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Evaluation of energy performance of UBC's residential buildings using actual data Shin, Ji-Yeon Jan 9, 2012

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UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report         Evaluation of Energy Performance of UBC’s Residential Buildings Using Actual Data JI-YEON SHIN  University of British Columbia CEEN 596 January 9, 2012             Disclaimer: “UBC SEEDS provides students with the opportunity to share the findings of their studies, as well as their opinions, conclusions and recommendations with the UBC community. The reader should bear in mind that this is a student project/report and is not an official document of UBC. Furthermore readers should bear in mind that these reports may not reflect the current status of activities at UBC. We urge you to contact the research persons mentioned in a report or the SEEDS Coordinator about the current status of the subject matter of a project/report”. CEEN 596 PROJECT  Evaluation of Energy Performance of UBC’s Residential Buildings Using Actual Data           PRESENTED BY  JI-YEON SHIN M.ENG. CANDIDATE  January 9, 2012     2  ACKNOWLEDGEMENT It would not have been possible to finish this project without the support and help of many individuals and organizations. I would like to extend my sincere thanks to all of them.  I am highly indebted to the UBC Campus Sustainability Office and the University Neighbourhood Association for their valuable suggestions, guidance and encouragement. Specifically, I wish to acknowledge Ms. Alison Aloisio, Ms. Brenda Sawada, and Mr. Kyle Reese of the UBC campus sustainability Office and Mr. Ralph Wells of the University Neighbourhood Association who helped me out a lot with their abilities despite of their busy schedules. They provided me feedback from the beginning of this project and put a great effort into trying to get energy consumption data by contacting strata councils of privately owned apartment buildings on campus and providing detailed data requests.   My thanks and appreciations also go to Mr. Richard Hugli and Ms. Erin Kastner of UBC Utilities and Ms. Heidi Hunchak of UBC Records for providing energy consumption data and architectural drawings of Faculty and Staff Housing buildings. These have been the main sources for this project. Other people who deserve to be acknowledged include Mr. Dennis Nelson and Ms. Rachel Chuang at BC Hydro and Mr. Colton Aston at FortisBC for providing customized electricity and gas comparison data of ten anonymous addresses.  3  I would like to express my special gratitude and thanks to Dr. Eric Mazzi for his guidance and constant supervision as well as for providing necessary information. He put so much effort into trying to contact UBC Utilities, BC Hydro, and FortisBC personnel regarding the project data and supported me in completing the project.  I would also thank those who showed their interest in this study. I hope that the findings from this study can be a guide to students in the Clean Energy Program at UBC who are interested in studying building energy performance in the future.     4  EXECUTIVE SUMMARY  The Canadian residential sector consumes 20 per cent of Canada’s total secondary energy as shown in Figure 1 and there are many residential buildings that are currently being built on UBC campus. All the residential buildings on campus have to be constructed according to UBC’s own building rating system, the Residential Environmental Assessment Program (REAP), to ensure lower consumption of water, energy and other resources and higher-quality indoor environment than buildings that are built without any rating systems. However, REAP is applied during planning and construction phases and hence, it does not always guarantee lower energy consumption in the post-occupancy phase.  This project was undertaken to assess the energy performance of UBC’s residential buildings using actual energy consumption data. The primary objective of this study is to analyze electricity and gas consumption of three of UBC’s Faculty and Staff Housing buildings. The main sources for this project are electricity and gas consumption data provided by UBC Utilities, building floor plans from UBC Infrastructure Development, and weather data. The average total energy intensity for the three buildings was found to be 165.4 kWh/m2/yr. For a more detailed break-down of energy analysis, individual suite metering for domestic hot water heating and gas fireplaces would be required.  Figure 1. Canada’s Energy Consumption by Sector in 2008 (CBEEDAC, 2010) 5  Table of Contents  1 INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................................. 7 1.1 OBJECTIVES ................................................................................................................ 8 1.2 BACKGROUND ............................................................................................................ 9 1.3 LITERATURE REVIEW ............................................................................................... 10 2 DATA SOURCES and METHODOLOGY ........................................................................... 15 2.1 PROCESSES for OBTAINING DATA .......................................................................... 15 2.2 DATA SOURCES ........................................................................................................ 16 2.3 METHODOLOGY ........................................................................................................ 18 2.3.1 DATA ANALYSIS PROCEDURE ......................................................................... 19 3 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION ........................................................................................... 20 3.1 ENERGY CONSUMPTION ANALYSIS ....................................................................... 21 3.1.1 Energy Consumption of Azalea House ................................................................. 22 3.1.2 Energy Consumption of Sumac House and Cascara House................................. 26 3.1.3 Energy Used for Space Heating ........................................................................... 33 3.1.4 Energy Consumption Comparisons ...................................................................... 34 3.2 DISCUSSION .............................................................................................................. 36 3.2.1 Analyzed Data ...................................................................................................... 36 3.2.2 Potential Interventions to Reduce Consumption ................................................... 37 3.2.3 Potential Causes of Variations in Consumption .................................................... 40 3.2.4 Data Privacy ......................................................................................................... 42 3.2.5 Challenges in Energy Assessment ....................................................................... 45 4 CONCLUSION ................................................................................................................... 46 5 RECOMMENDATIONS ...................................................................................................... 47 6 REFERENCES ................................................................................................................... 49 APPENDIX A ............................................................................................................................. 52 APPENDIX B ............................................................................................................................. 72  6  List of Figures  Figure 1. Canada’s Energy Consumption by Sector in 2008 (CBEEDAC, 2010) ......................... 4 Figure 2. Azalea House ............................................................................................................. 22 Figure 3. Monthly Electricity Consumption, Azalea House ......................................................... 23 Figure 4. Monthly Electricity Consumption per Heating Degree Days, Azalea House ................ 23 Figure 5. Sumac House ............................................................................................................. 26 Figure 6. Monthly Electricity Consumption, Sumac House ......................................................... 27 Figure 7. Monthly Electricity Consumption per Heating Degree Days, Sumac House ................ 28 Figure 8. Cascara House ........................................................................................................... 28 Figure 9. Monthly Electricity Consumption, Cascara House ...................................................... 29 Figure 10. Monthly Electricity Consumption per Heating Degree Days, Cascara House ............ 30 Figure 11. Common Area Electricity Consumption, Sumac House + Cascara House ................ 32  List of Tables  Table 1. Building Descriptions ................................................................................................... 20 Table 2. Comparison of Total Electricity Consumption, Azalea House ....................................... 24 Table 3. Comparison of Total Electricity Consumption, Sumac House ...................................... 28 Table 4. Comparison of Total Electricity Consumption, Cascara House .................................... 30 Table 5. Energy Intensity ........................................................................................................... 35    7  1  INTRODUCTION According to BC’s Energy Plan, approximately 13 per cent of all the energy consumed in the province is for residential buildings, making them significant contributors to our carbon footprint. One way to respond to the increasing carbon footprint and energy demand is to make communities implement strategies for energy efficiency and conservation. These days, high quality housing is becoming synonymous with energy efficiency. With recent developments in energy efficiency technology, it has become possible to significantly reduce the energy consumption of buildings, decrease emissions to the environment and save money in the long-term.  UBC is one of the 10 largest electricity consumers in BC and uses a significant amount of natural gas as well. UBC has been trying to reduce its energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions by investing in energy management programs and being actively involved in energy management activities such as having a strong partnership with BC Hydro, thus committing to strategic energy conservation.   UBC has tried to provide a lively, vital, sustainable and eco-friendly environment and community to its residents. Currently, UBC has developed U-Town by constructing residential buildings over two million square feet to accommodate students, faculty, staff and people who want to reside on campus and enjoy a community-oriented university life that is close to all activities. One way of providing ecological and environment-friendly housing to people was to establish UBC’s own building rating system, the Residential Environmental Assessment Program (REAP), to ensure a higher quality and 8  lower environmental impact than residential buildings built without a rating system or those built using the Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) and or Built Green residential building rating systems.   1.1 OBJECTIVES The original purpose of the project was to evaluate the energy performance of UBC’s REAP (the Residential Environmental Assessment Program) certified buildings of more than six stories. Their energy performances were to be evaluated according to building energy use and other assessment categories in the REAP checklist. Then, the energy performances were to be compared among the buildings in the same REAP certification levels and between different levels, and factors that differentiate the performance levels of the buildings were to be studied. However, since many residential buildings on campus were low-rises (approximately 70% of all the residential buildings completed, that were found in the UBC Properties Trust website, including student rentals, Faculty and Staff rentals, market rentals, and market housing, are low-rises) and due to the absence of data which was the main reason, the objectives of the project had to be changed. The primary objective of this project was changed to report and discuss the use of electricity and natural gas by UBC’s three Faculty and Staff Housing buildings. More detailed secondary objectives are:  1) To describe processes involved in building energy assessment, 2) To describe requirements associated with obtaining data and effectively analyzing building energy use including data requirements, privacy issues, 9  processes for obtaining data, technical issues with sampling of the data, and challenges in building energy assessment, and  3) To discuss potential causes of variations in energy consumption and potential interventions to reduce energy use.  1.2 BACKGROUND In the mid 1980s, UBC Properties Trust was formed in order to develop UBC lands for residential development and since 1991, UBC has built 2,200 apartments and townhouses on campus. The building of new residences has continued actively. Hampton Place was established as the first multi-family residential neighbourhood on UBC campus. With the success of the project, generating $80 million of endowment principal, in the early 1990s, UBC Properties Trust developed Faculty and Staff Housing to accommodate an increasing number of faculty and staff and completed five projects in the Hawthorn Place Neighbourhood. The Faculty and Staff Housing buildings provide 269 rental units on campus under the direction of UBC Housing & Conferences who own and manage the housing. After the initial development, UBC Properties Trust leased an additional portion of land from UBC to further serve the growing need for Faculty and Staff Housing. The UBC Comprehensive Community Plan (CCP), which was adopted to provide guidance for campus development, required a minimum of 30% of the housing to be rental units and Phase I of Faculty and Staff Rental Housing was constructed in 2001 following this requirement. Phase I includes two buildings which are Azalea House and Sumac House located in Mid Campus, where the neighbourhood is now referred to as Hawthorn Place. Azalea House consists of 11 two and three bedroom townhomes of 10  two levels, and Sumac House has 42 units that are combinations of 18 two-level townhomes and 24 apartment units. Cascara House (Phase II) was completed in 2002, providing additional 36 apartment units. The UBC Faculty and Staff Housing buildings are available for rent on a yearly basis and are managed by Village Gate Homes, founded in 2002. All three buildings are located in the Hawthorn Place neighbourhood and have electric baseboards for space heating where the charges for electricity are the responsibility of the tenant. Natural gas for fireplaces and hot water heating is included in the rent.   1.3 LITERATURE REVIEW For this project, literature reviews have been conducted on similar project work in order to gain a better understanding of the methods used to analyze energy performance data and to compare the energy intensity results for this project to that of the others.  Statistics Canada conducts the Survey of household Energy Use (SHEU) on behalf of the Office of Energy Efficiency of Natural Resources Canada. The data collected for the 2007 survey intended to represent 12.9 million households across Canada. However, the data was estimated from a sample of only about 10,000 households. Of the 12.9 million households, 1.74 million households were in British Columbia (approximately 1,200 sample dwellings in BC). The survey included single detached houses, double/row houses (duplexes), mobile homes, low-rise apartments, and high-rise apartments. In BC, approximately 20.2% of residential buildings are low-rise apartments and 7.7% of the total residential buildings across Canada were built between 2000 and 11  2007. Unfortunately, the construction date of the low-rise apartments in each province was not indicated. Hence, it was not known for sure exactly when these apartment buildings in BC were built. In BC, electricity (31.6%) and natural gas (48.9%) were the two main energy sources used for heating. The other sources included heating oil, wood and other types of sources. Energy intensity of the buildings was broken down by region and housing type within Canada. The average energy intensity of general households in BC found from the 2007 survey is 0.68 GJ/m2/yr (189 kWh/m2/yr). Apartment buildings of less than five storeys in Canada have an average energy intensity of 0.54 GJ/m2/yr (150 kWh/m2/yr).  RDH Building Engineering’s 2009 study on energy consumption in residential buildings found that there was a significant difference in the energy consumption in the low-rise residential buildings depending on who paid the energy bills. When occupants were responsible for all their energy usage, the average energy intensity was 0.68 GJ/m2 (189 kWh/m2/yr) compared to 1.62 GJ/m2 (450 kWh/m2/yr) when occupants paid for at least one of the energy sources.  According to RDH’s 2011 study on energy consumption in multi-unit residential buildings (MURBs), high-rise apartment buildings use more energy than low-rise apartment buildings. This is mainly due to more energy used in common areas. The study was based on 39 mid and high-rise residential buildings (34 in Metro Vancouver and five in Victoria) with five to 33 storeys that were built around 1990s. The average energy intensity for MURBs in Vancouver was 220 kWh/m2/yr and on average, 37% of the energy was used for space heating including ventilation, with 69% of the space heating 12  provided by gas burning equipment. The study was based on 39 mid and high-rise residential buildings that were built around 1990s. However, the study was conducted only on electrically heated apartments without data for natural gas and electricity used for common areas. The average area of SFDs (Single Family Dwellings) that were electrically heated within BC Hydro’s service territory was 2,266 ft2 with 19,530 kWh/yr of electricity used over a one year period from April 2009 to March 2010 whereas the average area of the high-rise condominiums that RDH studied was 1,117 ft2 with an average of 21,926 kWh/yr of electricity used. It should be noted that there might be some deficiencies in the data of the buildings used in the study since not all the energy sources were considered and not all buildings were studied.  The suites in the low-rise apartment buildings were found to use about the same amount of electricity as those in the high-rise apartment buildings and the common areas in the low-rise apartment buildings used a lot less electricity. It should be noted that suites-to-commons ratio is uncertain due to the lack of data and uncertainty that buildings that were classified as low-rise apartments might include low houses and other types of buildings such as basement suites and units over stores. Another problem was that some buildings had a mix of apartments, rows and SFDs. RDH categorized the apartments into two different types according to the ownership: rentals that had a single building owner and all the suites were rented out and condominiums that had individual owners for each suite. When the apartments were classified according to their heating types, two types were identified, electrically heated and non-electrically heated. All high-rise apartment buildings in BC use natural gas for hot water heating and makeup air and of those buildings that were studied by RDH, 52% of the energy used in the buildings 13  came from natural gas. In addition, most of the energy was used for space heating followed by water heating. Energy use for common areas took up a significant 21%.  RDH also studied the effects of some variables, such as apartment size, building, heating and ownership types, and building age, on building energy consumption. Since utility bills did not show suite square footage, it was not possible for RDH to find correlations between energy consumption and size of the suites. It was, however, assumed that larger sized apartment suites usually consumed more energy than smaller ones.   According to RDH’s apartment buildings summary, each suite in high-rise apartments used an average of 4,575 kWh/yr with an average common area use of 3,734 kWh/yr per suite, giving a total of 8,309 kWh/yr per suite of energy consumption. Suites in low-rise apartments used 4,596 kWh/yr on an average with 2,014 kWh/yr of common area energy use per suite. This gives 6,610 kWh/yr of energy use allotted for each suite.    RDH’s study shows that electrically heated high-rise rental suites used less electricity on average whereas common areas in high-rise buildings used more electricity on average than low-rise rentals. However, the average consumption calculation was based on sample buildings that were built from the 1970s to the 2000s and hence, more precise calculation and hence conclusions, would be needed for the evaluation of buildings that were built in the 2000s. The other factor that affects energy consumption includes location of the buildings. Suites that face to the south and are located on a middle floor would have more heat energy from the walls and make-up air coming through doorways 14  and hence, use less energy for space heating. Suites that are located on the north and top floor would require more electricity for space heating due to lower heat gain.  Another study by Ronggui (2007) evaluated energy consumption and energy efficiency of low-rise (4-6 storeys), mid-rise (7-20 storeys), and high-rise (above 20 storeys) residential buildings in Canada using a database for 81 buildings provided by the Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation (CMHC). The buildings were classified by several factors such as location, age and residential type. The study found that older buildings use less energy per suite than newer buildings even though the older buildings are less energy efficient. He referred to CMHC’s research and stated that MURBs consume three times more energy per unit of floor area than SFDs. When the buildings are classified into regions, the average Canadian energy intensity for low-rise residential buildings is 0.87 GJ/m2/yr (241.7 kWh/m2/yr) whereas that in the West Coast is 1.29 GJ/m2/yr (358.4 kWh/m2/yr). It should be noted though that only one building of 62 suites out of 15 low-rise residential (total of 1102 suites) buildings in the database was located on the West Coast and as a result, the energy intensity result may not be representative. Ronggui’s study also shows the relationship between energy demand and heating-degree days (HDDs) and confirms that more energy would be consumed as the number of HDDs increases due to increased energy demand for space heating. In his study, he found that buildings in British Columbia have one of the lowest energy intensity statistics due to the lowest number of heating degree days since it has a less colder and shorter heating season compared to the other areas in Canada. A comparison was also made for different types of residential houses and this was conducted by using the data from the Energy Efficiency Trends Analysis Tables from the Natural Resource Canada 15  website for the period from 1995 to 2004. From the comparison, it was found that apartments were the most energy efficient housing type with an uncertainty whether MURBs over four storeys were included in the database or not. However, the result does not show that MURBs are the best energy efficient because, based on the statistics for 81 MURBs from the CMHC’s database, energy intensity for low-rise buildings was 0.87 GJ/m2/yr (241.7 kWh/m2/yr) and that for mid-rise buildings was 1.00 GJ/m2/yr (277.8 kWh/m2/yr) which fell within the average of the residential building energy intensity. High-rise MURBs were found to be less energy efficient even when compared to commercial buildings due to their poor building envelope, poor space heating and air conditioning control, and poor lighting and appliances. The study recommended that more data and further investigation would be required for more accurate analysis and consistent conclusion.  2 DATA SOURCES and METHODOLOGY 2.1 PROCESSES for OBTAINING DATA In the early stages of this project, ideas on how to gather data were discussed and energy consumption data collection was started afterwards. Since this project is about analyzing energy consumption of MURBs, data should cover both common areas and individual suites. Data for common areas could be obtained from Property Managers or with permission from Strata Councils for the case of privately owned apartments. Data for individual suites could be obtained from residents who would volunteer their data. However, due to confidentiality issues with energy data, apartments that are managed 16  by Village Gate were assumed to be the best target since UBC is the owner of the properties and the energy is provided by UBC Utilities. A draft request was sent to Strata Councils as well as to Village Gate, Wesbrook Properties, and BC Hydro. Then, a formal letter was sent to each residential building. Meetings with rental companies were scheduled as well. Strata councils and managers of properties were contacted for participation in the study. A letter asking for resident volunteers was posted in some buildings. UBC Utilities agreed to compile electricity and gas data for the Faculty and Staff Housing buildings for a minimum of 12 months. For comparison purposes, 10 anonymous addresses in Vancouver were selected and monthly energy consumption data was requested to BC Hydro and FortisBC.   2.2 DATA SOURCES Data must be complete and accurate in order for it to be usable for analysis. When collecting energy usage data, the level and scope of data collected needs to be determined first; for example, collecting data from sub-meters on individual processes or looking at utility bills. Meter readings and other data and information are then assembled. The energy data is acquired by contacting the appropriate utilities or energy service providers. Other data can be obtained from building owners or management or architectural companies with the authorization of the owners. For utility usage data, at least two years of monthly data needs to be gathered for comparison.   For the purpose of this project, no site measurements were required. The square footage of each unit and common areas was obtained from records drawings and 17  original modelling files (such as project summary and statistics data), mechanical drawings and floor plans that were provided by Ms. Heidi Hunchak (Records Technician at UBC Infrastructure Development). The square footage information is rather important as it allows one to calculate the energy consumption per unit area (i.e. energy intensity) which will make it easier to compare energy intensities among buildings. Other necessary data, including building age and the number of storeys, was obtained from the UBC Properties Trust and Village Gate websites.  Detailed energy consumption data for the three Faculty and Staff Housing buildings was provided by UBC Utilities. The consumption data for the three buildings managed by Village Gate was requested and provided by Ms. Erin Kastner, a Geospatial Information Manager at UBC Utilities. This data was later on analyzed to find the individual contributions of natural gas and electricity to the overall energy consumption of the building. The energy consumption data provided was for the period starting from May 2008 to August 2011. Mr. Kyle Reese who is a Community Energy Manager at UBC Sustainability Office also provided electricity and natural gas consumption data for UBC Properties Trust owned residences for the year of 2010. Natural gas is metered on a single meter for the entire building and hence, the data obtained covers the entire building’s gas consumption. It should be noted that natural gas is included in the rent for all of the three Faculty and Staff Housing buildings. Natural gas was used primarily for fireplaces and domestic hot water heating. Azalea House has its own gas meter for hot water and a separate gas meter for fireplaces. Sumac House and Cascara House share a common gas meter.   18  Most of the data was available from private sources. Data sources summarized in this report and data provided for this project include:   Monthly energy (electricity and gas) consumption data for three Faculty and Staff Housing buildings from UBC Utilities,  Monthly energy (electricity and gas) consumption data on all rental units owned by UBC Properties Trust for the year of 2010,  CPR (Conservation Potential Review) data summary from BC Hydro,  Floor plans and units area from UBC Infrastructure Development,  Monthly energy consumption data of 10 anonymous addresses in Vancouver from BC Hydro and FortisBC (No analysis was conducted on these addresses. The data can be found in Appendix B).  2.3 METHODOLOGY Nine residential buildings on UBC Campus were initially selected for analysis, mostly low-rises with four storey buildings except one high-rise building consisting of 17 storeys, a townhome and apartment mix of three levels, and one townhome of two levels. All of the buildings were built in the 2000s and six of them that were built after 2005 are REAP certified since the REAP rating system became mandatory in 2006. The other three buildings did not have to adopt the REAP rating system since they were completed in the early 2000s.   19  Data for three Faculty and Staff Housing buildings was studied whereas the other REAP certified buildings were excluded due to difficulties in obtaining data due to privacy issues and time delays getting permission and data from Strata Councils, property management companies, and energy providers. The obtained energy consumption data for the three buildings also contains some missing data for certain periods of time and errors due system interruption.  