Open Collections

UBC Undergraduate Research

Life cycle assessment : Center for Interactive Research on Sustainability (CIRS) Jaffery, Syed Raza Ali Apr 2, 2012

Your browser doesn't seem to have a PDF viewer, please download the PDF to view this item.

Item Metadata

Download

Media
18861-Jaffery_S_SEEDS_2012.pdf [ 4.33MB ]
Metadata
JSON: 18861-1.0108578.json
JSON-LD: 18861-1.0108578-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 18861-1.0108578-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: 18861-1.0108578-rdf.json
Turtle: 18861-1.0108578-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 18861-1.0108578-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 18861-1.0108578-source.json
Full Text
18861-1.0108578-fulltext.txt
Citation
18861-1.0108578.ris

Full Text

 UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student ReportRaza JafferyLIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT - CENTER FOR INTERACTIVE RESEARCH ON SUSTAINABILITY (C I R S)CIVL 498EFebruary 04, 2012 Disclaimer: “UBC SEEDS provides students with the opportunity to share the findings of their studies, as well as their opinions, conclusions and recommendations with the UBC community. The reader should bear in mind that this is a student project/report and is not an official document of UBC. Furthermore readers should bear in mind that these reports may not reflect the current status of activities at UBC. We urge you to contact the research persons mentioned in a report or the SEEDS Coordinator about the current status of the subject matter of a project/report”.  1  | P a g e    PROVISIO  This study has been completed by undergraduate students as part of their coursework at the University of British Columbia (UBC) and is also a contribution to a larger effort  ʹthe UBC LCA Project  ʹwhich aims to support the development of the field of life cycle assessment (LCA).  The information and findings contained in this report have not been through a full critical review and should be considered preliminary. If further information is required, please contact the course instructor Rob Sianchuk at rob.sianchuk@gmail.com     LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT - CENTER FOR INTERACTIVE RESEARCH ON SUSTAINABILITY (C I R S) CIVIL 498E FINAL REPORT     2012  Jaffery, Syed Raza Ali   4/2/2012    Center for Interactive Research o n Sustainability (CIRS)  Page 3 of 80   Abstract  The Centre for Interactive Research on Sustainability (CIRS)  located on 2210 West Mall; is one of the greenest buildings in British Columbia at its time of construction -  developed primarily in response to the challenge of creating a more sustainable society. The LCA study was completed at the request of UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) to transparently communicate the environmental benefits of University͛s first net- zero energy and re generative building and further pave the ways for similar future ventures.  Although first of its kind study of a Green Building in UBC, CIRS LCA study is a part of UBC wide academic building LCA data repository and would contribute to knowledge built up of that database.   A formulated approach as per ISO 14044 standard, was adopted to complete the LCA study as comprehensively as possible. The approach was carried off from quantity take - off using different state-of- art software, to preparing as thorough an inventory of building components & assemblies as was possible from the available information, modeling was done with Athena Impact Estimator which has one of the largest life cycle inventory database in North America. Assumptions and limitations of the software as well as the data were document in order to make the process transparent for any future reference or comparisons, this included explicit documentation in the form of input and assumption documents appendix to this report.   From the analysis it is evident that CIRS stand up to the test of being sustainable and contributing positively towards its environment. Despite the challenges of whole building LCA study we are confident that this study would be a contribution towards knowledge built up and woul d encourage further such studies; strengthening the process and providing knowledge based information tool for future policies.    Center for Interactive Research o n Sustainability (CIRS)  Page 4 of 80    Table of Contents 1.  INTRODUCTION  ..................................................................................................................................... 7  2.  Goal and Scope  ..................................................................................................................................... 9  2.1  Goal of Study  ................................................................................................................................. 9  2.1.1  Intended application  ............................................................................................................. 9  2.1.2  Reasons for carrying out the study ....................................................................................... 9  2.1.3  Intended audience  ................................................................................................................ 9  2.1.4  Intended f or comparative assertions .................................................................................. 10  2.2  Scope of Study............................................................................................................................. 10  2.2.1  Product system to be studied  ............................................................................................. 10  2.2.2  System boundary ................................................................................................................ 12  2.2.3  Functions of the product system ........................................................................................ 13  2.2.4  Functional unit .................................................................................................................... 13  2.2.5  Allocation procedures  ......................................................................................................... 14  2.2.6  Impact assessment methodology and categories selected  ................................................ 14  2.2.7  Interpretation to be used  .................................................................................................... 15  2.2.8  Assumptions  ........................................................................................................................ 15  2.2.9  Value choices and optional elements  ................................................................................. 15  2.2.10 Limitations  ................................................................................................................................ 16  2.2.11 Data quality requirements  ....................................................................................................... 16  2.2.12 Ty pe of critical review .............................................................................................................. 17  2.2.13 Type and format of the report required for the study  ............................................................ 17  3.  Goal and Scope  ................................................................................................................................... 17  3.1  Structure and Envelope............................................................................................................... 17  3.1.1  Motivation  ........................................................................................................................... 17  3.1.2  Material Take off  ................................................................................................................. 18  3.1.3  Use phase:  ........................................................................................................................... 21  4.  Results and Interpretation  .................................................................................................................. 23  4.1  Inventory Ana lysis ....................................................................................................................... 23  4.1.1  Bill of Materials  ................................................................................................................... 23    Center for Interactive Research o n Sustainability (CIRS)  Page 5 of 80  4.1.2  Energy Use:  ......................................................................................................................... 26  4.1.3  I mpact Assessment:  ............................................................................................................ 26  4.1.4  Uncertainty:  ........................................................................................................................ 27  4.1.5  Sensitivity Analysis:  ............................................................................................................. 29  4.1.6  Chain of Custody:  ................................................................................................................ 34  5.  Functions and Impacts  ........................................................................................................................ 35  5.1  Building Functions ....................................................................................................................... 35  5.2  Functional Unit:  ........................................................................................................................... 36  5.2.1  Per generic post - secondary academic building square foot constructed (e.g. Impact/building gross area):  ............................................................................................................... 37  5.2.2  Per specific post - secondary academic building square foot constructed (e.g. Impact/classroom gross area)  ............................................................................................................. 37  5.2.3  Per generic post - secondary academic building cubic foot constructed (e.g. Impact/building gross volume)  ........................................................................................................... 38  5.2.4  Per post - secondary academic building energy use............................................................. 39  6.  Conclusion ........................................................................................................................................... 41  7.  References .......................................................................................................................................... 42  8.  Appendix A  ʹImpact Estimator Input Document  ............................................................................... 43  9.  Appendix B  ʹImpact Estimator Assumption Document  ..................................................................... 79             Center for Interactive Research o n Sustainability (CIRS)  Page 6 of 80   Figure 1  -  Center for Interactive Research on Sustainability  ........................................................................ 7  Figure 2 -  Rendering Initial CIRS design  ........................................................................................................ 7  Figure 4  -  Generic unit processes considered within Manufacturing Construction materials by Impact Estimator software...................................................................................................................................... 10  Figure 5 -  Generic unit processes considered within Building Construciton by Impact Estimator software. .................................................................................................................................................................... 11  Figure 6 -  Generic unit processes considered within Building Construciton by Impact Estimator software. .................................................................................................................................................................... 11  Figure 7 -  Generic unit processes considered within Building Demolition process by Impact Estimator software. ..................................................................................................................................................... 11  Figure 8  -  Sketch up model for floors & roof  .............................................................................................. 18  Figure 9 -  Revit Model for stairs & beams  .................................................................................................. 18  Figure 10  -  Autodesk Quanti ty Takeoff for Beams & Columns  ................................................................... 19  Figure 11 -  Autodesk QTO for foundations  .................................................................................................. 19  Figure 12  -  Google Sketch up Floor system & Flooring system ................................................................... 20  Figure 13  -  Athena query for m for beams .................................................................................................. 21  Figure 14 -  CIRS building Annual energy consumption by End use  ʹCourtesy Stantec Consulting Excerpt from UBC -  Centre for Interactive Research on Sustainability (CIRS) LEED rep ort ..................................... 22  Figure 15  -  weight assumed for PVC calculation  ......................................................................................... 25  Figure 16  -  Sensitivity analysis for Primary Energy Use  .............................................................................. 30  Figure 17  -  Chain of Custody information ................................................................................................... 34  Figure 18  -  Modern Green Development Auditorium  ................................................................................ 35                Center for Interactive Research o n Sustainability (CIRS)  Page 7 of 80  1. INTRODUCTION  The Centre for Interactive Research on Sustainability (CIRS) located on 2210 West Mall;  is one of the greenest buildings in British Columbia at its time of construction -  developed primarily in response to the challenge of creating a more sustainable society. CIRS is a b rain child of Professor John Robinson and took about 12 years and 3 major iterations to be a reality and a sustainability leader in regenerative  ʹnet zero building echelon. The building is designed in conjunction with UBC͛s living lab concept and acts in its own as a “living laboratory” & test bed, which  allows research and investigation of current and future sustainable building technologies.  CIRS program was initiated in 2000 and went through several iterations-  the final design was made by Busby Pe rkins +Will in 2006 . It is a LEED Platinum certified building and also on review list of “dhe >iving Building Challenge”. CIRs was constructed with a total cost of $ 23  Million  and was officially inaugurated in November 2011.    CIRS building is 5,675 m 2  (61,085 ft 2 ) on a site area of 2,008 m 2  (21,614 ft 2 ). The structure is comprised of a pair of four- storey office/lab blocks running east - west, linked by an atrium which acts as building lobby and entry to a 450 - seat lecture auditorium for general campus use. The building accommodates a mix of academic office spaces, dry labs, meeting rooms, social spaces and service spaces, with building services, storage and locker  facility, as well as electrical, mechanical and plumbing spaces in the basement.  The building is not designed to hold any particular discipline classes or lectures as in a typical institutional building;  rather it was designed to accommodate a variety of different uses over the life of the building. The building mainly consists of open areas which are used for workstations, closed offices, dry lab space and meeting rooms.   3-Center for Interactive Research on Sustainability Figure 1 - Center for Interactive Research on Sustainability Figure 2 - Rendering Initial CIRS design Figure 3 -    Center for Interactive Research o n Sustainability (CIRS)  Page 8 of 80  Service and building systems spaces are located in the basement, including electrical rooms, pump rooms, potable water processing room and the main data and communication room. However, the most unique feature of the building is its wastewater treatment system, which is located in a glass volume on the ground floor.   Keeping up with its sustainability banner  and “tood &irst ct”;  CIRS is the first large, multi- story institutional building at the UBC. The Structural system is constructed from Glulam framing system, supporting a solid wood deck.  Over 50 per cent of the wood used in the project is certified by the Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) and the remaining is pine from forests affected by the Mountain Pine Beetles. CIRS boasts a  high- performance building envelope, passive design strategies, and provisions for occupant sensitive equipment but above all it has a one of a kind heat recovery system with Earth and Ocean Scien ces (EOS) building.      Table 1 - Building Characteristics Building System Specific Building Characteristics Structure Wooden Moment Frame structure, Glulam Column - Beam Floors Structural Deck composed of gang - nailed 2x4s sheathed  with plywood. Pine Beetle Wooden joists Exterior Walls Curtain walls, fenestrations in wooden framing Interior Walls Drywalls with wood & steel studs  Windows Low emission argon filled glass windows  Roof Wooden joist roof Mechanical Solar aquatic biof ilter, hot air exchange system     Center for Interactive Research o n Sustainability (CIRS)  Page 9 of 80  2. Goal and Scope  Life Cycle Assessment described in th is report follows the guidelines as per ISO 1404 4  (Canadian Standards Association, 2006) , Section 4.2.2 and 4.2.3 .  The given goal and scope below is to clearly define the intent, frame work for suitable analysis and interpretation of the results to provide appropriate recommendations.  The purpose of defining the Goal of the study is to unambiguously state the context of the study, whereas the Scope details how the actual modeling of the study was carried out. 2.1  Goal of Study The goals for LCA study of CIRS has been defined as per ISO 14044 parameters to explicitly illustrate the intent and context of the study.  2.1.1  Intended application Describes the purpose of the LCA study. This LCA study will be used in two ways:   Conduct a study as a proof of concept for the sustainability claim of CIRS (LEED Platinum) by ascertaining the environmental impact footprint of this first- of- its- kind regenerative building.   As a  benchmark contribution of environmental impacts of a state- of- the- art sustainable regenerative building in the overall data- base repository of UBC academic buildings.  Model  developed for this study is intended to be a factual knowledge contribution and testing ground for newer tools of Life cycle inventory; for that will be used to create further avenues for future Green building LCA studies.  2.1.2  Reasons for carrying out the study Describes the motivation for carrying out the study. The LCA study was completed at the request of UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) to transparently communicate the environmental benefits of University͛s first net- zero energy and regenerative building and further pave the ways for similar future ventures.  Secondly, the report itself is an educational asset to help disseminate education on LCA and help further the development of this scientific method into sustainability in building construction practices at UBC and the green building industry. This study, therefore, contributes to a pool of knowledge for propagating LCA understanding and practices which are gaining acceptance at all scales of sustainable construction standards and corporate social responsibility policy. 2.1.3  Intended audience Describes those who the LCA study is intended to be interpreted by. The results of this study are to be primarily communicated to the public. In addition to the general public, the LCA report is intended as a knowledge benchmark to encourage researchers and practitioners to further develop LCA studies on sustainable green buildings .   