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An investigation into the comparative performance of biodiesel against petroleum-derived diesel by analyzing… Yew, Khai Siang; Koo, Teng Jian; Tham, Wei Heng Mar 29, 2012

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UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report         An investigation into the comparative performance of biodiesel against petroleum-derived diesel by analyzing their environmental, economic and social impacts  Khai Siang Yew  Teng Jian Koo  Wei Heng Tham University of British Columbia APSC 262 March 29, 2012          Disclaimer: “UBC SEEDS provides students with the opportunity to share the findings of their studies, as well as their opinions, conclusions and recommendations with the UBC community. The reader should bear in mind that this is a student project/report and is not an official document of UBC. Furthermore readers should bear in mind that these reports may not reflect the current status of activities at UBC. We urge you to contact the research persons mentioned in a report or the SEEDS Coordinator about the current status of the subject matter of a project/report”.   APSC 262 Sustainability Project:  An investigation into the comparative performance of biodiesel against petroleum-derived diesel by analyzing their environmental, economic and social impacts     Submitted to Dr. Dawn Mills  Prepared by: Kh ai Sian g Yew   Ten g Jian Koo   Wei Hen g Tham           Submitted date: March 29th, 2012 ii  ABSTRACT Through University of British Columbia’s (UBC) SEEDS program, the initiative of replacing the majorit y of UBC vehicle fleet s  is investi gated. Most of UBC vehicle fleets curr en tl y run  on petroleum - based di esel with biodi esel produced from waste gr ease dispo sed by AMS Food and Beve ra ge Ope rati ons as well as the  UBC Food Se rvice Op erati on s . Th e ob jecti ve of thi s report is to prepa re a comparati ve investi gati on of the perfo rman ce  o f biodi es el against petroleum - de rived diesel by ex ami ning their environmental, econom ic and social impacts. The scope of th e repo rt includes quali tative and quanti tative data rel ate d to the environm ental, economi c and soci al performan ce of two popular blen ds of biodi esel which are B20 (20 % biodi esel 80% diesel) in comparison to  B100 (10 0% biodi esel) and petrol eum - derived diesel. Alth ough a lar ge number of UBC vehicl es are usin g B5 blend and diesel, it is assum ed in this report th at all UBC vehicles are uti l izing diesel as fuel due to the lack of data avail able for B5 blend . The environmental impli cati ons  of petroleu m - derived dies el, B20 and B100 a re evalu ated based on the green house gas emi ssi ons and smo g - formi ng poll utants. The  economi c viabili t y of replaci n g dies el fu el in camp us vehicl es with bi odiesel is assessed base d on  its fuel cost, ene r g y effi cienc y and the incenti ves from non - gov ernmental or ganiz ati on (NGO) and the gove rnme nt. The social impacts of diesel and biodi esel are ass essed based on  t heir ph ysic al and ch emi cal properties, human healt h eff ects and the s ocial benefits the y brin g to the comm unit y.  Fro m the findings of thi s report, GHG emi ssi ons are redu ced b y 15.9% on avera ge usin g B20 and 78.6% on aver a ge usin g B 10 0 with respe ct to di e sel. The anal ysis also sh ows that B100 and B20 reduce smog poll utants by 40.0% and 8.3 % resp ecti vel y comp ared to die sel. In t erms of pric e pe r unit en er g y of fuel, B100 ($0.414/kW h) has the highest fuel cost, followed by B20 ($0.348/k W h) and finall y, diesel fuel ($ 0.341/kW h) . However, 80% of the fuel cos t of biodi esel producti on is associated with  the feedstock  used . B y usin g waste grease produ ced i n UBC as feedstock, the cost of biodi esel can be reduc ed. Throu gh vari ous government incenti v es, the capit al cost to bu ild a biodi esel plant in UBC will be partiall y su bsidi z ed, making it a ver y appeali n g opti on. In ter ms of healt h risks, B20 emi ts 13% less pol yc ycl ic aromati c h ydroc arbon s (PAH) and 10% l ess particulate matte rs as opposed  to diesel. The reducti on of haz ard ous poll utants is even more significant for B100, which emi ts 80% less PAH and 47% less particulate matters than  diesel. Based on the anal ysis of the report, it is recomm ended that UBC vehicles’ fuel shoul d be  replaced with B20, since it has less environme ntal impa ct and mor e posi ti ve so cial impa ct comp ared to di esel. Althou gh the fuel cost of B20 is sli ghtl y hi ghe r than diesel, it can be offset  b y usin g waste gr ease from UBC and incenti ves from gove rn ment. Despit e the fact that  B100 has the highest  posi ti v e environmental and social impact with respect to B20 and diesel, the fu el cost is the most ex pensive .  How ever, the cost of biodi esel producti on is predicted to decre ase, posi ti oning B10 0 to be a competit ive opti on in the future.      iii  TABLE OF CONTENTS ABS T R ACT …………………………………………………………………………………… .. i i  LIS T OF ILLUSTR AT IONS …………………………………………………………………… . v  GLOSSARY………………………………………………….…………………………..  LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS………………………………………………………………… vii i  1.0   INTRODUCTION………………………………………………... ..................... ………… 1  2.0   ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT………..…………………………………………..... … . ….2  2.1   GHG EMISSIONS…………………………………………………………. ……… 2  2.2   SMOG - FORM IN G PO LLUT ANTS .... …………………………………….….……5  3.0   E CONOMIC IMPACT……………………………………………………………...………6 3.1  P R IC E PER UNIT ENERGY………………………………………….................. . 6  3.2  ENER GY B ALANCE/ ENERGY EFFICIENCY…………….………………...…..8  3.3  SUPPORTS FROM NGO……………………………………………………. ……. 11  3.4 GOVERNMENT INCENTIVES AND POLICIES…………………………. …….. 12  4.0   SOCIAL IMPACT………………………….…………………………………………… . .. 13  4.1  P HYS IC A L AN D CHE M IC A L PROPER T IES OF DIESE L AND BIODIESEL……………………..…………………………………………… .. ……13 4.2  CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES IN DIESEL EXHAUST EMISSIONS………… .. ... . 14  4.3  EFFECTS OF DIESE L EXHAUS T EM IS S IONS ON HUMAN HEA LTH …… .. .. 14  4.4  BIODIESEL EXHAUST EMISSIONS………………………………………... .. …16  4.5  SOCIAL BENEFITS………………………………………………………...