2.3.1 DATA ANALYSIS PROCEDURE Evaluating energy performance of residential buildings usually involves quantifying total annual energy consumed for various energy sectors such as space heating, air conditioning, hot water heating, and appliances in each individual unit. However, energy consumption by end use is not analyzed in this report due to data limitations. The evaluation also involves description of other dwelling features that have impact on energy consumption, such as geometry (e.x. size of each unit and number of storeys), mechanical systems (e.x. fireplaces and hot water heaters), occupancy, and year of occupancy.   Energy consumption values are usually represented in either kWh or GJ. Here, the convention kWh is used throughout the whole report. Gas consumption data provided by UBC Utilities is given in cubic meters and GJ and these are converted to kWh as well using appropriate conversion factors. Energy intensity in kWh/m2 is used to compare the buildings’ total annual energy consumption. Electricity and gas meters are read regularly at about 30 day of intervals.   20  Electric baseboard heaters in each suite provide space heating. Electricity is also used for lighting and to power home appliances and plug-loads. Natural gas is used for domestic hot water heating and in natural gas fireplaces for all the three buildings in this study.   When more than one year of data is available, annual and monthly patterns are reviewed for consistency. The monthly consumption data is normalized for weather.  Weather normalization allows a more accurate comparison of the monthly and annual electricity and natural gas consumption.  Electricity and natural gas consumption are then combined to calculate the buildings’ total energy consumption. The average over all years is used for this study when comparing the data with values from other studies.  3 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION The construction completion date of Azalea House and Sumac House is May 2001 and that of Cascara House is September 2002. The suites in the three buildings are 602 ft2 to 1,058 ft2 in size, with a total of 11 to 42 suites per building. All the buildings are located in Hawthorn Place. The description of each building is summarized in the table below. Table 1. Building Descriptions Building Year of Completion Managed by # of Units # of Floors Azalea House May-01 Village Gate 11 2 Sumac House May-01 Village Gate 42 4 Cascara House Sep-02 Village Gate 36 4 21  More detailed data including size of each unit and common areas can be found in Table A1 in Appendix A.   Energy consumption for the entire building is calculated and a comparison of consumption to typical low rise residential buildings and subsequent recommendations for the reduction in energy consumption are provided in this section. A description of the method for calculating energy consumption, the levels of detailed data provided and output from the calculation are provided as well.   3.1 ENERGY CONSUMPTION ANALYSIS There is no database of publicly available information that provides insight into energy use of the buildings. The most directly relevant source provided for this project is measured energy use of the buildings. This source came from energy providers and the data was available on the amount of each form of energy used including electricity and natural gas. The breakdown by end use energy, such as the amount of energy used for space heating, cooling, lighting, ventilation, domestic water heating and others, was not available. The data is analyzed to calculate the total energy use and energy intensity of the buildings. The total energy intensity (kWh/m2/yr) is based on total energy used and floor area of suites and common areas.   The weather normalization is needed to adjust energy consumption data to factor out the variations in the outside air temperature and it allows a fair comparison of yearly 22  energy consumption of different buildings as well as buildings in different places. Heating degree days are used to normalize the energy consumption of the buildings.   For all the three buildings in this study, electricity consumption data provided covers a period from May 2008 to August 2011 with missing data for November 2008. Two complete years (from 2009 to 2010) of data with complete monthly energy consumption was used to analyze the energy consumption on a yearly basis.   3.1.1 Energy Consumption of Azalea House Azalea House consists of 11 townhomes of two to three bedrooms with two different  floor plan types. Type 1 has an area of 1,083 ft2 and Type 2 has an area of 1,292 ft2 (See Appendix A for unit floor plans for each building). The gross floor area is 13,376 ft2. Each unit has two walls shared with the other units and there is no common area. The monthly and per heating degree day electricity consumption for the years 2009 and 2010 are shown in Figures 3 and 4 below.  Figure 2. Azalea House 23   Figure 3. Monthly Electricity Consumption, Azalea House   Figure 4. Monthly Electricity Consumption per Heating Degree Days, Azalea House 0 1,000 2,000 3,000 4,000 5,000 6,000 7,000 8,000 9,000 10,000 Electricity Consumption (kWh) Month 2009 2010 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 Electricity Consumption per Heating Degree Days (kWh/HDD) Month 2009 2010 24  The heating degree days for 2009 and 2010 can be found in Table A2 in Appendix A.   As expected, the electricity consumption in the winter is higher than in the summer and this is mainly due to more heating required for the winter (More electricity is used for lighting as well in the winter. However, only heating is mentioned here since electricity used for space heating takes a significant proportion of consumption). Figure 4, the weather normalized consumption graph, shows the opposite trend compared to the total electricity graph, Figure 3, higher values in the summer and lower values in the winter. 2009 and 2010 have a very similar electricity consumption trend except June and July. This is because in June, the building used a similar amount of electricity even though the number of heating degree days in June 2009 was almost half that of June 2010 (53 HDDs in June 2009 vs. 101 HDDs in June 2010). For the difference between July 2009 and July 2010, all the units in the building used significantly lesser energy in 2010 than in 2009. Hence, it is assumed that there is an error in the data or a system interruption. The table below shows a yearly comparison of electricity consumption for 2009 and 2010. Table 2. Comparison of Total Electricity Consumption, Azalea House Year Total Electricity Consumption (kWh) Total Heating Degree Days kWh per HDDs Normalized kWh 2009 74375 2968 25 70816 2010 67170 2684 25 70724  When the energy consumption for 2009 is compared with that for 2010, the raw figures in the second column show that the building used less electricity in 2010 than it did in 2009. However, 2010 was warmer year than 2009 as indicated by the number of heating 25  degree days. Hence, it can be concluded that lesser energy was used in 2010 than in 2009 as the warmer outside temperatures in 2010 means that lesser energy was needed to heat the units in the building. The weather-normalized electricity consumptions for 2009 and 2010 are calculated using the heating degree day values. The kWh per degree day is calculated by dividing the total electricity consumption figures by the number of heating degree days in the period (one year) over which that electricity was used (2009 or 2010). As can be seen in the fourth column, ‘kWh per HDDs,’ of the table above, there is not much difference between 2009 and 2010. The normalized kWh in the last column of the table is calculated by multiplying the kWh per degree day figures by the average heating degree day value of the two years, which is calculated to be 2,826 days.   Azalea House has its own gas meter for hot water heating and fireplaces and hence, the gas consumption data was obtainable. However, there were many missing figures in the data and hence, it was not possible to analyze the gas data as accurately as electricity data. The gas consumption data contained gas data used for fireplaces and hot water heating separately and was given in cubic feet. The figures were converted to kWh. Azalea House uses approximately 115,000 kWh of energy provided by gas each year, which is about 92.5 kWh/m2/yr. Of this, gas used for fireplaces takes up about 38.5%, which is approximately 44,300 kWh/yr or 35.6 kWh/m2/yr (It was not possible to obtain efficiency and type of the fireplaces in the suites and hence, it was not possible to know how much energy from the fireplaces was being wasted). The exact total gas consumption and gas used for fireplaces were unavailable to obtain since the gas consumption for January 2010 as shown in Tables A6 and A8 in Appendix A does not 26  contain the gas used for fireplaces (The gas consumption for 2009 was not studied since there were many missing figures for the fireplace gas consumption, as mentioned earlier).   The gas used for domestic hot water heating in 2010 was found to be 68,601 kWh which gives the gas intensity of 55 kWh/m2/yr. This is 42.6% of all the gas consumed when the January gas consumption was not considered in the calculation. The monthly gas consumption for domestic hot water heating is shown in Table A7 in Appendix A.  3.1.2 Energy Consumption of Sumac House and Cascara House  For Sumac House and Cascara House, electricity consumption data for each unit was available. However, gas consumption data for each building was not available since they use a single meter for measuring gas consumption.   Sumac House is a four-storey building which is composed of 42 units. There are 18 two-bedroom and den townhomes and on top of it, there are 24 1 and 2 bedroom apartment suites on the third and fourth floors. The area of each townhome unit ranges from 978 ft2 (90.9 m2) to 1,012 ft2 (94.0 m2) and that of each apartment unit ranges from 649 ft2 (60.3 m2) to 736 ft2 (68.4 m2). The gross floor area is 41,914 ft2 (3,894 m2) including a common area of Figure 5. Sumac House 27  7,649 ft2 (780 m2). The monthly electricity consumption and electricity consumption per HDDs graphs are shown in Figures 6 and 7 below. Table 3 shows the normalized total electricity consumption.   Figure 6. Monthly Electricity Consumption, Sumac House   0 2,000 4,000 6,000 8,000 10,000 12,000 14,000 16,000 18,000 20,000 Electricity Consumption (kWh) Month 2009 2010 28   Figure 7. Monthly Electricity Consumption per Heating Degree Days, Sumac House  Table 3. Comparison of Total Electricity Consumption, Sumac House Year Total Electricity Consumption (kWh) Total Heating Degree Days kWh per HDDs Normalized kWh 2009 172440 2968 58 164190 2010 161179 2684 60 169706   Cascara House is a four storey apartment which provides 36 units of one, one plus den,  two, and three bedrooms. The area of each unit ranges from 602 ft2 (55.9 m2) to 1,058 ft2 (98.3 m2). The sum of the area of all units is 28,276 ft2 (2,626.9 m2) and that of the 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 Electricity Consumption per Heating Degree Days (kWh/HDD) Month 2009 2010 Figure 8. Cascara House 29  common areas is 5,256 ft2 (488.3 m2), giving a gross floor area of 33,532 ft2 (3,115.2 m2). The monthly electricity consumption, electricity consumption per HDDs and normalized total electricity consumption are shown in Figures 9 and 10, and Table 4 below.   Figure 9. Monthly Electricity Consumption, Cascara House  30   Figure 10. Monthly Electricity Consumption per Heating Degree Days, Cascara House  Table 4. Comparison of Total Electricity Consumption, Cascara House Year Total Electricity Consumption (kWh) Total Heating Degree Days kWh per HDDs Normalized kWh 2009 151105 2968 51 143875 2010 131678 2684 49 138644   As with Azalea House, the electricity consumption of Sumac House and Cascara House show very similar trends. The abnormal trend in the electricity consumption per heating degree day figures in June and July 2009 and 2010 is assumed to be due to the same reason mentioned earlier for Azalea House. Note that all the three buildings have UBC Utilities as their energy provider and are managed by the same management company, Village Gate.   0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 Electricity Consumption per Heating Degree Days (kWh/HDD) Month 2009 2010 31  For the gas consumption, there is no separate data for Sumac House and Cascara House. Also, the obtained data does not show gas used in common areas separately from that used in the units. Sumac House and Cascara together used 875,151 kWh of energy provided by gas in 2010 which gives 124.9 kWh/m2/yr of gas use. Of this, 563,241 kWh (80.4 kWh/m2/yr) of gas was used for domestic hot water heating (accounting for 64.4% of total gas used) and 311,911 kWh (44.5 kWh/m2/yr) of gas was used for fireplaces (35.6%). The gas intensity was calculated by dividing the total gas consumption by the total area of the two buildings including common areas. The total monthly gas consumption and gas used for hot water heating and fireplaces for the two buildings can be found in Tables A9, A10 and A11 in Appendix A.  Next, the electricity used in the common areas in Sumac House and Cascara House is shown in Figure 11 below.  32   Figure 11. Common Area Electricity Consumption, Sumac House + Cascara House  The electricity data for January 2009 is not included since it was abnormally higher than for the rest of months, about three times higher on average. The ratio of the common area in Sumac House to that in Cascara House is approximately 1:1.45. However, the common areas calculated from the obtained data do not contain the underground parking area (parking area floor plans were missing) in each building, which means that only the heated area is considered in the analysis.   It should be noted that the total gas and common area electricity consumption calculated for Figure 11 above are not very reliable due to the fact that the data is based on a single meter for two different buildings. Sumac House and Cascara House have different 33  building types. Sumac House has a mix of townhomes and apartment units whereas Cascara House has only apartment units. Also, they have different building envelopes and used different construction materials. They might use different mechanical systems of different efficiencies from different companies. RDH Engineering (mentioned in the ‘Literature Review’ section of this report) excluded buildings that used a single gas or electricity meter for several buildings and buildings that had missing or erroneous data in their study on energy consumption in MURBs. They found those buildings were unsuitable to analyze.   3.1.3 Energy Used for Space Heating  All the three buildings are equipped with electric baseboard heaters and gas fireplaces. The electric baseboard heaters are the main source that provides space heating to the suites and gas fireplaces are used as a secondary space heating source and used for aesthetic purposes as well.   The amount of energy used for space heating was calculated by the method used by RDH Engineering’s study. For the calculation of electricity used for space heating, it was assumed that direct space heating (electric baseboard heaters) was turned off during the summer (However, it should be noted that occupants might need to use baseboard heaters to heat up rooms even on the summer days when the occupants feel cold being in the room).  Then, the electricity used in the summer months becomes non-variable data which means that the amount of electricity used during these months is used for 34  other purposes such as electric home appliances which are used continuously throughout the year. The non-variable electricity figure was calculated by averaging the electricity used for July and August. The amount of electricity used for space heating can then be calculated by summing up the differences between the total electricity used for each month and the average non-variable electricity figure. For gas, the non-variable data is the gas used for domestic hot water heating. Since the gas used for hot water heating was obtained separately from the gas used for fireplaces from UBC Utilities, the non-variable calculation was not required for gas. The total energy used for space heating is the sum of gas used for fireplaces and the non-variable electricity used.  For Azalea House, 37.9% of the total energy consumed was used for space heating and for Sumac House and Cascara House, the energy used for space heating accounts for 35.5% of the total energy used. More detailed data including portions of electricity and gas used for space heating was summarized in Tables A12 and A13 in Appendix A. These tables also summarize the total energy consumption and distribution of the energy.  3.1.4 Energy Consumption Comparisons  A comparison of energy consumption for the three buildings and to the other residential buildings is presented in this section. The energy intensity of the three buildings for the year 2009 and 2010 are shown in the table below. Note that the common area energy 35  intensity of Sumac House and Cascara House is not included in the total energy intensity values. Table 5. Energy Intensity Electricity Consumption Year Azalea House Sumac House Cascara House Average (kWh/m2) 2009 59.9 54.2 57.5     2010 54.1 50.6 50.1     Average 57.0 52.4 53.8 54.4 Electricity Consumption 2009 0.0202 0.0182 0.0194   (kWh/m2/HDD) 2010 0.0201 0.0189 0.0187     Average 0.0202 0.0186 0.0190 0.0192 Gas Consumption 2010 91.6 124.9 124.9 113.8 (kWh/m2) Total Energy Intensity 2010 145.7 175.5 175.0 165.4 (kWh/m2)   Table 5 above presents the total energy consumption for the three Faculty and Staff Housing buildings, normalized by gross floor area. Note again that gas consumption is calculated only for 2010 due to missing data in 2009 and hence, the total energy intensity calculated is only for that year as well. The average electricity consumption for the three buildings is 54.4 kWh/m2/yr. Per heating degree day, the average electricity consumption is 0.019 kWh/m2/yr per HDD in Vancouver where the average heating-degree days (18°C baseline) of 2009 and 2010 was 2,826. The average gas consumption for the year 2010 is 113.8 kWh/m2. For the calculation of gas consumption in Sumac House and Cascara House, the total gas consumption data from the common gas meter was divided by the total floor area of the two buildings, hence giving the same figure for the gas consumption in kWh/m2. The average total energy (electricity and gas) 36  use intensity is calculated to be 165.4 kWh/m2/yr. This is a lot lower than the energy intensity value from RDH Engineering’s 2010 study on energy intensity on MURBs, which was found to be 220 kWh/m2/yr for buildings in Vancouver. The average total energy intensity for the three buildings is about 20 kWh higher than the value from BC Hydro’s database for energy consumption, which is 146 kWh/m2/yr (82 kWh/m2/yr for electricity  and 63.89 kWh/m2/yr for gas ) for low rise (<= 4 storeys) apartment units with electric heat. Note that BC Hydro’s database was based on its 1.5 million resident customer billing data and the energy intensity value mentioned above is for the low rise apartment buildings that were built after 2007. In general, high-rise residential buildings and residential buildings that are gas-heated have higher energy intensity values.  3.2 DISCUSSION 3.2.1 Analyzed Data The main barrier that hindered the energy performance analysis on the buildings was a lack of dependable consumption data, especially for gas. Azalea House uses its own gas meter to measure the amount of gas used. However, the data obtained contains missing data for some months. The most appropriate way to analyze the data was to use 2010 values only. For Sumac House and Cascara House, the problem was that they share a single meter for measuring electricity and gas. For electricity, the consumption for each unit in each building was obtained from UBC Utilities and hence, it was possible to analyze the electricity consumption separately. However, that was not the case for gas. For the purpose of analysis, the total gas consumption was divided by the sum of 37  the two buildings’ floor areas. However, the proportion of the common area of each building is not the same as that of the sum of each unit for each building. Also, they are buildings of different types and they might at least have different thermal mass in their structure and have different wall thicknesses and window types. Also, they were constructed at a different time.   The normalization factor (floor area) was selected as a means to compare different buildings. The limitation in using a per unit area basis is the assumption that all suites regardless of size have the same amount of lighting and appliances and usage patterns, which is not the case. The primary benefit in using this unit area basis is that it gives a simple, easily performed estimate of expected energy consumption for any given home.   3.2.2 Potential Interventions to Reduce Consumption Energy is used in residential buildings to heat, light and operate appliances. There are many options for energy management opportunities to reduce the amount of energy used to perform these tasks through technological improvements in the systems that are used in buildings, and effective control strategies. Processes for controlling energy consumption and costs vary depending on building types and applicability of energy management procedures should be evaluated specific to different building types. Residential buildings require an individual’s effort within the household to adopt specific energy management programs such as replacing boilers or retrofitting lights (ASHRAE, 2007). Some of the energy management programs are listed below.  38  Seal and Insulate The building envelope (outer walls, ceilings, windows and doors, and hidden gaps and cracks) affects the amount of air flowing in and out of the building and the requirements for heating and cooling systems of a building. Air leaks make residents feel uncomfortable and significantly raise energy costs. For example, in the winter, cold air can infiltrate into a unit through leaky windows, requiring a heating system to run more. In this case, the existing windows can be replaced with energy-efficient windows to reduce energy costs. “Low-emissivity” coating on the existing windows can also be used to retain more heat during the winter and reduce the amount of solar radiation received during the summer.   Heat and Cool Efficiently Building energy performance also depends on how well the building is operated and maintained. In order for heating and cooling systems to perform better, annual maintenance (regular filter cleaning, check-ups, and proper service) is required. A well-designed and sealed duct system for the heating and cooling equipment can prevent losses in system efficiency up to 20 percent from leaky ducts (US EPA, 2011). Residents can try to heat and cool only those areas that they use. When the outside temperature is high and the interior temperature needs to be cooled, natural ventilation can be used. When heating is required, it is important to make sure that windows and doors are closed for maximum efficiency. Slight adjustments to thermostat set points of air conditioning systems can result in substantial energy savings as well.   39  Use of Energy Efficient Equipment Outdated and inefficient equipment can be replaced or eliminated reducing energy consumption directly. Lighting can be upgraded with high efficiency bulbs and fixtures which use less energy. Purchasing and using ENERGY STAR qualifying products will offer significant energy savings as well.  Reducing Hot Water Use and Lowering Water Heating Temperature Gas consumption can be lowered by reducing hot water use and this can lower water heating costs at the same time. Wasting less hot water can be achieved by repairing leaks in fixtures such as faucets and showerheads, installing low-flow fixtures, or purchasing energy-efficient dishwashers and clothes washers. Lowering the thermostat setting on a water heater can also lower the costs for water heating and help the heater last longer by lowering mineral build-up rate inside the heater.   Informing Residents and Changing Behaviour Promoting energy conservation and rewarding wise energy decisions and behaviour will make people have a greater understanding of energy conservation and as a result, will significantly affect the amount of energy used. Consumers should be made well aware of the many choices they have for controlling the energy consumption. Use of individual metering system will also make people be aware of how much energy they consume and if they have to pay for what they use, they will be more inclined to conserve.     40  Performing Energy Assessments It is important for residents to know how much energy their home consumes in order to evaluate what measures can be taken to use energy more efficiently. The energy assessment shows residents how they use energy, where the energy is wasted, how much energy and money can be saved over time. Home owners can perform a simple energy assessment or a professional energy auditor can be hired to perform a more thorough assessment.  The interventions listed above are generic. It is required to get access to the three buildings in order to find out measures that can be applicable specifically to those buildings. The 2007 ASHRAE Handbook – HVAC Applications lists some measures that can be implemented.   3.2.3 Potential Causes of Variations in Consumption  Occupancy, household composition, installed home appliances, and weather influence the amount of energy used even for the same type of homes of the same area. In residential buildings, occupants have complete control of all appliances and they can behave as they want. One way of reducing energy consumption is replacing or upgrading household equipment. However, this takes time to make residents understand the benefits from this replacement. High-efficient home appliances usually cost more than less efficient ones and thus, people prefer to buy cheaper and less efficient ones as long as these appliances have minimal features that people want to use. Frequency of use of each home appliance varies with time of day and year and this 41  affects the amount of energy consumed as well. According to Wood (2002), energy consumption can be classified as “predictable,” “moderately predictable” and “unpredictable.” The “predictable” energy consumption occurs when the building is unoccupied or when the occupants are asleep where there are steady energy loads such from refrigeration or lighting in the lobby or hallways. The “moderately predictable” and “unpredictable” consumptions relate to behaviour of residents and seasonal or weather variations. Watching TV at a regular time for regular periods and turning lights on at night after work and off before going to bed are examples of the “moderately predictable” consumption. The “unpredictable” consumption is energy use that occurs irregularly at the users’ discretion. Since most of the households have all three types of consumption, the variations in the energy consumption among similar households come from variations in micro-level activities such as time taken for each activity. Hence, changing occupants’ behaviour has a great potential to reduce energy consumption. It can reduce energy consumption by 10-30% (Spataru et al., 2010). Although residents in the UBC’s Faculty and Staff Housing buildings are a quite distinct group of people compared to residents in multi-family buildings in general, they still have different attitudes, age, income and health conditions. All these factors affect residents’ energy use behaviour. In addition, interpersonal relationships also affect energy-use behaviour. Hence, when addressing methods for reducing energy-consumption by changing residents’ behaviour, these differences should be considered. However, it is not easy to change one’s lifestyle, habits and behaviour and also, changing the existing home appliance is not effective since the life expectancy of home appliances is usually several years unless they are significantly damaged or broken down. Hence, understanding and pursuing initiatives that affect behaviour are of great importance. 42  Occupant characteristics, such as the number of occupants and their age, influence the amount of energy consumed in a household as well. Energy use generally increases with the number of occupants (Seryak, 2003) but it also varies widely with the same number of occupants due to their behaviour. Energy consumption is significantly influenced by the number of occupants, and depends on time of occupation, outside temperature, and behaviour of residents, whereas gas consumption is not as affected by the number of occupants. Rather, it is more affected by structural characteristics in addition to outside temperature and behaviour (Seryak, 2003). Age, income, and employment status affect energy use and energy use patterns. Households without children or with residents working or attending school during the day consume less energy than those with children or older people. Older people usually have low energy consumption but have high energy consumption in the winter due to a lower tolerance with cold temperature (Guerin et al., 2009). Age of buildings is an important household characteristic that also determines the amount of energy used. In general, older households consume more energy than newer households due to greater energy use for space heating. Also, there are many international studies stating that there are linear correlations between household size and energy use.    3.2.4 Data Privacy There are issues involving privacy and security of energy consumption data. Collected personal information which includes recorded information such as name, address and phone number and thus identifiable should be handled in compliance with the relevant privacy regulation which might be the British Columbia Freedom of Information and 43  Protection of Privacy Act for this case. Hence, it is necessary to differentiate between personal and non-personal data when dealing with energy consumption data from different sources. The use of personal data requires informed consent from the customer. A meter reading is personal data if it can be traced back to households or the individual consumer which is the point of consumption and if it can identify directly or through inference a person. Hence, it is important to distinguish between personal and non-personal data to minimize the exposure of personal data and clarify which data is used by whom and for what purpose. BC Hydro and FortisBC control access to the collected data by preventing unauthorized use of a resource and making the information not available to unauthorized individuals or entities. The use of personal data is controlled by law.  