Center for Interactive Research o n Sustainability (CIRS)  Page 10 of 80   2.1.4  Intended for comparative assertions State whether the results of this LCA study are to be compared with the results of other LCA studies. There were no comparative assertion made within the study of CIRS building, however as it  is a part of a larger database, the study can be used for comparative assertions with other UBC building LCA studies.    The study is carried out for the sole purpose of contribution towards knowledge built-up for green buildings and future audience should be aware of the goals & scope of the study to make cognitive comparative assertions. 2.2  Scope of Study The following are descriptions for a set of parameters that detail how the actual modeling of the study was carried out. 2.2.1  Product system to be studied  Describes the collection of unit processes that will be included in the study. Collection of unit processes with elementary and product flows, performing one or more defined functions, and which models the life cycle of a product (ISO 14044). The main processes that make up the product system to be studied in this LCA study are the Construction Product Manufacturing  (Figure 4 ), the Building Construction (Figure 5 ), the Energy Production  (Figure 6 ) and Building Demolition (Figure 7 ).  These four processes are the building blocks of the LCA models that have been developed to describe the impacts associated from CIRS Building .  The unit processes and inputs and outputs considered within these three main processes are outlined below.        Resource Extraction and Manufacturing Construction Product ProcessesMaterial Transportation ProcessesEnergy Extraction, Refinement and Delivery ProcessesInputsR sourc sEProcess OutputsConstruction Product ManufacturingAir emissionsWater emissionsLand emissionsConstruction productFigure 4 - Generic unit processes considered within Manufacturing Construction materials by Impact Estimator software.   Center for Interactive Research o n Sustainability (CIRS)  Page 11 of 80  Building Construction ProcessConstruction Material and Waste Transportation ProcessEnergy Extraction, Refinement and Delivery ProcessesInputsResourcesEnergyProcess OutputsBuilding ConstructionAir emissionsWater emissionsLand emissionsBuildingConstruction productsBuilding Demolition ProcessEnergy  Extraction, Refinement and Delivery ProcessesDemolition Waste Transportation ProcessInputsResourcesEnergyProcess OutputsBuilding DemolitionAir emissionsWater emissionsLand emissionsBuilding                           As seen in the above figures, the inputs and outputs occurring at the various stages in a buildings life cycle are captured.  That is, the building demolition unit process capture the grave (i.e. end of life) and the construction product manufacturing, energy production and building construction processes capture the cradle to gate (i.e. resource extraction, manufacturing construction products and construction of a building).  System boundary defines the organization of the above process units to describe the impacts of construction of Green buildings.  Figure 5 - Generic unit processes considered within Building Construciton by Impact Estimator software. Figure 6 - Generic unit processes considered within Building Construciton by Impact Estimator software. Figure 7 - Generic unit processes considered within Building Demolition process by Impact Estimator software.   Center for Interactive Research o n Sustainability (CIRS)  Page 12 of 80   2.2.2  System boundary Details the extent of the product system to be studied in terms of product components, life cycle stages, and unit processes. The ISO standards indicate that inputs to a product  or process do not need to be included in an LCI if (1)  they do not represent a significant fraction of the total mass of processed materials or product, (2)  they do not contribute significantly to a toxic emission, and (3) they do not represent a significant amount of energy.   The selection of the system boundary shall be consistent with the goal of the study (ISO 14044) ;  for the LCA study of CIRS we are only modeling processes from construction product manufacturing till building demolishment. Any processes beyond and after our system boundar y see Figure 8,  is not part of this study and such should be well understood prior to any comparative assertions with other products with varied boundary conditions. The LCA models developed to describe the impacts were created in the Impact Estimator software “thena E/” using the unit processes, within the main processes, illustrated previously in Figure 4, Figure 5 , Figure 6  and Figure 7 .  As the LCA study is  carried out for a building; which in itself consists of myriad of different products, making a complex array of different constituent product  assemblies and their associated process units. Further, this also highlights the need to define the materials for those constituent products in order to have a thorough and complete study of life cycle of the building (main product).  The product components (product assemblies) which all contribute towards the main product (i.e. building) are:  footings, slabs on grade, walls, columns and beams, roofs, doors and windows, gypsum board, vapour barriers, insulation, cladding and roofing.  Further materials like Concrete, Steel, wood, glass, polystyrene etc make the constituent of each of the above assemblies and are the m ain contributors of any of the environmental impact footprints associated with the product assemblies and subsequently the building (CIRS in our case).    Center for Interactive Research o n Sustainability (CIRS)  Page 13 of 80  Existing Building / Site Preparation  Construction Product Manufacturing  Building Construction Construction Product Manufacturing   Building Construction Building Demolition  Energy Production  Building Demolition Waste Disposal / Recycle             Figure 8 - System boundary for Renovation and Building New scenarios.  The life cycle stages considered in the above system boundary covers “cradle to grave” processes for the CIRS building , however, neither site preparation nor waste disposal unit processes has been modelled as they fall outside the scope of this study.  Though, it is interesting to note that CIRS building is almost entirely built from wood and steel products, which have a higher life cycle as well as higher number of cyclic usage  ʹ which make them favourable for recycling or reusing processes. The  above model captures the sequence of the unit processes from extraction of material to the maintenance & operation of the building product as well as the end of life demolition of the product  ʹthis provides an in- depth analysis and out of environmental impacts for the CIRS building.  2.2.3  Functions of the product system Describes the functions served by the product focused on in the LCA study. A description of the CIRS  building͛s major functions have been outlined in Article - 1:  Introduction , of this report. 2.2.4  Functional unit A performance characteristic of the product system being studied that will be used as a reference unit to normalize the results of the study. The functional units used in this study to normalize the LCA results for the CIRS Building  include:  SYSTEM BOUNDARY NOT MODELLED NOT MODELLED MAINTENANCE OPERATION CRADLE TO GRAVE   Center for Interactive Research o n Sustainability (CIRS)  Page 14 of 80   per generic post- secondary academic building square foot constructed (e.g. Impact/ building gross area)  per specific post- secondary academic building square foot constructed  (e.g. Impact/classroom gross area)   per generic post- secondary academic building cubic foot constructed (e.g. Impact/building gross volume)  per post- secondary academic building occupant (e.g. Impact/occupant density)   Further discussion of these functional units and their application are contained in the Impact Assessment sub - section under Functions and Impacts.  2.2.5  Allocation procedures Describes how the input and output flows of the studied product system (and unit processes within it) are distributed between it and other related product systems. In this study, the cut - off allocation method was used, which entails that only the impacts directly caused by a product within a given life cycle stage are allocated to that product.    “Specification of the amount of material or energy flow or the level of environmental significance associated with unit processes or product system to be excluded from a study” ISO 14044  As CIRS was constructed on virgin site and our LCA study does not include the site preparation as well as waste disposal/recycle unit processes -  the end of life phase ends once the waste is transported to their end of life process, and does not include consideration of waste treatment processes or possible subsequent life cycles . Thus the effects of both of those processes are cut off from our modelling and we do not allocate environmental impact to any of those processes. All environmental impacts thus are due to the cradle to grave unit processes in construction, operation & demolition of the CIRS building.  2.2.6 Impact assessment methodology and categories selected State the methodology used to characterize the LCI results and the impact categories that will address the environmental and other issues of concern. In a Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA), essentially two methods are followed: problem - oriented methods (mid points) and damage- oriented methods (end points)              [ http://www.scienceinthebox.com/en_UK/sustainability/lcia_en.html ] . For the purpose of our study we used problem oriented (mid- pointͿ methodology through “Tool for the Reduction and Assessment of Chemical and other environmental Impacts (TRACI) ”, which was developed by the US Environmental Protection Ag ency (US EPA). In the problem - oriented approaches, flows are classified into environmental themes (impact categories) to which they contribute. Mapped above TRACI framework, methodology by the Athena Institute was also used to characterize weighted raw resource use and fossil fuel consumption.  The impact categories selected and the units used to express them (i.e. category indicators) are listed below.  Global warming potential  ʹkg CO 2  equivalents   Acidification potential  ʹH +  mol equivalents   Eutrophication potential  ʹkg N equivalents   Ozone depletion potential  ʹkg CFC - 1 1  equivalents    Center for Interactive Research o n Sustainability (CIRS)  Page 15 of 80   Photochemical smog potential  ʹkg NOx equivalents   Human health respiratory effects potential  ʹkg PM 2.5  equivalents   Weighted raw resource use  ʹkg   Fossil fuel consumption  ʹMJ   Short descriptions of each of these impact categories are provided in the Impact Assessment sub-section in Results and Interpretation. 2.2.7 Interpretation to be used Statement of significant issues, model evaluation results and concluding remarks. Analysis and discussions of uncertainty, sensitivity, and functional u nits of this LCA study are contained in the Results and Interp retation section of this report, whereas concluding remarks are contained in the Conclusion. 2.2.8 Assumptions Explicit statement of all assumptions used to by the modeler to measure, calculate or estimate information in order to complete the study of the product system. The LCA study for CIRS is carried out using two main work flows i.e.  Material  take offs from construction drawing and using >C/ database from thena /nstitute͛s /mpact Estimator͖ any nd all assumptions taken in this LCA study revolve around these two workflows . Assumptions include any and all uncertainty in the information, its unavailability and limitations in the Athena IE software.   The details of the methods used in completing the material take offs on the building drawings are summarized in the Model Development section of this report.  All of the inputs and assumptions associated with interfacing these takeoffs with the Impact Estimator are documented in the Input Document  Ap pendix A  and the Assumptions Document  Appendix B.  Assumptions regarding the completion of take offs to estimate material use, referenced LCI data and transportation networks have all been developed by the Athena Institute and are built into the Impact Estimator version 4.1.13.  This information is proprietary; however, parts can be accessed through the inner workings report found on the Athena Institute webpage. 1  2.2.9 Value choices and optional elements Details the application and use of normalization, grouping, weighting and further data quality analysis used to better understand the LCA study results. Due to the limited time, resources and scope of the study value choices and optional elements were not included;  however, this report does provide sufficient documentation for its audience to carry out these types of analyses.                                                           1 The Inner Working of the Impact Estimator for Buildings: Transparency Document -  http://www.athenasmi.org/tools/impactEstimator/innerWorkings.html    Center for Interactive Research o n Sustainability (CIRS)  Page 16 of 80  2.2.10 Limitations Describe the extents to which the results of the modeling carried out on the product system accurately estimate the impacts created by the product system defined by the system boundary of the study. The following limitations should be considered when interpreting the results of this LCA study.   System Boundary  ʹ Any of the impacts created or avoided through the reuse, recycling or waste treatment of the construction or demolition wastes, site treatment, demolition or re- use of any existing structure prior to CIRS construction were outside the scope of this study.  Data Sources and Assum ptions  ʹThis LCA study used original architectural and structural drawings obtained from rchitects “Busby WerŬins н till”, structural engineers “&ast н Epp”, B/D odeler “Sheryl Staub &rench” to develop information on the building assemblies. LCA models and environmental impacts are specific to CIRS only as evident from the A ppended documents.  Furthermore, the life cycle inventory flows and their characterization reflect averages of industry processes and their impacts for North America.  This is due to the fact that those industries engaged in the North American construction market are c urrently not providing this LCI data.  Furthermore, it was not possible to regionalize the impacts of processes and their inventory flows due to time and resource constraints in conducting this study. 2.2.11 Data quality requirements Qualitative and quantitative description of the sourced data used in the study including its age, geographical and technological coverage, precision, completeness, reproducibility and uncertainty. The sources of data used in the development of this LCA study  include those used to estimate results for the bill of materials, life cycle inventory (LCI)  flows and the characterization of LCI flows . Bill of materials  ʹ Architectural, structural drawings and BIM model  was obtained from Architects “Busby WerŬins н till”, structural engineers “&ast н Epp”, B/D Dodeler “Sheryl Staub &rench” to develop information on the building assemblies.  We used the 3D BIM model to acquire any missing or ambiguous information in the drawings. The precision of the input data does rely somewhat on the limitations and quantity estimating engine built into  the Impact Estimator , as most of the data in auto-generated by Impact Estimator based on the input geometry parameters.  However, Impact Estimator inventory can easily be reproduced as all the input data and Assumptions are recorded in documents contained in Appendix A and B in this report.  LCI flows  ʹ The Athena LCI Database was the source of LCI data.  Assessment and verification of the quality of the  data and modeling assumptions used to develop the Ath ena LCI Database (which is built into the Impact Estimator ) was outside the time and resource constraints of this study.  However, some of this information can be accessed through the inner workings report found on the Athena Institute webpage 2 .  Generally  speaking, this database is specific to the current North American context, and thus does create some geographic and temporal limitations on this study.  For instance, i) The construction product manufacturing as well as fuel refining and production LCI da ta is based on North American averages ii) The transportation matrix that estimates distances and modes for construction product                                                           2 The Inner Working of the Impact Estimator for Buildings: Transparency Do cument -http://www.athenasmi.org/tools/impactEstimator/innerWorkings.html    Center for Interactive Research o n Sustainability (CIRS)  Page 17 of 80  transportation as well as construction and demolition wastes is specific to Vancouver, British Columbia iii) The LCI data and m odeling parameters in the Impact Estimator were developed by the Athena Institute to reflect current circumstances and technologies.    Characterization factors  ʹDocumentation of the US EPA TRACI impact assessment method can be found on the US EPA website 3 , and documentation for the development of the weighted resource use impact category can be found on the Athena Institute webpage 4 .  Generally speaking, this method characterized LCI flows to reflect their potential to cause damage on average in North Ame rica.  Qualitative discussion of the uncertainties present in the impact assessment results are contained in this report in the Impact Assessment sub - section of Results and Interpretation.  2.2.12 Type of critical review A review of the methods, data, interpretations, transparency, and consistency of the LCA study. This report is developed as contribution to knowledge, not for comparative assertions;  however, enough data is made available that any such comparison can be carried out given that the user is well aware of the limitations of the scope and model of this study.  It is advised that the authors be contacted if one wishes to include or use these results in future circumstances outside those outlined in the intended application for this study. 2.2.13 Type and format of the report required for the study Statement of the type and format followed by the report. This report followed the final report outline provided by Rob Sianchuk -  the instructor of the LCA course this project was carried out under in the UBC Civil Engineering department.  3. Goal and Scope 3.1 Structure and Envelope 3.1.1 Motivation Creating a ͚Bill of Daterials͛ from construction or as built drawings can be both time consuming and error prone. Major portion of time is consumed generating lif e cycle inventory and inputs for the Athena Impact Estimator for Buildings. Specifically, dissecting architectural and structural drawings into linear and area conditions typically reƋuires the use of taŬeoff software such as ͚Kn ScreendaŬeoff͛ or ͚utodesŬ Yuantity daŬeoff͛. tith the advent of Building /nformation Modeling (BIM) and  it͛s progressive use in 3D visualization and data acquisition, a huge potential exists in automated generation of ͚Bill of Daterials͛ from building models. Software liŬe Autode sk Revit or Google Sketup which is free to use, further elaborates and highlights the usability of such software to automate the otherwise cumbersome process of Ƌuantity taŬe off. /n using B/D and audžiliary software, it was the authors͛ intentions to: 1) c reate an accurate ͚Bill of Daterials͛ for roof and floor assemblies at the Centre for Interactive Research on Sustainability, 2) test the suitability of an easily accessible and automated                                                           3 US EPA TRACI documentation -   http://www.epa.gov/nrmrl/std/traci/traci.html  4 Weighted resource use impact category development  -                                                                                   http://www.athenasmi.org/wp - content/uploads/2011/10/16 _ECC_Impacts_of_Resource_Extraction.pdf    Center for Interactive Research o n Sustainability (CIRS)  Page 18 of 80  worŬflow to generate the ͚Bill of Daterials͛, and ϯͿ Create a model that could visually represent the ͚Bill of Daterials͛.  