… .. …16  5.0   CONC LUS IO N ………………………………………………………………………… . ... 18  LIS T OF REFERENCES ……………………………………………………………..………... 21  iv  LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS LIST OF FIGURES Figu re 1. Lub ricit y of Various Fuels  …………………………………………………..……... 9  Figu re 2.  Th ermod ynami c effi cienc y of en gines vs . fuel t yp e  …………………………..…… 9  Figu re 3.  Per cent va riati on of specific fuel consum pti on vs STM referen ce petrodiesel  … ...10   LIST OF TABLES Table 1 . LevNRC an B20 GHG Life c ycle  ………………………………………………..…… 3  Table 2 . LevNRC an B10 0 GHG Life c ycle ………………………………………………….. .. 3  Table 3 . C S IR O B 20 GH G Lif ec ycl e  ……………………………………………………..….. 4  Table 4 . C S IR O B100 GHG Li fec yc le  ……………………………………………………..… 4  Table 5 . Ex haust Emiss ions  …………………………………………………………….… . ….5  Table 6 . Fu el Ener g y Co ntent  ………………………………………………………….…. …..7  Table 7 . P rice per unit en er g y of var ious fuels …………………………………………… . ….7  Table 8 . Energy balance comparison ……………………………………………………… . …8  Table 9 . Biodi es el/ diesel haz ard comparison  …………………………………………... .... .. 13  Table 10 . Eff ects of dies el ex haust chemi cal subs tance on human healt h  …………… .... ….. 15  Tabl e 11 . C omparison of haz ardous chemi c al subs tance cont ained in B100 and B20  to diesel  ……………………………………………………....………………...….. 16   v  GLOSSARY  Aldeh yd es     A n or ganic compo und co ntaining a fo rm y l group   Benz ene     A natural consti tuent of crude oil  Carbon M onox ide  A product from the partia l ox idation of carbon -  co ntaining compounds  Carcino gen     Any subst an ce that cause s cance r  Flashpoint  Low est temperatu re at which a material can vapo r iz e to form an ignit able mix ture in air      G l yc erine  A sweet colorl ess liqui d obtained in the producti o n of biodi esel. Comm onl y use d as a solvent, antifr eez e, plasti ciz er and sweeten er  Greenhous e G as  A  gas in atmosphere that absorbs and emi ts radiati on withi n the thermal infra red ran ge  Indust rial smo g  An air poll utant that is prod uced when sulfu r diox ide, particulates, and oth er po ll utants released b y indus trial and household burning of fos sil fuels is trapped by a thermal inversion.  Meth yl E ster  Molecules cr eated from a reacti on betw een fats an d methanol   Nitrogen O x ides    A binar y compound of ox ygen and nit ro gen  Ozone  An air poll utant that dete riorates the respirator y s ystems of human  Photochemi cal smog  An  air poll utant that is derived from vehicul ar emi ssi on produced from internal combus ti on engines and i ndust rial fumes  Pol yc ycli c Aromati c H yd rocarbons  An atm osphere p oll utant that is produced as b y pro ducts of fuel burnin g  Sodium H yd rox ide   A comm onl y used catal yst for the transeste rificati on process in the manuf actu re of biodiesel  vi  T ransesteri ficati on  A process whi ch  reacts an alc o hol wit h an ester to form a new alcohol and a new ester  Troposphere  Lowest portion of Earth’s atmosphere that prevents damaging ultraviolet light from reaching the Earth’s surfac e  vii  LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS AMS – Alma Mater Soci et y  B2 -  2% biodi es el and 98 % diesel  B5 -  5% biodi es el and 95 %diesel  B20 -  20% biodi es el and 80% diesel  B100 -  100% biodi es el or neat biodiesel  CH 4  – M ethane  CO -  Carbon monox ide  CO 2  –C arbon Dioxide  CS IR O -  Comm onwealt h Scientific and Indust rial Research Organiz ati on  CSTR – Continuous Sti rred Tank Rea ctor  GHG -  Greenhous e gas  km – Kilom eter, unit of length in the metri c s yst e m (×10 3  meter)  kW h -  Kilowatt hour, unit of ener g y (×10 3  watt ho urs)  L – L itre, unit of volum e  l bs – P ounds, unit of weight  LCA – Lif e - c ycl e Assess ment  NGO – Non - gov e rnment al organiz ati on  NPAH – Nitrat ed pol yc ycli c aromati c h ydr oca rbo ns  N 2 O – Nitrous Ox ide  PAH -  P ol yc ycli c aromat ic hydro ca rbons  viii  P M -  Particulate matt er  SEEDS – Social, Ecologi cal, Economi c, Develop ment Studi es  SO x  – Sulphur  UBC -  Unive rsit y of Briti sh C olum bia  1  1.0 INTRODUCTION  Biodi esel  is  an alt ern ati ve fuel made from assor ted lipids such as veget able oil (so y, canola rape se ed), cooking oil and anim al fats. Biodi esel can be pro duced in a pure form (B100, 100% biodi es el or neat biodi esel) or blen ded w it h petroleum - de ri ved diesel. The t ypic al blends which are ex tensivel y used ar e B2 (2% bi odiesel and 98% diesel), B5 (5% biodi esel and 95% diesel) and B20 (2 0% biodi esel and 80% diesel). Biodi esel is a  ren ewable ene r g y sour ce  where  upon , combus ti on ;  fewer  poll utants are emi tt ed int o the atm osphere, makin g it  a cleane r alt ernati ve to regula r die sel.  Hence, b iodi esel ha s  received in cre ased att e nti on of late because it reduces global and local environment al  impact by gene rati n g  less  GHG  and air poll utants. Ap art from that, biodi esel als o provides economi c s avings bec ause th e pro ducti on requir es less amount s  of ene r g y than compared to diesel. Fu rthermore , government i ncenti ves such as tax reducti on from using bio diesel and NGO support also lead to potential sav ings. In terms of social impact, biodi esel emi ts less harmful poll utants com pared to pet roleum - based dies el, which in turn redu ces human hea lt h risks. The use and producti on of biodi es el is essential fo r raisi n g  publi c awar eness fo r  m aint aini ng and achievi n g sust ainabili t y th rou gh the use of renew able ener g y in the fo rm of bio diesel.    Biodi esel is produced via transesterific ati on of oil s int o meth yl ester (biodiesel) by chemi call y reacti n g with methanol. A bas e catal ys t such as sodi um h ydrox ide is normall y  used in thi s reacti on. The onl y byp rodu ct from thi s reacti on is gl yce rine. Henc e, the transesterific ati on produces no environmen tall y harmful b yprodu cts.  The two major process es of producti on are carri ed out in a batch rea ctor and plu g flow react or.  