Smart meters, which are considered to be one of the methods to save energy, have issues with privacy. BC Hydro announced that it was going to replace the old analog meters with smart meters and have planned to install 1.8 million meters across B.C. by the end of 2012. Smart meters are considered by electricity providers to help consumers monitor and control their energy usage, reduce their energy bills while helping the electricity providers have the ability to manage demand requirements and build a more efficient electricity system. However, consumers worry about the smart metering system lacking privacy protections. Smart meters track real-time electricity use of customers and tell electricity providers how much electricity consumers use, when they use it, what they use it for and even what appliances they use it with. The meters collect personal information on daily lives of consumers and reveal their energy use patterns. Smart meters transmit wireless signals and the signals can be intercepted and detailed energy 44  use data can be misused by unauthorized parties. They can use this data to monitor household occupancy, for example, which can aid criminal activities. The data could hold information on what kinds of appliances consumers have in their houses, which could be very valuable to marketers and advertisers.   The news released by Office of the Information and Privacy Commissioner for British Columbia in July 2011 shows how seriously consumers are worried about the security of personal information collected by smart meters. The privacy concerns prompted BC’s Information and Privacy Commissioner to investigate BC Hydro’s compliance with the Freedom of Information and Protection and Privacy Act. The Commissioner’s report released in December includes a finding that BC Hydro is not in compliance with regard to the notification about the purpose for collecting personal information for the smart metering system. The report suggests recommendations to BC hydro for improving its privacy and security practices, especially for informing customers about the reasons for collecting information.    Energy providers, including BC Hydro, need to adopt strong rules to protect the privacy and security of customers’ energy usage information in order to dispel worries. They need to assess their data security policies and procedures and review what type of personal information is in their possession, where the information is located, and how to safeguard this sensitive information. In addition, laws regarding personal information that smart meters are transmitting should detail how consumers’ information is to be destroyed when no longer needed. When energy providers need to share data with a third-party service provider (although there is a question of how the energy providers 45  could ever justify giving data to third-parties), only the minimal amount of personally identifiable information should be provided and customers’ names and other information that can identify the individual should not be used. Energy providers should give consumers assurances that their privacy is protected since they need not sacrifice privacy for energy efficiency.   3.2.5 Challenges in Energy Assessment Energy is used mostly for space heating in residential sector and energy used for space heating depends on heat gains and losses throughout the building envelope which is determined by technical and architectural characteristics. The thermal quality of the building, household characteristics, occupant behaviour and climate are some of the parameters influencing energy demand in residential buildings. However, these characteristics cannot be found from utility bills or energy consumption data.   Performing energy assessment on existing buildings involves some challenges. In order to analyze building and utility data, the study of the installed equipment and building operational systems is also required as well as an analysis of energy bills. However, this requires more detailed data and access to each household or to the property which requires permission from the building or unit owners or property managers.   For this project, three Faculty and Staff Housing buildings were chosen for analysis. Luckily, data for all suites was obtained since all the buildings have energy provided by UBC Utilities. However, if other privately owned buildings were selected for building 46  performance analysis, it might not have been possible to get energy consumption data for all the units in a building. Hence, how much data from how many buildings (sample size) and from how many units can be collected is important. Usually, the larger the sample size, the more it can truly reflect the total population.   A descriptive statistical analysis of the data with an assumption that data for some units, not all, in a building is collected, is conducted as shown in Table A8 in Appendix A. For all the three buildings, the number of samples collected gives an average energy intensity value that differs by approximately 5%, demonstrating a narrow variability of energy use between different groups of units. When data for nine of 36 units in Cascara House was collected, the average of their energy intensity values differed only by 1.35% from the average of the total. However, it cannot be said that the sample size was large enough to be assumed representative of the total since the sample data collected is from residents who may be more energy-conscious.   4 CONCLUSION There are many residential buildings on UBC campus and multi-unit residential buildings (MURBs) are becoming one of the most common building types. This study was established to evaluate the energy performance of UBC’s residential buildings and analysis of energy consumption was made. The results describe the energy use of three Faculty and Staff Housing buildings totalling 89 units containing 88,822 ft2 of floor space, which about 75,926 ft2 is the sum of individual units and 12,896 ft2 is the sum of common areas. The average total energy intensity for the three buildings was found to 47  be 165.4 kWh/m2/yr. Of this, 67.7% of the energy consumption was gas and approximately 38.5% of the gas was used for space heating. The amount of electricity used for space heating could be estimated assuming that all the electrical baseboard heaters were not in use in the summer. Of the electricity used for all the three buildings in 2010, 35.4% was used for space heating. Considering the total energy used, energy used for space heating was approximately 35.8%. Electricity used for other purposes could not be determined due to the lack of breakdown in end use energy consumption data. Mechanical systems and home appliances can be replaced or upgraded to use energy more efficiently. Educating building occupants is another way of potentially reducing energy use.  5 RECOMMENDATIONS The evaluation of the energy consumption of buildings was based on electricity and gas consumption data. It was good that a complete set of data was obtained for the three residential buildings. However, they do not represent all the residential buildings on campus and since they were built in the early 2000s, there might be a significant energy consumption difference between the three buildings and REAP certified buildings that most new residential buildings on campus are now. In order to improve the accuracy of analyses of UBC’s residential buildings’ energy consumption, data for more buildings is needed and should be collected. It would also be beneficial to study buildings that use energy savings technologies such as geothermal heat pump for domestic water heating or waste heat recycling system.   48  A lack of time prevented me from gathering as much data as needed since this project was scheduled to be finished in three months. For a more detailed analysis of energy consumption, more information would be needed concerning the allocation of the two major energy sources to different end-uses, such as space heating, water heating, and home appliances. However, utility bills, that are the primary source of data on total consumption, are not broken down by end-use and there is no practical means by which such information can be obtained directly from each suite. As a recommendation, a survey can be conducted. Occupants can be invited to participate in the survey and complete a paper survey such as during a monthly residents’ meeting. The survey can include physical and operational characteristics of residential buildings. Examples of these are type and number of appliances that are most directly related to energy use, socioeconomic characteristics of the household (e.x. income), the area of heated floor space, residents’ comfort level, and other household characteristics (e.x. hours per day occupied, number of people in a household, number of children, ownership, etc.). Building envelope and thermal characteristics, such as exterior wall materials and number and type of windows, can also be used for a better understanding of building structures. Another questionnaire might include consumer decision-making behaviour such as willingness to implement energy saving technologies and purchase new equipment, awareness and use of energy-conserving technologies.    49  6 REFERENCES American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc. “Energy Use and Management.” 2007 ASHRAE Handbook-HVAC Applications. 2007. 35.1-35.19.  Campus and Community Planning. Web. <http://www.planning.ubc.ca>.  Canada. Office of the Information and Privacy Commissioner for British Columbia. Privacy Commissioner Investigating BC Hydro¶s Smart Metering Program. By Cara McGregor. 2011. Web.  Canada. Office of the Information and Privacy Commissioner for British Columbia. Privacy Commissioner issues report on BC Hydro smart meters. By Maria Dupuis. 2011. Web.  "Energy Management." UBC Sustainability. Web. <http://www.sustain.ubc.ca/campus-sustainability/greening-the-campus/energy-management>.  Finch, Graham, Eric Burnett, and Warren Knowles. "ENERGY CONSUMPTION IN MID AND HIGH RISE RESIDENTIAL." Proc. of 12th Canadian Conference on Building Science and Technology, Montreal, Quebec. 2009. 137-50. Web.  Guerin, Denise A., Becky L. Yust, and Julie G. Coopet. "Occupant Predictors of Household Energy Behavior and Consumption Change as Found in Energy Studies Since 1975." Family and Consumer Sciences Research Journal 29.1 (2000): 48-80. Web.  50  Guerra Santin, Olivia, Laure Itard, and Henk Visscher. "The Effect of Occupancy and Building Characteristics on Energy Use for Space and Water Heating in Dutch Residential Stock." Energy and Buildings 41.11 (2009): 1223-232. Web.  Hackett, Laura Adkins, Lucie Maruejols, and André Plourde. CBEEDAC ENERGY DIGEST - Energy Consumption and Prices. Rep. 2011 ed. Edmonton: CBEEDAC, 2011. Web. <http://www.cbeedac.com/whatsnew/documents/2010DigestFinalReport.pdf>.  Liu, Ronggui. Energy Consumption and Energy Intensity in Multi-Unit Residential Buildings (MURBs) in Canada. Tech. Canadian Building Energy End-Use Data and Analysis Centre, Apr. 2007. Web.  Marbek Resource Consultants Ltd. “BC Hydro 2007 Conservation Potential Review – The Potential for Electricity Savings, 2006-2026, Residential, Commercial and Industrial Sectors in British Columbia (Summary Report).” Review. Web.  Natural Resources Canada. Survey of Household Energy Use, 2007: Summary Report. [Ottawa]: Office of Energy Efficiency, 2010. Web.  Nelson, Dennis J., and Harinder Bains. BC Hydro - Apartments Report. Rep. Vancouver, 2011. Web.  RDH Building Engineering Ltd. Energy Consumption and Conservation in Mid and High Rise Residential Buildings in British Columbia. Rep. Vancouver, 2011. Web.  "Reducing Energy Use | Green Homes | US EPA." US Environmental Protection Agency. Web. <http://www.epa.gov/greenhomes/ReduceEnergy.htm>.  51  Seryak, John. OCCUPANCY AND BEHAVIORAL AFFECTS ON RESIDENTIAL ENERGY USE. OCCUPANCY AND BEHAVIORAL AFFECTS ON RESIDENTIAL ENERGY USE. Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of Dayton, 2003. Web.  Spataru, C., M. Gillott, and M. R. Hall. "Domestic Energy and Occupancy: a Novel Post-occupancy Evaluation Study." International Journal of Low-Carbon Technologies 5.3 (2010): 148-57. Web.  UBC Properties Trust. Web. <http://www.ubcproperties.com/>.  Village Gate | Townhouse Rentals and Apartment Rentals UBC Vancouver. Web. <http://www.villagegatehomes.com>.  Wood, G. "Dynamic Energy-consumption Indicators for Domestic Appliances: Environment, Behaviour and Design." Energy and Buildings 35.8 (2003): 821-41. Web.  Yohanis, Y., J. Mondol, A. Wright, and B. Norton. "Real-life Energy Use in the UK: How Occupancy and Dwelling Characteristics Affect Domestic Electricity Use." Energy and Buildings 40.6 (2008): 1053-059. Web.       52                APPENDIX A                                                       Figure A 1. Due to confidentiality, the figure cannot be attached within the report, please contact SEEDS office if you wish access.倀氀  54                  Figure A 2. Due to confidentiality, the figure cannot be attached within the report, please contact SEEDS office if you wish access  55                  Figure A 3 Due to confidentiality, the figure cannot be attached within the report, please contact SEEDS office if you wish access⸀56                  Figure A 4. Due to confidentiality, the figure cannot be attached within the report, please contact SEEDS office if you wish access 57                  Figure A 5. Due to confidentiality, the figure cannot be attached within the report, please contact SEEDS office if you wish access58                   Figure A 6.  Due to confidentiality, the figure cannot be attached within the report, please contact SEEDS office if you wish access59                    Figure A 7. Due to confidentiality, the figure cannot be attached within the report, please contact SEEDS office if you wish access 60                   Figure A 8. Due to confidentiality, the figure cannot be attached within the report, please contact SEEDS office if you wish access 61                    Figure A 9.  Due to confidentiality, the figure cannot be attached within the report, please contact SEEDS office if you wish access62                    Figure A 10. Due to confidentiality, the figure cannot be attached within the report, please contact SEEDS office if you wish access 63  Table A 1. Units Area Azalea House  (Building A)   Sumac House  (Building B)   Cascara House (Building C)   Unit Area (ft2) Area (m2) Unit Area (ft2) Area (m2) Unit Area (ft2) Area (m2) 101 1083 100.61 101 999 92.81 101 751 69.77 102 1083 100.61 102 999 92.81 102 602 55.93 103 1292 120.03 103 978 90.86 103 762 70.79 104 1292 120.03 104 978 90.86 104 763 70.89 105 1292 120.03 105 999 92.81 105 781 72.56 106 1292 120.03 106 978 90.86 106 775 72.00 107 1292 120.03 107 983 91.32 107 790 73.39 108 1292 120.03 108 1010 93.83 108 790 73.39 109 1292 120.03 109 983 91.32 109 846 78.60 110 1083 100.61 110 999 92.81 201 799 74.23 111 1083 100.61 111 999 92.81 202 602 55.93 Total Area 13376 1242.67 112 978 90.86 203 762 70.79    113 978 90.86 204 762 70.79    114 999 92.81 205 781 72.56    115 999 92.81 206 775 72.00    116 1012 94.02 207 790 73.39    117 1010 93.83 208 790 73.39    118 983 91.32 209 1058 98.29    301 672 62.43 301 799 74.23    302 649 60.29 302 602 55.93    303 649 60.29 303 762 70.79    304 649 60.29 304 762 70.79    305 736 68.38 305 799 74.23    306 736 68.38 306 775 72.00    307 672 62.43 307 790 73.39    308 649 60.29 308 790 73.39 64     309 649 60.29 309 1058 98.29    310 672 62.43 401 812 75.44    311 736 68.38 402 602 55.93    312 736 68.38 403 762 70.79    401 672 62.43 404 762 70.79    402 649 60.29 405 812 75.44    403 649 60.29 406 788 73.21    404 649 60.29 407 790 73.39    405 736 68.38 408 790 73.39    406 736 68.38 409 1042 96.80    407 672 62.43 Total 28276 2626.93    408 649 60.29 Common Area 5256 488.30    409 649 60.29 Total Area 33532 3115.22    410 672 62.43       411 736 68.38       412 736 68.38       Total 34274 3184.16       Common Area 7639.99 709.78       Total Area 41913.99 3893.94     Table A 2. Heating Degree Days (HDDs)  Month   Year 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Total 2009 487 392 406 264 166 53 31 40 84 239 321 485 2968 2010 332 307 324 258 187 101 41 44 91 208 384 407 2684   65  Table A 3. Azalea House Electricity Consumption for 2009 and 2010 Azalea House Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Total Electricity 2009 8453.39 7762.25 7373.1 7098.64 5366.63 4945.46 (kWh) 2010 7761.63 7006.04 6595.988 5643.92 4936.31 4825.82 Electricity per Heating Degree Days 2009 17.36 19.80 18.16 26.89 32.33 93.31 (kWh/HDDs) 2010 23.38 22.82 20.36 21.88 26.40 47.78 Electricity per Unit Area 2009 6.80 6.25 5.93 5.71 4.32 3.98 (kWh/m2) 2010 6.25 5.64 5.31 4.54 3.97 3.88 Azalea House Year July August September October November December Total Total Electricity 2009 4626.86 4280.52 4721.76 5754.35 5370.32 8621.54 74374.83 (kWh) 2010 2432.74 4643.86 4758.56 4545.79 5662.39 8357.06 67170.11 Electricity per Heating Degree Days 2009 149.25 107.01 56.21 24.08 16.73 17.78 578.91 (kWh/HDDs) 2010 59.34 105.54 52.29 21.85 14.75 20.53 436.91 Electricity per Unit Area 2009 3.72 3.44 3.80 4.63 4.32 6.94 59.85 (kWh/m2) 2010 1.96 3.74 3.83 3.66 4.56 6.73 54.05  Table A 4. Sumac House Electricity Consumption for 2009 and 2010 Sumac House Year January February March April May June Total Electricity 2009 18711.92 16975.79 15179.00 16601.82 13264.03 12065.08 (kWh) 2010 16636.14 15494.20 14874.43 13024.12 12326.56 12384.79 Electricity per Heating Degree Days 2009 38.42 43.31 37.39 62.89 79.90 227.64 (kWh/HDDs) 2010 50.11 50.47 45.91 50.48 65.92 122.62 Electricity per Unit Area 2009 5.88 5.33 4.77 5.21 4.17 3.79 (kWh/m2) 2010 5.22 4.87 4.67 4.09 3.87 3.89 Sumac House Year July August September October November December Total Total Electricity 2009 11597.39 11597.83 12088.43 14397.88 12812.05 17148.64 172439.87 (kWh) 2010 6387.40 11745.47 13110.97 12537.33 15573.20 17084.07 161178.67 Electricity per Heating Degree Days 2009 374.11 289.95 143.91 60.24 39.91 35.36 1433.03 (kWh/HDDs) 2010 155.79 266.94 144.08 60.28 40.56 41.98 1095.12 Electricity per Unit Area 2009 3.64 3.64 3.80 4.52 4.02 5.39 54.16 (kWh/m2) 2010 2.01 3.69 4.12 3.94 4.89 5.37 50.62   66  Table A 5. Cascara House Electricity Consumption for 2009 and 2010 Cascara House Year January February March April May June Total Electricity 2009 17323.40 15300.23 13767.19 13988.42 11298.57 11044.47 (kWh) 2010 14651.44 13524.04 12703.05 11659.20 11085.48 9991.61 Electricity per Heating Degree Days 2009 35.57 39.03 33.91 52.99 68.06 208.39 (kWh/HDDs) 2010 44.13 44.05 39.21 45.19 59.28 98.93 Electricity per Unit Area 2009 6.59 5.82 5.24 5.33 4.30 4.20 (kWh/m2) 2010 5.58 5.15 4.84 4.44 4.22 3.80 Cascara House Year July August September October November December Total Total Electricity 2009 9918.19 9580.68 10023.48 11687.59 11217.46 15954.50 151104.18 (kWh) 2010 4900.59 8680.67 9783.34 8957.24 11943.96 13797.29 131677.91 Electricity per Heating Degree Days 2009 319.94 239.52 119.33 48.90 34.95 32.90 1233.48 (kWh/HDDs) 2010 119.53 197.29 107.51 43.06 31.10 33.90 863.18 Electricity per Unit Area 2009 3.78 3.65 3.82 4.45 4.27 6.07 57.52 (kWh/m2) 2010 1.87 3.30 3.72 3.41 4.55 5.25 50.13  Table A 6. Total Gas Consumption for Azalea House for Year 2010  Month    1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Total kWh 7517.8 12914.7 13860.4 12352.5 10465.5 9144.0 4465.7 7724.2 7695.4 7410.9 10451.1 9858.8 113861 kWh/m2 6.05 10.39 11.15 9.94 8.42 7.36 3.59 6.22 6.19 5.96 8.41 7.93 91.63  Table A 7. Gas Consumption for Domestic Hot Water Heating for Year 2010 – Azalea House  Month    1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Total kWh 7517.8 7516.5 6884.9 6559.0 6620.9 6236.9 3147.2 5645.2 5460.7 5136.7 6068.7 1806.9 68601 kWh/m2 6.05 6.05 5.54 5.28 5.33 5.02 2.53 4.54 4.39 4.13 4.88 1.45 55.2  67  Table A 8. Gas Consumption for Fireplaces for Year 2010 – Azalea House  Month    1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Total kWh - 5398.2 6975.5 5793.5 3844.6 2907.1 1318.4 2079.0 2234.7 2274.1 4382.5 8051.9 45259 kWh/m2 - 4.34 5.61 4.66 3.09 2.34 1.06 1.67 1.80 1.83 3.53 6.48 36.4  Table A 9. Total Gas Consumption for Sumac House and Cascara House for Year 2010  Month    1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Total kWh 102270 94275.1 94144.5 84553.4 70516.9 63455.7 26159.1 40491.8 46900.3 50120.5 84390.0 117875.0 875151 kWh/m2 14.59 13.45 13.43 12.06 10.06 9.05 3.73 5.78 6.69 7.15 12.04 16.82 124.86  Table A 10. Gas Consumption for Domestic Hot Water Heating for Year 2010 – Sumac House and Cascara House  Month    1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Total kWh 60442.6 58977.5 59372.3 54208.5 50468.4 47574.2 20907.0 32737.9 36523.4 34200.7 49778.8 58049.5 563241 kWh/m2 8.62 8.41 8.47 7.73 7.20 6.79 2.98 4.67 5.21 4.88 7.10 8.28 80.4  Table A 11. Gas Consumption for Fireplaces for Year 2010 – Sumac House and Cascara House  Month    1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Total kWh 41827.1 35297.5 34772.2 30344.8 20048.5 15881.5 5252.1 7753.9 10376.8 15919.8 34611.1 59825.0 311911 kWh/m2 5.97 5.04 4.96 4.33 2.86 2.27 0.75 1.11 1.48 2.27 4.94 8.54 44.5   Table A 12. Energy Consumption Summary – Azalea House Building Description:           Date of Construction 2001       Number of Suites  11       Number of Floors  2       Total Unit Area  1,243  m2         13,376  ft2     Gross Floor Area  1,243  m2         13,376  ft2               Consumption and Distribution Summary:       Gas and Electric Data from January 2010 to December 2010      Total Energy         Total Energy  181,031  kWh     Total Energy/Suite  16,457  kWh     Total Energy/Floor Area 146  kWh/m2     % of Total Energy used for Space Heat 39  %     % of Space Heat Energy is Gas 65  %     % of Space Heat Energy is Elec 35  %     Gas         Total   113,861  kWh (excluding January 2010 data) Total Consumption /Floor Area 92  kWh/m2     Total Consumption/Suite 10,351  kWh     Total Gas used for Space Heat 45,259  kWh     % of Total Gas used for Space Heat 40  %     Electricity        Total   67,170  kWh     Total Suite Consumption 67,170  kWh     Total Suite Consumption used for Space Heat 24,710  kWh     Total Common Consumption No Common Area     Total Consumption/Floor Area 54  kWh/m2     Total Consumption/Suite 6,106  kWh     Total Suite Consumption/Suite 6,106  kWh     Total Common Consumption/Suite No Common Area     % of Total Elec. used for Space Heat 37  %       Table A 13. Energy Consumption Summary – Sumac House and Cascara House Building Description: Sumac House     Cascara House Date of Construction 2001        2002   Number of Suites  42        36   Number of Floors  4        4   Total Unit Area  3,184  m2     2627 m2     34,274  ft2       28,276  ft2 Gross Floor Area  3,894  m2     3,115  m2     41,914  ft2     33,532  ft2               Consumption and Distribution Summary:           Gas and Electric Data from January 2010 to December 2010          Total Energy             Total Energy  1,328,776  kWh        Total Energy/Suite  17,036  kWh        Total Energy/Floor Area 190  kWh/m2        % of Total Energy used for Space Heat 34  %        % of Space Heat Energy is Gas 69  %        % of Space Heat Energy is Elec 31  %        Gas             Total      875,151  kWh *    Total Consumption /Floor Area    151  kWh/m2 **    Total Consumption/Suite    11,220  kWh *    Total Gas used for Space Heat    311,911  kWh *    % of Total Gas used for Space Heat    36  % *    Electricity            Total Suite Consumption 161,179  kWh     131,678  kWh Total Suite Consumption used for Space Heat 52,381  kWh     50,190  kWh Total Common Consumption    160,768  kWh ***    70  Total Common Consumption used for Space Heat    37,426  kWh ***    Total Consumption used for Space Heat    139,998  kWh    Total Suite Consumption/Suite 3,838  kWh     3,658  kWh Total Common Consumption/Suite    2,061  kWh ***    Total Consumption /Floor Area    65  kWh/m2 ***    Total Consumption/Suite    308  kWh ***    % of Suite Elec. used for Space Heat 32  %     38  % % of Total Common Elec. used for Space Heat     23  % ***     * Sumac House and Cascara House share a single gas meter. The gas consumption values obtained were the total gas used by all suites in the two  buildings.   ** 'Floor Area' does not include common areas since the gas consumption obtained were for gas used in the suites only.       *** The common area electricity obtained was the total common area electricity consumed in the two buildings. Hence, the calculated values are  applicable to the buildings as a whole.   Table A 14. Sample Size Statistical Data Azalea House Sample Size     3 (27.2%) 6 (54.5%) 9 (81.8%) Total (100%) Average 146.8 153.7 143.9 145.7 Minimum 142.4 136.1 116.6 116.6 Maximum 155.5 166.9 166.9 166.9 Median 142.6 154.0 142.6 144.7 Standard Deviation 7.5 11.7 15.4 14.4 % Avg. Difference from Total 0.78 5.49 -1.26   Sumac House Sample Size     7 (16.7%) 14 (33.3%) 21 (50%) 28 (66.6%) 35 (83.3%) Total (100%) Average 171.9 175.9 174.4 175.0 176.0 175.6 Minimum 144.9 141.7 141.7 141.7 141.7 141.7 Maximum 201.4 217.0 217.0 217.0 217.0 217.0 Median 170.6 171.2 171.5 169.7 170.6 171.7 Standard Deviation 19.7 19.8 21.1 21.4 20.1 20.3 % Avg. Difference from Total -2.14 0.13 -0.72 -0.34 0.20   Cascara House Sample Size     9 (25%) 18 (50%) 27 (75%) Total (100%) Average 172.4 177.1 172.9 174.7 Minimum 148.7 143.4 143.4 143.4 Maximum 193.8 217.3 217.3 217.3 Median 173.8 175.5 171.0 172.9 Standard Deviation 15.6 21.9 19.3 20.1 % Avg. Difference from Total -1.35 1.33 -1.06              APPENDIX B       Load AnalysisMonthly Calendarized Consumption for Selected LEED Buildings-Building # 1Consumption is in KWhBuilding No Suite No 07-Jan 07-Feb 07-Mar 07-Apr 07-May 07-Jun 07-Jul 07-Aug 07-Sep 07-Oct 07-Nov 07-Dec 08-Jan 08-Feb 08-Mar 08-Apr 08-May 08-Jun1 1 610             209             100             100             105             191             225             250             253             341             361             543             613             386             360             278             260             230             1 2 1,186          803             808             573             500             470             482             469             451             678             740             864             905             622             603             522             515             458             1 3 1,136          857             897             673             609             484             468             454             437             682             752             1,015          1,113          878             894             665             611             479             1 4 1,393          1,035          1,079          599             549             517             123             267             308             424             451             681             769             594             600             417             368             308             1 5 793             603             632             490             452             370             361             370             363             511             548             726             791             588             586             475             455             392             1 6 966             871             964             674             582             217             115             306             361             633             715             943             1,027          804             816             543             469             375             1 7 1,382          1,074          1,137          730             590             400             360             333             314             770             921             1,457          1,663          1,181          1,158          598             422             387             1 8 243             511             990             633             510             426             420             458             456             801             906             1,198          1,305          1,032          645             377             307             299             1 9 1,195          862             888             629             547             469             465             480             470             879             1,007          1,409          1,561          1,236          1,259          799             667             521             1 10 752             744             620             482             446             245             195             263             278             656             781             859             881             686             695             506             460             223             1 11 562             415             431             255             192             191             199             206             203             368             419             649             738             486             463             277             222             186             1 12 216             449             574             360             285             78               19               275             353             1,379          1,737          218             845             590             575             499             431             588             1 13 1,121          884             940             822             48               62               69               192             228             308             327             335             334             274             282             232             225             197             1 14 776             573             596             475             447             426             267             312             318             713             842             926             948             645             622             392             325             301             1 15 1,055          748             767             596             666             440             391             