 mil      Thickness - -    1.2.6  SOG_10"          Length (ft) 30.47 30.47      Width (ft) 30.47 30.47      Thickness (in) 10 8      Concrete (psi) 4351.105 4000      Concrete flyash % average average      Category Vapour Barrier Vapour Barrier      Material Polyethylene 6 mil Polyethylene 6 mil  43       Thickness - -    1.2.7  SOG_11"          Length (ft) 67.74 67.74      Width (ft) 67.74 67.74      Thickness (in) 11 8      Concrete (psi) 4351.105 4000      Concrete flyash % average average      Category Vapour Barrier Vapour Barrier      Material Polyethylene 6 mil Polyethylene 6 mil      Thickness - -    1.2.8  SOG_12"          Length (ft) 41.17 41.17      Width (ft) 41.17 41.17      Thickness (in) 12 8      Concrete (psi) 4351.105 4000      Concrete flyash % average average      Category Vapour Barrier Vapour Barrier      Material Polyethylene 6 mil Polyethylene 6 mil      Thickness - -    1.2.9  SOG_12.5"          Length (ft) 23.91 23.91      Width (ft) 23.91 23.91      Thickness (in) 12.5 8      Concrete (psi) 4351.105 4000      Concrete flyash % average average      Category Vapour Barrier Vapour Barrier      Material Polyethylene 6 mil Polyethylene 6 mil      Thickness - -    1.2.10  SOG_14.5"          Length (ft) 22.08 22.08      Width (ft) 22.08 22.08      Thickness (in) 14.5 8      Concrete (psi) 4351.105 4000      Concrete flyash % average average      Category Vapour Barrier Vapour Barrier      Material Polyethylene 6 mil Polyethylene 6 mil      Thickness - -  44  2  Walls             2.1 Wood Stud            External Wall Assembly - Wood Siding- Main Floor - 3rd Floor            Wall Type Exterior Exterior      Length 3575 3575      Height 9 9      Sheathing Plywood Plywood      Stud Thickness 2x6 2x7      Stud Spacing 16 17      Stud Type   Klin Dried      Number of Windows 379 379      Total Window Area 9720 9720      Frame Type Wood Frame Wood Frame      Glazing Type Standard Standard      Number of Doors 54 54.000      Door Type Exterior Wood Frame with Window Steel Exterior Door - 50% Glazing      Category  Siding Siding      Material Bevel Ceder Siding  Wood Bevel Siding      Thickness          Category  Sheathing Sheathing      Material Plywood Plywood      Thickness          Category  Moisture Barrier Moisture Barrier      Material Tyvek "Homewrap" Tyvek "Homewrap"      Thickness          Category  Insulation Insulation      Material R-20 BATT Fiberglass BATT  45       Thickness 6" 6"      Category  Vapour Barrier Vapour Barrier      Material 6 Mil Poly 6 Mil Poly      Thickness          Category  Drywall Drywall      Material 5/8" TypeX Gypsum Fire Rated Type X 5/8"      Thickness        External Wall Assembly - STONE- Main Floor - 3rd Floor        Wall Type Exterior Exterior      Length 241 241      Height 9 9      Sheathing Plywood Plywood      Stud Thickness 2x6 2x7      Stud Spacing 16 17      Stud Type   Klin Dried      Number of Windows 23 23      Total Window Area 612 612      Frame Type Wood Frame Wood Frame      Glazing Type Standard Standard      Number of Doors 0 -      Door Type - -      Category  Siding Siding      Material Stone Natural Stone      Thickness 4" 4"      Category  Sheathing Sheathing      Material Plywood Plywood      Thickness          Category  Moisture Barrier        Material Tyvek "Homewrap"        Thickness          Category  Insulation Insulation      Material R-20 BATT Fiberglass BATT      Thickness 6" 6"      Category  Vapour Barrier Vapour Barrier      Material 6 Mil Poly 6 Mil Poly      Thickness          Category  Drywall Drywall  46       Material 5/8" TypeX 5/8" TypeX      Thickness        Party Wall Assembly: Main Floor - 2nd Floor        Wall Type          Length 769 769      Height 9 9      Sheathing Exterior Plywood Sheating Exterior Plywood Sheating      Stud Thickness 2 - 2 x 4 2 - 2 x 4      Stud Spacing 16 16      Stud Type          Wall Envelope          Category  Drywall Drywall      Material 5/8" TypeX 5/8" TypeX      Thickness          Category  Insulation Insulation      Material Acoustic Fiberglass BATT      Thickness 3.5" 3.5"      Category  Insulation Insulation      Material Acoustic Fiberglass BATT      Thickness 3.5" 3.5"      Category  Drywall Drywall      Material   Gypsum Regular      Thickness 1/2" 1/2"      Category  Drywall Drywall      Material 5/8" TypeX 5/8" TypeX      Thickness        Party Wall Assembly: 3rd Floor        Wall Type          Length 391 391      Height 9 9      Sheathing Exterior Plywood Sheating Exterior Plywood Sheating      Stud Thickness 2 x 4 2 x 4      Stud Spacing 16 16      Stud Type   Klin Dried      Wall Envelope          Category  Drywall Drywall  47       Material 5/8" TypeX 5/8" TypeX      Thickness          Category  Insulation Insulation      Material Acoustic Fiberglass BATT      Thickness 3.5" 3.5"      Category  Insulation Insulation      Material Acoustic Fiberglass BATT      Thickness 3.5" 3.5"      Category  Drywall Drywall      Material   Gypsum Regular      Thickness 1/2" 1/2"      Category  Drywall Drywall      Material 5/8" TypeX 5/8" TypeX      Thickness        Corridor Wall Assembly Main Floor - 3rd Floor        Wall Type          Length 2104 2104      Height 9.4 9.4      Sheathing None None      Stud Thickness 2x4 2x4      Stud Spacing 16 OC 16 OC      Stud Type   Klin Dried      Number of Doors 78 78.000      Door Type - Solid Wood Door      Category  Drywall Drywall      Material   Regular      