The b atch rea cti on process invol ves sti rring the rea ctants in a tank wit h an ex cess of al cohol and a base catal yst. The process op erates at a temperatur e of about 65 degre es centi gr ade. Th e plug flow reacti on s ys tem uses a s ystem of conti nuousl y - sti rred tan k re a ctor (CS TR). T ypi call y, the plu g flow rea cti on s ystem invol ves mul ti ple CSTR with separators conne cted betwe en them to remove an y gl yc erine. Methanol  is inj ected int o each of the reacto rs to maintain an ex cess of alcohol, which drives the conti nuous produ cti on of the este r (b iodi esel).      2  2.0 ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT  The environm ental impa ct of petroleum - de rived diesel and biodi es el is as sessed bas ed on the GHG emi ssi ons and smog - fo rming poll utants . Two compl ete LCAs of diesel and biodi esel (B20 and B100 ) ba sed on the Levelt on/NR C an (LevNRC an ) stud y and Comm onwealt h Scientific and Indust rial Resear ch Organiz ati on (CS IR O) are us ed to ex ami ne the emi ssi on of GHG. To ev aluate smo g - formi n g poll utants such as nit ro gen ox ides, particulate matte r and carbon monox ide , the em iss ion profil es of 155 Mo ntreal cit y  buses’ tailpipe from the combustion of diesel and biodi esel blends (B20 and B100 ) are uti li z ed to determi ne the air poll utants gen erat ed from the fuels.   2.1 GHG EMISSIONS   GHG is a gas in the at mosp here that a bsorbs and emi ts radiation withi n the thermal infrared ran ge, causin g global warmin g. Scie nti sts predict global warming will  “trigger increasingly frequent and violent storms, heat waves, flooding, tornadoes, and cyclones” ( Bo yd, Murra y - Hill & Schadd elee, 2004 p. 113) . Th e prim ar y green house gas es in the Earth's atm osphere are carbon diox ide, methane, nit rous ox ide, and oz one. Th e GHG emi ssi ons fo r diesel, B20 and B100 are ex ami ned over the enti r e  life c ycle which include s the downstream and upst ream emi ssi o ns. In other words, t he LCA acc ounts for both the direct and indrect emi ssi ons from net vehicle oper at ion and also indi rect emi ssi ons. Since UBC ’s source of producin g biodi esel is prim aril y  grease waste, it is assum ed that the biodi esel is produced  from an im al fat or tallow and wast e co oking oil . Two LCA st udies, the Levelt on/NR C an (LevNRC an) and Comm onwealt h Scientific and Indust ri al Resea rc h Organiz ati on (CS IR O ) are us ed to ex ami ne the emi ssi ons of GHG ov er the whole lif e c ycle of biodi esel, B20 and B100 .    The LevNRC an  stud y ex ami nes the tot al upst ream and downstr eam GH G emi ssi ons in the lifec ycle of diesel, B20 and B100. The GHG emi ssi ons from the lifec ycle work “incorporates the following elem ents: net vehicle operati on ; fuel dispensing/ stor age/ dist ri buti on and producti on; feedstock tr ansport; CH 4  and CO 2  leaks and fla res; emi ssi ons displ aced b y co -products; transport ” (Schmidt, 2004 p. 5). The types of GHG assessed in this study are CO 2 , CH 4  and N 2 O. The stud y ass umes that anim al fat - der ived biodi esel  is obtained from the “blend of 3  waste grease and animal slaughterhouse residues” (Schmidt, 2004 p. 5). Based on table 1, animal fat - based B20 has 17. 8% less GHG emi ssi ons compared  to diesel fuel. This statis ti c  demons trates that by  subst it uti ng diesel with  B20 blend , the environmental impact can be furthe r reduced.  Table 1: LevNRC an B20 GHG Life c ycle   Source: Schmi dt, 2004 p. 6   Table 2  shows an even more si gnificant reducti o n of GHG b y usin g B100 . B100 from anim al fat displ a ys a 91.7 % reducti on compared t o diesel.  Over the enti re  life c ycle , B100 produ ces 73.9% less GHG emi ssi on than B20. Hen ce, ne at biodi esel (B100 ) is pref er able  in terms of reducin g GHG emi ssi ons. Howev e r, B100 has som e disadv anta ge s, includi n g poor  cold weather properties which will be  further ex ami ned  in the economi c impact secti on.   Table 2: LevNRC an B10 0 GHG Life c ycle   Source: Schmi dt, 2004 p. 6    Simil ar to the Lev NRC an stud y, the second stud y b y CS IR O fo cuses on the lifec ycle GHG emi ssi on anal ysis of dies el and biodi es el blends pr oduced fro m differ ent sour ces. Howeve r, the GHG lifec yc l e wo rk includes onl y CO 2  unli ke the first stud y which in corpor ates CO 2 , CH 4  and N 2 O. The stud y is more in - depth compared to the LevN R C an stud y becaus e it ex ami nes the LCA  of tal low and waste cooking o il - based biodi esel separat el y. Based on table 3, both the tallow and coo king - oil B20 bl end show a 10 % and 20% reducti on of GHG emi ssi ons respecti vel y compared to low sulphur diesel.  4   Table 3 : CSIR O B20 GHG Li fec yc le   Source: Schmi dt, 2004 p. 7   The B100 p roduced fro m tallow blend displ a ys a 51% redu cti on fro m diesel while B100 produced from cookin g oil ex hibi ts a 93% red ucti on from diesel  with refe ren ce to table 4 .  Sim il ar to the LevNRC an stud y, usin g a hi ghe r blend of biodi esel will further redu ce GHG emi ssi ons . Another obse rvati on that can be draw n from the CS IR O stud y is that, if the waste gr ease from UBC conta ins most l y waste cooking oil , the GHG emi ssi o ns from the biodi esel producti on will be furthe r redu ced sinc e cookin g - oil based biodi esel emi ts less  GHG on aver a ge compared to tall ow - b ase d cooking oil .   Table 4 : CSIR O B100 GHG Li fec yc le   Source: Schmi dt, 2004 p. 7    Based on the result s of the two studi es, it can be concluded that GHG emi ssi ons are reduced as the perc enta ge of bl ended biodi es el  incre as es. B100 has the least amount of GHG emi ssi ons throughout its lifec ycle follow b y B20 and diesel. Usin g a B100 blend for the vehi cles can reduce th e environm ental impact signifi cantl y in the lon g run. Howe ver, due to the absenc e  of data from the UBC wa st e greas e, the proporti on of anim al fats and cooki ng oil in the waste are unknown. If the rati os are avail able, a more accu r ate GHG life c ycle anal ys is can be performed.      