468             479             806             903             1,084          1,146          899             193             261             297             240             1 16 896             668             698             593             577             538             550             543             334             664             769             1,123          1,257          969             979             729             671             514             1 17 470             281             267             209             194             226             246             240             231             344             375             489             530             348             331             252             233             217             1 18 774             647             701             574             547             529             546             551             535             717             759             672             625             562             595             550             559             503             1 19 923             405             275             362             423             516             567             489             448             764             858             1,143          1,248          663             568             466             450             428             1 20 748             539             556             482             474             645             725             573             503             554             549             593             604             518             540             518             533             685             1 21 2,195          1,708          1,808          1,350          1,218          639             491             753             817             1,462          1,659          1,854          1,911          1,648          1,722          1,186          1,045          833             1 22 313             318             364             277             253             236             482             493             482             591             608             593             579             516             544             461             450             407             1 23 1,028          691             694             664             436             490             528             546             536             611             613             613             604             600             651             513             486             487             1 24 873             717             763             634             655             491             462             519             521             730             782             1,014          1,098          886             899             659             702             503             1 25 792             606             638             486             445             410             418             438             433             647             706             878             939             680             672             520             488             406             1 26 832             394             329             325             339             309             313             328             323             520             577             707             752             540             531             372             330             298             1 27 545             361             359             314             309             306             319             286             267             317             324             411             443             349             354             317             318             258             1 28 1,028          493             438             281             228             157             143             178             186             337             384             525             577             491             511             335             285             218             1 29 896             692             732             575             535             512             527             486             313             430             459             736             843             625             622             339             252             302             1 30 695             743             856             544             436             462             491             431             398             626             691             857             916             736             753             520             458             488             1 31 687             469             473             281             212             207             215             232             233             559             667             814             864             590             570             306             223             214             1 32 635             546             595             576             595             345             284             306             305             670             789             1,141          1,274          816             767             463             373             316             1 33 1,355          943             958             686             602             470             451             468             460             884             1,018          1,293          1,392          1,137          1,169          832             747             516             1 34 952             759             811             554             471             446             458             474             464             723             797             1,048          1,140          837             831             514             422             357             1 35 617             511             553             233             107             141             368             337             317             492             540             676             725             638             671             429             360             317             1 36 1,499          1,207          1,292          903             779             325             201             188             382             715             787             912             952             782             806             493             509             335             1 37 797             403             351             263             239             218             222             224             218             331             362             525             586             373             350             240             211             208             1 38 412             1,353          1,795          1,137          909             610             546             447             400             1,245          1,534          2,063          2,258          1,516          1,455          822             629             592             1 39 784             617             655             504             464             394             390             432             434             615             661             830             890             646             638             472             432             360             1 40 788             391             336             324             335             318             327             367             368             625             701             961             1,058          707             678             514             278             300             1 41 1,130          621             566             306             209             217             230             242             240             491             571             847             952             598             558             380             331             275             1 42 914             604             602             400             333             222             198             206             203             413             480             585             622             320             270             233             229             195             1 43 1,605          1,840          2,155          1,368          1,096          690             597             431             361             550             602             817             896             777             699             635             701             550             1 Strata 11,670         10,136         11,100         10,249         10,372         9,888          10,170         10,059         9,697          10,526         10,387         10,857         10,908         9,857          10,440         9,975          10,260         9,620          Consumption (KWh)74  Load AnalysisMonthly Calendarized Consumption for Selected LEED Buildings-Building # 1Consumption is in KWhBuilding No Suite No 08-Jul 08-Aug 08-Sep 08-Oct 08-Nov 08-Dec 09-Jan 09-Feb 09-Mar 09-Apr 09-May 09-Jun 09-Jul 09-Aug 09-Sep 09-Oct 09-Nov 09-Dec1 1 230             252             250             202             176             502             595             285             255             245             253             242             469             514             508             680             694             717             1 2 458             445             427             525             537             800             871             674             720             510             479             446             456             444             427             592             608             706             1 3 453             461             448             540             549             1,048          1,189          939             1,007          587             506             434             431             440             428             664             694             834             1 4 300             325             322             441             464             743             819             631             673             453             417             427             449             414             392             618             647             741             1 5 386             408             401             368             340             693             793             547             566             417             398             368             375             363             349             326             308             542             1 6 359             369             360             557             601             977             1,081          733             753             565             541             482             485             464             445             665             691             808             1 7 177             251             264             799             950             1,693          1,901          1,280          1,312          808             669             412             582             667             665             1,011          1,053          1,089          1 8 309             321             315             684             783             1,474          1,668          1,196          1,250          759             667             420             363             354             340             855             945             1,286          1 9 491             499             485             1,015          1,155          1,585          1,699          1,322          1,412          814             699             579             568             576             560             1,167          1,266          1,237          1 10 147             236             254             463             516             800             878             713             770             448             387             442             478             438             414             584             601             756             1 11 181             183             177             284             309             596             676             472             489             246             195             179             182             205             204             437             476             492             1 12 648             584             548             642             647             1,054          1,167          883             936             605             547             578             612             554             522             728             749             772             1 13 196             210             207             367             407             421             943             510             401             272             251             206             202             245             247             456             488             373             1 14 306             253             230             421             469             810             905             668             704             302             213             323             370             288             257             185             506             644             1 15 229             239             234             301             311             468             510             322             323             217             199             202             211             242             241             366             381             590             1 16 480             370             328             417             431             807             913             673             241             363             409             429             454             419             398             578             598             540             1 17 221             220             212             253             257             475             537             341             343             233             215             207             213             233             230             248             543             434             1 18 506             473             361             451             432             598             642             514             553             389             364             355             367             385             376             524             538             530             1 19 440             350             314             591             662             1,110          1,234          640             595             372             331             184             147             351             388             704             751             815             1 20 771             630             570             586             566             666             689             533             569             541             556             633             684             411             334             359             350             417             1 21 255             588             663             895             936             1,509          1,667          1,150          1,187          787             719             292             171             175             178             800             915             1,088          1 22 410             381             360             469             486             502             209             54               39               96               202             233             252             241             231             255             251             561             1 23 509             531             520             581             577             543             528             385             172             262             294             501             586             402             346             438             442             476             1 24 454             469             458             686             721             1,057          1,150          969             1,051          632             574             545             561             554             535             801             833             906             1 25 394             381             364             592             646             969             1,057          771             810             497             439             363             356             359             348             658             706             733             1 26 299             278             263             456             503             520             792             195             28               251             411             695             811             545             465             442             419             530             1 27 248             252             245             302             309             458             499             356             372             316             314             281             284             278             280             556             600             624             1 28 204             212             208             259             265             487             549             374             384             265             246             156             135             159             159             379             416             474             1 29 334             335             325             428             446             929             1,066          730             753             501             458             392             390             435             431             724             765             950             1 30 521             476             448             594             620             1,005          1,111          813             855             495             424             557             621             446             390             683             726             917             1 31 220             202             191             244             252             498             568             445             476             247             200             203             213             207             199             313             328             451             1 32 309             315             307             548             609             600             1,130          575             530             451             450             380             375             399             391             590             615             648             1 33 456             502             498             818             894             1,322          1,438          1,113          1,188          703             611             482             464             921             997             770             685             1,108          1 34 349             346             334             486             517             781             853             644             682             402             349             321             326             367             328             7                 51               37               1 35 315             235             205             384             429             727             809             489             483             318             289             266             271             238             222             458             496             587             1 36 287             378             391             911             1,053          1,660          1,827          1,200          1,220          511             355             392             421             454             447             720             757             794             1 37 216             188             257             484             474             603             636             566             625             431             399             374             382             366             351             535             558             561             1 38 107             216             240             295             302             608             694             358             332             242             229             195             193             207             204             332             349             440             1 39 350             339             326             493             530             800             874             575             586             517             60               363             471             646             665             973             1,008          1,073          1 40 322             345             340             485             503             925             1,022          709             719             355             275             311             336             336             136             409             475             575             1 41 267             245             231             429             479             904             1,024          649             652             352             291             234             227             242             238             547             600             772             1 42 192             162             148             393             461             794             887             489             466             221             169             156             159             181             180             401             438             571             1 43 520             611             617             923             969             1,558          1,724          1,262          1,307          700             707             568             553             669             674             1,123          1,185          1,243          1 Strata 9,804          9,716          9,377          12,049         12,454         12,869         12,869         11,624         12,609         4,410          4,500          8,123          9,579          9,600          9,295          10,278         10,103         10,414          75           Load AnalysisMonthly Calendarized Consumption for Selected LEED Buildings-Building # 1Consumption is in KWhBuilding No Suite No 10-Jan 10-Feb 10-Mar 10-Apr 10-May 10-Jun 10-Jul 10-Aug 10-Sep 10-Oct 10-Nov 10-Dec 11-Jan 11-Feb 11-Mar 11-Apr 11-May 11-Jun 11-Jul1 1 717             454             431             117             27               156             210             230             229             377             397             706             793             674             728             487             447             294             260             1 2 729             568             596             516             515             423             409             442             439             553             558             660             685             581             627             606             166             269             298             1 3 868             679             714             664             678             570             557             553             534             584             1,012          1,158          1,191          991             1,059          658             586             301             228             1 4 762             577             598             507             502             374             345             280             249             450             480             654             700             572             606             404             370             318             58               1 5 607             462             479             387             376             345             350             386             386             442             438             613             660             524             548             287             234             209             211             1 6 836             635             658             573             572             568             587             740             768             1,028          1,050          1,275          1,331          1,093          1,162          878             844             762             770             1 7 1,089          957             1,049          828             797             659             638             611             582             1,088          1,166          1,412          1,472          1,212          1,290          955             912             689             652             1 8 1,377          1,073          1,124          474             154             308             325             349             346             1,006          1,124          1,347          1,401          1,008          1,002          644             562             206             456             1 9 1,217          1,090          1,204          757             654             610             622             582             550             1,066          1,147          1,409          1,474          1,232          1,320          860             781             579             544             1 10 796             536             525             429             419             408             423             331             290             649             709             636             608             698             838             499             435             265             225             1 11 492             380             397             266             238             207             205             219             217             476             519             504             495             392             410             255             227             218             225             1 12 772             635             680             522             497             564             614             565             530             719             736             1,227          1,363          517             257             486             563             520             530             1 13 335             318             357             242             217             198             200             216             214             296             304             353             364             329             348             222             209             347             404             1 14 680             432             411             392             403             300             276             240             45               279             773             926             963             870             646             462             425             356             350             1 15 647             584             647             188             29               375             518             507             488             725             753             803             811             653             688             551             540             512             226             1 16 517             419             446             432             267             312             378             384             374             452             452             555             581             478             509             364             343             277             284             1 17 397             376             422             318             300             217             197             232             237             251             406             546             583             513             562             359             323             332             349             1 18 522             479             534             392             367             343             575             809             722             609             557             553             546             473             515             469             477             508             540             1 19 826             582             583             472             459             496             533             456             415             718             762             1,023          1,091          815             827             582             545             424             406             1 20 433             286             277             259             252             257             271             322             328             643             692             787             808             655             692             477             312             347             373             1 21 1,129          815             827             640             611             587             605             522             477             871             930             1,086          1,122          870             900             676             649             570             571             1 22 650             567             620             449             417             401             414             414             400             678             718             787             801             619             638             335             274             257             263             1 23 482             353             360             258             238             328             375             399             394             708             755             943             990             817             871             671             649             392             331             1 24 920             747             795             604             572             467             450             446             430             654             682             793             819             735             812             497             439             352             342             1 25 735             665             736             507             459             350             326             353             351             646             690             797             821             718             785             552             517             364             333             1 26 559             535             604             430             396             320             438             480             479             574             574             715             750             682             757             543             512             442             440             1 27 625             331             281             362             403             219             162             312             352             516             535             547             545             415             425             352             349             282             275             1 28 487             403             432             310             287             237             229             230             223             519             569             844             918             767             822             566             525             324             277             1 29 997             