3.1.2 Material Take off 3.1.2.1  Software Google Sketch up -  dhe software used to generate a ͚Bill of Daterials͛ for the floor and roof assemblies was Google SketchUp. Google SketchUp is a widely used  3D modeling software, with free and professional version. The software has been used in a variety of fields and allows users to rapidly design validate and visualize 3D environments. Like other takeoff programs, SketchUp allows the import of jpeg, pdf and autocad files upon with area and linear conditions can be drawn (Figure 1). In order to facilitate the automated extraction of area conditions an extension was written in the ruby programming environment. The ruby programming environment allows the extens ion of modeling capability in SketchUp, in this case the extraction of geometric area totals for each material in a model. This is done by determining an appropriate naming nomenclature for a list of materials and assigning them to their respective geometric definitions. Edžamples of other ͚Bill of Daterial͛ ruby edžtensions can be found here:  http://forums.sketchucation.com/viewtopic.php?p=2500 26  Other Software -  Further, other software liŬe “Kn- Screen Take - Kff”, “utodesŬ Yuantity daŬe- Kff”, “utodesŬ Zevit rchitecture” were used to develop a complete life cycle inventory for the concerned building. All the outputs of the quantity take off;  either from Autodesk QTO, Sketch up or Onscreen  Take - off were recorded in logical nomenclature for better referencing and input to Athena IE. All the measured parameters as well as associated data Θ assumptions for thena /E are presented in “/E /nput document”, See ppendidž B.    Figure 8 - Sketch up model for floors & roof Figure 9 - Revit Model for stairs & beams   Center for Interactive Research o n Sustainability (CIRS)  Page 19 of 80    All drawings were provided in electronic format and were compatible with above mentioned software, however, Sketch up model was designed by one of the authors and was customized for quantity take off for this study. Although, there were not much challenges in quantity  take off from the drawings as the information provided was quite comprehensive, however some of the components specially stairs were not explicitly annotated in the drawings as well as BIM model. Several assumptions and manual calculations were carried out to quantify the stairs as accurately as possible. Following sections would discuss how building components (products) were quantified and what were the assumptions and limitations in the calculations. 3.1.2.2  Foundations: Foundation system in CIRS consi st mainly of concrete wall foundation (Strip foundation) under all the shear walls and basement walls, isolated footing for single columns and mat foundations under elevator pits. Quantities were taken off from structural drawings (Fast + Epp) S200 & S 201  using Autodesk QTO . Input parameters for Athena IE like concrete strength, fly- ash percentage etc., were taken from structural general notes drawing S100 & S101. Concrete strength for foundations was reduced from 4350 psi to 4000 psi due to the limitation  in Figure 10 - Autodesk Quantity Takeoff for Beams & Columns Figure 11- Autodesk QTO for foundations   Center for Interactive Research o n Sustainability (CIRS)  Page 20 of 80  thena /E͛s Ƌuery module for strengths above 200psi.  Foundations were measured using linear condition as Athena IE requires only dimensional inputs for foundation estimation.  3.1.2.3  Floors: IFC Drawings with floor constructions were scaled, oriented  and traced in Google SketchUp. A material library, along with appropriate naming conventions was developed and associated with the SketchUp floor components (Figure 12 ). Area conditions were then linked to appropriate material types for each floor and exp orted through aforementioned ruby plugin. Floor widths were determined by dividing the total floor area of each condition by the span of that condition. Where needed IFC drawings where verified on- site, through the BIM and as - built photos. Wherever appropriate, floor concrete strength, concrete flyash content, and live loads were taken from the Architectural and Structural Schedules (See Inputs). Furthermore, several flooring components were excluded in the model due to modeling limitations and uncertainty. The components not included were, carpet, epoxy sealants, and hydronic piping in concrete slabs.   Figure 12 - Google Sketch up Floor system & Flooring system  3.1.2.5 Columns & Beams: Athena Impact Estimator has an internal da tabase for calculating beam and column dimensions through information of number of columns, supported span, bay size etc. This peculiar way of estimating the material quantities for beams and columns provided quite a lot of challenge for a complicated geometric building like CIRS. Athena also requires presence of column supports in order to calculate beams; this also posed difficulties as most of the intermediate beams in CIRS are supported on other primary beams. The data from secondary or tertiary beams t herefore had to be presented in extra base material .  Also both wood and concrete is used as material for beams and columns and various locations, calculations were made separately for both of the materials. Also Athena does not support concrete beams which also posed quite a hassle as some of the larger primary beams in CIRS are concrete beams over Reinforced shear walls.    Center for Interactive Research o n Sustainability (CIRS)  Page 21 of 80  Athena also does not support bay size larger than 12.2m which also was a big problem in data input, as most of the primary beams in CIR S are of 15m length . All those beams were either calculated through extra base material input or broken down into smaller compatible spans where possible. “Bay size: bay size (main beam span) that most accurately reflects your design intentions.  The bay size is is constrained to be between 3.05 m and 12.2 m for all live loads and beam types” thena ϰ.ϭ.ϭϰϭϰ Danual Columns and beams were calculated using Autodesk QTO software, using numeric condition for Columns and linear condition for beams. As a large number of different wooden beams were used in CIRS along the different floors naming convention was so chosen as to depict a logical meaning of the annotation e.g. 215 x 532  ʹ GRND  ʹ GL 9, where as the first numeric were sectional size of the beam, GRND is the location of the beam on ground floor, and GL 9 means Glulam 9 th type on that floor. The same convention was used for columns as well.  As all the floor to floor stairs in CIRS are made of wood  ʹGlulam wooden s tringers, stairs were calculated as beams and taken in extra base material as Glulam wood.  3.1.2.5  Roofs: IFC Drawings with roof constructions were scaled, oriented and traced in Google SketchUp. A material library, along with appropriate naming conventions was developed and associated with the SketchUp roof components. Area conditions were then linked to appropriate material types for each roof and exported through the aforementioned ruby plugin. Roof widths were determined by dividing the total floor area of each condition by the span of that condition. Where needed IFC drawings where verified on- site, through the BIM and as - built photos. Wherever appropriate, live loads were taken from the Architectural and Structural Schedules (See Inputs). Furthermore , several roof components were excluded in the model due to modeling limitations and uncertainty. The components not included were, plant and growing medium, green roof root barrier and protection board.   Extra Basic Materials -  As there were many unconve ntional floor and roof constructions found in CIRS, several materials needed to be input into thena /mpact Estimator for Buildings through the ͚Edžtra Basic Daterials͛. dhis included laminated- wood flooring, raised- floor tec- crete, raised- floor pedestals, and concrete topping. Volumes for laminated - wood flooring, raised- floor tec- crete, and concrete topping were determined through area conditions and measured depth on IFC drawings. An estimate of weight for the raised- floor pedestals was determined by: 1) e stimating the volume of each pedestal, .0006m3, 2) determining the count of each pedestal, count = ((number of tec - crete panels) 1/2 + 2)2 = 480 3, and 3) determining the weight by combing outputs from 1 and 2 with the density of steel (8000 kgm - 3).  3.1.3 Use phase: The unique thing about CIRS is that it was designed to be a net - zero energy building and is also part of the “living building challenge”, therefore it has a high mandate for performance measurement and Figure 13 - Athena query form for beams   Center for Interactive Research o n Sustainability (CIRS)  Page 22 of 80  monitoring. During the design phase of the CIRS model, several energy models were created to reduce and optimize the energy consumption of the building keeping occupant comfort unchanged and of foremost important throughout the process. In addition the whole building has been fitted with sensors to record different aspects of building performance as well as record occupant interaction & behavior. This intense exercise brought out quality data for energy consumption of the building as well as means to monitor and control energy usage throughout its life cycle. For the purpose of this study, we did not model or measured any energy utilization at the building. However, we intend to relate and support LCA study results with design and LEED submitted energy usage data, so as to equip and encourage further manipulation and analysis of this data.  Figure 14 - CIRS building Annual energy consumption by End use – Courtesy Stantec Consulting Excerpt from UBC - Centre for Interactive Research on Sustainability (CIRS) LEED report The above results are excerpted from Statecs energy model report for LEED compliance and are presented for reference purposes only. The energy model was created in eQUEST  3.61. The above figures do not represent the actual usage of the building but projects what the building would be using under the design conditions. Actual energy usage will differ from these calculations due to a number of variables including but not limited to: variations in occupancy and building operations schedules; energy use for equipmen t not included in the simulations By Martina Soderlun, stantec   Center for Interactive Research o n Sustainability (CIRS)  Page 23 of 80  or not covered by the applicable energy code (process energy); differences between actual weather and the typical meteorological year represented in the climate data file; and changes in energy costs.   CIRS has achieved 68 % less energy utilization from the market baseline of similar size, similar use buildings. Also it has contributed towards positive heat energy production for the adjacent Earth and Ocean Sciences building.  4. Results and Interpretation 4.1 Inventory Analysis 4.1.1 Bill of Materials The bill of materials was generated from the output of A thena Impact Estimator inventory. The quantities were not taken from the quantity take off documents, as they were measures of the assemblies of building products not the constituent materials. Athena IE breaks down all the building assemblies into their respective quantities through complex back ground calculation algorithms and data manipulation from its data inventory. Bill of materials for CIRS as retrieved from Athena IE is shown below:   CIRS - Bill of Materials   Assembly Group Construction Material Units (use Metric !) Foundation Walls Floors Columns & Beams Roof Building Total 1/2"  Regular Gypsum Board  m2    531.51  98.24      629.75  1/2"  Moisture Resistant Gypsum Boa rd m2    348.04        348.04  5/8"  Regular Gypsum Board  m2    7016.73        7016.73  3 mil Polyethylene  m2    44.12        44.12  6 mil Polyethylene  m2  2291.80  3517.50  56.17    1552.72  7418.18  Concrete 30 MPa (flyash 25%)  m3  306.60    411.53  1.80    719.93  Concrete 30 MPa (flyash 35%)  m3  89.79          89.79  Concrete 30 MPa (flyash av)  m3    1034.48    137.39    1171.87  Concrete Blocks  Blocks      86.21      86.21  Galvanized Sheet  Tonnes   3.78  0.03    0.02  3.83  Hollow Structural Steel  Tonnes     22.85  98.32    121 .17  Joint Compound  Tonnes     0.10      0.10  Large Dimension Softwood Lumber, Green  m3      359.73    135.62  495.35  Large Dimension Softwood Lumber, kiln -dried m3      3.43    1.33  4.77  Nails  Tonnes   1.18  0.02    0.01  1.21  Paper Tape  Tonnes   0.09  0.00      0.09  Rebar, Rod, Light Sections  Tonnes 1.10  31.39  23.31  65.03    120.83  Softwood Plywood  m2 (9mm)    3654.84  187.54    57.56  3899.95  GluLam Sections  m3        464.66    464.66  Aluminum  Tonnes   36.43        36.43  Batt. Fiberglass m2 (25mm)    10099.98        10099.98  Batt. Rockwool  m2 (25mm)    8151.98        8151.98  Blown Cellulose m2 (25mm)    576.06      85.14  661.20    Center for Interactive Research o n Sustainability (CIRS)  Page 24 of 80  Cold Rolled Sheet Tonnes   0.21        0.21  Concrete Brick  m2    1079.22        1079.22  EPDM membrane (black, 60 mil)  kg    2305.67        2305.6 7  Expanded Polystyrene  m2 (25mm)    6541.07      750.11  7291.18  Foam Polyisocyanurate  m2 (25mm)    658.07        658.07  Galvanized Studs  Tonnes   6.63        6.63  Glazing Panel  Tonnes   253.80        253.80  Joint Compound  Tonnes   7.92        7.92  Low E Tin  Argon Filled Glazing  m2    723.95        723.95  MDI resin  kg    44.19        44.19  Mortar  m3    20.04        20.04  Oriented Strand Board  m2 (9mm)    237.05        237.05  Screws Nuts & Bolts  Tonnes   1.73        1.73  Small Dimension Softwood Lumber, kiln -dried m3    60.99      0.07  61.06  Solvent Based Alkyd Paint  L    10.61        10.61  Solvent Based Varnish  L    297.36        297.36  Water Based Latex Paint  L    42.73        42.73  Ballast (aggregate stone) kg          7798.03  7798.03  PVC membrane  kg          14682.7 4  14682.74  Welded Wire Mesh / Ladder Wire  Tonnes 2.64          2.64     Top most significant materials used in CIRS can be easily interpolated from the above table , and are given as:  I.  PVC membrane  II.  Batt Fiberglass III.  Ballast (aggregate stone) IV.  6 mil Polyethyle ne V.  Expanded Polystyrene   PVC membrane: The large amount of PVC membrane in the BoM, comes solely from insulation of the roof which also includes the green roof of CIRS building , as shown in Appendix A. The wooden roof is insulated by a 60mm thick PVC membr ane as a roofing envelope. There was no information provided as to the specification of the PVC membrane in the architectural & structural drawings. Even the roof description just held the information of the presence of the PVC layer and no drawing is show n to quantify the membrane from. Therefore, the area of the membrane was calculated based on the area of the Roof elements.  Another assumption needed to me made in part for the input of PVC membrane quantity into Athena IE query, there was no category of PVC insulation  in Roof assembly. Therefore, this material was added into thena͛s inventory as an edžtra based material under “roofing”. ,owever, this input parameter reƋuired “<g” input for the WsC membrane material, and no information was available as to the density or weight of the membrane used in the building. A weight of 181kg per 92.9m 2  was used to calculate Athena compatible input parameter. This figure was acquired from a popular vendor of PVC membranes  Johns Manville :   JM Corporate Headquarters Table 1 – Bill of Materials   Center for Interactive Research o n Sustainability (CIRS)  Page 25 of 80  717  17th Street  Denver, Colorado 80202  Phone: 303.978.200 0  http://www.specjm.com/commercial/roofing/pvcsingle.asp    Figure 15 - weight assumed for PVC calculation Fiberglass batt :  Most of the fiberglass batt is used as acoustic insulation in the dry wall assemblies throughout the building enclave. This insulation ranges from 64 mm to 152 mm as per the wall assembly shown in wall assembly drawing A - 011. Although there was comprehensive information on wall assemblies, the source of ambiguity would be thena͛s database itself. thena /E does not reƋuire wall thicknesses as an input parameter and calculates them automatically as per the given height and length of the wall. This might prove to be quite erroneous, as it is uncertain what thickness of wall Athena determines and would it match the wall thickness given in the drawings. This would ultimately effect the actual calculations of the insulation and can lead to lower or higher estimates.   Ballast (aggregate): The third highest material quantity also comes from roof structure. However, this quantity is also based on the internal calculations by the Athena IE and cannot be ascertained through drawings. The roof structure of CIRS is laminated wood with vapour barrier, extruded polystyrene and PVC membrane layer, a small portion of the roof slab 83m 2  has concrete tile as roof envelope. Other than this small amount of concrete tiles, roof system of CIRs is made mostly of woo d and there is no detail of ballast to be confirmed from the drawings. The same uncertainty remains with the Athena calculated ballast at roof as was with acoustic insulation in walls, the parameters or mathematic equations are unknown and could lead to ex aggerated quantity estimates.  6 mil Polyethylene: Polyethylene is used as a vapor barrier in almost all the building components, but the highest quantity comes from the walls. 6 mil Polyethylene is a given parameter in Athena LCI inventory query forms and Athena calculates the volume of the vapor barrier based on wall area. The chance of area in this regards is minimum as all the input data is manually done by the software operator and volume can be calculated by simple arithmetic calculations.  Expanded Polystyrene: The insulation was found in roof and wall assemblies and varies from 150mm (roof) to 100mm (walls). Athena allow for variable thicknesses of the insulation and calculates volume from the given thickness parameter  and wall area from the length and area parameters of the wall. The chance of area in this regards is minimum as all the input data is manually done by the software operator and volume can be calculated by simple arithmetic calculations.  Although, BIM model for the CIRS building is available, the model itself is not rich enough with appropriate information to calculate the Bill of Materials as extensive as calculated by Athena Impact Estimator.    Center for Interactive Research o n Sustainability (CIRS)  Page 26 of 80   4.1.2 Energy Use: As already mentioned in Article 3.1.3 Use Phase, for the purpose of this study no formal calculations were made to measure the energy usage of the building neither by modeling the utilization nor by measuring meter readings from outside BC Hydro meters.   As from the above table, CIRS is designed to take all its power require ments from BC Hydro Grid and does not use gas or other fuel resources for energy generation. Through its unique heat exchange system CIRS is actually capable of providing heat energy to its adjacent building and contributes to minimize its heat use signatu re. 4.1.3 Impact Assessment: As described earlier , Athena Impact Estimator uses TRACI as an Impact assessment methodology to calculate the environmental impacts. TRACI is a problem oriented (mid- point) Impact assessment tool which covers assessment categories as Article 2.2.6. The following table describes the environmental impacts as per life cycle stages i.e. construction manufacturing etc and assembly groups i.e. foundations, walls etc:    Life Cycle Stage Process Global Warming Potential Assembly Group Building Total     Foundation Walls Floors Columns & Beams Roof  Manufacturing Total kg CO2 eq 100699.43 770669.08 156892.82 277791.15 13001.72 1319054.19   Construction Total kg CO2 eq 10327.19 46759.03 11838.45 6076.02 1693.68 76694.36  Maintenance Total kg CO2 eq 0.00 326656.10 0.00 0.00 31973.56 358629.66  End-of-Life Total kg CO2 eq 5240.71 19433.39 12825.57 18408.63 2545.61 58453.91 Life Cycle Stage   Process   Acidification Potential Assembly Group   Building Total Foundation Walls Floors Columns & Beams Roof  Manufacturing Total moles of H+ eq 35127.26 412496.43 53451.86 99131.38 7798.54 608005.47  Construction Total moles of H+ eq 4187.13 18726.21 4843.84 3647.38 540.02 31944.59  Maintenance Total moles of H+ eq 0.00 173589.26 0.00 0.00 23973.45 197562.71  End-of-Life Total moles of H+ eq 912.17 3481.13 1488.08 1390.37 190.42 7462.16 Table 2 – Energy Utility Summary Table 4 – Acidification Potential Table 3 – Global Warming Potential   Center for Interactive Research o n Sustainability (CIRS)  Page 27 of 80     Life Cycle Stage   Process     Weighted Resource Use Assembly Group   Building Total Foundation Walls Floors Columns & Beams Roof  Manufacturing Total ecologically weighted kg  1023900.74 3663336.32 1615360.84 1552138.83 172142.40 8026879.13   Construction Total ecologically weighted kg  3527.33 15162.67 4290.83 3532.93 535.65 27049.40  Maintenance Total ecologically weighted kg  0.00 387329.70 0.00 0.00 30907.63 418237.32  End-of-Life Total ecologically weighted kg  1781.87 6589.84 4493.68 6582.95 910.64 20358.98    From the above Table 5  and Table 6 , it is evident that during the manufacturing and construction phase, primary energy consumption and weighted resource use is very significant. This is because primary energy includes all energy used to transform and transport raw materials into products, as well as the indirect energy required for processing and transporting energy, which is dominant during the  manufacturing and construction stages. Resource use is associated with resource extraction, which is also predominant in the manufacturing stage, however a significant portion of the resource use is also seen in the maintenance & operations part as that involves input of resources in the form of  repairs, maintenance & renovation of building components . As for the HH respiratory  effects potential, eutrophication potential, ozone depletion potential, and smog potential categories, the  total effects on the CIRS  are not as extensive during the manufa cturing and design phases. Their impacts may become more significant during the operation, maintenance, and demolition stages.  