5  2.2 SMOG-FORMING POLLUTANTS   S mog is a type of air pol lut ion. Smog  is divi ded into two cate gories, indus trial smog and photochemi cal smog. I n dust rial smog, is produc ed when sulfur diox ide, particulates, and othe r poll utants released b y in dust rial and household burning of fossil fuels is trapped b y a th ermal inversion. Thermal  inver sion i s an atm ospheric condit ion where a  la ye r of cold air is trapped b y another  l a yer of warm air abov e it. Photochem ical smo g is derived fro m  vehicular emi ssi on produced b y int ernal co mbus ti on engines and indus trial fumes . The emi ssi ons which contain gas es suc h as nit rogen oxides and carbon monox ides convert light ene r g y in to its int ernal ener g y, leading to the formation of ex cit ed monoatomi c ox ygen. Throu gh photoch emi cal rea cti on due to the ex cit ed monoatomic ox ygen, oz one and smog will be formed in the tropos phere. Photochemi cal smog has a sim il ar appe aran ce an d produc es sim il ar effe c ts to indus trial smog. The combi nati on of the two  t ypes of smog causes air poll uti on in cit ies .  Apart from reducin g air quali t y, smog can i nfla me breathi n g passa ges, reduce th e lu ngs ' worki ng capa cit y and caus e shortness of br eath . To compare th e smo g - fo rming poll utants in petrol eu m - derived dies el and biodi esel blends (B20 an d B100 ), tailpi pe emi ssi ons from 155 Mont re al cit y b us es are ex ami ned for a one year period.    In the stud y  of the Mont real cit y  buses, smog - fo rming poll utants such as carbon monox ide, particulate matter and nit ro gen ox ides are m easur ed from bus es using  eit her dies el, B20 and B100 as the fuel. The emi ssi ons are t he result s from the com bust ion of diesel and biod iesel blend onl y wi thout consi dering the in direct emi ssi ons such as emi ssi ons from the producti on of the fuel.   Table 5 : Ex haust Emiss ions   S ource: Schmi dt, 2004 p. 10   6  From table 5, tallow - bas ed B20 blend shows a 10 % and 15% reducti on of carbon monox ide  and particulate matte r emi ssi ons respecti vel y comp a red to diesel. For tallo w - based B100 blend, carbon monox ide and par ti culate matter emi ssi ons are reduc ed b y 50% and 70% relative to dies el engine’s emissions. However, nitrogen oxides emissions from B20 a nd B10 0 are indi ff erent from diesel. Henc e, B100 disp la ys the best potential for the fuel in the UBC vehicles to reduce smo g formation although th e nit rogen ox ides emi ssi ons are th e s ame for di esel, B20 and B100.   3.0 Economic Impact  Although  the  environm ental per formanc e of biodi esel surpasses that of  diesel , the economi c impact  of bio diesel must  also be ana l yz ed to determi ne its financial viabili t y . To evaluate the economi c feasibi li t y of repl acin g cu rr ent fuels in campus vehic les wit h biodi esel, the fue l cost price of B20, B100 and diesel in terms of price per unit ener gy is  investi gated. Oth er aspects of economi c ev aluation include the  ene rg y balan ce ,  which  is t he  amount of ene r g y consum ed per unit energ y deli ver ed ,  int o useable biodi esel fuel ,  and the performance  of conventi onal diesel en gine when subst it uted with biodi esel fuel. Sim il arl y,  te chnical and  financial support s  from NGO for biodi esel proje cts are  also ex ami ned. Government  incenti ves to subsi diz e new biodiesel plant s  through  various poli cies and programs such as ex ercise tax ex empt ion, volumetric producer pa yment, fundin g for capit al infrastructur e as well as support for  resea rch and dev elopm e nt of alt ernati ve fuel  ar e further ev aluated  since  t he y can make biodi esel a competit ive option.   3.1 PRICE PER UNIT ENERGY   Each t yp e of fuel  has  its own unique energ y co ntent. Diesel has a higher fuel ene r g y content compa red to biodi esel. From table 6, B1 00 has the lowest  ener gy content , follow ed  b y B20 and lastl y diesel .      7  Table 6: Fuel Ener g y Co nten t   Source: Hosatt e & Laga cé, 2003, p.60   By  int e grati n g the fu el ener g y content factor int o the  fuel unit  price ,  a bett er rep resent ati on of the fuel  cost  is provided . The price per unit en er g y of t he various fuels ar e an al yz ed a nd comp ared as shown in tab le 7.   Table 7: Price per unit ener g y of various fuels  Fuel Type  Unit Price ($/ L)  Ener g y densit y (kWh/ L)  Price per unit ener g y ($/kW h)  Diesel  3.45  10.118  0.341  B 20  3.50  10.055  0.348  B100  4.05  9.771  0.414  Source: Unit Price obtain ed from htt p:/ /www.afdc. ener g y. gov/a fdc/pdfs/afp r_jan_11.pdf  Ener g y densit y obtained from table_   As the table above show s , the price per unit ener g y of B100 is the  highes t follow ed  by B20 and finall y,  dies el . It is important to note that  the pri c e of the biodi es el is lar ge l y asso ciated with  the price of feedstock. Th e price of feedstock contrib utes to 80% of the tot al cost (Demi rbas, 2007, 8  p.4666) . Howev er, UBC is able to gener ate  53 492 .67 L  of waste gr eas e pe r ye ar  whi ch can reduce th e pric e of biodie sel.    3.2 ENERGY BALANCE/ ENERGY EFFICIENCY  Ener g y balan ce is a me asure of the amount of ener g y consum ed in fuel producti on as opposed  to the ener g y ge nerated  from the fuel pro duct. Ener g y balan ce is an importan t factor in economi c ev aluation ,  since it demons trates the ef fecti veness of fuel prod ucti on. Low er  en er g y consum ed per unit ener gy deli ver ed impli es  a lower producti on fuel cost .  Biodi esel is found to have a bett er en er g y bala nce compa red to  diesel as show n in table  8.   Table 8 : Energ y bal ance comparison   Source: Schmi dt, 2004, p. 10   The finding of Schmi dt is also supported by supplementar y resea rch, which  concludes that biodi esel has a higher amount of energ y cont ained in the fuel per  u nit of fossil ener g y us ed in producti on  (Ell is & Janaun, 2010 , p.1316 )  as compared to diesel . Ther efore,  biodi esel is the more economi c al choice  in terms of producti on co st.    The  eff ect s  of repl acin g diesel with biodi esel in conventi onal diesel engine  are  also ex ami ned. T h is  anal ysis  is important becaus e an y deterior ati ng eff ect s  to the ex ist ing  diesel engin e caused b y  biodi es el  blends  ma y  req uire an en gine  ove rhaul ,  whi ch will increase the cost of the fuel . It is found that b iodi esel blends ,  whi ch hav e good lub ricit y char act eristi c s ,  reduces wear on en gin e parts  and minim iz e s  the maintenance cost of the en gin e. When biodi esel is used to operate the di esel en gi ne, wea r scars are found t o be redu ced b y 50 % co mpared to pur e diesel. 