654             633             466             436             393             395             312             288             699             677             933             1,002          819             869             612             573             541             555             1 30 966             631             609             452             425             469             506             423             382             827             900             1,132          1,191          897             914             545             476             421             423             1 31 484             366             379             255             229             223             232             234             227             290             294             392             417             321             331             278             277             243             243             1 32 652             515             543             465             461             390             382             458             469             615             626             563             1,308          1,193          1,249          909             862             599             546             1 33 1,225          997             1,064          727             656             401             326             407             421             973             1,067          1,201          1,230          1,214          1,390          964             898             529             440             1 34 33               34               405             190             133             149             162             149             140             407             455             478             480             319             302             165             138             139             145             1 35 609             329             283             215             203             202             218             256             260             644             710             913             965             810             869             544             486             353             329             1 36 798             203             34               32               300             518             518             477             447             911             986             961             944             797             858             534             475             441             450             1 37 77               254             631             484             460             355             333             348             342             701             760             1,016          1,084          979             700             510             490             398             388             1 38 463             352             365             249             225             195             193             221             224             231             443             781             694             557             586             439             421             377             381             1 39 1,082          815             842             658             631             574             580             569             547             929             983             1,016          476             603             460             400             402             331             324             1 40 599             142             209             191             194             265             303             377             389             573             594             654             666             267             414             251             220             314             357             1 41 817             497             462             339             317             264             257             266             260             150             118             132             135             597             872             530             467             299             261             1 42 605             404             394             231             191             159             154             161             158             342             372             523             563             369             346             221             200             168             166                76  Load AnalysisMonthly Calendarized Consumption for Selected LEED Buildings-Building # 2Consumption is in KWhBuilding NoSuite No 07-1 07-2 07-3 07-4 07-5 07-6 07-7 07-8 07-9 07-10 07-11 07-12 08-1 08-2 08-3 08-4 08-5 08-6 08-7 08-8 08-9 08-10 08-11 08-12 09-1 09-2 09-3 09-4 09-5 09-6 09-7 09-82 1 89       114      146      148      179      177      173      172      110      109      89       87       84       30       44       46       112      124      54       46       19       18       23       24       30       32       32       2 2 242      130      123      64       60       64       235      235      227      441      456      508      514      558      614      442      389      135      101      46       32       28       26       216      237      190      208      42       32       32       33       35       2 3 20       156      256      291      301      293      423      427      580      601      399      399      250      223      209      21       24       29       22       19       28       29       16       17       22       23       29       31       30       2 4 801      501      501      273      257      216      215      218      212      309      312      558      593      358      349      314      318      226      14       21       25       18       16       345      380      136      123      27       21       28       30       29       2 5 619      619      776      339      303      215      202      206      426      599      602      681      690      595      627      592      190      194      13       21       25       17       14       922      1,020   773      836      218      182      46       33       33       2 6 751      478      340      273      275      281      295      304      296      421      424      392      385      203      58       106      102      156      31       501      555      419      453      139      122      37       29       190      2 7 536      475      524      506      523      411      400      435      429      480      470      518      523      471      500      393      381      173      148      56       33       22       19       614      678      606      671      284      266      58       37       37       2 8 943      660      695      571      562      414      394      472      475      727      738      779      782      645      675      551      543      456      4         77       92       72       64       242      261      228      252      248      257      79       63       63       2 9 254      253      286      193      190      189      197      173      162      350      365      390      392      319      333      240      226      219      3,126   2,307   2,020   1,347   1,131   396      313      512      598      407      408      123      96       96       2 10 397      312      334      166      153      84       70       107      112      300      317      337      339      280      294      135      101      99       7         139      144      67       61       61       2 11 166      153      84       70       107      112      300      317      337      339      280      294      139      139      144      67       61       61       2 12 295      241      261      207      208      202      209      193      183      224      222      260      265      224      236      223      230      184      12       73       75       108      116      121      2 13 207      208      202      209      193      183      224      222      260      265      224      236      73       73       75       108      116      121      2 14 200      318      332      317      326      291      294      182      176      571      605      354      343      303      306      277      18       110      114      208      226      129      2 15 317      326      291      294      182      176      571      605      354      343      110      110      114      208      226      129      2 16 619      344      329      250      250      219      221      229      224      305      306      365      373      270      276      238      238      101      84       3         77       79       128      139      139      2 17 250      250      219      221      229      224      305      306      365      373      270      276      77       77       79       128      139      139      2 18 329      289      318      291      299      261      263      306      306      300      288      365      375      327      345      278      273      229      35       36       51       55       85       2 19 291      299      261      263      306      306      300      288      365      375      327      345      35       35       36       51       55       85       2 20 386      234      232      239      249      436      501      488      469      522      510      628      644      502      520      447      447      377      12       37       38       109      121      113      2 21 239      249      436      501      488      469      522      510      628      644      502      520      37       37       38       109      121      113      2 22 379      283      299      190      185      188      196      191      183      299      305      379      388      353      376      254      234      165      5         42       43       130      145      105      2 23 190      185      188      196      191      183      299      305      379      388      353      376      42       42       43       130      145      105      2 24 312      420      598      428      425      443      467      431      409      582      586      679      690      639      682      550      574      1,557   1,804   1,947   1,917   1,865   1,778   179      2         63       78       424      464      144      114      114      2 25 1,322   913      777      410      384      243      218      273      278      677      711      1,010   1,051   871      912      528      454      439      495      408      374      908      1,000   1,714   1,787   1,142   1,202   403      360      174      160      160      2 26 283      234      254      223      228      195      195      182      144      201      202      69       49       149      177      151      151      139      388      341      320      522      549      859      890      644      692      382      374      162      144      132      2 27 279      361      349      361      349      361      363      352      434      430      449      450      339      349      339      350      178      145      58       36       37       36       458      503      315      331      78       63       28       26       26       2 28 205      84       510      484      491      431      435      440      428      460      448      588      607      482      500      452      459      201      181      56       26       20       18       258      284      94       83       28       24       33       35       35       2 29 321      271      297      259      264      288      305      281      267      285      277      293      295      270      287      298      313      192      86       41       29       21       18       566      625      490      533      153      131      42       34       20       2 30 43       274      359      265      264      256      259      346      359      460      458      582      598      492      514      403      390      213      93       41       28       20       17       418      461      229      229      42       30       33       35       40       2 31 99       11       344      204      178      370      402      766      792      681      661      438      438      123      49       46       33       30       29       19       16       509      562      431      468      87       62       41       40       38       2 32 236      313      371      124      101      97       100      100      295      431      422      505      516      434      456      360      352      320      31       37       27       24       466      513      426      468      129      109      49       45       61       2 33 448      367      398      230      220      218      227      244      241      323      323      442      458      97       47       555      705      188      117      46       28       20       18       396      437      59       21       25       26       33       36       35       2 34 323      400      297      292      303      200      182      182      153      152      337      333      359      330      336      159      128      45       24       57       63       392      428      345      376      115      101      33       27       58       2 35 165      316      268      228      232      207      209      196      186      277      280      314      318      340      371      296      290      344      6,207   4,146   3,534   2,670   1,788   4,015   4,330   2,454   2,523   392      254      37       14       58       2 36 122      160      189      158      161      179      191      243      248      158      139      155      157      200      223      220      228      161      30       254      263      44       22       21       2 37 158      161      179      191      243      248      158      139      155      157      200      223      254      254      263      44       22       21       2 38 8         260      230      235      200      199      228      228      308      308      386      396      319      333      286      287      241      354      366      51       18       17       2 39 230      235      200      199      228      228      308      308      386      396      319      333      354      354      366      51       18       17       2 40 300      478      624      424      418      251      220      389      416      881      918      1,166   1,199   791      790      463      400      291      28       165      171      48       37       36       Consumption (KWh)77  Load AnalysisMonthly Calendarized Consumption for Selected LEED Buildings-Building # 3Consumption is in KWhBuilding No Suite No 07-4 07-5 07-6 07-7 07-8 07-9 07-10 07-11 07-12 08-1 08-2 08-3 08-4 08-5 08-6 08-7 08-8 08-9 08-10 08-113 1 665             719             396             267             239             225             1,144          1,238          1,597          1,645          1,170          1,188          456             291             219             217             231             226             472             512             3 2 1,053          1,125          687             605             610             729             393             329             518             544             400             409             371             377             362             373             337             318             342             334             3 3 805             860             325             105             129             135             251             256             264             1,315          770             733             552             529             268             238             214             202             578             646             3 4 554             591             518             47               57               188             892             963             1,596          1,685          1,001          972             655             602             329             299             169             134             679             783             3 5 584             625             337             180             89               525             543             526             758             790             459             17               22               3 6 969             1,010          208             172             351             399             852             888             217             114             880             1,613          683             453             618             668             988             1,030          1,051          1,014          3 7 464             496             480             309             111             107             423             454             924             991             641             636             301             230             78               16               149             175             337             363             3 8 578             618             598             378             122             116             659             715             1,174          1,238          898             915             580             520             159             109             185             196             610             684             3 9 715             764             739             394             238             422             1,047          1,101          983             960             754             782             428             357             106             72               161             177             599             676             3 10 871             932             200             20               20               20               156             171             604             668             634             680             309             229             110             95               85               80               419             483             3 11 438             468             453             416             361             349             770             804             1,063          1,097          821             843             640             616             112             39               39               211             254             250             3 12 622             672             346             224             193             179             510             540             549             548             489             519             348             318             188             175             422             466             463             444             3 13 562             601             303             241             240             234             532             557             651             663             331             304             305             317             279             284             258             243             256             249             3 14 795             850             742             16               16               17               277             305             312             312             289             309             267             268             249             255             301             301             306             295             3 15 452             483             468             252             85               86               507             550             881             927             597             592             138             30               734             870             425             308             314             303             3 16 729             779             584             195             195             190             1,076          1,167          1,175          1,170          1,186          1,283          855             784             539             522             571             564             957             1,013          3 17 633             677             655             662             646             625             646             625             964             1,012          526             491             435             286             175             164             148             140             278             299             3 18 389             420             199             122             122             120             373             396             770             824             666             694             411             357             266             263             316             318             580             620             3 19 268             286             435             436             289             279             980             1,048          1,349          1,388          1,128          1,177          683             588             542             15               459             444             1,016          1,113          3 20 515             551             533             425             283             42               1,113          1,230          1,440          1,466          931             920             530             454             304             292             355             358             843             925             3 21 516             551             409             124             124             120             466             500             702             730             526             535             314             272             155             143             149             145             678             779             3 22 515             551             460             229             229             223             352             358             599             633             430             432             313             296             268             275             249             235             313             320             3 23 424             454             439             266             45               43               65               62               443             500             466             498             300             263             189             185             206             204             512             565             3 24 516             551             389             357             357             345             539             547             710             731             636             672             477             448             405             414             353             327             301             172             3 25 866             925             353             385             373             11               392             434             668             700             491             497             387             375             254             246             287             287             626             683             3 26 503             538             520             340             129             125             148             146             277             296             173             167             76               56               44               44               44               295             641             673             3 27 641             694             422             299             299             290             299             290             670             725             485             486             264             219             278             298             201             172             262             273             3 28 520             555             537             348             126             126             403             429             313             294             400             449             222             174             168             174             285             301             377             380             3 29 799             854             307             95               11               339             187             177             296             337             99               66               198             222             503             550             3 30 822             879             850             454             9                 142             984             1,073          1,321          1,353          978             996             594             519             163             115             178             187             719             818             3 31 731             781             189             43               43               44               933             1,030          881             854             317             257             91               53               38               37               108             120             212             225             3 32 527             563             545             458             345             334             683             709             954             987             687             695             363             296             157             142             179             173             494             551             3 33 796             831             232             239             210             195             1,428          1,558          1,937          1,985          837             721             371             299             186             176             176             109             394             445             3 34 315             337             148             140             126             77               333             359             860             933             530             509             305             266             245             253             290             281             323             321             3 35 668             714             691             406             1,167          1,130          1,167          1,130          -              1,424          572             473             310             282             230             231             246             241             494             534             3 36 714             741             73               75               34               21               595             658             821             993             315             232             226             233             226             234             204             190             384             415             3 37 412             447             296             218             219             219             388             398             614             644             540             567             303             248             127             114             184             195             707             802             3 38 373             399             168             61               67               112             298             315             348             1,012          409             345             189             158             160             166             173             169             173             168             3 39 760             813             181             143             108             109             1,326          1,458          1,666          1,690          1,387          1,449          680             515             322             304             474             498             917             981                78  Load AnalysisMonthly Calendarized Consumption for Selected LEED Buildings-Building # 4Consumption is in KWhBuilding NoSuite No 07-1 07-2 07-3 07-4 07-5 07-6 07-7 07-8 07-9 07-10 07-11 07-12 08-1 08-2 08-3 08-4 08-5 08-6 08-7 08-8 08-9 08-10 08-11 08-12 09-1 09-2 09-34 1 411        412        466        345        340        278        275        331        336        309        286        335        343        321        343        337        350        327        137        249        261        322        324        545        562        571        624        4 2 414        261        261        136        122        181        204        189        179        298        326        641        700        350        306        162        125        140        149        142        136        242        258        512        548        534        596        4 3 909        668        703        519        510        530        557        592        584        677        680        706        707        605        634        494        472        474        493        484        466        536        531        811        850        655        710        4 4 677        558        603        396        380        185        144        227        244        439        488        692        728        509        505        379        356        185        159        261        276        446        469        682        711        532        574        4 5 155        243        294        129        109        119        126        253        280        196        159        164        163        147        157        270        279        267        275        253        240        424        452        902        966        639        677        4 6 1,759     1,058     1,044     723        701        489        456        239        535        870        948        974        973        913        977        694        638        -        43          491        278        300        293        451        473        404        444        4 7 420        441        503        353        330        257        249        247        239        460        517        534        972        882        943        775        370        310        348        346        334        436        443        759        803        583        626        4 8 515        327        328        276        279        220        215        241        242        296        302        396        412        349        365        248        222        222        231        228        220        262        262        444        470        373        406        4 9 185        161        177        153        155        170        181        159        148        167        166        180        182        165        176        154        153        152        158        155        150        168        166        201        205        170        186        4 10 210        219        249        206        207        154        147        134        128        105        92          83          81          69          72          52          48          47          49          49          48          46          43          55          56          90          106        4 11 126        65          60          44          44          41          42          66          70          73          284        316        223        133        126        253        302        126        96          98          96          358        407        811        869        719        788        4 12 376        303        327        260        260        