Thickness 1/2"        Category  Drywall Drywall      Material 5/8" TypeX 5/8" TypeX      Thickness          Category  Insulation Insulation      Material Acoustic (R-12 Batt) Fiberglass BATT      Thickness 3.5" 3.5"      Category  Drywall Drywall      Material 5/8" TypeX 5/8" TypeX      Thickness        Interior Partition Wall (2x4) Main Floor - 3rd Floor        Wall Type      48       Length 5552 5,552.00      Height 9 9.00      Sheathing None None      Stud Thickness 2-2x4 2 - 2x4      Stud Spacing 12" 16"      Stud Type          Number of Doors 522 522.000      Door Type - Solid Wood Door      Category  Drywall Drywall      Material 5/8" TypeX 5/8" TypeX      Thickness          Category  Drywall Drywall      Material 5/8" TypeX 5/8" TypeX      Thickness        Interior Partition Wall (2x6) Main Floor - 3rd Floor        Wall Type          Length 1017 1017      Height 9 9      Sheathing None None      Stud Thickness 2 - 2x6 2 - 2x6      Stud Spacing 16 16      Stud Type   Klin Dried      Category  Drywall Drywall      Material 5/8" TypeX 5/8" TypeX      Thickness          Category  Drywall Drywall      Material 5/8" TypeX 5/8" TypeX      Thickness        External Wall Assembly - Wood Siding- 4th Floor - 9"        Wall Type Exterior Exterior      Length 873 873      Height 9 9      Sheathing Plywood Plywood      Stud Thickness 2x6 2x7      Stud Spacing 16 16      Stud Type   Klin Dried      Number of Windows 89 89      Total Window Area 2592 2592      Frame Type   Fixed  49       Glazing Type   Standard      Number of Doors 1 1.000      Door Type - Steel Exterior Door - 50% Glazing      Category  Siding Siding      Material Bevel Ceder Siding  Bevel Ceder Siding       Thickness          Category  Sheathing Sheathing      Material Plywood Plywood      Thickness          Category  Moisture Barrier Moisture Barrier      Material Tyvek "Homewrap" Tyvek "Homewrap"      Thickness          Category  Insulation Insulation      Material R-20 BATT Fiberglass BATT      Thickness 6" 6"      Category  Vapour Barrier Vapour Barrier      Material 6 Mil Poly 6 Mil Poly      Thickness          Category  Drywall Drywall      Material 5/8" TypeX 5/8" TypeX      Thickness        External Wall Assembly - Wood Siding- 4th Floor - 12"        Wall Type Exterior Exterior      Length 378 378.00      Height 12 12.00      Sheathing Plywood Plywood      Stud Thickness 2x6 2x6      Stud Spacing 16 16      Stud Type   Klin Dried      Number of Windows 53 53      Total Window Area 1634 1634      Frame Type   Fixed      Glazing Type   Standard      Number of Doors 9 9      Door Type - Steel Exterior Door - 50% Glazing  50       Category  Siding Siding      Material Bevel Ceder Siding  Bevel Ceder Siding       Thickness          Category  Sheathing Sheathing      Material Plywood Plywood      Thickness          Category  Moisture Barrier Moisture Barrier      Material Tyvek "Homewrap" Tyvek "Homewrap"      Thickness          Category  Insulation Insulation      Material R-20 BATT Fiberglass BATT      Thickness 6" 6"      Category  Vapour Barrier Vapour Barrier      Material 6 Mil Poly 6 Mil Poly      Thickness          Category  Drywall Drywall      Material 5/8" TypeX 5/8" TypeX      Thickness        Party Wall Assembly: 4th Floor        Wall Type          Length 389 389      Height 9 9      Sheathing Plywood Plywood      Stud Thickness 2 x 4 2 x 4      Stud Spacing 16 16      Stud Type   Klin Dried      Category  Drywall Drywall      Material 5/8" TypeX 5/8" TypeX      Thickness          Category  Insulation Insulation      Material Acoustic Fiberglass BATT      Thickness 3.5" 3.5"      Category  Insulation Insulation      Material Acoustic Fiberglass BATT      Thickness 3.5" 3.5"      Category  Drywall Drywall      Material   Gypsum Regular  51       Thickness 1/2" 1/2"      Category  Drywall Drywall      Material 5/8" TypeX 5/8" TypeX      Thickness        Party Wall Assembly: 4th Floor (12")            Wall Type          Length 16 16      Height 12 12      Sheathing Plywood Plywood      Stud Thickness 2 x 4 2 x 4      Stud Spacing 16 16      Stud Type   Klin Dried      Category  Drywall Drywall      Material 5/8" TypeX 5/8" TypeX      Thickness          Category  Insulation Insulation      Material Acoustic Fiberglass BATT      Thickness 3.5" 3.5"      Category  Insulation Insulation      Material Acoustic Fiberglass BATT      Thickness 3.5" 3.5"      Category  Drywall Drywall      Material   Gypsum Regular      Thickness 1/2" 1/2"      Category  Drywall Drywall      Material 5/8" TypeX 5/8" TypeX      Thickness        Corridor Wall Assembly - 4th Floor        Wall Type          Length 687 687      Height 9 9      Sheathing None None      Stud Thickness 2x4 2x4      Stud Spacing 16 OC 16 OC      Stud Type   Kiln Dried      Number of Doors 26 26.000      Door Type - Solid Wood Door  52       Category  Drywall Drywall      Material   Regular      Thickness 1/2"        Category  Drywall Drywall      Material 5/8" TypeX 5/8" TypeX      Thickness          Category  Insulation Insulation      Material Acoustic (R-12 Batt) Fiberglass BATT      Thickness 3.5" 3.5"      Category  Drywall Drywall      Material 5/8" TypeX 5/8" TypeX      Thickness        Interior Partition Wall (2x4) 4th Floor        Wall Type          Length 1575 1,575.00      Height 9 9.00      Sheathing None None      Stud Thickness 2x4 2x4      Stud Spacing 16 16.00      Stud Type   Klin Dried      Number