9  B20 and B100 which are produced from used c oo king oil have the same lubricit y cha ra cterist ic s  as shown in figu re  1.   Figure 1 : Lubri cit y of Various Fuels  Source: Hosatt e & Lagac é, 2003, p.10   Biodi esel has low t emper ature properties ,  which causes it  to gel at low tem peratur es. Th e gell in g of biodi esel may  af fect the en gine ope rati on due to clogging of filters or coking of inj ectors. Howeve r, through ex periments,  “no specific complications or problems aris e  from  the  use of B20 in buses ru nning approx im atel y 10, 000 km through the col dest period of wi nter (overni ght temperatu res dro pping to between –20 and –30 C)  in the Mont real B IOBUS demons trati on project ” (Schmidt, 2004 ,  p. 12) .  Therefo re, biodi es el is abl e to oper ate as fu el in  a diesel en gine without ne eding an y major modi fic ati ons t o the en gine o r in jecti on s ystem. Hen ce , there will be no si gnifica nt cost associated with an engin e chan ge when repl aced with biodiesel.   The impact of the fuel chan ge  on the per forma nce of diesel en gines is also critical in terms of end - use cost. Consequentl y , the en e r gy efficien c y and the spe cific fuel consum pti on also needs to be  ex ami ned. The ene r g y effi cienc y of biodi esel is found to b e comparable with diesel. T he use of biodi esel has no impact to the thermod yn ami c ef ficie nc y of the mechanic al fuel inj ecti on s ystem  an d  the thermod ynami c eff icienc y of electroni c fuel inj ecti on s ystem fo r biodi esel is onl y sli ghtl y lower than  the dies el as shown in figur e 2 .    10    Figure 2 : Th ermod ynam ic effici enc y of en gines vs. fuel t yp e  Source: Hosatt e & Lagac é, 2003, p.61   Howeve r,  the electronic fuel inj ecti on parameters can be adjust ed to improve the thermod yn ami c efficien c y  (Hosatte & Lagac é, 2003, p.62) . The effe ct on specific fuel consum pti on of a diesel engin e driven on  biodi esel is also found to be nearl y equival ent to that o f a diesel en gine driven on  diesel, even though the biodi esel blends have less fuel energ y con tent. The variati on of specific fu el consum pti o n between B20 and dies el fall s withi n the ran ge of 1 - 2% for a dies el engin e with bot h mechan ical and ele ctronic fu e l inject ion s y stem as shown i n figur e 3 .     Figure 3: Per cent va riati on of specific fuel consu mpt ion versus STM refer ence petrodiesel  Source: Hosatt e & Lagac é, 2003, p.61   The fuel econom y equiva lence su ggests that the bi odiesel is economi call y feasibl e t o be used in campus vehicles.       11  3.3 SUPPORTS FROM NGO  Non - government al or gan iz ati on (NGO) ref ers to organiz ati ons that operate independentl y from the governm ent. The y also pla y an imp ortant role in dete rmini ng the su ccess of the biodi esel project. The y are able to provide bot h technical as well as financial support s  in implementi ng alt ern ati ve fuel proje ct s  which req uires new te chnolo gies, resourc es, and ex pert s  from diffe rent fi elds and areas. En gine m anufa cturers are t h e group di rec tl y associ ated wit h  thi s sustainability project. Most of the major engine companies have formally assured that “the use of biodi esel blends up to B20 will not void their part and workmanship warr anti es, with some quali ficati ons regardin g fuel usa ge impacts, t ype s of biodi es el and blend l e vels ” (Schmidt, 2004 ,  p. 11). Ho weve r, conce r ns from autom obil e ma nufactur ers rega rding  en gine per formanc e and have limi ted  the amount of blends in dies el. It is  ex pected that North American manu fa cturers will become mo re supp orti ve in the u se of bi odiesel blends as it begins to gain tr acti on.  Currentl y, l ar ge Eu rope an en gine or vehicle m anufactu rers su ch as BMW , Renault , Peugeot, Volkswa gen, Mer ced es Benz , Volvo, Ford, J ohn Deere, etc, have deve loped compl im entar y warr ant y poli c ies  in rega rd s to  biodi esel  (Schmidt, 2004 ,  p. 11) .  These con ti nuing warr anti es not onl y ensure qu ali t y en gi ne perform ance but the y also protect stakeholders from costs associated with unwelcome breakdo wns.   Accordin g to Adam  Mc Cluske y,  the  M an a ger  of  UBC  Inventor y  and  Fle et  Department , the use of biodi esel blends in campus service ve hicles is restricted b y th e en gine manuf acture r. The max im um accepted level of biodi esel blends is merel y 20% without voidi ng  the part and workmanship warr anti es of the campus vehicles engi ne. Althou gh the  biodi esel pil ot plant in UBC produ ce s approx im atel y  1000 litres of biodi esel a da y , UBC  vehicle s are sti ll running on B5 fuel suppl ied  b y ex ternal compani es. Another  wa y of solvi n g thi s problem is to improve quali t y of th e biodi esel produc ed throu gh coll aborati on with biodi ese l process te chnolog y manufacturers and consultants. Topia Energy Inc. is Canada’s largest commercial producer of biodi esel fue l oil . It is also as a participant in the Certified Biodi es el Driven Progr am, which ensures that th e fu el pr oduced consi stentl y me e ts the standards and spe cificati ons set b y th e engin e manufa cturers. The compan y owns the dist ributi on rights of Modular Producti on Unit (MPU) in Can ada, which is the y are proven to ru n eff ecti vel y on yell ow grease (B o yd, Mu rra y -12  Hill & Schaddele e, 2004 p. 77). Ther efor e, UBC can take advanta ge of t he avail able t echnic al supports to improve  the q uali t y of biodi esel so th at biodi esel produ ced ca n be certified and us ed in campus service vehicl es.   3.4 GOVERNMENT INCENTIVES AND POLICIES  To confront  th e cli mate chan ge as well as th e dim ini shing fossil fuel resour ces,  the Government of Canad a demons trates its conti nuo us support for biodi esel by int rodu cing various poli cies and  incenti ves to sti mul ate its developm ent . In 2003 , the Go vernment of Canada ex empt s the ex ercise tax for th e biodi esel po rtion of dies el blends in Can a da $0.04 is ex emp ted for each litre of biodi e sel  (Laan, Lit man & Steenbli k, 2009 , p.58 ) .  