236        240        219        207        222        215        288        301        375        422        226        176        77          60          81          83          179        195        393        422        324        351        4 13 355        196        187        129        125        104        103        107        105        220        250        119        93          59          57          52          53          51          69          174        182        173        164        169        655        405        382        4 14 267        162        160        153        157        139        140        151        150        245        267        291        294        196        192        151        144        125        127        132        129        159        160        153        151        232        270        4 15 388        672        822        530        506        276        231        244        240        235        223        448        489        393        365        371        388        292        285        243        226        397        423        701        740        537        577        4 16 530        460        505        430        435        475        505        474        450        477        465        513        519        471        500        486        502        506        527        474        447        537        537        525        520        435        477        4 17 813        603        636        532        536        504        76          324        384        442        443        679        721        488        480        356        334        296        173        284        301        335        330        716        772        533        568        4 18 256        261        295        267        273        229        228        193        178        272        292        376        391        282        283        270        276        226        225        284        288        345        345        370        371        354        394        4 19 387        338        372        396        415        392        402        383        365        404        399        477        489        470        504        420        405        405        421        434        422        596        598        786        793        619        655        4 20 586        559        625        437        425        306        290        301        295        487        533        826        879        658        667        453        407        305        297        282        269        351        356        593        626        509        556        4 21 292        226        240        128        115        73          66          75          76          166        190        269        283        210        212        130        110        65          59          97          102        206        223        322        336        284        312        4 22 519        503        565        454        455        375        371        266        227        121        74          112        248        186        189        161        160        140        40          102        298        354        354        379        381        322        354        4 23 299        259        284        258        264        244        250        262        258        311        317        366        374        297        305        269        270        242        246        239        229        243        237        319        330        324        363        4 24 632        459        480        354        348        280        275        302        301        383        395        487        502        417        434        401        408        367        374        358        343        410        409        563        583        455        494        4 25 657        479        502        460        471        401        401        401        345        330        408        593        626        464        469        332        304        154        131        120        113        384        434        542        555        477        525        4 26 404        360        396        287        281        268        276        195        166        162        153        270        292        116        89          75          75          88          95          73          65          54          49          64          66          63          160        4 27 590        288        260        345        372        195        159        269        291        380        395        365        357        422        471        442        60          59          61          146        161        168        163        147        144        148        167        4 28 273        214        229        214        219        178        175        237        248        306        313        443        467        341        343        254        237        251        264        202        180        237        242        270        273        176        185        4 29 924        612        624        583        599        579        39          188        375        427        435        379        399        331        325        228        218        241        239        392        413        501        512        402        437        4 30 361        285        309        234        240        188        183        275        292        349        354        487        510        381        382        220        222        140        130        177        182        285        298        356        363        326        361        4 31 376        343        381        215        198        111        89          310        364        595        649        514        374        120        249        229        233        225        232        232        224        475        517        448        154        254        296        4 32 326        301        335        231        224        203        206        206        177        180        183        148        140        144        157        144        139        134        138        76          58          103        110        112        111        143        166        4 33 186        216        251        49          75          174        196        195        227        232        191        199        194        201        117        205        197        189        218        216        286        295        283        316        4 34 368        320        365        282        280        186        170        189        188        243        252        343        360        278        281        209        222        176        174        201        201        230        228        252        254        238        265        4 35 381        340        375        344        352        341        346        141        95          127        132        189        200        158        162        106        94          57          53          125        138        148        144        209        218        167        182        Consumption (KWh)79  Load AnalysisMonthly Calendarized Consumption for Selected LEED Buildings-Building # 5Consumption is in KWhBuilding NoSuite No 07-1 07-2 07-3 07-4 07-5 07-6 07-7 07-8 07-9 07-10 07-11 07-12 08-1 08-2 08-3 08-4 08-5 08-6 08-7 08-8 08-9 08-10 08-11 08-12 09-1 09-2 09-35 1 10          286        317        269        272        170        83          27          834        834        524        503        155        55          86          156        131        121        145        144        167        164        5 2 917        641        649        355        324        233        221        240        239        553        638        789        814        635        650        418        365        320        324        377        377        626        661        1,087     1,147     892        969        5 3 992        952        1,066     805        795        663        658        739        740        853        855        853        848        734        772        614        592        489        489        493        478        750        785        690        672        456        485        5 4 839        648        691        603        613        535        539        538        520        504        477        458        458        421        285        311        211        236        243        208        193        256        261        503        537        513        572        5 5 1,211     966        1,039     736        717        527        502        562        562        949        1,043     1,553     1,644     1,264     1,290     897        815        532        496        385        347        652        700        1,397     1,497     1,096     1,180     5 6 107        83          88          85          309        375        361        315        294        433        462        609        635        561        592        425        393        367        377        404        397        467        465        882        941        683        735        5 7 554        463        503        416        419        337        330        355        350        407        409        532        554        465        486        471        487        459        96          96          92          95          399        548        533        427        465        5 8 191        112        108        94          95          99          104        92          86          136        147        277        301        222        225        156        141        106        103        100        96          80          73          330        367        201        206        5 9 156        221        264        196        193        229        280        324        326        376        378        427        434        444        484        468        118        254        291        303        297        478        502        676        699        549        598        5 10 249        244        274        235        238        217        221        227        223        251        249        264        266        229        240        225        231        121        104        182        194        238        239        244        244        212        233        5 11 327        298        329        280        283        216        208        241        244        259        253        253        252        292        325        260        252        276        292        303        296        288        274        274        273        324        369        5 12 727        524        548        387        377        262        244        351        371        441        447        610        638        553        582        447        425        358        359        338        322        350        342        561        592        765        878        5 13 350        320        355        323        331        291        293        281        269        364        382        358        351        320        340        309        313        286        292        323        320        340        331        352        353        285        311        5 14 680        327        292        200        194        187        194        198        195        327        358        544        578        267        225        175        166        165        172        187        185        219        218        392        417        257        269        5 15 540        452        491        211        180        286        325        325        136        338        441        674        717        639        675        576        584        446        437        400        378        582        593        813        824        722        796        5 16 34          111        142        54          42          75          86          168        185        191        185        366        399        595        685        245        122        93          91          70          63          113        121        667        748        309        293        5 17 780        674        739        598        599        494        489        418        386        615        667        778        795        822        897        756        745        526        503        523        511        756        785        1,356     1,437     1,079     1,166     5 18 716        521        546        333        313        229        217        259        263        425        462        668        705        561        578        396        357        235        220        228        223        441        476        857        911        745        815        5 19 895        633        658        480        471        387        382        424        425        700        766        1,075     1,130     950        992        689        626        325        278        264        252        110        72          567        640        245        227        5 20 643        557        610        527        534        516        313        249        248        294        298        361        371        319        334        284        292        315        333        327        315        342        335        496        507        366        389        5 21 242        251        285        195        198        333        344        370        367        572        619        794        824        769        822        662        642        339        292        242        223        215        204        444        478        476        533        5 22 376        348        388        359        369        318        319        278        257        271        263        305        312        221        221        103        71          112        125        138        136        242        257        406        426        375        414        5 23 613        465        493        371        366        373        390        351        329        383        385        444        453        372        386        309        299        106        72          65          61          49          44          117        412        329        358        5 24 396        300        319        299        308        263        263        271        265        275        267        310        316        290        309        213        193        224        411        333        304        310        299        564        602        459        497        5 25 505        372        392        320        321        314        326        342        336        383        383        483        500        391        401        318        306        283        290        292        337        322        305        258        250        263        297        5 26 1,143     894        957        365        246        238        206        297        323        512        555        732        762        563        562        399        431        383        389        422        417        700        722        1,181     1,246     883        920        5 27 1,685     1,484     1,634     954        847        314        197        236        240        508        579        650        660        470        420        285        58          368        409        466        461        802        850        657        713        5 28 308        569        700        130        47          257        320        371        375        351        327        362        367        300        311        358        387        329        331        300        283        375        382        413        415        336        367        5 29 445        289        291        187        179        148        147        170        172        298        329        418        433        253        237        196        191        178        183        173        165        189        187        376        402        279        298        5 30 756        622        675        582        590        531        539        385        235        380        414        513        530        441        459        354        337        253        247        272        269        366        374        120        80          35          34          5 31 379        290        308        237        235        222        228        221        212        298        315        359        366        300        311        271        270        234        236        214        202        397        428        427        424        308        331        5 32 333        303        336        319        329        309        317        310        299        396        413        336        319        338        371        291        279        239        237        138        133        120        112        183        193        140        151        5 33 400        326        352        287        288        265        270        298        298        391        407        550        575        519        550        430        412        326        322        442        456        504        496        656        677        577        634        5 34 371        266        295        272        207        200        207        260        267        503        564        737        767        625        647        499        476        287        236        240        267        311        309        438        456        341        368        5 35 369        334        369        302        311        279        283        315        316        347        343        332        328        288        304        234        223        259        277        283        275        311        307        414        428        288        306        5 36 341        251        264        249        256        224        225        226        221        436        491        589        605        333        304        264        263        245        251        193        174        322        345        583        616        485        528        5 37 350        281        303        184        173        77          56          54          52          47          43          362        423        392        419        341        330        261        258        299        300        402        410        604        631        487        528        5 38 653        552        602        499        502        446        451        498        498        588        594        742        767        615        635        512        496        418        419        466        462        540        537        752        782        582        628        5 39 1,086     981        1,144     484        396        295        283        283        9            44          339        339        751        899        505        407        244        222        232        227        568        627        1,263     1,354     912        968        5 40 369        323        354        303        307        319        336        268        241        291        296        314        315        276        291        334        360        333        342        291        270        312        310        362        368        298        326        5 41 432        330        350        312        318        307        317        332        327        402        411        660        706        431        410        371        375        343        350        355        344        421        422        763        811        591        635        5 42 514        478        532        448        452        358        349        330        316        361        361        436        448        414        441        314        289        275        284        470        498        611        613        608        605        622        699        5 43 342        332        373        219        204        140        131        134        219        306        323        403        417        274        268        371        419        284        268        178        36          36          34          240        270        310        295        5 44 377        399        456        337        331        321        330        325        313        408        423        554        577        438        446        326        304        235        230        110        84          87          238        390        376        336        372        5 45 41          53          62          280        323        325        339        344        335        361        354        368        368        349        374        265        243        277        295        357        360        354        339        501        524        351        372        5 46 475        286        282        145        129        186        208        319        342        888        1,039     995        980        608        582        368        318        265        265        272        265        514        553        415        392        203        204        5 47 880        646        692        481        467        415        419        448        443        572        592        681        695        582        607        529        528        438        438        425        408        546        557        606        611        572        636        Consumption (KWh) 80  Load AnalysisMonthly Calendarized Consumption for Selected LEED Buildings-Building # 6Consumption is in KWhBuilding No Suite No 07-1 07-2 07-3 07-4 07-5 07-6 07-7 07-8 07-9 07-10 07-11 07-12 08-1 08-2 08-3 08-4 08-5 08-6 08-7 08-8 08-9 08-10 08-11 08-126 1 1,103       845         907         357         309         115         81           131         139         897         976         1,832       1,955       678         528         120         24           172         202         282         288         500         521         1,452       6 2 516         735         863         610         605         358         323         399         405         1,103       1,166       1,013       984         647         645         645         671         420         397         354         335         575         599         397         6 3 54           281         570         110         62           58           60           56           53           35           31           32           1,027       1,341       1,413       473         414         449         472         375         345         369         359         1,090       6 4 144         97           100         69           68           124         140         131         125         61           50           62           64           156         183         150         148         140         145         149         145         521         574         498         6 5 1,085       208         87           114         122         75           69           120         129         554         597         854         889         597         598         305         243         132         121         184         190         314         326         173         6 6 848         605         640         620         640         132         64           64           163         720         756         1,395       1,487       1,081       1,103       361         190         152         153         171         169         196         194         203         6 7 208         134         138         93           92           91           95           88           85           84           81           100         103         86           91           96           101         94           96           98           95           99           96           195         6 8 1,083       933         1,025       709         700         504         486         465         347         873         919         589         536         493         525         302         258         127         112         275         297         454         467         956         6 9 1,547       861         854         663         666         295         233         233         126         205         216         198         194         345         1,881       605         311         144         124         263         280         473         492         652         6 10 518         364         383         321         326         163         137         266         288         541         559         973         1,032       579         554         319         272         231         234         247         241         311         312         489         6 11 2,874       1,307       1,208       756         733         396         345         262         236         418         429         2,177       2,434       2,472       2,676       1,475       1,236       294         161         127         117         206         216         668         6 12 26           24           26           38           40           84           96           83           79           57           51           42           40           163         196         198         206         65           46           231         258         283         277         576         6 13 143         261         312         321         334         200         182         178         171         266         270         822         902         490         463         284         251         176         172         184         180         227         227         461         6 14 1,226       1,006       1,095       252         167         273         305         353         353         705         731         778         781         822         894         456         365         215         200         256         259         819         895         751         6 15 1,252       941         1,006       393         339         360         378         357         340         951         1,006       1,984       2,124       1,270       1,196       652         690         173         101         170         177         1,103       1,239       2,435       6 16 118         135         153         96           93           110         118         113         109         99           94           76           73           208         246         226         230         236         247         214         201         280         285         186         6 17 436         391         431         399         410         313         306         298         286         429         435         453         453         409         435         385         387         385         400         411         400         419         406         642         6 18 2,428       1,226       1,178       450         385         356         365         421         420         867         901         1,866       2,005       1,346       1,348       704         572         407         397         388         374         611         634         1,992       6 19 637         626         702         560         564         260         209         472         519         571         558         328         291         303         329         358         379         378         393         533         541         421         382         361         6 20 706         540         579         399         394         317         314         298         285         469         479         977         1,048       787         809         454         384         185         162         171         168         277         288         1,152       6 21 2,034       1,630       1,765       784         704         638         650         791         801         1,817       1,901       2,407       2,473       1,730       1,750       1,026       886         716         718         664         632         1,244       1,314       1,911       6 22 213         85           73           97           103         156         173         140         129         88           79           78           78           75           80           81           83           102         109         96           90           86           82           80           6 23 536         714         816         286         296         265         270         436         460         687         695         358         305         421         473         368         357         358         372         374         362         422         417         781         6 24 465         245         239         382         412         328         324         424         435         667         676         655         649         132         60           416         522         387         382         348         330         465         473         253         6 25 386         236         239         201         204         191         197         196         192         350         361         1,100       1,208       598         548         318         274         205         202         218         214         407         428         756         6 26 1,632       1,102       1,151       507         454         306         290         317         307         976         1,004       697         800         355         312         554         42           216         252         247         239         779         853         1,557       6 27 1,257       936         999         727         724         435         395         369         352         748         779         1,064       1,103       891         929         651         608         411         397         407         396         727         762         1,042       6 28 417         305         323         258         260         249         257         292         292         508         521         852         899         504         481         392         386         287         283         257         244         350         357         637         6 29 138         231         276         240         245         234         186         438         483         1,036       1,080       1,752       1,846       994         938         674         637         504         143         178         147         62           43           174         6 30 2,916       2,157       2,300       1,229       1,156       832         801         963         970         1,889       1,955       3,164       3,334       2,178       