of Doors 161 161.000      Door Type - Solid Wood Door      Category  Drywall Drywall      Material 5/8" TypeX 5/8" TypeX      Thickness          Category  Drywall Drywall      Material 5/8" Type X 5/8" Type X      Thickness        Interior Partition Wall (2x4) 4th Floor - 12" Ceiling        Wall Type          Length 310 310.00      Height 12 12.00      Sheathing None None      Stud Thickness 2x4 2x4      Stud Spacing 16 16.00      Stud Type   Klin Dried      Number of Doors 13 13.000      Door Type - Solid Wood Door      Category  Drywall Drywall  53       Material 5/8" TypeX 5/8" TypeX      Thickness          Category  Drywall Drywall      Material 5/8" Type X 5/8" Type X      Thickness        Interior Partition Wall (2x6) 4th Floor        Wall Type          Length 313 313.00      Height 9 9.00      Sheathing None None      Stud Thickness 2x6 2x6      Stud Spacing 16 16.00      Stud Type   Klin Dried      Category  Drywall Drywall      Material 5/8" TypeX 5/8" TypeX      Thickness          Category  Drywall Drywall      Material 5/8" TypeX 5/8" TypeX      Thickness        Interior Partition Wall (2x6) 4th Floor- 12" Ceiling        Wall Type          Length 20 20      Height 12 12      Sheathing None None      Stud Thickness 2x6 2x6      Stud Spacing 16 16      Stud Type   Klin Dried      Category  Drywall Drywall      Material 5/8" TypeX 5/8" TypeX      Thickness          Category  Drywall Drywall      Material 5/8" TypeX 5/8" TypeX      Thickness       Concrete Cast in Place Exterior Concrete Wall Wall Type Concrete Concrete      Length (ft) 1720 1720      Height (ft) 9.33 9.33      Thickness (in) 8" 8"      Concrete (psi) 3626 4000      Concrete flyash % Average Average      Rebar   5  54       Number of Doors 6 6      Door Type   Steel Exterior Door    Interior Concrete Wall Wall Type Concrete Concrete      Length (ft) 171 171      Height (ft) 9.33 9.33      Thickness (in) 8" 8"      Concrete (psi) 3626 4000      Concrete flyash %   Average       Rebar   5      Number of Doors 6 6      Door Type   Steel Interior Door   Concrete Block Elevator Core Wall Assembly Main to Third Floor Wall Type          Length (ft) 137 137      Height (ft) 9 9      Thickness (in) 8" 7.874      Rebar #5 #5      Category  Insulation Insulation       Material R-12 BATT Fiberglass BATT      Thickness   3.5      Category  Vapour Barrier Vapour Barrier      Material 6 Mil Poly 6 Mil Poly      Thickness          Category  Drywall Drywall      Material 5/8" TypeX 5/8" TypeX      Thickness          Category  Drywall Drywall      Material 5/8" TypeX 5/8" TypeX      Thickness        Firewall Seperation Assembly (Main to Third Floor) Wall Type          Length (ft) 146 146      Height (ft) 9 9      Thickness (in) 8" 7.874      Rebar #5 #5      Number of Doors 6 6      Door Type   Steel Interior Door      Category  Insulation Insulation  55       Material Acoustic Acoustic      Thickness 3.5" 3.5"      Category  Vapour Barrier Vapour Barrier      Material 6 Mil Poly 6 Mil Poly      Thickness          Category  Drywall Drywall      Material 5/8" TypeX 5/8" TypeX      Thickness          Category  Insulation Insulation      Material Acoustic Acoustic      Thickness 3.5" 3.5"      Category  Vapour Barrier Vapour Barrier      Material 6 Mil Poly 6 Mil Poly      Thickness          Category  Drywall Drywall      Material 5/8" TypeX 5/8" TypeX      Thickness        Elevator Core Wall Assembly 4th Floor Wall Type          Length (ft) 44 44      Height (ft) 9 9      Thickness (in) 8" 7.874      Rebar #5 #5      Category  Insulation Insulation       Material R-12 BATT Fiberglass BATT      Thickness   3.5      Category  Vapour Barrier Vapour Barrier      Material 6 Mil Poly 6 Mil Poly      Thickness          Category  Drywall Drywall      Material 5/8" TypeX 5/8" TypeX      Thickness          Category  Drywall Drywall      Material 5/8" TypeX 5/8" TypeX      Thickness        Firewall Seperation Assembly (4th Floor) Wall Type          Length (ft) 58 58      Height (ft) 9 9      Thickness (in) 8" 7.874      Rebar #5 #5  56       Number of Doors 2 2      Door Type   Steel Interior Door      Category  Insulation Insulation      Material Acoustic Acoustic      Thickness 3.5" 3.5"      Category  Vapour Barrier Vapour Barrier      Material 6 Mil Poly 6 Mil Poly      Thickness          Category  Drywall Drywall      Material 5/8" TypeX 5/8" TypeX      Thickness          Category  Insulation Insulation      Material Acoustic Acoustic      Thickness 3.5" 3.5"      Category  Vapour Barrier Vapour Barrier      Material 6 Mil Poly 6 Mil Poly      Thickness          Category  Drywall Drywall      Material 5/8" TypeX 5/8" TypeX      Thickness       Curtain Wall Lobby (Curtain Wall) Wall Type          Length (ft) 155 155      Height (ft) 10 10      Spandral Panel Type Metal Spandral Panel Metal Spandral Panel      Viewable Glazing (%) - 75      Spandral Panel (%) - 25      Number of Doors 4 4      Door Type - Steel Exterior Door (50% Glazing) 3 Columns and Beams          3.1  Columns and Beams            3.1.1 Columns and Beams            Number of Concrete Columns      57       Foundation 39 39      2nd over Main 132 132      3rd over 2nd 120 120      4th over 3rd 116 116      Roof over 4th 111 111      Total 518 518               Number of Wood Columns (posts)          Foundation 0 0      2nd over Main 440 440      3rd over 2nd 388 388      4th over 3rd 347 347      Roof over 4th 283 283      