In 2008, the feder al gove rnment int roduce d  volum etric producer pa ym ents as high as $0.20 per litre for the producti on of renewabl e alt ernati ves to diesel including biodi esel, which replaces the fed e ral tax ex empt ion on biodiesel  (La an, Lit man & Steenbli k, 2009 , p.58 ) .   In te rms of the support s on the capit al,  infrast ruc ture, inc enti ve pro gr ams to support biodi esel producti on include the acc elerat ed depreci ati on of capit al . When depreci ati on is acc elerat ed, the firm receive s  high er tax deducti ons in the earl y ye a rs of the investm ent, gen erati n g signifi cant financial benef it s on a present - value basis  (La an, Lit man & Steenbli k, 2009 , p.60 ) . Th e provinc ial g ov ernment of Britis h Colum bia  announced a  fundin g  of up to $1 0 mill ion  over 3 years, star ti ng from 2009, to support the growth of the biodi esel producti on in the province.  Another  $10 mill ion  doll ars in grants  is also avail able for new liquid biofuels producti on from Innovati ve Clean Ener g y Fund  (Laan, Lit man & Ste enbli k, 2009 , p.61 ) .   Both  the feder al and provincial government al so provide s financi al support  for  the resea rch and dev elopm e nt of biodi esel. The f ed eral gov ernment all oc ate s the fundin g throu gh various pro grams such as the Agricultural Biopro ducts Innov ati on Progra m ,  with a $145 mill ion fund to support resear ch networks, the SD Tech Fund by Sustainable De velopm ent Technolo g y Canada with $550 milli on to support biodi esel - related proj ect s , the Indust rial Resea rch Assi s tance Pro gr am and  several other funding pro gr ams under the Can adia n Biom ass Innovati on Network and Technology Earl y Acti on Measure s  (La an, Lit man & Stee nbli k, 2009 , p.63 - 64 ) .  13  Britis h Colum bia has also funded seve ral resea rch and d ev elopm ent ini ti ati ves ,  such as the  feasibi li t y stud y of com muni t y - based producti on of biodi esel from waste cookin g oil  (La an, Lit man & Steenbli k, 2009 , p.64 ) .  Wit h all the  f undin gs  av ail able from both fede ral and provincial pro gr ams, it would be in UBC ’s best interest to take adv anta ge of the financial support  for the res ear ch and deve lopm ent of biodi esel producti on using waste grea se.   4.0 SOCIAL IMPACT  The social impacts of diesel and biodi esel are assessed from the perspe cti ves of their ph ysical and chemi cal properties, human he alt h eff ects and social bene fits the y brin g to the comm unit y. The haz ard ous level of produ cing, handli ng and tr ansporting th e two fuels can be eva luated from their phys ical and chemi cal pro perties. In terms of  hu man healt h eff ects, the chemi cal compounds pro duced from the emi ssi on of diesel ex haust will be investi gated, as well as the eff ects of  those compounds on  human bod y. In the so cial ben efits secti on, the potential chan ges biodi esel brin gs to the  local communi t y by the use of biodi esel wil l be ex ami ned.   4.1 PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF DIESEL AND BIODIESEL  The safet y of the prod ucing, handli n g and tra nsporting diesel and biodi esel can be evaluated from their flas hpoint s, tox icities and the spil l haz ard. The comparison is shown in the following table:   Table 9 : Biodi esel/ diesel haz ard compa rison  Propert y  Biodi esel  Diesel  Flashpoint  150ºC  51.7ºC  Tox icit y  Essenti all y non - tox ic  Highl y t ox ic  Spil l haz ard  Beni gn. Biodi esel is safe to handle with no dangerous fum es. No traini ng required fo r handli n g.  Dan gerous and tox ic. Haz mat traini ng required  Source: Bo yd, Mur ra y - H il l & Schaddele e, 2004, p.32  14   The flashpoi nt of biodi es el is relativel y high com pared to diesel, and can be consi de red as non -flamm able under norma l circumst ances. From the perspecti ve of spil l haz ard, biodi esel is relativel y sa fe compared to diesel, which is dan gerous and tox ic. Handli ng dies el requires well -trained personnel  unli ke biodi esel. Biodi esel is also less tox ic compared to diesel, which will be discussed in details in the followin g se cti ons. Hence, the prope rties discu ssed make biodi esel a safer fu el to produce, tra nsport and store, as well as being a cl eane r and mo re environmental l y  friendl y vehicle fuel.   4.2 CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES IN DIESEL EXHAUST EMMISIONS  Diesel ex haust contains hundreds of const it uents in gas and particle fo rm s . The gas eous components include carb on diox ide, ox ygen, nit r ogen, wate r vapo r, carbo n monox ide, nit rogen compounds , sulfur compounds , and nume rous lo w - mol ecular - wei ght h yd rocarbons. Some of the t ypical h ydro carbon com ponents found in diesel ex haust are the aldeh yd e s, benz ene, pol yc yc li c aromati c h yd roca rbons (PAHs) and nit r ated PA Hs (NP AH s) (U.S . Env ironmental Protecti on Agenc y, 2002, p.1 - 1). Accordin g to studi es, 92% of the particulat e s which contain the aforem enti oned tox ic compounds are less tha n 1.0 microns by mas s, making them full y respirable (Bo yd, Mu rra y - Hill & Schaddel ee, 2004 , p. 33).   4.3 EFFECTS OF DIESEL EXHAUST EMMISIONS ON HUMAN HEALTH  Accordin g to the U.S. Environmental Protecti on Agenc y, mor e than 40 const it uents of diesel ex haust are listed as haz ardous air poll utants or tox ic air contamina nts. At least 21 of the subst ance s are listed as carcino gens or reprodu c ti ve tox icants (U.S . Environmental Protecti on Agenc y, 20 02, p.1 - 6 ), an d hyd roc arbon compone nts form majorit y of the list. The h ydroc arbons are carcino genic, meanin g  the y are able to disrupt the metaboli sm process and genome of human bod y, ult im atel y lead in g  to cance rs and reproducti ve diseases.   Data indi cat es  that 13,8 00 Canadians per ye ar will develop critical ca ncer ov er thei r lifeti mes due to frequent direct ex posure to diese l fine particul ate matter. New studi es and pre -15  ex ist ing resea rch also pr edi ct that ch ronic ex posure to fin e pa rticulate mat ter poll uti on will lead to the developm ent of acute and ch ronic healt h problems and lower  l ife ex pectanc y (Bo yd, Murra y - Hill & Schadd elee, 2004, p.33). The following table below depict s the effects of carbon monox ide, sulphur, particulate matter and PAH on human healt h.   