4.1.4 Uncertainty: Many uncertainties are pertained in the process of carrying out LCA study of CIRS building due to the inherent complexity of the building product as well as study phases and tools used. Such uncertainties should be made explicit and transparent during the study to make the audience aware of any deficiency in the dataset or limitations in the tools used for the assessment process, giving a fair outlook towards the goal of the study. As described in above Article  ʹ2.2.8, limitations and assumptions made during this study are made explicit in the input and assumption document, see Appendix A.   The objective of Impac t Assessment is to present the environmental impacts of the system in a form that meets the purpose of the study and can be understood by users of the results. Specific use of assessment method is determined by appropriate study of goal and scope. Use of inappropriate assessment method “mid - point” for a study focused on damage of environmental impacts on human or ecosystem would create uncertain and false results.   Life Cycle Stage   Process   Fossil Fuel Use Assembly Group   Foundation Walls Floors Columns & Beams Roof Building Total  Manufacturing Total MJ 729640.17 6706949.83 1827890.57 5279912.64 319848.33 14864241.55   Construction Total MJ 151102.55 647519.92 183701.69 151024.19 22735.43 1156083.79  Maintenance Total MJ 0.00 1399065.43 0.00 0.00 878536.83 2277602.27  End-of-Life Total MJ 75653.38 279783.28 190817.43 279561.74 38672.87 864488.70 Table 5 – Fossil Fuel Use Table 6 – Weighted Resource Use   Center for Interactive Research o n Sustainability (CIRS)  Page 28 of 80  According to ISO 14040, the impact  assessment phase of LCA addresses only the environmental issues specified in the goal and scope and thus is not a complete assessment of all potential issues (Canadian Standards Association,  2006).   One major concern is that uncertainties (model, scenario and parameter) may be extremely high beyond well- characterized midpoints, resulting in a misleading sense of accuracy and improvement over the midpoint indicators when presented to weighting panels and decision makers. (Midpoints versus Endpoints: the Sacrifices and Benefits, Bare C Jane et al) . In this study fossil fuel impact category encompasses the total energy usage during different life cycle phases of the building however it does not differentiate between the different energy sources used for different work processes. This produces a high uncertainty in maintenance & operation life phase for Green buildings and especially in case of CIRS which is a self sustained net- zero energy building. In Vancouver the major grid energy comes from Hydro energy and does not utilize any fossil fuel usage to produce primary  energy. This in one way distort the results available in Athena IE, as construction and manufacturing processes based in BC, does not contribute to such higher fossil fuel usage as indicated by the impact assessment.   There are always data gaps and unavailability of data sets in an LCA study, rendering almost all the studies incomplete and with limited amount of uncertainty inherent in them. In this study many of the material details were made explicit neither in drawings nor in 3D BIM model, creating unc ertainty about the actual material used in the construction process and the input parameter chosen to be substituted in the LCI database. For example, there are no details of wood used for the treads of all the stairs in CIRS buildings in the drawings and it produces an obvious uncertainty between what is actually used in the building and what is appropriately assumed material to be take in the LCA model inventory.  Data uncertainty within the impact assessment phase arises from the characterization of  emissions, due to the dynamic nature of the various impacts. The impact categories can be heavily influenced by different factors such as unknown lifetimes of substances, time of year,  location, temperature, industrial activity, etc. In addition, the travel po tential of various emissions is not accounted for during the assessment, and could possibly have a significant effect on the results.  There is an inherent uncertainty in available data from sources (factories) which are geographically too apart from each other. Geographic differences have a significant effect on the reliability and validity of the life cycle assessment of a product, given to different ecological and behavioral conditions attributed to different regions. As Athena Impact Estimator LCIA engi ne works in the background with implicit database, it is hard put to judge the geographical impact of material sources taken in the IE and that of used in the construction of the CIRS building. Athena LCI  takes an average estimate of the impacts across a range of manufacturing facilities across an even wider range of geographic spread;  this underscores impacts due to environmental sensitivity of different regions and propagation of those effects to the construction site. The Climate change models in an LCA study takes into account for future emission scenarios to determine the effects of releases currently taking place. A certain time frame is required to quantify the impacts and carry out a substantial assessment process. Uncertainty in effect of climate over the time frame would have inaccurate and uncertain environmental impact calculations. The impact assessment performed on this study is not interpreted over time, nor does it account for the effects of varying climate and temperature. These temporal factors could be highly influential on the different impact categories.   Center for Interactive Research o n Sustainability (CIRS)  Page 29 of 80  4.1.5 Sensitivity Analysis: “The key purpose of sensitivity analysis is to identify and focus on key data and assumptions  that have most influence on a result. It can be used to simplify d ata collection and analysis without compromising the robustness of a result or to identify crucial data that must be thoroughly investigated.” ;Annex 31, Energy related environmental Impact of buildings, 2001)  For the purpose of this study, sensitivity analysis was carried out for the top 5 substantial and impact prone materials observed from the life cycle inventory. 1  ʹ PVC Membrane , 2 Fʹibreglass Batt (Acoustic Insulation), 3  ʹBallast (Aggregate), 4  ʹPolystyrene (6 mil), 5  ʹExpanded Polystyrene.      Effect of a 10% increment of the above material would be studied as a sensitivity change on life cycle stages as well as the impact categories of the building LCA . Sensitivity analysis of influential materials equip the user with a powerful decision making   & verification tool to observe and compare the effects on the overall performance of a building thus selecting the most optimal materials for an assembly. As per ISO 14044 : Sensitivity analysis enables assessment of the consequences on the LCIA results o f different value- choices and highlighting those in terms of impact category variations. 4.1.5.1  Primary Energy Use: In this study Primary Energy is the total energy used for making and moving the structural and envelope  materials, on- site construction, maintenance and repair or replacement of relevant materials (e.g., roofing) over the building life, demolition, and transportation to landfill or waste plant. This includes inherent energy contained in raw materials as well as indirect energy use associated with processing, converting, and delivering energy. Athena IE also converts the operational energy of a product and represents it in the form of primary energy use. Primary Energy Use is represented in mega Joule (MJ).   The change in the primary energy use is showcased in Fig 13, is due to 10% Increment in the above mentioned 5 materials. It is observed that PVC membrane yields the largest of effects on the primary energy usage among other materials. This significant peak is due to the fact that PVC roofi ng membranes require quite a lot of manufacturing and construction energy compared to the manufacturing and construction energy of the other 4 materials  as seen from Athena LCI for ICI roofing systems  ʹon site construction, 2001.   Athena Sustainable Mater ials Institute , “>ife Cycle inventory of /C/ roofing systems: Knsite construction effects”, Kttawa ϮϬϬϭ      Center for Interactive Research o n Sustainability (CIRS)  Page 30 of 80  The other materials do not contribute towards change in Primary energy use to the extent of PVC membrane as most of the materials, e.g. fiberglass, ballast etc are usually byproducts of some other manufacturing processes and do not have significant construction energy usage as well.   4.1.5.2  Weighted Resource Use: Measure  of all the natural resources that took to get or create the building materials is represented in Resource usage. This includes all the materials in the end product as well as everything required to install and manufacture the product, like formwork and false work , used in cast- in- place concrete. However, environmental impacts of extracting raw materials from different sources are not the same;  normalization is required to easily compare all of these resources. A n ecologically weighted system is used to compare construction products. The total is expressed as an ecologically weigh ted mass of raw material consumption in Kilograms .  In our study, as evident from the primary energy use “WsC roofing membrane” shows the highest peaŬ of resource usage which in retrospect explain higher energy usage as well.    10% PVC 10% FibrGls 10% Ballast 10% PolSty 10% Poleth Figure 16 - Sensitivity analysis for Primary Energy Use 41.91% 0.171%  0.04% 0.097% 0.282% 7.4% 0.031% 1.4% 0.013% 0.004%   Center for Interactive Research o n Sustainability (CIRS)  Page 31 of 80  44.3% 0.066% 0.03% 0.066% 0.029% 4.1.5.3  Global Warming Potential: Global warming potential is the measured in terms of greenhouse gas ability to trap heat in the atmosphere relative to carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) over specified time duration. This is measured in equivalence of CO 2   ʹmeans amount of emission producing the same global warming effect as a certain mass of CO 2 .  Studies5 have shown that the life cycle of PVC largely contributes to negative environmental impacts, such as green house gas emission, global warming, energy consumption and waste construction. Due to the high release of CO 2  gases during the manufacturing process of PVC , it is showing a significant signature in Global  warming potential for the CIRS building a substantial 38.9% increase with just 10% increase in material usage.  4.1.5.4  Acidification Potential: Gaseous pollutants that are released into the air are taken  up by atmospheric precipitations and the falling “acid rain” forms an acid input due to high concentrations of NOx and SO 2, which is absorbed by plants, soil and surface waters leading to leaf damage and super acidity of the soil.  . The AP of an air or water emission is calculated on the basis of its H+ equivalence effect on a mass basis  (Athena  IE ). PVC membrane as seen before contributes to the highest environmental impact signature due to high consumption of fossil fuel & resources during manufacturing process. 10% increment in PVC membrane yields 44.3% increase in acidification potential in CIRS building, which is a very significant and concerning measure.                                                            5  Tee S, Nursultanov  Y , Vanderhout  Z, “An Investigation into the Life Cycle of PVC and its Alternatives using Three - Bottom- Line As sessment”, UBC, 2010  38.9% 0.092% 0.07% 0.113% 0.013%   Center for Interactive Research o n Sustainability (CIRS)  Page 32 of 80  44.3% 0.066% 0.03% 0.066% 0.029% 38.3% 0.035% 0.12% 0.064% 0.008%  4.1.5.5  Human Health Respiratory Effects Potential: The EPA has identified "particulates" (from diesel fuel combustion) as the number one cause of human health deterioration due to their impact on the human respiratory system. The Athena Institute used dZC/͛s Η,uman Health Particulates from Mobile Sources" characterization factor, on an equivalent PM2.5 basis, in our final set of impact indicators (Athena IE).  Respiratory effects are measured as (kg PM2.5 eq / kg) . In our study PVC contributes to the highest respiratory effects with a significant 44.3% increase of impacts with every 10% increase in material. This is due to the high consumption of fossil fuel (which is the major contributor of particulates) during PVC manufacturing process. The other materials seem negligible in their contribution towards respiratory effects on humans.  4.1.5.6  Eutrophication Potential: "Eutrophication is defined as an increase in the rate of supply of organic matter in an ecosystem.” -  Nixon, 1995  When a previously scarce or limiting nutrient is added to a water body it leads to the proliferation of aquatic photosynthetic plant life. This may lead to a chain of further consequences ranging from foul odours to the death of fish. The calculated result is expressed on an equivalent m ass of nitrogen (N) basis.  In our study PVC contributes to the highest Eutrophication potential with a significant 38 .3% increase of impacts with every 10% increase in material. This is due to the high consumption of fossil fuel (which may in turn toxicat e the waters) during PVC manufacturing process. The other materials seem negligible in their contribution towards Eutrophication potential.   Center for Interactive Research o n Sustainability (CIRS)  Page 33 of 80  23.7% 0.010% 0.19% 0.001% 0.001% 36.9% 0.033% 0.09% 0.409% 0.004%  4.1.5.7  Ozone Depletion Potential: O zone depletion potential (ODP) is a relative value that indicates the potential of a substance to destroy ozone gas . O zone depleting substances (CFCs, HFCs, and halons) are responsible for reacting with the UV radiation and depleting the ozone layer in stratosphere. The ozone depletion potential of each of the contributing substances is characterized relative to CFC- 11, with the final impact indicator indicating mass (e.g., kg) of equivalent CFC - 11.  In our study PVC contributes to the highest Ozone depletion potential with a significant 23 .7 % increase of impacts with every 10% inc rease in material. This is due to the high consumption of fossil fuel (with high air emissions) during PVC manufacturing process. The other materials seem negligible in their contribution towards ODP . 4.1.5.8  Smog Potential: Certain climatic conditions air emissions from industries and transportation gets trapped at ground level and give rise to a phenomena known as photochemical ozone creation potential (POCP).  The photochemical oxidation, very often defined as summer smog, is the result of reactions that take place between nitrogen oxides (NOx) and volatile organic compounds (VOC) exposed to UV radiation . While ozone is not emitted directly, it is a product of interactions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and nitrogen odžides ;EKdžͿ. dhe “smog” indicator is expressed on a mass of equivalent NOx basis.  In our study PVC contributes to the highest POCP  with a significant 36.9 % increase of impacts with every 10% increase in material. This is due to the high consumption of fossil fuel (with high air emissions) during PVC manufacturing process. The other materials seem negligible in their contribution towards POCP .   Center for Interactive Research o n Sustainability (CIRS)  Page 34 of 80   4.1.6 Chain of Custody: CIRS is the first large, multi - story institutional building at the UBC to be completely constructed of ooden structure. The Structural system is constructed from Glulam framing system, supporting a solid wood deck. Over 50 per cent of the wood used in the project is certified by the Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) and the remaining is pine from forests affected by the Moun tain Pine Beetles.   Since the major part of the building is made from wood, it was our obvious choice of material for the chain of custody exercise. Chain of Custody (CoC) is chronological documentation or paper trail, tracking the material right till its extraction point. This would give useful information to the inquirer about the origins of the material and can be related to LCA study results to measure sensitivity of regional impacts and effects of geographic variations on the product.  Due to the different species of wood used in the structural system of CIRS building, it was found very difficult to track all the different forms of lumber used in the building. We concl uded on two major wooden types used in CIRS i.e. Glulam (Spruce, fir & pine) and Pine beetle infected wood . Due to the unavailability of any useful information in the drawing regarding the sourcing and manufacturing of those structural components we had to call the Architect  firm to acquire the information. Busby Perkin + Will, being a prominent firm in North America were very helpful but did not had the correct information that was required;  however they did managed to give the name of the Wood contractor M/s Heatherbrae, responsible for woodwork at CIRS. Sending a few emails and calling some of the engineers working there, we were able to get the required information about the manufacturer and location of extraction of the lumber for CIRS. We then contacte d the saw mill, to verify the information that they were the ones who supply this specific lumber to Heatherbrae and also the location of their wood extraction source. Heatherbrae also was vigilant enough to send us the LEED submission documents for the structural wood at CIRS, as a verification of the information forwarded to us.  Type of Wood Responsibility  Name Location, Address Glulam  Extraction/ Manufacturer  Western Archrib  4315, 92 Avenue, Edmonton, Alberta  Beetle Kill Wood  Manufacturing  Canfor 1920  Brownmiller rd, Quesnel   Figure 17 - Chain of Custody information   Center for Interactive Research o n Sustainability (CIRS)  Page 35 of 80   5. Functions and Impacts 5.1 Building Functions CIRS is a pilot project for the “Campus as a >iving >aboratory” initiative, which uses the infrastructure and building projects as opportunities to test demonstrate and do research on sustainable design solutions, innovative technology and clean energy.  The building is not designed to hold any particular discipline classes or lectures as in a typical institutional building; rather it was designed to accommodate a variety of different uses over the life of the building. The building mainly consists of open areas which are used for workstations, closed offices, dry lab space and meeting rooms.  The most unique feature of the building is its wastewater treatment system, which is located in a glass volume on the ground floor. This strategic positioning places one of the most important sustainable features of the project in a prominent and publicly visible location.  Several spaces in CIRS serve the following functions:   Office / Lab Space: The main spaces of the building are the academic spaces, located on the upper floors of the two thin wings on the north and south sides of the building. The offices have been fitted out to accommodate the requirements of the different tenant groups current ly in place and include open areas of workstations, closed offices, dry lab space and meeting rooms.   Modern Green Development Auditorium: Located on the ground floor, the auditorium is the largest on campus with 450 seat capacity and fills the space between the two narrow office block wings.  