2,167       1,235       1,053       739         719         757         740         1,466       1,550       3,065       6 31 705         586         639         463         468         474         495         503         489         813         831         55           705         1,524       1,016       573         486         247         220         180         167         723         802         1,295       6 32 730         581         628         284         256         171         161         232         243         554         579         731         751         675         717         353         277         265         273         207         188         326         340         1,278       6 33 1,276       957         1,024       647         629         434         412         457         453         798         819         1,172       1,221       1,025       1,076       743         690         452         433         517         516         770         789         1,299       6 34 2,242       2,024       2,241       1,257       1,195       556         451         421         19           290         319         516         544         432         449         254         215         87           70           154         165         359         382         522         6 35 1,653       1,037       1,063       625         599         358         324         251         227         234         227         221         219         241         264         215         211         215         225         234         229         228         219         520         6 36 1,643       1,171       1,239       614         567         439         559         536         514         1,160       1,213       1,836       1,923       1,328       1,339       939         878         538         507         517         502         969         1,022       1,083       6 37 1,290       960         1,024       407         354         251         241         285         286         472         482         1,069       1,154       625         591         377         338         273         273         290         284         537         564         606         6 38 722         492         515         232         209         246         263         246         235         374         381         519         538         321         312         213         197         241         257         220         206         303         310         435         6 39 1,568       1,122       1,188       583         538         350         327         399         403         861         897         1,188       1,227       986         1,026       536         435         395         404         391         376         729         769         1,120       6 40 626         611         685         650         307         412         450         535         537         1,087       1,128       1,512       1,564       1,776       1,953       880         327         397         410         159         107         83           75           114         6 41 1,159       737         758         297         256         196         192         213         212         494         517         969         1,033       772         793         402         321         262         263         271         264         530         560         1,199       6 42 600         188         143         138         55           67           79           156         171         339         352         633         673         337         310         196         176         110         104         130         130         283         302         545         6 43 54           49           55           124         136         74           64           270         310         743         780         891         904         763         802         529         481         245         219         245         242         403         418         1,094       Consumption (KWh)  81  Load AnalysisMonthly Calendarized Consumption for Selected LEED Buildings-Building # 7Consumption is in KWhBuilding No Suite No 10-6 10-7 10-8 10-9 10-10 10-11 10-12 11-1 11-2 11-3 11-4 11-5 11-6 11-77                         1                         214                     359                     213                     206                     213                     206                     101                     101                     96                       106                     93                       96                       285                     294                     7                         2                         102                     175                     164                     158                     53                       488                     505                     505                     456                     505                     488                     505                     488                     505                     7                         3                         64                       115                     169                     164                     169                     164                     141                     141                     150                     166                     143                     148                     60                       62                       7                         4                         103                     187                     91                       90                       144                     153                     565                     565                     518                     574                     558                     577                     478                     494                     7                         5                         146                     245                     157                     151                     156                     95                       93                       93                       93                       104                     135                     140                     153                     158                     7                         6                         87                       150                     149                     144                     149                     83                       62                       62                       55                       61                       78                       81                       128                     132                     7                         7                         110                     190                     190                     184                     236                     314                     331                     331                     285                     314                     260                     269                     269                     278                     7                         8                         70                       120                     112                     107                     79                       78                       41                       41                       42                       47                       70                       73                       108                     112                     7                         9                         88                       146                     71                       68                       70                       49                       163                     163                     131                     145                     140                     145                     182                     188                     7                         10                       159                     28                       853                     532                     550                     7                         11                       219                     485                     485                     472                     542                     525                     564                     564                     467                     516                     465                     480                     470                     486                     7                         12                       46                       85                       176                     168                     118                     115                     102                     102                     83                       92                       104                     108                     119                     123                     7                         13                       176                     302                     279                     266                     166                     162                     227                     227                     215                     238                     210                     218                     173                     179                     7                         14                       174                     293                     191                     184                     191                     133                     185                     185                     153                     171                     221                     228                     135                     140                     7                         15                       126                     216                     28                       50                       1,492                  1,542                  99                       756                     830                     600                     621                     474                     490                     7                         16                       131                     123                     1,268                  1,268                  -                      7                         17                       59                       147                     185                     37                       127                     257                     459                     459                     335                     373                     408                     422                     386                     399                     7                         18                       168                     289                     283                     270                     169                     164                     169                     169                     158                     175                     149                     154                     145                     150                     7                         19                       147                     250                     216                     203                     211                     204                     261                     261                     177                     196                     186                     193                     241                     250                     7                         20                       275                     91                       256                     246                     219                     211                     311                     311                     240                     266                     239                     247                     306                     316                     7                         21                       151                     253                     152                     147                     152                     92                       111                     111                     99                       109                     83                       86                       124                     129                     7                         22                       213                     352                     145                     140                     145                     102                     433                     433                     449                     495                     417                     431                     547                     566                     7                         23                       259                     424                     106                     103                     106                     68                       86                       86                       285                     316                     314                     325                     302                     313                     7                         24                       273                     462                     356                     345                     356                     384                     364                     364                     413                     456                     392                     406                     481                     498                     7                         25                       308                     419                     419                     411                     606                     586                     1,233                  1,233                  1,141                  1,261                  1,137                  1,175                  964                     996                     7                         26                       288                     471                     111                     107                     110                     339                     294                     294                     422                     459                     199                     206                     214                     222                     7                         27                       166                     285                     271                     262                     271                     230                     341                     341                     358                     399                     470                     486                     531                     549                     7                         28                       39                       75                       183                     177                     183                     188                     176                     176                     166                     183                     164                     170                     109                     113                     7                         29                       143                     331                     331                     326                     493                     477                     629                     629                     476                     523                     410                     424                     443                     458                     7                         30                       95                       163                     167                     162                     167                     151                     79                       79                       73                       82                       125                     130                     160                     166                     7                         31                       36                       61                       53                       51                       52                       58                       78                       78                       68                       76                       101                     104                     143                     148                     7                         32                       95                       163                     166                     160                     165                     98                       86                       86                       75                       82                       69                       71                       63                       65                       7                         33                       105                     180                     161                     154                     123                     120                     89                       89                       100                     114                     195                     202                     190                     196                     7                         34                       111                     183                     61                       59                       61                       51                       138                     138                     125                     141                     198                     205                     164                     169                     7                         35                       4                         20                       216                     209                     216                     113                     173                     173                     162                     180                     175                     181                     198                     205                     7                         36                       171                     33                       487                     380                     368                     423                     423                     281                     312                     292                     645                     645                     666                     7                         37                       99                       164                     69                       66                       68                       70                       74                       74                       104                     117                     167                     173                     102                     106                      82  Load AnalysisMonthly Calendarized Consumption for Selected LEED Buildings-Building # 8Consumption is in KWhBuilding No Suite No 07-9 07-10 07-11 07-12 08-1 08-2 08-3 08-4 08-5 08-6 08-7 08-8 08-9 08-10 08-11 08-12 09-1 09-2 09-3 09-4 09-5 09-6 09-7 09-88 1 462         451         521         499         468         510         430         557         458         824         559         221         518         551         618         599         462         464         483         465         732         733         530         8 2 311         313         352         369         247         202         101         247         344         340         300         470         407         348         351         387         356         356         340         388         353         514         469         8 3 7             233         737         649         534         552         554         505         508         481         665         638         551         401         429         537         587         387         443         432         475         690         688         504         8 4 606         592         690         547         441         415         297         398         373         740         528         454         349         355         644         569         357         341         406         660         684         807         801         8 5 497         812         594         482         393         319         262         402         307         264         332         389         659         692         480         535         336         276         594         745         871         8 6 35           1,076       963         981         940         869         792         1,126       1,427       1,146       946         1,020       970         776         652         469         436         330         246         293         306         325         8 7 2             93           715         791         655         741         506         368         321         266         315         325         416         544         694         678         549         603         417         390         376         173         244         8 8 131         127         74           62           90           447         352         321         322         336         346         258         287         395         486         426         358         346         340         271         292         304         325         8 9 295         305         315         453         426         12           302         251         270         343         440         371         332         332         387         340         390         461         363         422         446         478         586         8 10 300         298         413         239         124         689         579         797         781         1,101       837         619         630         711         931         808         636         627         585         721         1,015       976         994         8 11 360         495         732         527         477         175         163         158         173         237         193         119         365         306         341         168         188         162         171         209         8 12 55           547         517         530         405         372         505         624         607         945         788         721         523         520         636         544         422         452         484         591         784         861         742         8 13 18           285         124         153         153         258         258         208         202         204         312         249         216         329         218         237         425         470         475         8 14 10           325         306         199         137         285         146         73           97           79           424         912         746         695         726         975         908         624         659         597         692         902         994         556         8 15 380         376         500         485         403         71           142         127         117         278         209         165         426         621         819         938         489         548         386         327         390         690         748         8 16 21           637         630         840         751         613         541         537         582         652         628         644         512         661         733         1,003       938         738         710         541         616         727         746         781         8 17 212         206         235         233         192         156         107         132         167         195         199         175         224         189         272         296         235         220         179         280         444         552         494         8 18 168         169         265         216         128         86           319         323         229         242         275         290         351         473         642         624         448         438         348         309         263         299         354         8 19 610         603         811         679         584         518         429         476         467         699         565         438         479         493         468         539         449         451         426         517         590         870         909         8 20 285         279         336         270         74           281         577         581         485         819         696         559         561         675         814         738         586         563         462         481         813         812         871         8 21 551         243         628         525         389         352         281         243         246         204         299         262         327         427         529         509         431         433         320         295         323         285         357         8 22 658         777         674         617         553         541         486         581         621         546         581         649         786         763         692         749         702         645         728         771         672         8 23 360         565         784         698         605         553         459         480         498         713         600         433         423         466         546         478         397         18           534         655         720         870         992         8 24 268         732         382         173         267         553         947         982         961         858         777         854         822         620         691         662         677         904         800         1,066       8 25 463         481         962         872         636         567         529         491         516         691         652         589         443         665         710         633         549         557         434         546         835         867         927         8 26 383         387         459         436         359         382         340         189         148         171         208         276         440         656         458         474         365         354         263         261         334         412         902         8 27 6             202         353         296         192         171         128         127         97           145         218         128         132         149         224         205         152         4             122         143         275         310         241         8 28 27           773         726         634         724         626         978         988         829         625         624         646         832         639         806         695         602         1,022       1,059       911         8 29 205         219         431         303         239         227         189         209         203         338         391         320         367         241         259         205         305         387         439         382         395         482         761         8 30 120         129         314         452         320         303         195         185         221         420         242         168         222         168         410         474         306         299         197         207         248         295         309         8 31 262         272         426         810         682         343         188         141         266         285         156         230         191         299         602         564         454         450         352         195         222         223         264         8 32 4             119         111         52           88           68           144         203         158         228         426         377         264         132         193         562         429         316         358         225         198         296         433         507         8 33 10           314         326         478         551         333         151         191         208         344         107         679         522         817         1,117       1,301       887         739         451         552         961         1,099       1,089       8 34 323         320         291         191         173         117         157         312         360         318         340         195         212         117         177         89           81           91           115         223         506         524         496         8 35 18           550         130         440         330         301         373         295         248         289         419         294         192         317         438         574         460         323         353         205         201         204         149         435         8 36 18           694         733         1,059       1,076       899         805         689         798         715         1,039       957         779         662         823         810         1,063       648         823         773         468         510         489         408          83  Load AnalysisMonthly Calendarized Consumption for Selected LEED Buildings-Building # 9Consumption is in KWhBuilding No Suite No 07-1 07-2 07-3 07-4 07-5 07-6 07-7 07-8 07-9 07-10 07-11 07-12 08-1 08-2 08-3 08-4 08-5 08-6 08-7 08-8 08-9 08-10 08-11 08-12 09-19 1 739         497         513         386         394         383         397         428         423         487         488         824         886         569         552         403         361         352         365         369         359         445         448         814         866         9 2 1,355       1,489       1,712       620         476         340         320         338         332         959         1,619       1,556       1,534       1,524       1,649       1,024       877         542         497         486         468         977         1,060       2,034       2,173       9 3 543         220         177         230         248         275         294         311         307         455         486         651         680         258         191         192         200         273         299         354         355         390         383         488         502         9 4 574         554         539         141         86           132         149         372         425         1,686       2,052       2,833       2,970       2,330       2,391       1,287       1,006       529         455         602         617         1,776       1,984       3,438       3,644       9 5 2,737       2,033       2,145       1,169       1,064       359         198         554         637         1,498       1,733       2,395       2,512       2,044       2,117       1,364       1,193       570         468         623         639         1,660       1,839       3,401       3,624       9 6 2,212       1,500       1,540       665         556         464         460         390         358         468         486         1,277       1,426       953         933         567         480         389         387         350         330         443         453         1,225       1,338       9 7 33           274         362         130         100         106         172         193         171         772         948         797         762         