Table 10 : Effects of dies el ex haust chemi cal subs tance on human healt h  Chemi cal subs tance  Effects on human healt h  Carbon monox ide(C O)  Inhibits the blood’s c apacit y to carr y ox yg en, which will essentiall y cut of f ox yge n suppl y to vit al or gans such as the hea rt (which will cause ch est pain, also known as angin a) and brain. At an ex treme level, CO wil l cause de ath.  Pol yc ycli c aromati c hydro carbon (PAH) / NPAH  C hronic ex posure will lead to catara cts, liver and kidne y dama ge as well as  jaundic e. Contact with skin ma y indu ce redness or skin inflamm ati on. Incr eas es the risk of skin, lung, bladde r and gastroint esti nal canc ers. The e lderl y with de cli ning or gan fun cti o n  yo un g chil dren with immature and developi n g organs are mor e suscepti ble to the eff ects of PAHs.  Particulate matter(PM)  Le ads to ir ritation of airwa ys, cou ghin g and difficult y in breathi n g. Aggr avates asthm a, decr eases lun g func ti on and causes  bronchit is . Also leads to irre gular heartb eats, nonfatal he art att acks, as well as pr em ature de ath in people with heart or lun g disease. The e lde rl y,  chil dren and peopl e wit h lung or heart diseases are more sus cep ti ble to the effects o f PM.  Sulphur(S O x )  Le ads to br on choconst ri cti on and aggr avates ast hma s ympt om s. In cre ases the risk of lung dise ase and bron c hit is, as well as aggravat es ex ist ing heart disease which le ads to pr emature de ath.  Sources: U.S . Environme ntal Protecti on Agenc y (EPA) , 2002  Department of Healt h, Government of South Aust rali a, 2009, p.2   16  4.4 BIODIESEL EXHAUST EMMISIONS  Compared to diesel ex haust emi ssi ons, biodi esel ex haust emi s sions have  signifi cantl y lower level s  of haz ardo us chemi cal subst ances. B20 and B100 are use d for comparison with die sel in terms of the che mi cal subs tances emit ted . The redu cti on per centa ge in the table below is relative to the normal die sel fuel.   Table 11: Comparison of haz ardous chemi c al subs tance cont ained in B100 and B20 to diesel  Chemi cal subs tances  B100  B20  Carb on monox ide(C O)   48% reducti on  10% reducti on  Pol yc ycli c aromati c hydro carbons (PAH)  80% reducti on  13% reducti on  Nitrated PAH(NPAH )   90% reducti on  50% reducti on  Particulate matt er(P M)   47% reducti on  10% reducti on  Sulphur(S O x )   100% reducti on  20% reducti o n  Source: Bo yd, Mur ra y - H il l & Schaddele e, 2004, p.31   The redu ced haz ardous chemi cal subst an ces in biodi esel ex haust emi ssi ons help reduc e air poll uti on, particularl y in urban areas , making biodi esel a cleaner fu el opti on . Using biodi esel will not onl y cr eate a healt hie r environment for people to live in, especiall y for the elderl y and youn g chil dren, but lessen  the chance of  develop in g  va rious respirator y dise ases and canc ers.   4.5 SOCIAL BENEFITS  From the previous secti ons, the advantage of using biodi e sel over diesel is shown where biodi esel ex haust emi ts less haz ardous subst anc es compared to di esel. In addit ion, biodi esel has 17  the potential to bring numerous benefits to the  local comm unit y whe re biodi esel is comm onl y used and produc ed.   With the assum pt ion that buil ding a local bi odiesel plant using wasted greas e is economi call y vi able, it will provide the communit y with an opportuni t y to be reali sti call y invol ved in the ef fort to reduce GHG as well as t he reli an ce on fossil fuel . The loc al biodi esel pla nt will provide th e co mm unit y with job oppo rtunit ies, and dev elop pe rs onnel with the need ed ex pertise to contribut e to thi s up and comi ng field. Apart from that, using the local rec ycle d wasted gr ease to produ ce biodi esel and dist ributi ng th e fu el ba ck int o the comm unit y will help to fulfil l the need of a sust ai nable and economi c fuel.   The use and produ cti on of biodi esel will raise the publi c aw ar eness of the importance of maintaining and achievi ng sust ainabili t y throu gh the use of ren ewabl e ener g y in the fo rm of biodi esel. This appro ach will hopefull y rekindl e the int erest and passi on of the comm unit y, as well as convincin g them – that achieving sust aina bil it y is possi ble with coll ecti ve effo rt, and the comm unit y will chan ge t heir lifest yl e to contribut e t o thi s goal.  18  5.0 CONCLUSION  Through University of British Columbia’s (UBC) SEEDS program, the initiative of replacin g the majorit y of UBC vehicle fle et s is investi gated. Most of UBC vehicle fle ets currentl y run on petroleu m - based diesel with biodi esel p roduced from was te gr ease dispo sed b y  AMS Food and Bever a ge Ope rati ons as well as UBC Food Servic e Ope r ati on. The objecti ve of thi s report is to prep ar e a compar ati ve ev alua ti on of the per forman ce of biodi esel against petroleum - deriv ed diese l by ex ami ning their environmental, economi c and social impacts. Quali tative and qu anti tative data related to envir onmental, economi c and social per forman ce of two popular blends of biodi esel which are B20 (20% biodi esel 80 % die sel) and B100 (100% biodi esel) and petroleu m - derived diesel are used to determi ne th e best fuel opti on for the UBC vehicle fle et.    The environm ental impa ct of petroleum - de rived diesel and biodi es el is as sessed bas ed on the GHG emi ssi ons and smog - fo rming poll utants. Since UBC ’s sou rce of producin g biodi esel is mainl y grease waste, it is assum ed that the biodi esel is produced from an im al fat or tallow and waste cookin g oil . Bas e d on the two studi es by Lev NRC an and CS IR O , GHG emi ssi ons are reduced as per centa ge of blended biodi es el incr ea ses. B y takin g the av era ge of the data from th e  two studi es, it can be determi ned that using B10 0 reduces GHG emi ssi o ns by 78.6 % and using B20 reduces GHG emi ssi ons by 15.9 % compa red to diesel. Hence, B100 has the le ast amount of GHG emi ssi ons through out its lifec ycle follow e d  by B20 and diesel. In the Mont real Biobus stud y , smo g - fo rming poll utants such as carbon m onox ide, particulate matt er and nit ro gen ox ides are measu red from buse s which use eit her diese l, B20 and B100 as the fuel. On aver a ge, the findings indi cate  t h at B1 00 and B20 reduc e smog poll utants b y 40.0% and 8.3% respe cti vel y. Although the nit ro gen ox ides emi ssi ons are the same for diesel, B20 an d B100, B100 displ a ys the best potential to serv e as fuel in the UBC vehicles. In short, uti li z ing a B100 blend fo r th e vehicles can redu ce the environmental impact sign ificantl y in the lon g run.   