A living roof over the auditorium serves as an atrium for the upper floor offices.  Loop Cafe / Kitchen: Located on the ground floor the cafe serves only locally sources & seasonal foods.  BC Hydro Theatre: This is a group decision theatre on the ground floor and works as  a digital multi- media black box theatre  which is part of the communication aspect of the CIRS research agenda. Policy lab is another group decision place for large meetings and remote collaborations.  Figure 18 - Modern Green Development Auditorium   Center for Interactive Research o n Sustainability (CIRS)  Page 36 of 80  Commons and Student Lounges : Informal common spaces available to the public are located on the bridges of the second, third and fourth floors of the atrium. The common spaces and the student lounges in some of the office areas provide places for casual interactions, studying and socializing.   Campus Storage :  UBC Classroom Services previously used the CIRS site for a small warehouse housing the short- term storage of furniture. That function is now transferred to a large storage space in the basement of the CIRS building.   Building Systems and Services Spaces : Most of the service spaces and rooms for building systems are located in the basement, including electrical rooms, pump rooms, potable water processing room and the main data and communication room.  Building Operations Center : The Building Monitoring and Assessment Lab, including the CIRS Operations Center, are located on the third floor. This is where the building and its systems are monitored and the data recorded is collected.  The building is composed of the following areas:   Functional Area Type Gross Floor Area (ft2) Percentage of Total Building Area (%) Classrooms 4938.1056 11.42 Offices/Office Spaces 6078.496 14.06 Testing labs  N/A  Library  N/A  Study/Research/Prep/Computer lab rooms 10285.0304 23.79 Storage rooms 2151.68 4.98 Stairwells/Halls/ Atriums 10252.7552 23.71 Washrooms/ Locker rooms 430.336 1.0 Mechanical rooms 2883.2512 6.67 Auditorium/ Lecture Halls 6218.3552 14.38 Total Area 43238 ft2     5.2 Functional Unit: Functional unit is primarily used to provide normalization reference to the input and output data (mathematically) for the LCA study.  Therefore the functional unit shall be clearly defined and measurable. Different systems can be compared with each other on the basis of similar functions and measured by the same functional unit(s) in the form of their reference flows. Any assumptions or additional information utilized to develop the functional units for any process system should be documented and made explicit in th e study.   The functional units used in this study to normalize the LCA results for the CIRS Building  include:  Table 7 – Functional Areas   Center for Interactive Research o n Sustainability (CIRS)  Page 37 of 80  5.2.1 Per generic post-secondary academic building square foot constructed (e.g. Impact/building gross area):  The Table- 8  shows the environmental impacts distributed over the gross area of the CIRS building ;  this normalization of the impacts  would allow comparative assertions of the impacts with other buildings on the basis of gross area. This generalized impact per area distribution can be compar ed to any building area of similar functionality.    5.2.2 Per specific post-secondary academic building square foot constructed (e.g. Impact/classroom gross area)  The Table- 9 shows the environment al impacts distributed over the gross functional space area of the CIRS building; this normalization of the impacts would allow comparative assertions of the impacts with other functional spaces of different buildings. This generalized impact per functiona l space area distribution can be compared to any other functional area.  Classroom impacts can be compared to any other classroom, given that the goal and scope of that study falls close to the goal & scope of CIRS LCA study. The purpose of the reference f lows is to translate the abstract functional unit into specific product flows for each of the compared systems, so that product alternatives are compared on an equivalent basis, reflecting the actual  consequences of the potential product substitution. Life Cycle Stages Manufacturing    Construction   Maintenance    End- of- Life    Total   Lif eCycle Impact Categories Fossil Fuel Consumption MJ  317.96704  22.68563  132.73834  14.20012  487.59113  Weighted Resource Use kg  146.75390  0.53042  16.08089  0.33442  163.69963  Global Warming Potential (kg CO2 eq)  27.87589  1.42207  12.84668  0.96420  43.10884  Acidification Potential (moles of H+ eq)  12.05524  0.61119  5.65710  0.13091  18.45445  HH Respiratory Effects Potent ial (kg PM2.5 eq)  0.10388  0.00072  0.08107  0.00015  0.18581  Eutrophication Potential (kg N eq)  0.01231  0.00062  0.00566  0.00011  0.01870  Ozone Depletion Potential (kg CFC - 11 eq)  7.73E - 08  3.59E - 11  5.99E - 08  4.22E - 11  1.37E - 07  Smog Potential (kg NOx eq)  0.11781  0.01418  0.05292  0.00257  0.18748  Total Area 66123.00 ft2 504.88606 25.26482 167.46266 15.63249 713.24604 Table 8 – Impacts per CIRS gross area     Center for Interactive Research o n Sustainability (CIRS)  Page 38 of 80   Building Functional Spaces   Classroom Office spaces/ meeting rooms Study/ research/ Computer lab Storage rooms Stairwell/ Atrium/ cafe' Washrooms / locker rooms Mechanical Rooms Auditorium/ lecture halls   Area %age  11.42%  14.06%  23.79%  4.98%  23.71%  1.00%  6.67%  14.38%  Lif Cycle Impact Categories Total Impacts  Fossil Fuel Consumption MJ 32240988.16  3681920.85  4533082.94  7670131.08  1605601.21  7644338.29  322409.88  2150473.91  4636254.10  Weighted Resource Use kg 10824310.6  1236136.27  1521898.07  2575103.49  539 050.67  2566444.04  108243.11  721981.52  1556535.86  Global Warming Potential (kg CO2 eq) 2850485.918  325525.49  400778.32  678130.60  141954.20  675850.21  28504.86  190127.41  409899.88  Acidification Potential (moles of H+ eq) 1220263.403  139354.08  171569.03  2903 00.66  60769.12  289324.45  12202.63  81391.57  175473.88  HH Respiratory Effects Potential (kg PM2.5 eq) 12286.23565  1403.09  1727.44  2922.90  611.85  2913.07  122.86  819.49  1766.76  Eutrophication Potential (kg N eq) 1236.551418  141.21  173.86  294.18  61.58  293.19  12.37  82.48  177.82  Ozone Depletion Potential (kg CFC-11 eq) 0.009077895  1.04E - 03  1.28E - 03  2.16E - 03  4.52E - 04  2.15E - 03  9.08E - 05  6.05E - 04  1.31E - 03  Smog Potential (kg NOx eq) 12396.99779  1415.74  1743.02  2949.25  617.37  2939.33  123.97  826.88  1782.69  Functional Total Area 43238.00 ft2 Total Impacts / functional space 5385896.73 6630972.68 11219832.16 2348666.00 11182102.58 471619.68 3145703.26 6781890.98    5.2.3 Per generic post-secondary academic building cubic foot constructed (e.g. Impact/building gross volume)  The Table- 10  shows the environmental impacts distributed over the building volume of the CIRS building; this normalization of the impacts would allow comparative assertions of the impacts with other functional spaces of different buildings in terms of spatial parameters (volumes). This generalized impact per building volume distribution can be compared to any other functional volume.  Environmental impacts can be compared to any other buildings spatially, given that the goal and scope of that study falls close to the goal & scope of CIRS LCA study. Spatial comparison provides further elaboration towards distribution of the environmental impacts relative to the form and physical entity of the built environment.  Table 9 – Impacts per CIRS functional space area    Center for Interactive Research o n Sustainability (CIRS)  Page 39 of 80      Life Cycle Stages   Manufacturing  Construction Maintenance  End- of- Life  Total Lif Cycle Impact Categories Total building Impacts Impact/ft3 Impact/ft3 Impact/ft3 Impact/ft3 Impact/ft3 Fossil Fuel Consumption MJ  32240988.16  25.12937  1.79288  10.49049  1.12226  38.53499  Weighted Resource Use kg  10824310.6  11.59816  0.04192  1.27089  0.02643  12.93740  Global Warming Potential (kg CO2 eq)  2850485.918  2.20307  0.11239  1.01529  0.07620  3.40695  Acidification Potential (moles of H+ eq)  1220263.403  0.95274  0.04830  0.44709  0.01035  1.45848  HH Respiratory Effects Potential (kg PM2.5 eq)  12286.23565  0.00821  0.00006  0.00641  0.00001  0.01468  Eutrophication Potential (kg N eq)  1236.551418  0.00097  0.00005  0.00045  0.00001  0.00148  Ozone Depletion Potential (kg CFC - 11 eq)  0.009077895  6.11E - 09  2.84E - 12  4.73E - 09  3.3 4E - 12  1.09E - 08  Smog Potential (kg NOx eq)  12396.99779  0.00931  0.00112  0.00418  0.00020  0.01482  Total Volume 836667.86 ft3 47161967.87 39.90183 1.99671 13.23480 1.23546 56.36881    5.2.4 Per post-secondary academic building energy use  Since CIRS is des igned specifically as a test bed and demonstration platform (proof of concept) for net-zero energy and regenerative building technologies, it would be quite informative to find out the environmental impacts of the building per energy utilized during its op erations. However, to make our study simpler and to allocate custody of impacts, we have considered transferring all the environmental impacts associated with manufacturing and construction of CIRS building to the operations and maintenance stage.  This sort of functional distribution would be beneficial in comparing CIRS LCA study to other green building per their energy usage and also to other buildings. This would ascertain environmental impacts of sustainable and non- sustainable buildings against a baseline of their actual performance in terms of energy utility. CIRS is unique in this aspect as it has standalone energy consumption as well as is responsible of exchanging heat energy with adjacent EOS building. We have considered the standalone yearly energy consumption as this would give a generic baseline to be comparable with other buildings. Table 11 illustrates distribution Table 10 – Impacts per CIRS volume Figure 16 – CIRS Heating system highlighting heat exchange between EOS    Center for Interactive Research o n Sustainability (CIRS)  Page 40 of 80  of environmental impacts per impact categories per stand alone energy consumption of CIRS.   Life Cycle Stages    Manufacturing  Construction Maintenance  End- of- Life  Total Lif Cycle Impact Categories  Total building Impacts  Impact/(ekWh/yr)  Impact/(ekWh/yr)  Impact/(ekWh/yr)  Impact/(ekWh/yr)  Impact/(ekWh/yr)  Fossil Fuel Consumption MJ  32240988.16  53.64462  3.82732  22.39445  2.39572  82.26 211  Weighted Resource Use kg  10824310.6  24.75903  0.08949  2.71303  0.05642  27.61797  Global Warming Potential (kg CO2 eq)  2850485.918  4.70298  0.23992  2.16738  0.16267  7.27295  Acidification Potential (moles of H+ eq)  1220263.403  2.03385  0.10312  0.95442  0.022 09  3.11347  HH Respiratory Effects Potential (kg PM2.5 eq)  12286.23565  0.01752  0.00012  0.01368  0.00002  0.03135  Eutrophication Potential (kg N eq)  1236.551418  0.00208  0.00010  0.00095  0.00002  0.00316  Ozone Depletion Potential (kg CFC - 11 eq)  0.009077895  1.3 0E - 08  6.06E - 12  1.01E - 08  7.12E - 12  2.32E - 08  Smog Potential (kg NOx eq)  12396.99779  0.01988  0.00239  0.00893  0.00043  0.03163  Total Area 391930.00 ekWh/yr   85.17996  4.26246  28.25284  2.63738  120.33263    Some of the references to highlight the importance of comparative assertion of environmental impacts per energy usage of the buildings.  “Buildings accounted for 38.9 percent of total U.S. energy consumption in 2005. Residential buildings accounted for 53.7 percent of that total, while commercial buildings accounted for the other 46.3 percent. Buildings in contribute 38.9 percent of the nation’s total carbon dioxide emissions, including 20.8 percent from the residential sector and 18.0 percent from the commercial sector (2008).”6                                                            6 Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the United States 2007,  DO E/EIA - 0573(2007), Energy Information Administra tion, U.S. Department of Energy December 2008   http://www.eia.doe.gov/oiaf/1605/ggrpt/index.html  Table 11 – Impacts per CIRS yearly standalone energy consumption Figure 17 – Impact of energy use on environmental changes & impacts http://energysavingnow.com/energytoday/environment.shtml    Center for Interactive Research o n Sustainability (CIRS)  Page 41 of 80   6. Conclusion   The Life cyc le assessment of CIRS building was carried out to built up a benchmark for future green buildings at UBC campus as well as a proof of claim of sustainability and net- zero energy performance. To achieve those goals a formulated approach was taken from quant ity take - off using different state- of-art software, to preparing as thorough an inventory of building components & assemblies as was possible from the available information, modeling was done with Athena Impact Estimator which has one of the largest life cycle inventory database in North America. Assumptions and limitations of the software as well as the data were document in order to make the process transparent for any future reference or comparisons, this included explicit documentation in the form of in put and assumption documents appendix to this report.   Results from the life cycle assessment produced considerable information to manipulate and interpolate the findings into coherent and meaningful parameters. A comprehensive Bill of Materials was genera ted from the Athena IE which included the quantities from the input document as well as other material quantities generated by Athena LCI database, given the manufacturing process of those building assemblies. A set of 5 most significant materials was sele cted to study the effect of change of those materials on building environmental impact footprint. Sensitivity analysis was carried out to interpret and juxtapose the results of that material change, which showed that PVC membrane used as water proofing of roof structure bore the highest change signature on environmental impacts throughout the building life stages.  Impact Estimator summarizes the impacts under 8 categories showing distribution of through the life cycle stages of the building. As site prepar ation / existing facilities and waste disposal was not part of the study, life cycle stages were cut off at end of life process (demolition) and does not include any impacts associated with product reuse or recycling.   From the analysis it is evident that CIRS stand up to the test of being sustainable and contributing positively towards its environment.   This LCA study of the CIRS  Building can be further developed and improved by further elaborating the scope of the study and filling the missing or ambiguous data gaps, marring the current analysis. Performing  more detailed takeoffs that include assemblies such as mechanical, HVAC, flooring, finishes, and other renewable energy outfits like Photovoltaic equipment, would also result in a more representative model of the building. The simplifications employed during modeling could also be refined to provide more accurate findings. As for impact assessment, using a  more thorough and extensive LCA software that can model more complex scenarios in a transparent  way, such as SimaPro, can yield more reliable results.   Center for Interactive Research o n Sustainability (CIRS)  Page 42 of 80   7. References   Canadian Standards Association. (2006). CSA Standard CAN/CSA-ISO 14040:06. International  Organization for Standardization (ISO).   Canadian Standards Association. (2006). CSA Standard CAN/CSA-ISO 14044:06. International  Organization for Standardization (ISO).   Athena Sustainable Materials Institute , “>ife Cycle inventory of /C/ roofing systems: Knsite construction effects”, Kttawa ϮϬϬϭ  http://www.eia.doe.gov/oiaf/1605/ggrpt/index.html    Center for Interactive Research o n Sustainability (CIRS)  Page 43 of 80   8. Appendix A – Impact Estimator Input Document  Assembly Group Assembly Type Assembly Name Input Fields Input Values Known/Measured IE Inputs 1 Foundations             1.2  Concrete SoG             1.2.1 SoG_Mech Mat_150mm             Length (ft) 73.79672 90.42       Width (ft) 73.79672 90.42       Thickness (in) 6 4       Concrete (psi) 4350 4000       Concrete flyash % 30 25       Rebar 10M 10M                 1.2.2 SoG_Mat_1_150mm_Auditorium             Length (ft) 10.8 13.24       Width (ft) 10.8 13.24       Thickness (in) 6 4       Concrete (psi) 4350 4000       Concrete flyash % 30 25       Rebar                     1.2.3 SoG_Mat_2_150mm_Auditorium             Length (ft) 16.2 19.86       Width (ft) 16.2 19.86       Thickness (in) 6 4       Concrete (psi) 4350 4000       Concrete flyash % 30 25       Rebarr                   1.3 Concrete Footing             1.3.1 Elevator_Footing_NorthWest             Length (ft) 4.27 4.27       Width (ft) 4.27 4.27       Thickness (in) 12 12       Concrete (psi) 4350 4000       Concrete flyash % 50 35       Rebar 15M 15M                 1.3.1 Elevator_Footing_NorthEast             Length (ft) 4.1 4.1       Width (ft) 4.1 4.1       Thickness (in) 12 12       Concrete (psi) 4350 4000       Concrete flyash % 50 35   Center for Interactive Research o n Sustainability (CIRS)  Page 44 of 80        Rebar 15M 15M                 1.3.2 PullPit_Footing_200mm Length (ft) 3.34 3.34       Width (ft) 1.8 1.8       Thickness (in) 8 8       Concrete (psi) 4350 4000       Concrete flyash % 50 35       Rebar 15M 15M                 1.3.3 Footing_F1 (Strip) Length (ft) 77.75 77.75       Width (ft) 4 4       Thickness (in) 10 10       Concrete (psi) 4350 4000       Concrete flyash % 50 35       Rebar 20M 20M                 1.3.4 Footing_F2 (Strip) Length (ft) 212.082 212.082       Width (ft) 4.333 4.333       Thickness (in) 10 10       Concrete (psi) 4350 4000       Concrete flyash % 50 35       Rebar 20M 20M         25M 20M                 1.3.5 Footing_F3 (Strip) Length (ft) 104.21 104.21       Width (ft) 2.1667 2.1667       Thickness (in) 8 8       Concrete (psi) 4350 4000       Concrete flyash % 50 35       Rebar 15M 15M                 1.3.6 Footing_F4 Length (ft) 40.002 40.002       Width (ft) 40.002 40.002       Thickness (in) 12 12       Concrete (psi) 4350 4000       Concrete flyash % 50 35       Rebar 25M 20M                 1.3.7 Footing_F5 Length (ft) 12 12       Width (ft) 12 12       Thickness (in) 14 14       Concrete (psi) 4350 4000       Concrete flyash % 50 35       Rebar 25M 20M             2  Walls             2.1  Cast In Place             2.1.1  Wall_Cast-in-place_W1-W2_Basement             Length (m) 127 127       Height (m) 4.2 4.2       Thickness (mm) 300 -       Concrete (MPa) 30 30   Center for Interactive Research o n Sustainability (CIRS)  Page 45 of 80        Concrete flyash % - average       Rebar 15M 15M     Door Opening Number of Doors 16 16       Door Type Steel Interior Door Steel Interior Door     2.1.2  Wall_Cast-in-place_E1-W1_Basement             Length (m) 93 93       Height (m) 4.2 4.2       Thickness (mm) 300 -       Concrete (MPa) 30 30       Concrete flyash % - average       Rebar 15M & 20M 15M     Envelope Category Insulation Insulation       Material R20 CT Insultation Expanded Plystyrene       Thickness (mm) - 100       Category Vapour Barrier Vapour Barrier       Material Dampproofing 6 mil poly       Thickness (mm) - -     2.1.3  Wall_Cast-in-place_E1-SW5_Basement             Length (m) 70 81.667       Height (m) 4.2 4.2       Thickness (mm) 350 300       Concrete (MPa) 30 30       Concrete flyash % - average       Rebar 20M 20M     Envelope Category Insulation Insulation       Material R20 CT Insultation Expanded Plystyrene       Thickness (mm) - 100       Category Vapour Barrier Vapour Barrier       Material Dampproofing 6 mil poly       Thickness (mm) - -     Door Opening Number of Doors 4 4       Door Type Steel Interior Door Steel Interior Door     2.1.4 Wall_Cast-in-place_E1-SW4_Basement             Length (m) 36 36       Height (m) 4.2 4.2       Thickness (mm) 300 300       Concrete (MPa) 30 30       Concrete flyash % - average       Rebar 20M 20M     Envelope Category Insulation Insulation       Material R20 CT Insultation Expanded Plystyrene       Thickness (mm) - 100       Category Vapour Barrier Vapour Barrier       Material Dampproofing 6 mil poly       Thickness (mm) - -     2.1.5 Wall_Cast-in-place_W1-W3_Basement             Length (m) 25 25       Height (m) 4.2 4.2       Thickness (mm) 300 300       Concrete (MPa) 30 30       Concrete flyash % - average   Center for Interactive Research o n Sustainability (CIRS)  Page 46 of 80        Rebar 15M 15M     Door Opening Number of Doors 4 4       Door