Total 1458 1458                 Number of Beams None (see assumptions + Extra materials)                 Supported Area Total (m2)          Foundation 2922.7 2922.7      2nd over Main 2154.1 2154.1      3rd over 2nd 2154.1 2154.1      4th over 3rd 2154.1 2154.1      Roof over 4th 2122.2 2122.2      Total 11507.1 11507.1               Floor Area Supported by Concrete Columns (m2)          Foundation 2922.7 2922.7      2nd over Main 1174.9 1174.9      3rd over 2nd 1191.2 1191.2      4th over 3rd 1232.4 1232.4      Roof over 4th 1296.1 1296.1      Total 6754.3 6754.3               Floor Area Supported by Wood Columns (m2)          Foundation 0.0 0.0  58       2nd over Main 979.1 979.1      3rd over 2nd 962.9 962.9      4th over 3rd 921.6 921.6      Roof over 4th 826.1 826.1      Total 4752.8 4752.8               Supported Area Concrete Columns (m2) (per Column)          Foundation 74.942 74.942      2nd over Main 8.901 8.901      3rd over 2nd 9.926 9.926      4th over 3rd 10.624 10.624      Roof over 4th 11.676 11.676               Supported Area Wood Columns (m2) (per Column)          Foundation 0.000 1.000      2nd over Main 2.225 2.225      3rd over 2nd 2.482 2.482      4th over 3rd 2.656 2.656      Roof over 4th 2.919 2.919               Bay Sizes, Supported Span Concrete Columns (m)          Foundation 7.544, 8.930 7.544, 8.930      2nd over Main 2.983 3.05, 2.9175      3rd over 2nd 3.151 3.151      4th over 3rd 3.259 3.259      Roof over 4th 3.417 3.417               Bay Sizes and Supported Span Wood Columns (m)          Foundation 0.000 0.000      2nd over Main 1.492 3.05, 0.7299      3rd over 2nd 1.575 3.05, 0.8133      4th over 3rd 1.630 3.05, 0.8711      Roof over 4th 1.709 3.05, 0.9576               Live Load 2.400 2.400  59  Concrete Columns (kPa)      Live Load Wood Columns (kPa) 2.400 2.400   Extra Materials            Beams            Parallel Strand Lumber (m3) 0.2288 0.2288      Laminated veneer Lumber (m3) 43.2303 43.2303      Glulam Beams (m3) 0.7174 0.7174 4 Floors          4.1 Wood I Joist Floor            4.1.1 - Floor_WoodI-joist_Second Floor_West-Entire floor            Floor Width (ft) 971.06 971.06      Span (ft) 13.22 13.22      Decking Type Plywood Plywood      Live load (psf) 40 50      Decking Thickness 5/8" 5/8"      Web Thickness 3/8" 3/8"      Web Type OSB OSB      Flange Size 2.5" x 1.5" 2.5" x 1.5"      Flange Type LVL LVL      Category Insulation Insulation      Material Fiberglass Batt Fiberglass Batt      Thickness (in) 3.5 3.5      Category Gypsum board Gypsum board      Material Gypsum Fibre BD 5/8" Gypsum Fibre BD 5/8"      Thickness(in) - -    4.1.2 - Floor_WoodI-Joist_Second Floor_East-Entire floor        Floor Width (ft) 942.65 942.65      Span (ft) 10.32 10.32      Decking Type Plywood Plywood      Live load (psf) 40 50      Decking Thickness 5/8" 5/8"      Web Thickness 3/8" 3/8"  60       Web Type OSB OSB      Flange Size 2.5" x 1.5" 2.5" x 1.5"      Flange Type LVL LVL      Category Insulation Insulation      Material Fiberglass Batt Fiberglass Batt      Thickness (in) 3.5 3.5      Category Gypsum board Gypsum board      Material Gypsum Fibre BD 5/8" Gypsum Fibre BD 5/8"      Thickness(in) - -    4.1.3 - Floor_WoodI-Joist_Third Floor_West-Entire floor        Floor Width (ft) 1,054.82 1,054.82      Span (ft) 12.06 12.06      Decking Type Plywood Plywood      Live load (psf) 40 50      Decking Thickness 5/8" 5/8"      Web Thickness 3/8" 3/8"      Web Type OSB OSB      Flange Size 2.5" x 1.5" 2.5" x 1.5"      Flange Type LVL LVL      Category Insulation Insulation      Material Fiberglass Batt Fiberglass Batt      Thickness (in) 3.5 3.5      Category Gypsum board Gypsum board      Material Gypsum Fibre BD 5/8" Gypsum Fibre BD 5/8"      Thickness(in) - -    4.1.4 - Floor_WoodI-Joist_Third Floor_East-Entire floor        Floor Width (ft) 914.36 914.36      Span (ft) 10.63 10.63      Decking Type Plywood Plywood      Live load (psf) 40 50      Decking Thickness 5/8" 5/8"      Web Thickness 3/8" 3/8"      Web Type OSB OSB      Flange Size 2.5" x 1.5" 2.5" x 1.5"      Flange Type LVL LVL      Category Insulation Insulation      Material Fiberglass Batt Fiberglass Batt  61       Thickness (in) 3.5 3.5      Category Gypsum board Gypsum board      Material Gypsum Fibre BD 5/8" Gypsum Fibre BD 5/8"      Thickness(in) - -    4.1.5 - Floor_WoodI-Joist_Fourth Floor_West-Entire floor            Floor Width (ft) 1,119.36 1,119.36      Span (ft) 11.44 11.44      Decking Type Plywood Plywood      Live load (psf) 40 50      Decking Thickness 5/8" 5/8"      Web Thickness 3/8" 3/8"      Web Type OSB OSB      Flange Size 2.5" x 1.5" 2.5" x 1.5"      Flange Type LVL LVL      Category Insulation Insulation      Material Fiberglass Batt Fiberglass Batt      Thickness (in) 3.5 3.5      Category Gypsum board Gypsum board      Material Gypsum Fibre BD 5/8" Gypsum Fibre BD 5/8"      Thickness(in) - -    4.1.6 - Floor_WoodI-Joist_Fourth Floor_East-Entire floor        Floor Width (ft) 896.14 896.14      Span (ft) 10.86 10.86      Decking Type Plywood Plywood      Live load (psf) 40 50      Decking Thickness 5/8" 5/8"      Web Thickness 3/8" 3/8"      Web Type OSB OSB      Flange Size 2.5" x 1.5" 2.5" x 1.5"      Flange Type LVL LVL      Category Insulation Insulation      Material Fiberglass Batt Fiberglass Batt      Thickness (in) 3.5 3.5      Category Gypsum board Gypsum board      Material Gypsum Fibre BD 5/8" Gypsum