597         613         415         372         292         288         353         357         597         631         606         599         9 8 2,291       1,538       1,574       820         735         592         581         737         758         1,210       1,314       2,207       2,370       1,432       1,356       839         718         625         631         595         568         998         1,062       1,954       2,082       9 9 2,272       955         793         523         501         270         224         254         255         539         614         1,591       1,776       616         426         282         249         225         230         231         224         532         585         1,664       1,821       9 10 1,713       1,166       1,199       825         800         602         578         723         742         1,029       1,084       1,647       1,749       1,281       1,291       881         793         688         695         644         611         817         834         1,427       1,511       9 11 3,906       3,092       3,001       1,707       1,526       574         360         756         828         2,133       2,496       3,241       3,368       2,645       2,703       1,857       1,785       709         522         821         864         2,450       2,733       4,040       4,221       9 Strata 9,770       7,977       8,594       7,250       7,322       6,898       7,080       7,239       7,200       8,249       8,255       9,327       9,480       8,249       8,685       7,421       7,314       6,744       6,900       6,942       6,728       7,142       6,956       8,923       9,180       Consumption (KWh)        84  Monthly Calendarized Consumption for Selected LEED Buildings-Building # 10Consumption is in KWhBuilding No Suite No 07-9 07-10 07-11 07-12 08-1 08-2 08-3 08-4 08-5 08-6 08-7 08-8 08-9 08-10 08-11 08-12 09-1 09-2 09-3 09-4 09-5 09-6 09-7 09-810 1 36              494            333            364            357            507            527            334            351            295            302            281            290            280            10 2 473            777            816            947            968            754            772            606            581            309            267            229            212            628            703            1,148         1,211         859            920            558            551            298            281            259            10 3 291            487            514            681            710            795            879            566            495            267            232            225            312            425            435            515            525            417            455            423            436            306            303            317            10 4 212            399            432            699            748            582            597            380            329            276            277            325            326            448            460            798            846            681            743            422            415            235            224            324            10 5 89              88              78              55              50              47              50              102            122            170            187            247            253            467            499            773            811            728            805            233            201            215            224            242            10 6 17              492            522            445            470            277            250            268            264            485            519            692            715            659            731            369            357            197            187            187            10 7 380            757            799            894            907            556            0                12              12              13              263            313            405            410            420            420            367            404            370            381            379            393            412            10 8 77              1,398         1,206         939            961            790            773            581            566            618            610            772            779            1,191         1,249         992            1,080         812            821            379            344            488            10 9 166            460            263            541            609            460            467            312            277            169            154            155            150            234            245            557            602            457            494            196            181            146            151            167            10 10 113            309            317            369            377            384            418            340            332            261            257            265            258            261            252            349            362            273            295            255            261            257            266            272            10 11 121            490            486            505            506            472            505            299            249            121            101            153            161            315            340            423            433            311            334            215            214            169            171            145            10 12 148            252            27              111            330            456            489            345            315            234            227            297            303            322            314            385            418            489            556            271            260            251            120            225            10 13 50              121            168            237            376            154            94              191            218            35              98              179            173            68              9                10 14 389            467            617            1,080         1,165         654            602            394            347            324            333            339            532            808            843            821            813            735            567            637            724            494            16              240            10 15 227            438            434            1,180         1,321         1,425         1,565         961            819            538            504            451            424            892            968            1,636         1,730         1,217         1,302         626            599            416            411            406            10 16 159            275            275            349            362            303            317            224            205            123            112            145            159            479            464            438            432            380            419            349            356            312            319            335            10 17 302            377            379            632            679            671            726            469            410            193            157            167            164            235            243            232            229            275            314            264            269            255            263            267            10 18 102            281            139            343            274            150            132            130            125            394            443            715            754            446            462            151            134            108            110            146            10 19 254            344            508            640            663            589            623            535            200            190            195            266            274            363            369            609            643            518            565            384            384            226            217            295            10 20 107            387            702            510            427            192            159            117            91              102            108            81              72              151            164            656            728            545            589            343            337            276            280            273            10 21 39              186            226            633            710            656            700            431            368            84              31              89              126            149            149            201            208            193            214            121            119            76              74              104            10 22 554            324            275            181            159            162            169            161            154            195            197            271            281            249            275            201            203            206            214            180            10 23 154            510            519            587            597            564            604            560            31              160            207            211            193            181            423            458            397            437            245            240            126            118            177            10 24 317            314            278            334            343            253            256            234            237            243            254            209            192            199            193            473            513            351            375            261            262            243            250            213            10 25 287            473            497            603            621            137            48              42              42              43              46              108            188            249            254            458            487            459            510            193            177            149            152            172            10 26 292            303            273            313            319            269            281            250            251            128            109            181            192            310            326            315            312            245            267            282            294            248            252            212            10 27 169            374            418            273            243            264            291            228            218            226            237            196            180            205            203            160            153            166            187            108            105            55              51              54              10 28 292            616            707            755            760            779            849            626            586            567            420            273            284            321            317            372            379            284            307            271            278            281            292            268            10 29 428            530            513            530            530            496            530            513            530            513            530            496            288            703            681            752            759            564            608            472            480            448            461            477            10 30 186            185            163            119            110            166            192            143            134            121            328            283            261            306            304            407            421            325            353            316            324            313            129            136            10 31 5                156            161            156            161            161            156            161            156            353            381            429            486            285            281            235            239            203            10 32 101            369            85              234            262            261            283            179            154            137            140            187            192            279            289            218            206            212            238            230            189            181            187            187            10 33 125            279            391            428            433            307            306            175            141            206            228            233            227            291            295            252            244            260            293            217            219            211            180            150            10 34 172            247            335            282            269            94              66              146            175            196            208            198            189            175            165            58              42              40              45              132            143            159            167            173            10 35 178            328            371            355            350            275            282            162            132            82              75              251            284            376            383            332            323            351            397            259            258            326            346            347            10 36 182            139            64              139            153            128            133            118            118            111            114            111            107            136            138            228            240            196            214            178            182            194            202            164            10 37 89              326            475            422            409            259            250            234            239            191            190            189            183            201            197            303            317            158            158            179            186            163            166            202            10 38 205            147            54              22              15              12              13              17              19              17              17              17              17              9                419            721            315            304            182            180            95              89              213            10 39 110            258            249            350            368            281            287            229            220            178            177            172            165            199            200            240            245            252            284            72              60              41              40              40              10 40 182            170            115            532            715            470            458            266            219            210            165            170            166            279            295            591            634            445            476            282            277            265            273            237            10 41 212            154            47              108            119            51              41              38              39              85              98              62              52              44              40              72              76              35              35              42              44              47              49              37              10 42 87              115            171            189            146            143            151            149            201            206            243            248            221            244            184            186            142            143            168            10 43 22              24              730            730            681            729            511            453            368            366            222            181            430            472            579            593            485            530            306            300            180            173            173            10 44 233            290            50              344            400            397            431            337            322            269            270            246            233            287            288            311            313            220            236            192            196            225            237            229            10 45 10              311            187            177            91              68              66              66              211            239            305            308            355            361            318            351            309            317            242            243            261            10 46 617            765            740            815            825            515            493            407            398            355            361            361            349            538            562            810            844            649            703            486            488            472            419            195            10 47 256            450            480            535            542            438            453            396            396            397            414            392            375            450            450            588            607            486            530            374            376            437            460            408            10 48 414            570            571            662            676            586            616            507            495            489            507            492            473            575            577            674            686            561            614            525            537            493            506            502            10 49 372            647            688            780            793            703            743            526            483            420            424            416            401            468            465            598            616            476            516            499            216            28              67              206            10 50 495            675            673            773            788            673            706            615            613            576            592            586            566            634            625            853            884            713            779            577            583            486            493            519            10 51 8                234            154            162            64              59              56              58              107            10 52 298            414            416            580            609            481            494            278            224            109            90              55              45              136            153            112            105            256            662            557            569            874            940            799            10 53 345            464            461            453            448            334            338            300            301            298            309            284            269            285            278            322            327            231            247            268            279            261            269            242            10 54 11              346            335            322            318            202            195            199            209            201            207            232            230            294            297            491            518            467            517            442            452            392            400            406            10 55 35              120            188            210            214            240            265            239            241            232            182            216            217            355            374            520            540            327            341            236            237            212            217            165            10 56 394            384            386            442            451            373            388            325            318            315            327            337            329            335            323            434            449            358            390            327            334            335            347            328            10 57 64              126            131            187            197            186            199            169            166            150            153            161            157            167            163            180            181            159            176            158            162            144            148            140            10 58 41              177            431            566            590            502            526            345            305            227            220            211            203            360            383            395            395            380            425            98              78              75              78              175             FortisBC  Commercial  & Industrial Marketing 16705 Fraser Highway,  Surrey,  B.C.    V4N 0E8 E-mail: commercial.energy@fortisbc.com  Natural Gas Consumption History  Customer: Premise 1       Service Address:     Billing Date Days Cons'n (GJ) Appr. Cost       04-Nov-11 29 44.1         Customer Number: 0 Premise Number: 0  06-Oct-11 30 43.0              06-Sep-11 32 32.3              05-Aug-11 29 32.6         Current Rate: #N/A Service Area: Coastal  07-Jul-11 31 42.9              06-Jun-11 32 48.5              05-May-11 30 49.1         Annual Cons'n: 579.6 GJ  /  365 Days        05-Apr-11 29 44.6         Daily Peak:  3 GJ      07-Mar-11 31 70.1              04-Feb-11 29 38.5         Notes:     06-Jan-11 31 69.4         Approx. Costs (if shown) are based on current Rate in effect at Billing Date. Costs may vary 06-Dec-10 32 64.5         due to billing period crossovers and other factors. Costs include Basic Monthly Charge. 04-Nov-10 30 39.2              05-Oct-10 32 48.5         We believe this data to be correct and accurate, however FortisBC assumes no  03-Sep-10 29 31.9         liability for errors or omissions. Actual billing data shall prevail.   05-Aug-10 30 29.8              06-Jul-10 32 38.4                04-Jun-10 30 43.6              05-May-10 29 49.9              06-Apr-10 32 59.1              05-Mar-10 29 54.6              04-Feb-10 29 56.6              06-Jan-10 30 49.2              07-Dec-09 33 62.0              04-Nov-09 30 51.1              05-Oct-09 32 44.8              03-Sep-09 29 27.5              05-Aug-09 30 31.9             06-Jul-09 32 47.5              04-Jun-09 30 57.5              05-May-09 32 63.5              03-Apr-09 29 69.2         0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 Mar-07 Jun-07 Sep-07 Dec-07 Mar-08 Jun-08 Oct-08 Jan-09 Apr-09 Jul-09 Oct-09 Jan-10 Apr-10 Jul-10 Oct-10 Jan-11 Apr-11 Jul-11 Oct-11 Approximate Daily Consumption (GJ) Consumption Month (may differ from Billing Month) Consumption Profile  FortisBC     09-Mar-11 28 148.7              09-Feb-11 30 146.3                 10-Jan-11 33 167.6               08-Dec-10 30 164.7                  08-Nov-10 32 105.9               07-Oct-10 29 87.6              08-Sep-10 30 86.9           09-Aug-10 32 70.7              08-Jul-10 29 115.9           09-Jun-10 33 110.3              07-May-10 29 116.1         Notes:     08-Apr-10 30 140.3         Approx. Costs (if shown) are based on current Rate in effect at Billing Date. Costs may vary 09-Mar-10 29 123.4         due to billing period crossovers and other factors. Costs include Basic Monthly Charge. 08-Feb-10 28 131.7              11-Jan-10 34 172.1         We believe this data to be correct and accurate, however FortisBC assumes no  08-Dec-09 29 144.3         liability for errors or omissions. Actual billing data shall prevail.   09-Nov-09 33 140.6              07-Oct-09 29 96.8              08-Sep-09 32 91.6              07-Aug-09 30 82.6              08-Jul-09 30 89.2              08-Jun-09 32 252.3              07-May-09 30 5.6                07-Apr-09 29 136.9              09-Mar-09 31 141.8              06-Feb-09 28 138.8              09-Jan-09 32 161.8              08-Dec-08 28 116.6              10-Nov-08 32 120.0             09-Oct-08 30 75.8              09-Sep-08 62 186.9              09-Jul-08 30 98.0              09-Jun-08 32 136.3              08-May-08 29 116.8              09-Apr-08 33 163.9              07-Mar-08 29 141.2              07-Feb-08 29 143.6              09-Jan-08 30 165.3              10-Dec-07 32 146.3                                                                                                                             0.0 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 6.0 7.0 8.0 9.0 May-07 Oct-07 Feb-08 May-08 Sep-08 Jan-09 Apr-09 Jul-09 Oct-09 Feb-10 May-10 Aug-10 Nov-10 Mar-11 Jun-11 Oct-11 Approximate Daily Consumption (GJ) Consumption Month (may differ from Billing Month) Consumption Profile 87     FortisBC  Commercial  & Industrial Marketing 16705 Fraser Highway,  Surrey,  B.C.    V4N 0E8 E-mail: commercial.energy@fortisbc.com       28-Oct-11 29 328.2         Customer Number: 0 Premise Number: 0  29-Sep-11 31 276.6              29-Aug-11 31 274.2              29-Jul-11 31 290.2         Current Rate: #N/A Service Area: Coastal  28-Jun-11 29 304.5              30-May-11 31 372.9              29-Apr-11 31 453.1         Annual Cons'n: 4,801.5 GJ  /  365 Days        29-Mar-11 29 488.3         Daily Peak:  24 GJ      28-Feb-11 31 591.9              28-Jan-11 29 528.7           30-Dec-10 31 466.9              29-Nov-10 32 426.0         Notes:     28-Oct-10 30 236.3         Approx. Costs (if shown) are based on current Rate in effect at Billing Date. Costs may vary 28-Sep-10 32 211.5         due to billing period crossovers and other factors. Costs include Basic Monthly Charge. 27-Aug-10 29 185.8              29-Jul-10 31 234.4         We believe this data to be correct and accurate, however FortisBC assumes no  28-Jun-10 31 259.5         liability for errors or omissions. Actual billing data shall prevail.   28-May-10 30 297.2              28-Apr-10 29 409.7              30-Mar-10 29 473.7              01-Mar-10 32 529.1              28-Jan-10 24 422.3              04-Jan-10 4 323.5                31-Dec-09 34 861.0              27-Nov-09 30 508.6              28-Oct-09 30 257.2              28-Sep-09 32 188.4              27-Aug-09 29 159.7              29-Jul-09 33 204.7              26-Jun-09 29 256.8             28-May-09 29 377.0              29-Apr-09 30 559.8              30-Mar-09 32 582.4              26-Feb-09 29 726.4              28-Jan-09 28 897.0              31-Dec-08 33 980.0              28-Nov-08 30 420.9              29-Oct-08 30 346.4              29-Sep-08 32 292.3              28-Aug-08 30 255.8               0.0 5.0 10.0 15.0 20.0 25.0 30.0 35.0 40.0 45.0 Apr-07 Jul-07 Oct-07 Jan-08 Apr-08 Jul-08 Oct-08 Jan-09 Apr-09 Jul-09 Oct-09 Jan-10 Apr-10 Jul-10 Oct-10 Jan-11 Apr-11 Jul-11 Oct-11 Approximate Daily Consumption (GJ) Consumption Month (may differ from Billing Month) Consumption Profile 88                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  0.0 0.1 0.1 0.2 0.2 0.3 0.3 Oct-07 Jan-08 Apr-08 Aug-08 Nov-08 Apr-09 Jul-09 Oct-09 Feb-10 May-10 Aug-10 Dec-10 Apr-11 Jul-11 Oct-11 Approximate Daily Consumption (GJ) Consumption Month (may differ from Billing Month) Consumption Profile 89                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                0.0 2.0 4.0 6.0 8.0 10.0 12.0 Mar-07 Jun-07 Sep-07 Dec-07 Mar-08 Jun-08 Oct-08 Jan-09 Apr-09 Jul-09 Oct-09 Jan-10 Apr-10 Jul-10 Oct-10 Jan-11 Apr-11 Jul-11 Oct-11 Approximate Daily Consumption (GJ) Consumption Month (may differ from Billing Month) Consumption Profile 90                                                                                                                                                                   0.0 2.0 4.0 6.0 8.0 10.0 12.0 14.0 16.0 18.0 20.0 Apr-07 Jul-07 Oct-07 Jan-08 Apr-08 Jul-08 Oct-08 Jan-09 Apr-09 Jul-09 Oct-09 Jan-10 Apr-10 Jul-10 Oct-10 Jan-11 Apr-11 Jul-11 Oct-11 Approximate Daily Consumption (GJ) Consumption Month (may differ from Billing Month) Consumption Profile 91   0.0 2.0 4.0 6.0 8.0 10.0 12.0 Apr-07 Jul-07 Oct-07 Jan-08 Apr-08 Jul-08 Oct-08 Jan-09 Apr-09 Jul-09 Oct-09 Jan-10 Apr-10 Jul-10 Oct-10 Jan-11 Apr-11 Jul-11 Oct-11 Approximate Daily Consumption (GJ) Consumption Month (may differ from Billing Month) Consumption Profile 92  0.0 2.0 4.0 6.0 8.0 10.0 12.0 14.0 Apr-07 Jul-07 Oct-07 Jan-08 Apr-08 Jul-08 Oct-08 Jan-09 Apr-09 Jul-09 Oct-09 Jan-10 Apr-10 Jul-10 Oct-10 Jan-11 Apr-11 Jul-11 Oct-11 Approximate Daily Consumption (GJ) Consumption Month (may differ from Billing Month) Consumption Profile 93  0.0 2.0 4.0 6.0 8.0 10.0 12.0 Jun-07 Sep-07 Dec-07 Mar-08 Jun-08 Oct-08 Jan-09 Apr-09 Jul-09 Oct-09 Jan-10 Apr-10 Jul-10 Oct-10 Jan-11 Apr-11 Jul-11 Oct-11 Approximate Daily Consumption (GJ) Consumption Month (may differ from Billing Month) Consumption Profile 94   0.0 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.2 0.2 0.2 Nov-09 Mar-10 Jul-10 Nov-10 Apr-11 Jul-11 Oct-11 Approximate Daily Consumption (GJ) Consumption Month (may differ from Billing Month) Consumption Profile 

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