Type Steel Interior Door Steel Interior Door     2.1.6 Wall_Cast-in-place_W1-SW1_Basement             Length (m) 24 24       Height (m) 4.2 4.2       Thickness (mm) 300 300       Concrete (MPa) 30 30       Concrete flyash % - average       Rebar 20M 20M     Door Opening Number of Doors 2 2       Door Type Steel Interior Door Steel Interior Door     2.1.7 Wall_Cast-in-place_E1-SW3_Basement             Length (m) 14 14       Height (m) 4.2 4.2       Thickness (mm) 300 300       Concrete (MPa) 30 30       Concrete flyash % - average       Rebar 15M & 20M 15M     Envelope Category Insulation Insulation       Material R20 CT Insultation Polystyrene Expanded       Thickness (mm) - 100       Category Vapour Barrier Vapour Barrier       Material Dampproofing 6 mil poly       Thickness (mm) - -     2.1.8 Wall_Cast-in-place_W1-SW2_Basement             Length (m) 13 26       Height (m) 4.2 4.2       Thickness (mm) 600 300       Concrete (MPa) 30 30       Concrete flyash % - average       Rebar 20M 20M     2.1.9 Wall_Cast-in-place_W1-SW1_Ground             Length (m) 63 63       Height (m) 6.5 6.5       Thickness (mm) 300 300       Concrete (MPa) 30 30       Concrete flyash % - average       Rebar 20M 20M     Door Opening Number of Doors 5 5       Door Type Solid Wood Solid Wood Door     2.1.10 Wall_Cast-in-place_E1-SW4_Ground             Length (m) 43 43       Height (m) 4.2 4.2       Thickness (mm) 300 300       Concrete (MPa) 30 30       Concrete flyash % - average       Rebar 20M 20M     Envelope Category Insulation Insulation       Material R20 CT Insultation Polystyrene Expanded       Thickness (mm) - 100   Center for Interactive Research o n Sustainability (CIRS)  Page 47 of 80        Category Vapour Barrier Vapour Barrier       Material Dampproofing 6 mil poly       Thickness (mm) - -     Window Opening Number of Windows 8 8       Total Window Area (ft2) 4.9 4.9       Frame Type Fixed, Aluminum Frame Fixed, Aluminum Frame       Glazing Type Low E Argon Filled Glazing Low E Tin Argon Filled Glazing     Door Opening Number of Doors 1 1       Door Type Solid Wood Solid Wood Door     2.1.11 Wall_Cast-in-place_E3.1-SW4_Ground             Length (m) 42 42       Height (m) 4.2 4.2       Thickness (mm) 300 300       Concrete (MPa) 30 30       Concrete flyash % - average       Rebar 20M 20M     Steel Stud Sheathing Type - None       Stud Spacing 400oc 600oc       Stud Weight - Light (25Ga)       Stud Thickness - 38 x 92     Envelope Category Cladding Cladding       Material 90 sawn face concrete masonry Brick - concrete       Thickness (mm) - -       Category Paint Paint       Material Elastomeric paint Varnish solvent based       Thickness (mm) - -       Category Vapour Barrier Vapour Barrier       Material Dampproofing 6 mil poly       Thickness (mm) - -       Category Insulation Insulation       Material R20 Mineral wool Rockwool Batt       Thickness (mm) 119 140       Category Gypsum Board Gypsum Board       Material Gypsum Regular 5/8" Gypsum Regular 5/8"       Thickness (mm) - -     Door Opening Number of Doors 2 2       Door Type Glass Panel Aluminum Exteror Door, 80% glazing     2.1.12 Wall_Cast-in-place_Wood studs_E2_Ground             Length (m) 33 33       Height (m) 4.2 4.2       Thickness (mm) 300 300       Concrete (MPa) 30 30       Concrete flyash % - average       Rebar 15M & 20M 20M     Wood Stud Wall Type Non leadbearing Non leadbearing       Sheathing Type 19 solid wood slats Plywood       Study Spacing 600oc 600oc       Stud Type Kiln dried Kiln dried       Stud Thickness 38 x 89 38 x 89   Center for Interactive Research o n Sustainability (CIRS)  Page 48 of 80      Steel Stud Sheathing Type - None       Stud Spacing 600oc 600oc       Stud Weight - Light (25Ga)       Stud Thickness - 38 x 92     Envelope Category Vapour Barrier Vapour Barrier       Material Dampproofing 6 mil poly       Thickness (mm) - -       Category Insulation Insulation       Material R20 CT Insultation Polystyrene Expanded       Thickness (mm) - 100       Category Gypsum Board Gypsum Board       Material Gypsum Regular 5/8" Gypsum Regular 5/8"       Thickness (mm) - -       Category Black out fabric -       Material - -       Thickness (mm) - -     2.1.13 Wall_Cast-in-place_E1-W1_Ground             Length (m) 33 33       Height (m) 5 5       Thickness (mm) 300 300       Concrete (MPa) 30 30       Concrete flyash % - average       Rebar 15M & 20M 20M     Envelope Category Vapour Barrier Vapour Barrier       Material Dampproofing 6 mil poly       Thickness (mm) - -       Category Insulation Insulation       Material R20 CT Insultation Polystyrene Expanded       Thickness (mm) - 100     Window Opening Number of Windows 5 5       Total Window Area (ft2) 3.1 3.1       Frame Type Fixed, Aluminum Frame Fixed, Aluminum Frame       Glazing Type Low E Argon Filled Glazing Low E Tin Argon Filled Glazing     Door Opening Number of Doors 1 1       Door Type Glass Panel Aluminum Exteror Door, 80% glazing     2.1.14 Wall_Cast-in-place_W1-W2_Ground             Length (m) 27 27       Height (m) 2.5 2.5       Thickness (mm) 200 300       Concrete (MPa) 30 30       Concrete flyash % - average       Rebar 15M 15M     2.1.15 Wall_Cast-in-place_Theatre roundback_Ground             Length (m) 17 17       Height (m) 4.2 4.2       Thickness (mm) 250 300       Concrete (MPa) 30 30   Center for Interactive Research o n Sustainability (CIRS)  Page 49 of 80        Concrete flyash % - average       Rebar 15M 15M     Envelope Category Vapour Barrier Vapour Barrier       Material Dampproofing 6 mil poly       Thickness (mm) - -       Category Insulation Insulation       Material R20 CT Insultation Polystyrene Expanded       Thickness (mm) - 100     2.1.16 Wall_Cast-in-place_Retaining_Ground             Length (m) 15 13       Height (m) 1.5 1.5       Thickness (mm) 250 300       Concrete (MPa) 30 30       Concrete flyash % - average       Rebar - 15M     2.1.17 Wall_Cast-in-place_E1-SW5_Ground             Length (m) 16 19       Height (m) 5.3 5.3       Thickness (mm) 350 300       Concrete (MPa) 30 30       Concrete flyash % - average       Rebar 20M 20M     Envelope Category Vapour Barrier Vapour Barrier       Material Dampproofing 6 mil poly       Thickness (mm) - -       Category Insulation Insulation       Material R20 CT Insultation Polystyrene Expanded       Thickness (mm) - 100     Door Opening Number of Doors 1 1       Door Type Glass Panel Aluminum Exteror Door, 80% glazing     2.1.18 Wall_Cast-in-place_W1-SW2_Ground             Length (m) 13 26       Height (m) 4.2 4.2       Thickness (mm) 600 300       Concrete (MPa) 30 30       Concrete flyash % - average       Rebar 20M 20M     2.1.19 Wall_Cast-in-place_E1-W1_Level 02             Length (m) 18 18       Height (m) 5.3 5.3       Thickness (mm) 300 300       Concrete (MPa) 30 30       Concrete flyash % - average       Rebar 15M & 20M 20M     Envelope Category Vapour Barrier Vapour Barrier       Material Dampproofing 6 mil poly       Thickness (mm) - -       Category Insulation Insulation       Material R20 CT Polystyrene Expanded   Center for Interactive Research o n Sustainability (CIRS)  Page 50 of 80  Insultation       Thickness (mm) - 100     Window Opening Number of Windows 5 5       Total Window Area (ft2) 3.1 3.1       Frame Type Fixed, Aluminum Frame Fixed, Aluminum Frame       Glazing Type Low E Argon Filled Glazing Low E Tin Argon Filled Glazing     2.1.20 Wall_Cast-in-place_W1-W2_Level 02             Length (m) 6 6       Height (m) 5.3 5.3       Thickness (mm) 200 300       Concrete (MPa) 30 30       Concrete flyash % - average       Rebar 15M 15M   2.2  Steel Stud             2.2.1  Wall_Steel stud_WA7_Basement             Length (ft) 45 45       Height (ft) 4.2 4.2       Sheathing Type None None       Stud Spacing 600oc 600oc       Stud Weight - Light (25Ga)       Stud Thickness 152 152     Envelope Category Gypsum Board Gypsum Board       Material Gypsum Regular 5/8" Gypsum Regular 5/8"       Thickness - -       Category Gypsum Board Gypsum Board       Material Gypsum Regular 5/8" Gypsum Regular 5/8"       Thickness - -     Door Opening Number of Doors 2 2       Door Type Solid Wood Solid Wood Door     2.2.2  Wall_Steel stud_WA7/7.2_Ground             Length (ft) 136 136       Height (ft) 6.5 6.5       Sheathing Type None None       Stud Spacing 600oc 600oc       Stud Weight - Light (25Ga)       Stud Thickness 152 152     Envelope Category Gypsum Board Gypsum Board       Material Gypsum Regular 5/8" Gypsum Regular 5/8"       Thickness - -       Category Gypsum Board Gypsum Board       Material Gypsum Regular 5/8" Gypsum Regular 5/8"       Thickness - -       Category Insulation Insulation       Material Acoustic Fiberglass Batt       Thickness (mm) - 152     Door Opening Number of Doors 17 17       Door Type Solid Wood Solid Wood Door     2.2.3  Wall_Steel stud_bathroom_Ground         Center for Interactive Research o n Sustainability (CIRS)  Page 51 of 80        Length (ft) 43 43       Height (ft) 2.5 2.5       Sheathing Type - None       Stud Spacing - 600oc       Stud Weight - Light (25Ga)       Stud Thickness - 152     Envelope Category Gypsum Board Gypsum Board       Material Gypsum Regular 5/8" Gypsum Regular 5/8"       Thickness - -       Category Ceramic wall tiles (CT-3 to 10) -       Material - -       Thickness - -     Door Opening Number of Doors 2 2       Door Type Solid Wood Solid Wood Door     2.2.4  Wall_Steel stud_W14_Ground             Length (ft) 14 14       Height (ft) 5.3 5.3       Sheathing Type - None       Stud Spacing 610oc 600oc       Stud Weight - Light (25Ga)       Stud Thickness 39 x 64 38 x 92     Envelope Category Gypsum Board Gypsum Board       Material 1" GWB X-TYP Gypsum Moisture Resistant 1/2"       Thickness - -       Category - Gypsum Board       Material - Gypsum Moisture Resistant 1/2"       Thickness - -       Category Insulation Insulation       Material Acoustic Fiberglass Batt       Thickness (mm) - 64     2.2.5  Wall_Steel stud_WA7_Level 02             Length (ft) 44 44       Height (ft) 4.2 4.2       Sheathing Type None None       Stud Spacing 600oc 600oc       Stud Weight - Light (25Ga)       Stud Thickness 39 x 152 38 x 152     Envelope Category Gypsum Board Gypsum Board       Material Gypsum Regular 5/8" Gypsum Regular 5/8"       Thickness - -       Category Gypsum Board Gypsum Board       Material Gypsum Regular 5/8" Gypsum Regular 5/8"       Thickness - -     Door Opening Number of Doors 5 5       Door Type Solid Wood Solid Wood Door     2.2.6  Wall_Steel stud_bathroom_Level 02             Length (ft) 10 10       Height (ft) 4.2 4.2       Sheathing Type - None   Center for Interactive Research o n Sustainability (CIRS)  Page 52 of 80        Stud Spacing - 600oc       Stud Weight - Light (25Ga)       Stud Thickness - 152     Envelope Category Gypsum Board Gypsum Board       Material Gypsum Regular 5/8" Gypsum Regular 5/8"       Thickness - -       Category Ceramic wall tiles (CT-3 to 10) -       Material - -       Thickness - -     2.2.7  Wall_Steel stud_W14_Level 02             Length (ft) 8 8       Height (ft) 4.2 4.2       Sheathing Type - None       Stud Spacing 610oc 600oc       Stud Weight - Light (25Ga)       Stud Thickness 39 x 64 38 x 92     Envelope Category Gypsum Board Gypsum Board       Material 1" GWB X-TYP Gypsum Moisture Resistant 1/2"       Thickness - -       Category - Gypsum Board       Material - Gypsum Moisture Resistant 1/2"       Thickness - -       Category Insulation Insulation       Material Acoustic Fiberglass Batt       Thickness (mm) - 64     2.2.8  Wall_Steel stud_WA7_Level 03             Length (ft) 44 44       Height (ft) 4.2 4.2       Sheathing Type None None       Stud Spacing 600oc 600oc       Stud Weight - Light (25Ga)       Stud Thickness 39 x 152 38 x 152     Envelope Category Gypsum Board Gypsum Board       Material Gypsum Regular 5/8" Gypsum Regular 5/8"       Thickness - -       Category Gypsum Board Gypsum Board       Material Gypsum Regular 5/8" Gypsum Regular 5/8"       Thickness - -     Door Opening Number of Doors 3 3       Door Type Solid Wood Solid Wood Door     2.2.9  Wall_Steel stud_bathroom_Level 03             Length (ft) 10 10       Height (ft) 4.2 4.2       Sheathing Type - None       Stud Spacing - 600oc       Stud Weight - Light (25Ga)       Stud Thickness - 152     Envelope Category Gypsum Board Gypsum Board       Material Gypsum Regular 5/8" Gypsum Regular 5/8"   Center for Interactive Research o n Sustainability (CIRS)  Page 53 of 80        Thickness - -       Category Ceramic wall tiles (CT-3 to 10) -       Material - -       Thickness - -     2.2.10  Wall_Steel stud_W14_Level 03             Length (ft) 8 8       Height (ft) 4.2 4.2       Sheathing Type - None       Stud Spacing 610oc 600oc       Stud Weight - Light (25Ga)       Stud Thickness 39 x 64 38 x 92     Envelope Category Gypsum Board Gypsum Board       Material 1" GWB X-TYP Gypsum Moisture Resistant 1/2"       Thickness - -       Category - Gypsum Board       Material - Gypsum Moisture Resistant 1/2"       Thickness - -       Category Insulation Insulation       Material Acoustic Fiberglass Batt       Thickness (mm) - 64     2.2.11  Wall_Steel stud_WA7_Level 04             Length (ft) 44 44       Height (ft) 4.2 4.2       Sheathing Type None None       Stud Spacing 600oc 600oc       Stud Weight - Light (25Ga)       Stud Thickness 39 x 152 38 x 152     Envelope Category Gypsum Board Gypsum Board       Material Gypsum Regular 5/8" Gypsum Regular 5/8"       Thickness - -       Category Gypsum Board Gypsum Board       Material Gypsum Regular 5/8" Gypsum Regular 5/8"       Thickness - -     Door Opening Number of Doors 3 3       Door Type Solid Wood Solid Wood Door     2.2.12  Wall_Steel stud_bathroom_Level 04             Length (ft) 10 10       Height (ft) 4.2 4.2       Sheathing Type - None       Stud Spacing - 600oc       Stud Weight - Light (25Ga)       Stud Thickness - 152     Envelope Category Gypsum Board Gypsum Board       Material Gypsum Regular 5/8" Gypsum Regular 5/8"       Thickness - -       Category Ceramic wall tiles (CT-3 to 10) -       Material - -       Thickness - -     2.2.13  Wall_Steel stud_W14_Level 04         Center for Interactive Research o n Sustainability (CIRS)  Page 54 of 80        Length (ft) 8 8       Height (ft) 4.2 4.2       Sheathing Type - None       Stud Spacing 610oc 600oc       Stud Weight - Light (25Ga)       Stud Thickness 39 x 64 38 x 92     Envelope Category Gypsum Board Gypsum Board       Material 1" GWB X-TYP Gypsum Moisture Resistant 1/2"       Thickness - -       Category - Gypsum Board       Material - Gypsum Moisture Resistant 1/2"       Thickness - -       Category Insulation Insulation       Material Acoustic Fiberglass Batt       Thickness (mm) - 64     2.2.14  Wall_Steel stud_WA7_Roof             Length (ft) 7 7       Height (ft) 3.5 3.5       Sheathing Type None None       Stud Spacing 600oc 600oc       Stud Weight - Light (25Ga)       Stud Thickness 39 x 152 38 x 152     Envelope Category Gypsum Board Gypsum Board       Material Gypsum Regular 5/8" Gypsum Regular 5/8"       Thickness - -       Category Gypsum Board Gypsum Board       Material Gypsum Regular 5/8" Gypsum Regular 5/8"       Thickness - -   2.3  Wood Stud             2.3.1  Wall_Wood stud_E4_Level ALL             Length (m) 880 880       Height (m) 0.7 0.7       Wall Type Non leadbearing Non leadbearing       Sheathing Type 25 ply mulple ply cedar panel Plywood       Study Spacing - 400oc       Stud Type Kiln dried Kiln dried       Stud Thickness - 38x89     Envelope Category Gypsum Board Gypsum Board       Material Gypsum Regular 5/8" Gypsum Regular 5/8"       Thickness - -       Category Vapour Barrier Vapour Barrier       Material air, vapour 7 moisture barrier 6 mil poly       Thickness - -       Category Insulation Insulation       Material R20 Mineral wool Rockwool Batt       Thickness (mm) - 119     2.3.2  Wall_Wood stud_Steel stud_WA7.3_Ground             Length (m) 76 76   Center for Interactive Research o n Sustainability (CIRS)  Page 55 of 80        Height (m) 5.3 5.3     Wood Stud Wall Type Loadbearing Loadbearing       Sheathing Type 19mm wood panels Plywood       Study Spacing 600oc 600oc       Stud Type Kiln dried Kiln dried       Stud Thickness - 38x89     Steel Stud Sheathing Type - None       Stud Spacing - 600oc       Stud Weight - Light (25Ga)       Stud Thickness - 38 x 92     Envelope Category Gypsum Board Gypsum Board       Material Gypsum Regular 5/8" Gypsum Regular 5/8"       Thickness - -       Category Gypsum Board Gypsum Board       Material Gypsum Regular 5/8" Gypsum Regular 5/8"       Thickness - -     2.3.3 Wall_Wood stud_Wood stud_WA7.1_Ground             Length (m) 6 6       Height (m) 2.6 2.6     Wood Stud Wall Type Non leadbearing Non leadbearing       Sheathing Type 13 Plywood Plywood       Study Spacing 400oc 400oc       Stud Type Kiln dried Kiln dried       Stud Thickness 38 x 64 38 x 64     Wood Stud Wall Type Non leadbearing Non leadbearing       Sheathing Type - -       Study Spacing 400oc 400oc       Stud Type Kiln dried Kiln dried       Stud Thickness 38 x 64 38 x 64     Envelope Category Gypsum Board Gypsum Board       Material Gypsum Regular 5/8" Gypsum Regular 5/8"       Thickness (mm) - -       Category Insulation Insulation       Material Acoustic Fiberglass Batt       Thickness (mm) - 64       Category Gypsum Board Gypsum Board       Material Gypsum Regular 5/8" Gypsum Regular 5/8"       Thickness (mm) - -     2.3.4 Wall_Wood stud_E3.2-W6_Level 02             Length (m) 43 43       Height (m) 4.2 4.2     Wood Stud Wall Type Loadbearing Loadbearing       Sheathing Type 6mm Plywood Plywood       Study Spacing 300oc 400oc       Stud Type Kiln dried Kiln dried       Stud Thickness 38 x 184 38 x 184     Envelope Category Cladding Cladding       Material 90 sawn face concrete masonry Brick - concrete       Thickness (mm) - -   Center for Interactive Research o n Sustainability (CIRS)  Page 56 of 80        Category Insulation Insulation       Material R20 Mineral wool Rockwool Batt       Thickness (mm) - 119       Category Vapour Barrier Vapour Barrier       Material air, vapour 7 moisture barrier 6 mil poly       Thickness - -       Category Gypsum Board Gypsum Board       Material Gypsum Regular 5/8" Gypsum Regular 5/8"       Thickness (mm) - -     Window Opening Number of Windows 9 9       Total Window Area (ft2) 6 6       Frame Type Fixed, Aluminum Frame Fixed, Aluminum Frame       Glazing Type Low E Argon Filled Glazing Low E Tin Argon Filled Glazing     Door Opening Number of Doors 2 2       Door Type Glass Panel Aluminum Exteror Door, 80% glazing     2.3.5 Wall_Wood stud_Wood stud_Level 02             Length (m) 20 20       Height (m) 4.2 4.2     Wood Stud Wall Type Loadbearing Loadbearing       Sheathing Type 13 Plywood Plywood       Study Spacing 300oc 400oc       Stud Type Kiln dried Kiln dried       Stud Thickness 38 x 140 38 x 140     Wood Stud Wall Type Loadbearing Loadbearing       Sheathing Type 13 Plywood Plywood       Study Spacing 300oc 400oc       Stud Type Kiln dried Kiln dried       Stud Thickness 38 x 140 38 x 140     Envelope Category Gypsum Board Gypsum Board       Material Gypsum Regular 1/2" Gypsum Regular 1/2"       Thickness (mm) - -       Category Insulation Insulation       Material Acoustic Fiberglass Batt       Thickness (mm) - 140       Category Gypsum Board Gypsum Board       Material Gypsum Regular 1/2" Gypsum Regular 1/2"       Thickness (mm) - -       Category Insulation Insulation       Material Acoustic Fiberglass Batt       Thickness (mm) - 140     Door Opening Number of Doors 2 2       Door Type Solid Wood Solid Wood Door     2.3.6 Wall_Wood stud_W12-SW7_Level 02             Length (m) 19 19       Height (m) 4.2 4.2     Wood Stud Wall Type Loadbearing Loadbearing       Sheathing Type both sides 16mm Plywood Plywood       Study Spacing 300oc 400oc   Center for Interactive Research o n Sustainability (CIRS)  Page 57 of 80        Stud Type Kiln dried Kiln dried       Stud Thickness 38 x 184 38 x 184     Envelope Category Gypsum Board Gypsum Board       Material Gypsum Regular 5/8" Gypsum Regular 5/8"       Thickness (mm) - -       Category Insulation Insulation       Material Acoustic Fiberglass Batt       Thickness (mm) - 184       Category Gypsum Board Gypsum Board       Material Gypsum Regular 5/8" Gypsum Regular 5/8"       Thickness (mm) - -     Door Opening Number of Doors 2 2       Door Type Glass Panel Aluminum Exteror Door, 80% glazing     2.3.7  Wall_Wood stud_Steel stud_E3.1-W6_Level 02             Length (m) 6 6       Height (m) 4.2 4.2     Wood Stud Wall Type Loadbearing Loadbearing       Sheathing Type 6mm Plywood Plywood       Study Spacing 300oc 400oc       Stud Type Kiln dried Kiln