Fibre BD 5/8"  62       Thickness(in) - - 5 Roofs             5.1  Light Frame Wood Truss            5.1.1 - Roof_LFWT_Main            Roof Width (ft) 800.79 800.79      Span (ft) 21.31 21.31      Live load (psf) 38 50      Truss Type Pitched Pitched      Decking Type Plywood Plywood      Decking Thickness 5/8" 5/8"    Envelope Category Insulation Insulation      Material Fiberglass Batt Fiberglass Batt      Thickness (in) 7.250 7.250      Category Vapour Barrier Vapour Barrier      Material Polytheylene 6 mil Polytheylene 6 mil      Thickness (in) - -      Category Insulation Insulation      Material Fiberglass Batt Fiberglass Batt      Thickness (in) 7.25" 7.25"      Category Asphalt-Fiberglass,Glass Felt Gypsum board      Material 7.25" 7.25"      Thickness (in) - -      Category Gypsum board Gypsum board      Material Gypsum Fibre BD 5/8" Gypsum Fibre BD 5/8"       Thickness (in) - -       63  APPENDIX B: Impact Estimator Input Assumptions  Assembly Assembly Type Assembly Name Modeling Assumptions 1  Foundation The SOG inputs of the Impact Estimator are limited to two options, 4" & 8". Since the SOG values of the Bi building were different than these two values, the areas measured on the OnScreen takeoff had to be adjusted to make up for these changes. For concrete input of the Impact Estimator a value of 4000 psi has been chosen to be the closest estimate to the actual value.The Impact Estimator limits the thickness of the footings to be between 7.5" and 19.7" thick. For the selected footings that their thickness would exceed the EI's limitation, a value of 19" tickness has been selected and their width has been adjusted to maintain the same volume of footing while accomodating this limitations.    1.1  Concrete Footing            1.1.1  Footing_A_26” The width of this slab was adjusted to accommodate the Impact Estimator limitation of footing thicknesses to be under 19.7”.  The measured length was maintain, thicknesses were set at 19” and the widths were increased using the following calculations;  = [(Cited Width) x (Cited Thickness)] / (19”/12)  = [(6.0’) x (26”/12)] / (19”/12)  = 8.21 feet                      1.1.2  Footing_B_26” The width of this slab was adjusted to accommodate the Impact Estimator limitation of footing thicknesses to be under 19.7”.  The measured length was maintain, thicknesses were set at 19” and the widths were increased using the following calculations;  = [(Cited Width) x (Cited Thickness)] / (19”/12)  = [(7.0’) x (26”/12)] / (19”/12)  = 9.58 feet                            1.1.3  Footing_C_36” The width of this slab was adjusted to accommodate the Impact Estimator limitation of footing thicknesses to be under 19.7”.  The measured length was maintain, thicknesses were set at 19” and the widths were increased using the following calculations;  = [(Cited Width) x (Cited Thickness)] / (19”/12)  = [(10.0’) x (36”/12)] / (19”/12)                    64      = 18.95 feet   1.2  Concrete Slab-on-Grade            1.2.1  SOG_5.5" The area of this slab had to be adjusted so that the thickness fit into the 4" thickness specified in the Impact Estimator.  The following calculation was done in order to determine appropriate Length and Width (in feet) inputs for this slab;    = sqrt[((Measured Slab Area) x (Actual Slab Thickness))/(4”/12) ]    = sqrt[ (1883.68 x (5.5”/12))/(4”/12) ]    = 50.89 feet                            1.2.2  SOG_6.5" The area of this slab had to be adjusted so that the thickness fit into the 4" thickness specified in the Impact Estimator.  The following calculation was done in order to determine appropriate Length and Width (in feet) inputs for this slab;    = sqrt[((Measured Slab Area) x (Actual Slab Thickness))/(4”/12) ]    = sqrt[ (312.15 x (6.5”/12))/(8”/12) ]    = 15.93 feet                            1.2.3  SOG_7" The area of this slab had to be adjusted so that the thickness fit into the 4" thickness specified in the Impact Estimator.  The following calculation was done in order to determine appropriate Length and Width (in feet) inputs for this slab;    = sqrt[((Measured Slab Area) x (Actual Slab Thickness))/(4”/12) ]    = sqrt[ (4348.619 x (7”/12))/(8”/12) ]    = 61.69 feet                            1.2.5  SOG_9" The area of this slab had to be adjusted so that the thickness fit into the 4" thickness specified in the Impact Estimator.  The following calculation was done in order to determine appropriate Length and Width (in feet)              65     inputs for this slab;    = sqrt[((Measured Slab Area) x (Actual Slab Thickness))/(4”/12) ]    = sqrt[ (1216.32 x (9”/12))/(9”/12) ]    = 36.99 feet             1.2.6  SOG_10" The area of this slab had to be adjusted so that the thickness fit into the 4" thickness specified in the Impact Estimator.  The following calculation was done in order to determine appropriate Length and Width (in feet) inputs for this slab;    = sqrt[((Measured Slab Area) x (Actual Slab Thickness))/(4”/12) ]    = sqrt[ (742.7098 x (10”/12))/(8”/12) ]    = 30.47 feet                            1.2.7  SOG_11" The area of this slab had to be adjusted so that the thickness fit into the 4" thickness specified in the Impact Estimator.  The following calculation was done in order to determine appropriate Length and Width (in feet) inputs for this slab;    = sqrt[((Measured Slab Area) x (Actual Slab Thickness))/(4”/12) ]    = sqrt[ (3336.812 x (11”/12))/(8”/12) ]    = 67.74 feet                            1.2.8  SOG_12" The area of this slab had to be adjusted so that the thickness fit into the 4" thickness specified in the Impact Estimator.  