The economi c feasibi li ty of biodi esel is assess ed based on the price per unit en er g y, ener g y bal ance, impa ct on the perform ance of diesel en gine, supports from NGO as well as incenti ves from governm ent. The price per unit en er g y of fuel is high er as t he blend of biodi esel 19  increas es and thus, B100 ($0.414) has hi ghest uni t price, followed b y B20 ($0.348), while diesel fuel ($0.341) is the che apest amon g th ese thr ee t yp es of f uel. Ho weve r , 80% of the cost is associated with the feed stock. B y usin g waste grease produc ed in UBC as feedstock, it will reduce the producti on cost and lowers the fuel cost. Energ y bal ance of biodi esel is  also bett er compared to diesel, sinc e biodi esel consum es 6% less en er g y th an diese l fuel fo r ev er y unit of ener g y produced. As demons trated in the BIO B US project, conv enti onal diesel en gine is proved to operat e well with biod iesel ev en in the coldest weather  despit e its low t emperatur e properties. The l ubricit y char acte risti c of biodi esel also helps reduc e the dire ct contact betw een th e mechanic al parts and thus decreas es the wea r rate of the engine. Th e ener gy ef ficienc y as well as the specific fuel consum pti on of biodiesel is also fou nd to be comparabl e with diesel, with a sli ght variati on of 1 - 2 %. Furthermor e , en gine m anufactu rers are becomi ng more suppo rtive of biodi esel by ex tending the  warr anti es of en gines  operated b y certain leve l s  of biodi esel blends. Through various gov ern ment incenti ves which s ubsi diz e the capit al cost of new biodi esel plant, UBC’s biodiesel pilot plant project can be a feasible option.  The social impacts of die sel and biodi esel ar e asse ssed based upon  ph ysical and chemi c al properties, human healt h effects and social benef it s t he y brin g to the comm unit y. Biodi esel has relativel y low flashpoi n t and is non - tox ic, which makes it clean er an d safer for producin g, transporting and stor a ge. T he U.S. Environm enta l Protecti on Agenc y stat es that more than 40 const it uents of diesel ex haust  ar e listed as haz ar dous air poll utants or to x ic air contaminants, which lead to various he alt h risks. Esti mation shows that 13,800 Cana dians per ye ar will develop critical canc er over thei r lifeti mes due to frequent direct ex posure to diesel fine particul ate matter. Compared to diesel, B20 emi ts 13% less PAH and 10% less particu late matters, while the reducti on of those haz ard ous emi ssi ons is even more signi ficant fo r B100, which emi ts 80% less PAH and 47% l ess parti culate matters. Havin g a  biodi esel plant  in UBC is able to promot e the posi ti ve impacts of biodi esel to the publi c, and al lows the comm unit y to directl y invol ve in the campai gn to reduc e GH G. In short,  biodi es el reduces the emi ssi on of haz ardous air poll utants and reduc es  the healt h risks of the  publi c .  Based on the anal ysis of the report, it is recom mended for UBC vehicles’ fuel to be replac ed with B20 sinc e it has less environme ntal impact and more posit ive social impact compared to diesel. Although th e fu el cost of B2 0 is sli ghtl y hi ghe r than diesel, it can be offs et 20  b y usin g wast e grease fro m UBC and inc enti ves from gove rnment. Despit e the fact that B100 has the high est pos it ive envir onment and social impa c t wit h respect to B20 and diesel, the fu el cost is the most ex pensive. However, th e cost  of bi odiesel producti on is predicted to decre ase, posi ti oning B100 to be a competit ive option in the future.                             21  REFERENCES  Bo yd, M., Murr a y - Hill , A., & Schadd elee, K. (20 04). Biodi esel in briti sh colum bia –  feasibi li t y stud y repo rt. Retrieved from http:/ /www.saaep.c a/Biodi es el.pdf   Demi rbas, A. (2007 ). Im portance of biodiesel as transportati on fuel.  Energy Policy,  35(9), 4661 -4670. Retrieved from htt p:/ /pdn.s ciencedire m/ science? _ob=Mi ami ImageUR L&_ cid =271097&_us er=102255 1&_pi i=S0301421507001516&_ch eck= y&_ori gi n=article &_z one=tool bar &_cov erD ate =30 - S ep2007 &view= c &originC ontentF ami l y=s er ial&wchp =dG LbVl B - z S kz S &md5=7c2 85e38107796da7d50268f 35 2ac33a/1 - s2.0S 03014 2150700151 6 - main.pdf    Department of Healt h, Government of South Aust r ali a. (2009). Polycyclics aromatic  hydrocarbons(PAHs): health effects . Retrieved fro m Scientific Services Publi c Healt h websit e: http: // www.healt au/pehs/P DF - fi les/ph - factshe et - P AHs - h ealt h.pdf   Elli s, N., & Janaun, J . (2010). Perspecti ves on bio di esel as a sust ainable fu el.  Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews ,  14, 1312 –132. Retrieved from http: // /159/ 2011    Hosatt e, P., & Lagac é, C. (2003). B IO BUS project -  final repo rt. Retrieved from htt p:/ /www.stm .inf o/engli sh/i nfo/a - bio bus - final.pdf   Laan, T., Lit man , T. A., & Steenbli k, R. (2009). Biofuels – at wh at cost? gove rnment support for ethanol and biodi es el in canada. Ret rieved fro m http: // www.iisd .org/gs i/ sit es/default /files/C anadian_biofuels _Ma y_2011.pd f   Schmi dt, L. (2004) . Biod iesel vehicle fu el: GHG reducti ons, air emi ssi ons, suppl y and economi c overview. Clim ate Chan ge Cent ral, Retriev ed fro m http: // www.biofuelcanada.c a/C 3 Biodi esel Discussi on Pap er.pdf    22  U.S. Envi ronmental Protecti on Agenc y (EP A). (2 002). Health assessment document for  diesel engine exhaust . Retrieved from Nati onal Ce nter for Environment al Assessment websit e: http: // www.epa. gov/      


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