dried       Stud Thickness 38 x 184 38 x 184     Steel Stud Sheathing Type - None       Stud Spacing - 600oc       Stud Weight - Light (25Ga)       Stud Thickness - 38 x 92     Envelope Category Cladding Cladding       Material 90 sawn face concrete masonry Brick - concrete       Thickness (mm) - -       Category Vapour Barrier Vapour Barrier       Material air, vapour 7 moisture barrier 6 mil poly       Thickness - -       Category Paint Paint       Material Elastomeric paint Varnish solvent based       Thickness (mm) - -       Category Insulation Insulation       Material R20 Mineral wool Rockwool Batt       Thickness (mm) - 119       Category Gypsum Board Gypsum Board       Material Gypsum Regular 5/8" Gypsum Regular 5/8"       Thickness (mm) - -     Window Opening Number of Windows 1 1       Total Window Area (ft2) 0.7 0.7       Frame Type Fixed, Aluminum Frame Fixed, Aluminum Frame       Glazing Type Low E Argon Filled Glazing Low E Tin Argon Filled Glazing     2.3.8 Wall_Wood stud_E3.2-W6_Level 03             Length (m) 51 51       Height (m) 4.2 4.2     Wood Stud Wall Type Loadbearing Loadbearing   Center for Interactive Research o n Sustainability (CIRS)  Page 58 of 80        Sheathing Type 6mm Plywood Plywood       Study Spacing 300oc 400oc       Stud Type Kiln dried Kiln dried       Stud Thickness 38 x 184 38 x 184     Envelope Category Cladding Cladding       Material 90 sawn face concrete masonry Brick - concrete       Thickness (mm) - -       Category Insulation Insulation       Material R20 Mineral wool Rockwool Batt       Thickness (mm) - 119       Category Vapour Barrier Vapour Barrier       Material air, vapour 7 moisture barrier 6 mil poly       Thickness - -       Category Gypsum Board Gypsum Board       Material Gypsum Regular 5/8" Gypsum Regular 5/8"       Thickness (mm) - -     Window Opening Number of Windows 14 14       Total Window Area (ft2) 10.5 10.5       Frame Type Fixed, Aluminum Frame Fixed, Aluminum Frame       Glazing Type Low E Argon Filled Glazing Low E Tin Argon Filled Glazing     2.3.9 Wall_Wood stud_Wood stud_Level 03             Length (m) 20 20       Height (m) 4.2 4.2     Wood Stud Wall Type Loadbearing Loadbearing       Sheathing Type 13 Plywood Plywood       Study Spacing 300oc 400oc       Stud Type Kiln dried Kiln dried       Stud Thickness 38 x 140 38 x 140     Wood Stud Wall Type Loadbearing Loadbearing       Sheathing Type 13 Plywood Plywood       Study Spacing 300oc 400oc       Stud Type Kiln dried Kiln dried       Stud Thickness 38 x 140 38 x 140     Envelope Category Gypsum Board Gypsum Board       Material Gypsum Regular 1/2" Gypsum Regular 1/2"       Thickness (mm) - -       Category Insulation Insulation       Material Acoustic Fiberglass Batt       Thickness (mm) - 140       Category Gypsum Board Gypsum Board       Material Gypsum Regular 1/2" Gypsum Regular 1/2"       Thickness (mm) - -       Category Insulation Insulation       Material Acoustic Fiberglass Batt       Thickness (mm) - 140     Door Opening Number of Doors 2 2       Door Type Solid Wood Solid Wood Door     2.3.10 Wall_Wood stud_W12-SW7_Level 03             Length (m) 19 19   Center for Interactive Research o n Sustainability (CIRS)  Page 59 of 80        Height (m) 4.2 4.2     Wood Stud Wall Type Loadbearing Loadbearing       Sheathing Type both sides 16mm Plywood Plywood       Study Spacing 300oc 400oc       Stud Type Kiln dried Kiln dried       Stud Thickness 38 x 184 38 x 184     Envelope Category Gypsum Board Gypsum Board       Material Gypsum Regular 5/8" Gypsum Regular 5/8"       Thickness (mm) - -       Category Insulation Insulation       Material Acoustic Fiberglass Batt       Thickness (mm) - 184       Category Gypsum Board Gypsum Board       Material Gypsum Regular 5/8" Gypsum Regular 5/8"       Thickness (mm) - -     Door Opening Number of Doors 4 4       Door Type Glass Panel Aluminum Exteror Door, 80% glazing     2.3.11  Wall_Wood stud_Steel stud_E3.1-W6_Level 03             Length (m) 6 6       Height (m) 4.2 4.2     Wood Stud Wall Type Loadbearing Loadbearing       Sheathing Type 6mm Plywood Plywood       Study Spacing 300oc 400oc       Stud Type Kiln dried Kiln dried       Stud Thickness 38 x 184 38 x 184     Steel Stud Sheathing Type - None       Stud Spacing - 600oc       Stud Weight - Light (25Ga)       Stud Thickness - 38 x 92     Envelope Category Cladding Cladding       Material 90 sawn face concrete masonry Brick - concrete       Thickness (mm) - -       Category Vapour Barrier Vapour Barrier       Material air, vapour 7 moisture barrier 6 mil poly       Thickness - -       Category Paint Paint       Material Elastomeric paint Varnish solvent based       Thickness (mm) - -       Category Insulation Insulation       Material R20 Mineral wool Rockwool Batt       Thickness (mm) - 119       Category Gypsum Board Gypsum Board       Material Gypsum Regular 5/8" Gypsum Regular 5/8"       Thickness (mm) - -     Window Opening Number of Windows 1 1       Total Window Area (ft2) 0.7 0.7       Frame Type Fixed, Aluminum Frame Fixed, Aluminum Frame       Glazing Type Low E Argon Low E Tin Argon Filled   Center for Interactive Research o n Sustainability (CIRS)  Page 60 of 80  Filled Glazing Glazing     2.3.12 Wall_Wood stud_WA7.1-SW8_Level 03             Length (m) 10 10       Height (m) 4.2 4.2     Wood Stud Wall Type Non leadbearing Non leadbearing       Sheathing Type 13 Plywood Plywood       Study Spacing 300oc 400oc       Stud Type Kiln dried Kiln dried       Stud Thickness 38 x 184 38 x 184     Envelope Category Gypsum Board Gypsum Board       Material Gypsum Regular 5/8" Gypsum Regular 5/8"       Thickness (mm) - -       Category Insulation Insulation       Material Acoustic Fiberglass Batt       Thickness (mm) - 64       Category Gypsum Board Gypsum Board       Material Gypsum Regular 5/8" Gypsum Regular 5/8"       Thickness (mm) - -     2.3.13 Wall_Wood stud_E3.2-W6_Level 04             Length (m) 51 51       Height (m) 4.2 4.2     Wood Stud Wall Type Loadbearing Loadbearing       Sheathing Type 6mm Plywood Plywood       Study Spacing 300oc 400oc       Stud Type Kiln dried Kiln dried       Stud Thickness 38 x 184 38 x 184     Envelope Category Cladding Cladding       Material 90 sawn face concrete masonry Brick - concrete       Thickness (mm) - -       Category Insulation Insulation       Material R20 Mineral wool Rockwool Batt       Thickness (mm) - 119       Category Vapour Barrier Vapour Barrier       Material air, vapour 7 moisture barrier 6 mil poly       Thickness - -       Category Gypsum Board Gypsum Board       Material Gypsum Regular 5/8" Gypsum Regular 5/8"       Thickness (mm) - -     Window Opening Number of Windows 14 14       Total Window Area (ft2) 10.5 10.5       Frame Type Fixed, Aluminum Frame Fixed, Aluminum Frame       Glazing Type Low E Argon Filled Glazing Low E Tin Argon Filled Glazing     2.3.14 Wall_Wood stud_Wood stud_Level 04             Length (m) 20 20       Height (m) 4.2 4.2     Wood Stud Wall Type Loadbearing Loadbearing       Sheathing Type 13 Plywood Plywood       Study Spacing 300oc 400oc   Center for Interactive Research o n Sustainability (CIRS)  Page 61 of 80        Stud Type Kiln dried Kiln dried       Stud Thickness 38 x 140 38 x 140     Wood Stud Wall Type Loadbearing Loadbearing       Sheathing Type 13 Plywood Plywood       Study Spacing 300oc 400oc       Stud Type Kiln dried Kiln dried       Stud Thickness 38 x 140 38 x 140     Envelope Category Gypsum Board Gypsum Board       Material Gypsum Regular 1/2" Gypsum Regular 1/2"       Thickness (mm) - -       Category Insulation Insulation       Material Acoustic Fiberglass Batt       Thickness (mm) - 140       Category Gypsum Board Gypsum Board       Material Gypsum Regular 1/2" Gypsum Regular 1/2"       Thickness (mm) - -       Category Insulation Insulation       Material Acoustic Fiberglass Batt       Thickness (mm) - 140     Door Opening Number of Doors 2 2       Door Type Solid Wood Solid Wood Door     2.3.15 Wall_Wood stud_W12-SW7_Level 04             Length (m) 19 19       Height (m) 4.2 4.2     Wood Stud Wall Type Loadbearing Loadbearing       Sheathing Type both sides 16mm Plywood Plywood       Study Spacing 300oc 400oc       Stud Type Kiln dried Kiln dried       Stud Thickness 38 x 184 38 x 184     Envelope Category Gypsum Board Gypsum Board       Material Gypsum Regular 5/8" Gypsum Regular 5/8"       Thickness (mm) - -       Category Insulation Insulation       Material Acoustic Fiberglass Batt       Thickness (mm) - 184       Category Gypsum Board Gypsum Board       Material Gypsum Regular 5/8" Gypsum Regular 5/8"       Thickness (mm) - -     Door Opening Number of Doors 4 4       Door Type Glass Panel Aluminum Exteror Door, 80% glazing     2.3.16 Wall_Wood stud_WA7.1-SW8_Level 04             Length (m) 10 10       Height (m) 4.2 4.2     Wood Stud Wall Type Non leadbearing Non leadbearing       Sheathing Type 13 Plywood Plywood       Study Spacing 300oc 400oc       Stud Type Kiln dried Kiln dried       Stud Thickness 38 x 184 38 x 184     Envelope Category Gypsum Board Gypsum Board   Center for Interactive Research o n Sustainability (CIRS)  Page 62 of 80        Material Gypsum Regular 5/8" Gypsum Regular 5/8"       Thickness (mm) - -       Category Insulation Insulation       Material Acoustic Fiberglass Batt       Thickness (mm) - 64       Category Gypsum Board Gypsum Board       Material Gypsum Regular 5/8" Gypsum Regular 5/8"       Thickness (mm) - -     2.3.17  Wall_Wood stud_Steel stud_E3.1-W6_Level 04             Length (m) 6 6       Height (m) 4.2 4.2     Wood Stud Wall Type Loadbearing Loadbearing       Sheathing Type 6mm Plywood Plywood       Study Spacing 300oc 400oc       Stud Type Kiln dried Kiln dried       Stud Thickness 38 x 184 38 x 184     Steel Stud Sheathing Type - None       Stud Spacing - 600oc       Stud Weight - Light (25Ga)       Stud Thickness - 38 x 92     Envelope Category Cladding Cladding       Material 90 sawn face concrete masonry Brick - concrete       Thickness (mm) - -       Category Vapour Barrier Vapour Barrier       Material air, vapour 7 moisture barrier 6 mil poly       Thickness - -       Category Paint Paint       Material Elastomeric paint Varnish solvent based       Thickness (mm) - -       Category Insulation Insulation       Material R20 Mineral wool Rockwool Batt       Thickness (mm) - 119       Category Gypsum Board Gypsum Board       Material Gypsum Regular 5/8" Gypsum Regular 5/8"       Thickness (mm) - -     Window Opening Number of Windows 1 1       Total Window Area (ft2) 0.7 0.7       Frame Type Fixed, Aluminum Frame Fixed, Aluminum Frame       Glazing Type Low E Argon Filled Glazing Low E Tin Argon Filled Glazing     2.3.18 Wall_Wood stud_E3.2-SW8_Roof             Length (m) 40 40       Height (m) 3.5 3.5     Wood Stud Wall Type Loadbearing Loadbearing       Sheathing Type 6mm Plywood Plywood       Study Spacing 300oc 400oc       Stud Type Kiln dried Kiln dried       Stud Thickness 38 x 184 38 x 184     Envelope Category Cladding Cladding   Center for Interactive Research o n Sustainability (CIRS)  Page 63 of 80        Material 90 sawn face concrete masonry Brick - concrete       Thickness (mm) - -       Category Insulation Insulation       Material R20 Mineral wool Rockwool Batt       Thickness (mm) - 119       Category Vapour Barrier Vapour Barrier       Material air, vapour 7 moisture barrier 6 mil poly       Thickness - -       Category Gypsum Board Gypsum Board       Material Gypsum Regular 5/8" Gypsum Regular 5/8"       Thickness (mm) - -     Window Opening Number of Windows 8 8       Total Window Area (ft2) 5.2 5.2       Frame Type Fixed, Aluminum Frame Fixed, Aluminum Frame       Glazing Type Low E Argon Filled Glazing Low E Tin Argon Filled Glazing     Door Opening Number of Doors 4 4       Door Type Hollow Steel Steel Exterior Door     2.3.19 Wall_Wood stud_E11_Roof             Length (m) 26 26       Height (m) 2 2     Wood Stud Wall Type Non loadbearing Non loadbearing       Sheathing Type 13mm Plywood Plywood       Study Spacing - 400oc       Stud Type Kiln dried Kiln dried       Stud Thickness 38 x 140 38 x 140     Envelope Category Insulation Insulation       Material R20 Mineral wool Rockwool Batt       Thickness (mm) - 119       Category Vapour Barrier Vapour Barrier       Material vapour permeable membrane 3 mil poly       Thickness - -       Category 15 ext grade sheathing -       Material - -       Thickness (mm) - -     Door Opening Number of Doors 6 6       Door Type Hollow Steel Steel Exterior Door     2.3.20 Wall_Wood stud_E3.2-W6_Roof             Length (m) 22 22       Height (m) 3.5 3.5     Wood Stud Wall Type Loadbearing Loadbearing       Sheathing Type Plywood Plywood       Study Spacing 300oc 400oc       Stud Type Kiln dried Kiln dried       Stud Thickness 38 x 184 38 x 184     Envelope Category Cladding Cladding       Material 90 sawn face concrete masonry Brick - concrete       Thickness (mm) - -       Category Insulation Insulation   Center for Interactive Research o n Sustainability (CIRS)  Page 64 of 80        Material R20 Mineral wool Rockwool Batt       Thickness (mm) - 119       Category Vapour Barrier Vapour Barrier       Material air, vapour 7 moisture barrier 6 mil poly       Thickness - -       Category Gypsum Board Gypsum Board       Material Gypsum Regular 5/8" Gypsum Regular 5/8"       Thickness (mm) - -     Window Opening Number of Windows 1.3 1.3       Total Window Area (ft2) 2 2       Frame Type Fixed, Aluminum Frame Fixed, Aluminum Frame       Glazing Type Low E Argon Filled Glazing Low E Tin Argon Filled Glazing   2.4  Curtain Wall             2.4.1  Wall_Curtain wall_E7.2_Ground             Length (m) 93 93       Height (m) 5.3 5.3       Percent Viewable Glazing - -       Percent Spandrel Panel - -       Thickness of Insulation (mm) - -       Spandrel Type (Metal/Glass) Glass Glass     Door Opening Number of Doors 10 10       Door Type Glass Panel Pair Aluminum Exterior Door, 80% glazing     2.4.2  Wall_Curtain wall_W11_Ground             Length (m) 10 10       Height (m) 5.3 5.3       Percent Viewable Glazing - -       Percent Spandrel Panel - -       Thickness of Insulation (mm) - -       Spandrel Type (Metal/Glass) Glass Glass     Door Opening Number of Doors 2 2       Door Type Solid Wood Solid Wood Door     2.4.3  Wall_Curtain wall_E5.1/5.2/6/7_Level 02             Length (m) 155 155       Height (m) 4.2 4.2       Percent Viewable Glazing 82% 82%       Percent Spandrel Panel 18% 18%       Thickness of Insulation (mm) - 25mm       Spandrel Type (Metal/Glass) Glass Glass     Door Opening Number of Doors 2 2       Door Type - Aluminum Exterior Door, 80% glazing     2.4.4  Wall_Curtain wall_W11_Level 02             Length (m) 10 10       Height (m) 4.2 4.2   Center for Interactive Research o n Sustainability (CIRS)  Page 65 of 80        Percent Viewable Glazing - -       Percent Spandrel Panel - -       Thickness of Insulation (mm) - -       Spandrel Type (Metal/Glass) Glass Glass     Door Opening Number of Doors 5 5       Door Type Solid Wood Solid Wood Door     2.4.5  Wall_Curtain wall_E5.1/5.2/6/7_Level 03             Length (m) 155 155       Height (m) 4.2 4.2       Percent Viewable Glazing 82% 82%       Percent Spandrel Panel 18% 18%       Thickness of Insulation (mm) - 25mm       Spandrel Type (Metal/Glass) Glass Glass     2.4.6  Wall_Curtain wall_W11_Level 03             Length (m) 10 10       Height (m) 4.2 4.2       Percent Viewable Glazing - -       Percent Spandrel Panel - -       Thickness of Insulation (mm) - -       Spandrel Type (Metal/Glass) Glass Glass     Door Opening Number of Doors 5 5       Door Type Solid Wood Solid Wood Door     2.4.7  Wall_Curtain wall_E5.1/5.2/6/7_Level 04             Length (m) 155 155       Height (m) 4.2 4.2       Percent Viewable Glazing 82% 82%       Percent Spandrel Panel 18% 18%       Thickness of Insulation (mm) - 25mm       Spandrel Type (Metal/Glass) Glass Glass     2.4.8  Wall_Curtain wall_W11_Level 04             Length (m) 10 10       Height (m) 4.2 4.2       Percent Viewable Glazing - -       Percent Spandrel Panel - -       Thickness of Insulation (mm) - -       Spandrel Type (Metal/Glass) Glass Glass     Door Opening Number of Doors 5 5       Door Type Solid Wood Solid Wood Door     2.4.9  Wall_Curtain wall_E5.1/2_Roof             Length (m) 46 46       Height (m) 1.6 1.6       Percent Viewable - -   Center for Interactive Research o n Sustainability (CIRS)  Page 66 of 80  Glazing       Percent Spandrel Panel - -       Thickness of Insulation (mm) - -       Spandrel Type (Metal/Glass) Glass Glass 3 Columns and Beams             3.1  Concrete Columns             3.1.1  Column_Concrete_C1 & C4_Beam_N/A_Basement             Number of Beams 0 0       Number of Columns 5 5       Floor to floor height (ft) 11.5 11.5       Bay sizes (ft) 24.75 24.75       Supported span (ft) 22.65 22.65       Live load (psf) 100 100                 3.1.1.1  Column_Concrete_C2_Beam_N/A_Basement             Number of Beams 0 0       Number of Columns 4 4       Floor to floor height (ft) 13.75 13.75       Bay sizes (ft) 45.25 45.25       Supported span (ft) 20 20       Live load (psf) 100 100                 3.1.2  Column_Concrete_C2_Beam_N/A_GroundLevel             Number of Beams 0 0       Number of Columns 2 2       Floor to floor height (ft) 13 13       Bay sizes (ft) 45.25 45.25       Supported span (ft) 20 20       Live load (psf) 100 100                 3.1.3  Column_N/A_Beam_Glulam_GroundLevel_Hor (Auditorium)             Number of Beams 2 2       Number of Columns 0 0       Floor to floor height (ft) 13 13       Bay sizes (ft) 71 71       Supported span (ft) 11 11       Live load (psf) 100 100               3.2  Wooden Columns & Beams             3.2.1  Column_Beam_Glulam_GroundLevel_Vert (Wings)             Number of Beams 23 23       Number of Columns 45 45       Floor to floor height (ft) 13 13   Center for Interactive Research o n Sustainability (CIRS)  Page 67 of 80        Bay sizes (ft) 32 32       Supported span (ft) 10 10       Live load (psf) 100 100                 3.2.1.1 Column_Beam_Glulam_GroundLevel_Horizontal (Wings)             Number of Beams 37 37       Number of Columns 40 40       Floor to floor height (ft) 13 13       Bay sizes (ft) 10 10       Supported span (ft) 8 8       Live load (psf) 100 100                 3.2.1.2 Column_N/A_Beam_Glulam_GroundLevel_Vert (Auditorium)             Number of Beams 7 7       Number of Columns 2 2       Floor to floor height (ft) 13 13       Bay sizes (ft) 45.25 45.25       Supported span (ft) 10 10       Live load (psf) 100 100                 3.2.1.3 Column_Beam_Glulam_GroundLevel_Atrium             Number of Beams 1 1       Number of Columns 2 2       Floor to floor height (ft) 13 13       Bay sizes (ft) 45 45       Supported span (ft) 4 4       Live load (psf) 100 100                 3.2.1.4 Column_Beam_Glulam_GroundLevel_Connecting lobby_Hor             Number of Beams 6 6       Number of Columns 6 6       Floor to floor height (ft) 13 13       Bay sizes (ft) 18.85 18.85       Supported span (ft) 10 10       Live load (psf) 100 100                 3.2.2.1 Column_Glulam_Beam_N/A_GroundLevel_Stairs             Number of Beams 0 0       Number of Columns 4 4       Floor to floor height (ft) 13 13       Bay sizes (ft) 32 32       Supported span (ft) 10 10       Live load (psf) 100 100   Center for Interactive Research o n Sustainability (CIRS)  Page 68 of 80                  3.2.2.2 Column_Glulam_Beam_N/A_GroundLevel_Elev shaft             Number of Beams 0 0       Number of Columns 4 4       Floor to floor height (ft) 13 13       Bay sizes (ft) 9 9       Supported span (ft) 5.25 5.25       Live load (psf) 100 100                 3.2.2.3  Column_Beam_Glulam_Level2_Vert (Wings)             Number of Beams 23 23       Number of Columns 45 45       Floor to floor height (ft) 13 13       Bay sizes (ft) 32 32       Supported span (ft) 10 10       Live load (psf) 100 100                 3.2.2.4 Column_Beam_Glulam_Level2_Horizontal (Wings)             Number of Beams 37 37       Number of Columns 40 40       Floor to floor height (ft) 13 13       Bay sizes (ft) 10 10       Supported span (ft) 8 8       Live load (psf) 100 100                 3.2.2.5 Column_Beam_Glulam_Level2_Atrium             Number of Beams 1 1       Number of Columns 2 2       Floor to floor height (ft) 13 13       Bay sizes (ft) 45 45       Supported span (ft) 4 4       Live load (psf) 100 100                 3.2.2.5 Column_Beam_Glulam_Level2_Connecting lobby_Hor             Number of Beams 6 6       Number of Columns 6 6       Floor to floor height (ft) 13 13       Bay sizes (ft) 18.85 18.85       Supported span (ft) 10 10       Live load (psf) 100 100                 3.2.2.1 