The following calculation was done in order to determine appropriate Length and Width (in feet) inputs for this slab;    = sqrt[((Measured Slab Area) x (Actual Slab Thickness))/(4”/12) ]    = sqrt[ (1130/210 x (12”/12))/(8”/12) ]    = 41.17 feet                            1.2.9  SOG_12.5" The area of this slab had to be adjusted so that the thickness fit into the 4" thickness specified in the Impact Estimator.  The following calculation was done in order to determine           66     appropriate Length and Width (in feet) inputs for this slab;    = sqrt[((Measured Slab Area) x (Actual Slab Thickness))/(4”/12) ]    = sqrt[ (365.973 x (12.5”/12))/(8”/12) ]    = 23.91 feet                1.2.10  SOG_14.5" The area of this slab had to be adjusted so that the thickness fit into the 4" thickness specified in the Impact Estimator.  The following calculation was done in order to determine appropriate Length and Width (in feet) inputs for this slab;    = sqrt[((Measured Slab Area) x (Actual Slab Thickness))/(4”/12) ]    = sqrt[ (269.098 x (14.5”/12))/(8”/12) ]    = 22.08 feet                         2  Walls             2.1 Wood Stud            2.1.1 Interior Partition Wall (2x4) Main Floor - 3rd Floor Studs are specified to be 12" OC, however IE input only allows studs to be 16" or 24" OC. It is therefore assumed that the studs are 16" OC.        2.2 Concrete Cast in Place            2.2.1 Exterior/Interior Concrete Wall           Concrete walls have a stated psi of 3600 psi. As this is not an available input in Impact Estimator, the strenght is assumed to be 4000 psi 3 Columns and Beams             3.1 Conrete Columns Assume that one column is equivalent to 4 wood posts when calculating the supported area.  The concrete columns and wood posts are scattered throughout the floors and don't really follow a pattern in which to determine which is supporting what area.  The total area is therefor just weighted as a postion of the entire floor plan, and the bay sizes and supported spans are calculated to be equivalent. (bay size = supported span = sqrt(supported area / #columns).   67     Supported Area, Bay Size, and Supported Span - Columns Wood Foundation Because of the variability of Supported Area, bay sizes, and span sizes, the following calculations were used; Floor Area Supported by Wood = Measured Floor Area * Counted Number of Wood Columns / (Counted Number of Wood Columns + 4 * Counted Number of Concrete Columns) = 2922.7m * 0 / ( 0 + 4 * 39) = 0 Supported Area per Column (Wood) = Floor Area Supported by Wood / Counted Number of Wood Columns = 0 / 0 = 0 Bay Size = Supported Span = sqrt[ Supported Area per Column (wood) ] = sqrt( 0 ) = 0 Bay Size and Supported Span (Adjusted where Bay Size ≥ 3.05m) Supported Area per Column Concrete = Bay Size * Supported Span    Supported Area, Bay Size, and Supported Span - Columns Wood 2nd over Main Because of the variability of Supported Area, bay sizes, and span sizes, the following calculations were used; Floor Area Supported by Wood = Measured Floor Area * Counted Number of Wood Columns / (Counted Number of Wood Columns + 4 * Counted Number of Concrete Columns) = 2154.1m2 * 440 / ( 440 + 4 * 132 ) = 979.1m2 Supported Area per Column (Wood) = Floor Area Supported by Wood / Counted Number of Wood Columns = 979.1m2 / 440 = 2.225m2 Bay Size = Supported Span = sqrt[ Supported Area per Column (wood) ] = sqrt(2.225m2) = 1.4916m Bay Size and Supported Span (Adjusted where Bay Size ≥ 3.05m) Supported Area per Column Concrete = Bay Size * Supported Span = 2.225m2 / 3.05m = 0.7299m  68     Supported Area, Bay Size, and Supported Span - Columns Wood 3rd over 2nd Because of the variability of Supported Area, bay sizes, and span sizes, the following calculations were used; Floor Area Supported by Wood = Measured Floor Area * Counted Number of Wood Columns / (Counted Number of Wood Columns + 4 * Counted Number of Concrete Columns) = 2154.1m2 * 388 / (388 + 4 * 120) = 962.9m2 Supported Area per Column (Wood) = Floor Area Supported by Wood / Counted Number of Wood Columns = 962.9m2 / 388 = 2.4817m2 Bay Size = Supported Span = sqrt[ Supported Area per Column (wood) ] = sqrt(2.4817m2) = 1.57534m Bay Size and Supported Span (Adjusted where Bay Size ≥ 3.05m) Supported Area per Column Concrete = Bay Size * Supported Span = 2.4817m2 / 3.05m = 0.8133m    Supported Area, Bay Size, and Supported Span - Columns Wood 4th over 3rd Because of the variability of Supported Area, bay sizes, and span sizes, the following calculations were used; Floor Area Supported by Wood = Measured Floor Area * Counted Number of Wood Columns / (Counted Number of Wood Columns + 4 * Counted Number of Concrete Columns) = 2154.1m2 * 347 / (347 + 4 * 116) = 921.6m2 Supported Area per Column (Wood) = Floor Area Supported by Wood / Counted Number of Wood Columns = 921.6m2 / 347 = 2.656m2 Bay Size = Supported Span = sqrt[ Supported Area per Column (wood) ] = sqrt(2.656m2) = 0.1629m Bay Size and Supported Span (Adjusted where Bay Size ≥ 3.05m) Supported Area per Column Concrete = Bay Size * Supported Span = 2.656m2 / 3.05m = 0.8711  69     Supported Area, Bay Size, and Supported Span - Columns Wood Roof over 4th Because of the variability of Supported Area, bay sizes, and span sizes, the following calculations were used; Floor Area Supported by Wood = Measured Floor Area * Counted Number of Wood Columns / (Counted Number of Wood Columns + 4 * Counted Number of Concrete Columns) = 2122.2m2 * 283 / (283 + 4 * 111) = 826.1m2 Supported Area per Column (Wood) = Floor Area Supported by Wood / Counted Number of Wood Columns = 826.1m2 / 283 = 2.919m2 Bay Size = Supported Span = sqrt[ Supported Area per Column (wood) ] = sqrt(2.919m2) = 1.708508m Bay Size and Supported Span (Adjusted where Bay Size ≥ 3.05m) Supported Area per Column Concrete = Bay Size * Supported Span = 2.919m2 / 3.05m = 0.9576m   3.2 Wood Columns            Supported Area, Bay Size, and Supported Span - Columns Concrete Foundation Because of the variability of Supported Area, bay sizes, and span sizes, the following calculations were used; Floor Area Supported by Concrete Columns = Measured Floor Area * Counted Number of Concrete Columns * 4 / (Counted Number of Wood Columns + 4 * Counted Number of Concrete Columns) = 2922.7m2 * 4 * 39 / (0 + 4 * 39) = 2922.7m2 Supported Area per Column Concrete = Floor Area Supported by Concrete / Counted Number of Concrete Columns = 2922.7m2 / 39 = 74.942m2 Measured Bay Size = 7.544m Measured Supported Span = 8.93m    Supported Area, Bay Size, and Supported Span - Columns Concrete 2nd over Main Because of the variability of Supported Area, bay sizes, and span sizes, the following calculations were used; Floor Area Supported by Concrete Columns = Measured Floor Area * Counted Number of Concrete Columns * 4 / (Counted Number of Wood Columns + 4 * Counted Number of Concrete Columns) = 2154.1m2 * 4 * 132 / ( 440 + 4 * 132) = 1174.9m2 Supported Area per Column Concrete = Floor Area Supported by Concrete / Counted Number of Concrete Columns = 1174.9m2 / 132 = 8.901m  70  Bay Size = Supported Span = sqrt[ Supported Area per Column Concrete ] = sqrt(8.901m2) = 2.983m Bay Size and Supported Span (Adjusted where Bay Size ≥ 3.05m) Supported Area per Column Concrete = Bay Size * Supported Span = 8.901m2 / 3.05m = 2.9175m    Supported Area, Bay Size, and Supported Span - Columns Concrete 3rd over 2nd Because of the variability of Supported Area, bay sizes, and span sizes, the following calculations were used; Floor Area Supported by Concrete Columns = Measured Floor Area * Counted Number of Concrete Columns * 4 / (Counted Number of Wood Columns + 4 * Counted Number of Concrete Columns) = 2154.1m2 * 4 * 120 / ( 388 + 4 * 120) = 1191.2m2 Supported Area per Column Concrete = Floor Area Supported by Concrete / Counted Number of Concrete Columns = 1191.2m2 / 120 = 9.926m Bay Size = Supported Span = sqrt[ Supported Area per Column Concrete ] = sqrt(9.926m2) = 3.151m    Supported Area, Bay Size, and Supported Span - Columns Concrete 4th over 3rd Because of the variability of Supported Area, bay sizes, and span sizes, the following calculations were used; Floor Area Supported by Concrete Columns = Measured Floor Area * Counted Number of Concrete Columns * 4 / (Counted Number of Wood Columns + 4 * Counted Number of Concrete Columns) = 2154.1m2 * 4 * 116 / ( 347 + 4 * 116) = 1232.4m2 Supported Area per Column Concrete = Floor Area Supported by Concrete / Counted Number of Concrete Columns = 1232.4m2 / 116 = 10.624m Bay Size = Supported Span = sqrt[ Supported Area per Column Concrete ] = sqrt(10.624m2) = 3.259m  71     Supported Area, Bay Size, and Supported Span - Columns Concrete Roof over 4th Because of the variability of Supported Area, bay sizes, and span sizes, the following calculations were used; Floor Area Supported by Concrete Columns = Measured Floor Area * Counted Number of Concrete Columns * 4 / (Counted Number of Wood Columns + 4 * Counted Number of Concrete Columns) = 2122.2m2 * 4 * 111 / ( 347 + 4 * 111) = 1296.1m2 Supported Area per Column Concrete = Floor Area Supported by Concrete / Counted Number of Concrete Columns = 1296.1m2 / 111 = 11.676m Bay Size = Supported Span = sqrt[ Supported Area per Column Concrete ] = sqrt(11.676m2) = 3.417   3.3 Wood Columns (posts)   The posts come in many different sizes, and the Impact estimator is unable to account for the differentces.  Some wood psots are 4 or 5 studs, while others are 6"x6" or 8"x8".    Posts which are not labelled are said to be dependent on the size of the beam they are supporting.  All of the posts are generalized to be equivalent in their ability to support load.       3.4  Extra Materials            3.4.1 Laminated Veneer Lumber (LVL) There are not any beams present in the drawings (or at least they do not follow a pattern which is recognized by the impact estimator) so they are accounted for as extra materials.  The LVL beams are generally 2 - 1 3/4" x 9 1/2", but in some cases they are noted as 2 - 1 3/4" x 9 1/4".  The assumption is that these two types of beams (which only vary by 1/4 inch in one direction) are the same, and they they are treated as such (2 - 1 3/4" x 9 1/2").   = measured LVL length (ft) * dimensions of LVL (ft^2) *0.028316847 ft^3/m^3 = 43.23025366 m^3             3.4.2 Fascia Beams a generalization had to be made by saying that all the beams were 2"x10" because there are only a very limited number of 2"x12" beams in comparison.  Another area for uncertainty is that some beams are 3 - 2"x10" compared to the frequent 2 - 2"x10".  