Column_Glulam_Beam_N/A_Level2_Stairs             Number of Beams 0 0       Number of Columns 4 4       Floor to floor height (ft) 13 13       Bay sizes (ft) 32 32   Center for Interactive Research o n Sustainability (CIRS)  Page 69 of 80        Supported span (ft) 10 10       Live load (psf) 100 100                 3.2.2.2 Column_Glulam_Beam_N/A_Level2_Elev shaft             Number of Beams 0 0       Number of Columns 4 4       Floor to floor height (ft) 13 13       Bay sizes (ft) 9 9       Supported span (ft) 5.25 5.25       Live load (psf) 100 100                 3.2.2.3  Column_Beam_Glulam_Level3_Vert (Wings)             Number of Beams 23 23       Number of Columns 45 45       Floor to floor height (ft) 13 13       Bay sizes (ft) 32 32       Supported span (ft) 10 10       Live load (psf) 100 100                 3.2.2.4 Column_Beam_Glulam_Level3_Horizontal (Wings)             Number of Beams 37 37       Number of Columns 40 40       Floor to floor height (ft) 13 13       Bay sizes (ft) 10 10       Supported span (ft) 8 8       Live load (psf) 100 100                 3.2.2.5 Column_Beam_Glulam_Level3_Atrium             Number of Beams 1 1       Number of Columns 2 2       Floor to floor height (ft) 13 13       Bay sizes (ft) 45 45       Supported span (ft) 4 4       Live load (psf) 100 100                 3.2.2.5 Column_Beam_Glulam_Level3_Connecting lobby_Hor             Number of Beams 6 6       Number of Columns 6 6       Floor to floor height (ft) 13 13       Bay sizes (ft) 18.85 18.85       Supported span (ft) 10 10       Live load (psf) 100 100                 3.2.2.1 Column_Glulam_Beam_N/A_Level3_Stairs             Number of Beams 0 0       Number of Columns 4 4       Floor to floor height (ft) 13 13   Center for Interactive Research o n Sustainability (CIRS)  Page 70 of 80        Bay sizes (ft) 32 32       Supported span (ft) 10 10       Live load (psf) 100 100                 3.2.2.2 Column_Glulam_Beam_N/A_Level3_Elev shaft             Number of Beams 0 0       Number of Columns 4 4       Floor to floor height (ft) 13 13       Bay sizes (ft) 9 9       Supported span (ft) 5.25 5.25       Live load (psf) 100 100                 3.2.2.3  Column_Beam_Glulam_Roof_Vert (Wings)             Number of Beams 23 23       Number of Columns 45 45       Floor to floor height (ft) 13 13       Bay sizes (ft) 32 32       Supported span (ft) 10 10       Live load (psf) 100 100                 3.2.2.4 Column_Beam_Glulam_Roof_Horizontal (Wings)             Number of Beams 37 37       Number of Columns 40 40       Floor to floor height (ft) 13 13       Bay sizes (ft) 10 10       Supported span (ft) 8 8       Live load (psf) 100 100                 3.2.2.1 Column_Glulam_Beam_N/A_Roof_Stairs             Number of Beams 0 0       Number of Columns 4 4       Floor to floor height (ft) 13 13       Bay sizes (ft) 32 32       Supported span (ft) 10 10       Live load (psf) 100 100                 3.2.2.2 Column_Glulam_Beam_N/A_Roof_Elev shaft             Number of Beams 0 0       Number of Columns 4 4       Floor to floor height (ft) 13 13       Bay sizes (ft) 9 9       Supported span (ft) 5.25 5.25       Live load (psf) 100 100               3.3  Steel Beams             3.3.1 Column_N/A_Beam_HSS_Penthouse_Hor             Number of Beams 12 12       Number of Columns 24 24   Center for Interactive Research o n Sustainability (CIRS)  Page 71 of 80        Floor to floor height (ft) 5 5       Bay sizes (ft) 11.75 11.75       Supported span (ft) 5 5       Live load (psf) 40 40                 3.3.2 Column_N/A_Beam_HSS_Penthouse_Vert             Number of Beams 26 26       Number of Columns 24 24       Floor to floor height (ft) 5 5       Bay sizes (ft) 5 5       Supported span (ft) 5 5       Live load (psf) 40 40 3.4 Extra Base Material             3.4.1 Glulam Beams             Column_N/A_ Beams_ Glulam_Ground Level_38 x 286             Volume of Glulam lumber m3   28.606                 Column_N/A_ Beams_ Glulam_Level 2_38 x 286             Volume of Glulam lumber m3   18.905                 Column_N/A_ Beams_ Glulam_Level 3_38 x 286             Volume of Glulam lumber m3   16.903                 Column_N/A_ Beams_ Glulam_Level 3_38 x 286             Volume of Glulam lumber m3   25.892                 Column_N/A_ Beams_ Glulam_Penthouse_38 x 286             Volume of Glulam lumber m3   5.317                                       3.4.2 Stairs             Stairs_ Glulam Wooden Stingers_ all floors             Volume of Glulam lumber m3   40.74                 Stairs_Concrete_GroundLevel_Entrance             Volume of Concrete m3   1.717       Concrete (psi) 4350 4000       Concrete flyash % 30 25       Rebar 20M 20M               3.4.3 Hollow Structural steel (HSS)             HSS 102x76x8.5 _ Penthouse_Skylight             Volume of Steel Tonnes   87.82               Center for Interactive Research o n Sustainability (CIRS)  Page 72 of 80    3.4.3 Skylight Glazing             Skylight glazing             Area m2   149.57             4. Floor             Concrete Slab on Grade             Floor_F10_SLAB-ON-GRADE             Area (m2 ) 1179 1179 Span (m) 9.8 12.2       Width (m) 120.3061224 145.15       Live load (kPa) 4.8 4.8       Category Concrete Concrete       Material  Concrete slab Concrete slab       Thickness (mm) 150.00 100.00       Concrete flyash % 0.3 0.25       Concrete (mPa) 30 30       Category Vapour barrier Vapour barrier       Material  - Poly       Thickness (mm) - 6.00                 Floor_F11_SLAB-ON-GRADE-RAISED-FLOOR             Area (m2 ) 260.8 260.8       Span (m) 9.8 12.2       Width (m) 26.6122449 32.1       Live load (kPa) 4.8 4.8       Category Concrete Concrete       Material  Concrete slab Concrete slab       Thickness (mm) 150 100       Concrete flyash % 0.3 0.25       Concrete (mPa) 30 30       Category Vapour barrier Vapour barrier       Material  - Poly       Thickness (mm) - 6               SUSPENDED CONCRETE SLAB             Floor_F20_SUSPENDED-CONCRETE-SLAB             Area (m2 ) 14.6 14.6       Span (m) 1.75 1.75       Width (m) 8.342857143 8.342857143       Live load (kPa) 4.8 4.8       Category Concrete Concrete       Material 1 Concrete slab Concrete slab       Thickness (mm) 200 200       Concrete flyash % 0.3 0.25       Concrete (mPa) 30 30                 Floor_F21_SUSPENDED-CONCRETE-SLAB-EPOXY             Area (m2 ) 33.3 33.3   Center for Interactive Research o n Sustainability (CIRS)  Page 73 of 80        Span (m) 3.5 3.5       Width (m) 9.514285714 9.514285714       Live load (kPa) 4.8 4.8       Category Concrete Concrete       Material  Concrete slab Concrete slab       Thickness (mm) 300 300       Concrete flyash % 0.3 0.25       Concrete (mPa) 30 30                 Floor_F23_SUSPENDED-CONCRETE-SLAB-TERRAZZO             Area (m2 ) 580.6 580.6       Span (m) 9.8 9.8       Width (m) 59.24489796 59.24489796       Live load (kPa) 4.8 4.8       Category Concrete Concrete       Material  Concrete slab Concrete slab       Thickness (mm) 250 250.00       Concrete flyash % 0.3 0.25       Concrete (mPa) 30 30                 Floor_F30_SUSPENDED-CONCRETE-SLAB-RAISED-TECRETE             Area (m2 ) 435.5 435.5       Span (m) 9.8 9.8       Width (m) 44.43877551 44.43877551       Live load (kPa) 4.8 4.80       Category Concrete Concrete       Material  Concrete slab Concrete slab       Thickness (mm) 250 250       Concrete flyash % 0.3 Average       Concrete (mPa) 30 30               LAMINATED WOOD              Floor_F40_LAMINATED-WOOD-RAISED-TECRETE             Area (m2 ) 1778.3         Span (m) 9.8         Width (m) 181.4591837         Live load (kPa) 4.8         Category -         Material  Laminated wood         Thickness (mm) 89         Decking Plywood         Thickness (mm) 16         Category Underlay Steel roof system       Material  Sheet metal Galvanized sheet       Thickness (mm) - 12 GA                 Floor_F41_LAMINATED-WOOD-RAISED-TECRETE-SLOPED-TILE             Area (m2 ) 45.9         Span (m) 9.8     Center for Interactive Research o n Sustainability (CIRS)  Page 74 of 80        Width (m) 4.683673469         Live load (kPa) 4.8         Category -         Material  Laminated wood         Thickness (mm) 89         Decking Plywood         Thickness (mm) 16         Category Underlay Steel roof system       Material  Sheet metal Galvanized sheet       Thickness (mm) - 12 GA       Category -         Material  Concrete topping         Thickness (mm) 25                   Floor_F42_LAMINATED-WOOD-RAISED-TECRETE-SOFFIT             Area (m2 ) 288.2         Span (m) 9.8         Width (m) 29.40816327         Live load (kPa) 4.8         Category -         Material  Laminated wood         Thickness (mm) 89         Decking Plywood         Thickness (mm) 16         Category Underlay Steel roof system       Material  Sheet metal Galvanized sheet       Thickness (mm) - 12 GA       Category Vapour barrier Vapour barrier       Material  - Poly       Thickness (mm) - 6       Category Insulation Insulation       Material  Insulation Polystyrene Expanded       Thickness (mm) 150 150                 Floor_F43_LAMINATED-WOOD-RAISED-TECRETE-SLOPED-TILE-SOFFIT             Area (m2 ) 22.40         Span (m) 9.80         Width (m) 2.285714286         Live load (kPa) 4.8         Category -         Material  Laminated wood         Thickness (mm) 89         Decking Plywood         Thickness (mm) 16         Category Underlay Steel roof system       Material  Sheet metal Galvanized sheet       Thickness (mm) - 12 GA       Category -         Material  Concrete topping         Thickness (mm) 25         Category Vapour barrier Vapour barrier   Center for Interactive Research o n Sustainability (CIRS)  Page 75 of 80        Material  - Poly       Thickness (mm) - 6       Category Insulation Insulation       Material  Insulation Polystyrene Expanded       Thickness (mm) 150 150                 Floor_F50_LAMINATED-WOOD-CONCRETE-TOPPING             Area (m2 ) 141.9         Span (m) 9.8         Width (m) 14.47959184         Live load (kPa) 4.8         Category -         Material  Laminated wood         Thickness (mm) 184         Decking Plywood         Thickness (mm) 16         Category -         Material  Concrete topping         Thickness (mm) 50                   Floor_F51_LAMINATED-WOOD-CONCRETE-TOPPING-SOFFIT             Area (m2 ) 120         Span (m) 9.8         Width (m) 12.24489796         Live load (kPa) 4.8         Category -         Material  Laminated wood         Thickness (mm) 184         Decking Plywood         Thickness (mm) 16         Category -         Material  Concrete topping         Thickness (mm) 50         Category Vapour barrier Vapour barrier       Material  - Poly       Thickness (mm) - 6.00       Category Insulation Insulation       Material  Insulation Polystyrene Expanded       Thickness (mm) 150 150                 Floor_F52_LAMINATED-WOOD-CONCRETE-TOPPING-GWB-CEILING             Area (m2 ) 85.4         Span (m) 9.8         Width (m) 8.714285714         Live load (kPa) 4.8         Category -         Material  Laminated wood         Thickness (mm) 184         Decking Plywood         Thickness (mm) 16         Category -     Center for Interactive Research o n Sustainability (CIRS)  Page 76 of 80        Material  Concrete topping         Thickness (mm) 50         Category GWB Gypsum Board       Material  Insulation Gypsum Board       Thickness (mm) 13 1/2"               WOOD JOIST             Floor_F53_WOOD-FLOOR-JOISTS             Area (m2) 89.25 89.25       Span (m) 9.8 9.8       Width (m) 9.107142857 3.65           3.65           1.8       Live load (kPa) 4.8 4.80       Category Wood joist Wood joist       Material  Wood joist Wood joist       Thickness (mm) 184 -       Decking Plywood Plywood       Thickness (mm) 19 19       Category GWB Gypsum Board       Material  Insulation Gypsum Board       Thickness (mm) 13 1/2" 5 Roof             Green roof             Roof_R1_LAMINATED-WOOD-GREEN-ROOF             Area (m2 ) 372.5         Span (m) 9.8         Width (m) 38.01020408         Live load (kPa) 4.8         Category -         Material  Laminated wood         Thickness (mm) 184         Decking Plywood         Thickness (mm) 16         Category Vapour retarder Vapour retarder       Material  - Poly       Thickness (mm) - 6       Category Insulation Insulation       Material  Insulation EPDM white       Thickness (mm) 100 100       Category Roof envelope Roof envelope       Material  TPO PVC membrane       Thickness (mm) 60 -               LAMINATED WOOD              Roof_R2_LAMINATED-WOOD-PAVING-STONE             Area (m2 ) 83.4         Span (m) 9.8         Width (m) 8.510204082         Live load (kPa) 4.8         Category -     Center for Interactive Research o n Sustainability (CIRS)  Page 77 of 80        Material  Laminated wood         Thickness (mm) 184         Decking Plywood         Thickness (mm) 19         Category Vapour retarder Vapour retarder       Material  - Poly       Thickness (mm) - 6       Category Insulation Insulation       Material  Insulation Polystyrene Expanded       Thickness (mm) 100 100       Category Roof envelope Roof envelope       Material  TPO EPDM white       Thickness (mil) 60 -       Category Roof envelope Roof envelope       Material  Concrete pavers Concrete tile       Thickness (mm) 50 -                 Roof_R3_LAMINATED-WOOD-SLOPED-INSULATION             Area (m2 ) 996.4         Span (m) 9.8         Width (m) 101.6734694         Live load (kPa) 4.8         Category -         Material  Laminated wood         Thickness (mm) 89.00         Decking Plywood         Thickness (mm) 19         Category Vapour retarder Vapour retarder       Material  - Poly       Thickness (mm) - 6       Category Insulation Insulation       Material  Insulation Polystyrene Expanded       Thickness (mm) 100 100       Category Roof envelope Roof envelope       Material  TPO EPDM white       Thickness (mil) 60 -               WOOD JOIST             Roof_R4_WOOD-JOISTS             Area (m2) 34.6 34.6       Span (m) 9.8 9.8       Width (m) 3.530612245 3.530612245       Live load (kPa) 4.8 4.8       Category Wood joist Wood joist       Material  Wood joist Wood joist       Thickness (mm) 184 -       Decking Plywood Plywood       Thickness (mm) 16 15       Category Vapour retarder Vapour retarder       Material  - Poly       Thickness (mm) - 6       Category Insulation Insulation   Center for Interactive Research o n Sustainability (CIRS)  Page 78 of 80        Material  Insulation Polystyrene Expanded       Thickness (mm) 100 100       Category Roof envelope Roof envelope       Material  TPO EPDM white       Thickness (mil) 60 -             6 Extra basic materials             RAISED FLOOR             EBM_RAISED-FLOOR_TEC-CRETE             Volume (m3 ) 82.1019 82.1       Area (m2 ) 2831.1 -       Span (m) 9.8 -       Width (m) 288.8877551 -       Category Concrete Concrete       Material  Tec-crete Concrete/Masonary blocks       Thickness (mm) 29 -       Panel size (mm) 625 40000       Total panels 4529.76 71                 EBM_RAISED-FLOOR_PEDESTAL             Volume (m3 ) 2.827750923 -       Density (kg/m3 ) 8000 -       Tonnes 22.62200738 23       Category Steel  Steel       Material  Steel  HSS       Count 4802.973967 -       Pedestal volume  (m3 ) 0.00058875 -       Pedestal area (m2 ) 0.0019625 -       Pedestal height (m) 0.3 -               LAMINATED WOOD              EBM_LAMINATED-WOOD             Category Wood Wood       Material Laminated wood Softwood lumber kiln       Volume (m3) 342.58 342.6       Thickness (mm) - -                 EBM_CONCRETE-TOPPING             Category Concrete Concrete       Material  Concrete topping Concrete topping       Volume (m3) 19.0725 19.1       Concrete flyash % 0.3 Average       Concrete (mPa) 30 30     Center for Interactive Research o n Sustainability (CIRS)  Page 79 of 80   9. Appendix B– Impact Estimator Assumption Document  Assembly Group Assembly Type Assembly Name Specific Assumptions 1  Foundation  The Impact Estimator, SOG inputs are limited to being either a 4” or 8” thickness.  Some of the mechanical room padding is considered in Sog as it is on top of the basement SoG slab, the actual SOG thicknesses for the CIRS building were not exactly 4” or 8” thick but 6", the areas measured in Autodesk QTO required calculations to adjust the areas to accommodate this limitation.  The Impact Estimator limits the Concrete strength to 3000, 4000 & 9000psi, we had to limit the actual strength of concrete for footings as per the Athena input i.e. 4000psi. Some of the mat footings were missing depth, e.g. MAT 1 & 2, drawing S201. Typical mat foundation thickness was considered from other mat foundations.   1.1  Concrete Slab-on-Grade         1.2.1 SoG_Mech Mat_150mm The area of this slab had to be adjusted so that the thickness fit into the 4" thickness specified in the Impact Estimator.  The following calculation was done in order to determine appropriate Length and Width (in feet) inputs for this slab;    = sqrt[((Measured Slab Area) x (Actual Slab Thickness))/(4”/12) ]    = 90.42 ft     1.1.2 SoG_Mat_1_150mm_Auditorium The area of this slab had to be adjusted so that the thickness fit into the 4" thickness specified in the Impact Estimator.  The following calculation was done in order to determine appropriate Length and Width (in feet) inputs for this slab;    = sqrt[((Measured Slab Area) x (Actual Slab Thickness))/(4”/12) ]    = 13.24 ft     1.1.3  SoG_Mat_2_150mm_Auditorium The area of this slab had to be adjusted so that the thickness fit into the 4" thickness specified in the Impact Estimator.  The following calculation was done in order to determine appropriate Length and Width (in feet) inputs for this slab;    = sqrt[((Measured Slab Area) x (Actual Slab Thickness))/(4”/12) ]    = 19.86 ft   1.2  Concrete Footing     3  Columns and Beams The method used to measure column sizing was completely depended upon the metrics built into the Impact Estimator.  That is, the Impact Estimator calculates the sizing of beams and columns based on the following inputs; number of beams, number of columns, floor to floor height, bay size, supported span and live load.  This being the case and given the complex shape of the CIRS building and the fact that all beams were wooden except for auditorium side beams which were conrete, we calculated every individual beam or grouped beams seperately in Autodesk QTO.  There were numerous beams which were supported on primary beams rather then columns, all those beams are taken into extra base materials.  Some of the beams calculated were of larger bay size and Athena did not allow input of those beams, all such beams were input into the Athena inventory in parts. The hollow structural steel (HSS) columns in the CIRS building were modeled in the Extra Basic Materials, where their associated assumptions and calculations are documented. All stairs were wooden, and composed of wood stingers and glulam beams, so all stair cases except for entrance stairs are modelled as beams. 4  Floors Furthermore, several flooring components were excluded in the model due to modeling limitations and uncertainty. The components not included were, carpet, epoxy sealants, and hydronic piping in concrete slabs.   Center for Interactive Research o n Sustainability (CIRS)  Page 80 of 80    Suspended slab Floor_F30_SUSPENDED-CONCRETE-SLAB-RAISED-TECRETE All tecrete was calculated as cocnrete masonry in the extra base materials due to Athena's limitation to model any such material 5  Roof Several roof components were excluded in the model due to modeling limitations and uncertainty. The components not included were, plant and growing medium, green roof root barrier and protection board.   5.1  Green Roof         Roof_R1_LAMINATED-WOOD-GREEN-ROOF The detials of TPO were not found in Athena IE, so we used EPDM white, which is basically same as TPO    5.2  Laminated wood         Roof_R2_LAMINATED-WOOD-PAVING-STONE Roof widths were determined by dividing the total floor area of each condition by the span of that condition 6 Extra Basic Materials All HSS sections were calculated in the extrabase material based on the density of 8000kg/m3   6.1 Steel pedestals         Pedestals for the raised floor         An estimate of weight for the raised-floor pedestals was determined by: 1) estimating the volume of each pedestal, .0006m3, 2) determining the count of each pedestal, count = ((number of tec-crete panels) 1/2 + 2)2 = 4803, and 3) determining the weight by combing outputs from 1 and 2 with the density of steel (8000 kgm-3).  

Cite

Citation Scheme:

        

Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
http://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/dsp.18861.1-0108578/manifest

Comment

Related Items