This is accoutned for by adding an extra linear count of the beams by only measuring to the half way point of each beam.        72  4 Floors             4.1 Wood I Joist Floor            4.1.1 - Floor_WoodI-joist_Second Floor_West-Entire floor The floor width has been calculated using the following equation;                     ((Residential area* Average residential span)+(Hallway area* Average hallway span))/ (Total area)= Weighted average supported span;                                                 ((Total area)/(Supported span))=Width;                                                                                     =((11291.34*14.29343)+(1571.53*5.35958))/(12841.35))= 13.22406332 ft                               =(12841.35)/(13.224)= 971.06                                                                                                                                                              4.1.2 - Floor_WoodI-Joist_Second Floor_East-Entire floor The floor width has been calculated using the following equation;                     ((Residential area* Average residential span)+(Hallway area* Average hallway span))/ (Total area)= Weighted average supported span;                                                 ((Total area)/(Supported span))=Width;                                                                                     =((8858.698*10.75978)+(850.3489*6.029659))/(9730.575))= 10.32261 ft                               =(9730.575)/(10.32261)= 942.6467754                                                                                                                                                           4.1.3 - Floor_WoodI-Joist_Third Floor_West-Entire floor The floor width has been calculated using the following equation;                     ((Residential area* Average residential span)+(Hallway area* Average hallway span))/ (Total area)= Weighted average supported span;                                                 ((Total area)/(Supported span))=Width;                                                                                     =((11140.65*12.77259)+(1646.878*6.780249))/(12722.94))= 12.06176794 ft                               =(12722.94)/(12.06176794)= 1054.815693                                                                                                                                                        4.1.4 - Floor_WoodI-Joist_Third Floor_East-Entire floor The floor width has been calculated using the following equation;                     ((Residential area* Average residential span)+(Hallway area* Average hallway span))/ (Total area)= Weighted average supported span;                                                 ((Total area)/(Supported span))=Width;                                                                                     =((8847.934*11.10419)+(828.8211*6.121654))/(30.04996))= 10.63013721 ft                               =(30.04996)/(10.63013721)= 914.3636547                                                                                                                                                           4.1.5 - Floor_WoodI-Joist_Fourth Floor_West-Entire floor The floor width has been calculated using the following equation;                     ((Residential area* Average residential span)+(Hallway area* Average hallway span))/ (Total area)= Weighted average supported span;                                                 ((Total area)/(Supported span))=Width;                                                                                     =((11162.18*12.09068)+(1496.184*7.765059))/(12809.05))= 11.4431772 ft                               =(12809.05)/(11.4431772)=           73  1119.361622                                                                                                                                               4.1.6 - Floor_WoodI-Joist_Fourth Floor_East-Entire floor The floor width has been calculated using the following equation;                     ((Residential area* Average residential span)+(Hallway area* Average hallway span))/ (Total area)= Weighted average supported span;                                                 ((Total area)/(Supported span))=Width;                                                                                     =((8912.518*11.28513)+(85.3489*5.972364))/(9730.575))= 10.85829946 ft                               =(9730.575)/(10.85829946)= 896.141707                                                                                                                                                      5 Roofs             5.1  Light Frame Wood Truss            5.1.1 - Roof_LFWT_Main The Roof width has been calculated using the following equation;                                                                                                                                        ((Total area)/(Supported span))=Width;                                                                                                                                                                        =(17060.8)/(21.30502)= 800.787714 ft                                                                                                                                                                                    74  APPENDIX C: Chain of Custody Document  

Cite

Citation Scheme:

        

Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
http://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/dsp.18861.1-0108594/manifest

Comment

Related Items