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Life cycle assessment report : UBC Law Building : Allard Hall Guevarra, Dominique Bram; Howie, Eric; Shen, Patti Apr 2, 2012

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UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report       Life Cycle Assessment Report: UBC Law Building – Allard Hall Dominique Bram Guevarra, Eric Howie, Patti Shen  University of British Columbia CIVL 498E April 2, 2012           Disclaimer: “UBC SEEDS provides students with the opportunity to share the findings of their studies, as well as their opinions, conclusions and recommendations with the UBC community. The reader should bear in mind that this is a student project/report and is not an official document of UBC. Furthermore readers should bear in mind that these reports may not reflect the current status of activities at UBC. We urge you to contact the research persons mentioned in a report or the SEEDS Coordinator about the current status of the subject matter of a project/report”.  PROVISIO  Th is stu d y has been comp leted by und erg rad u ate stu d en ts as part of their  cours ework at the Univ ersity of British Colu mb ia (UBC) an d is als o a  contr ib uti on to a larg er eff o rt – the UBC LCA Pro ject – which aims to  supp ort the develo pmen t of th e field of life cycl e asses s men t (LCA).    The info rmati o n and findin g s con tain ed in this rep ort have not been throu gh a  full criti cal rev iew an d shou ld be con s idered preli min ary.  If furth er info rmati o n is req uir ed pleas e co n tact th e cou rs e instru ctor Rob Sianchuk at rob .sianch u k @g mail .co m        ii     CIVIL 498E: Life Cycle Assessment Report: UBC Law Building – Allard Hall      Group Members: Dominique Bram Guevarra  Eric Howie  Patti Shen    Date of Submission: April 2, 2012  Overseen by: Rob Sianchuki  Abstract  At the end of 2011 the new UBC Law Building, Allard Hall, was completed and opened to the public. This building replaced two older buildings, the Curtis Building and the Curtis Extension. In continuation of adding value to the LCA studies that have been on-going at UBC, another study has been conducted on the new building. A full LCA study has be conducted on Allard Hall, which also includes the environmental impacts from the demolition stage of the pre-existing structures. Using provided structural and architectural drawings, a building model was created, adhering to LCA ISO standards. Using the Athena Impact Estimator and the TRACI impact assessment method, in conjunction with the quantity take off software, On-Screen Take Off, the input parameters for the project were clearly identified and documented.  The details provided by our analysis include a Bill of Materials, a Summary of the Environmental Impacts separated into assemblies, a Sensitivity Analysis, and a Chain of Custody inquiry. This LCA report also includes a discussion of the building functions and its’ functional units, for the purpose of setting references for future similar projects. The results found show that the dominating materials in the UBC Law building are Batt Fibreglass, Concrete Blocks, Steel Rebar, Fire-Rated Gypsum Board, and 30MPa Concrete, in which Concrete was found to have the most influence on environmental impacts in regards to material used. The manufacturing stage was found to be the most contributing to environmental impacts. Measurements of performance are outlined in the form of functional units, and are intended to be used as a baseline for future project comparisons. ii  Table of Contents   Abstract ................................ ................................................................................................ ..........................  i List of Tables ................................ ................................................................................................ ................ iii List of Figures ................................ ................................................................................................ .............. i iv 1.0 Introduction ................................ ................................................................................................ ............ 1  2.0 Goal and Scope ................................ ................................................................ ....................................... 2  3.0 Model Development ................................................................................................ ............................... 9  3.1 Structure and Envelope ................................................................................................ ....................... 9  3.1.1 Material Take Off Development ................................................................ .................................. 9  3.1.2 Material Take Off Assumptions ................................................................ .................................. 10  4.0 Results and Interpretation ................................................................................................ .................... 13  4.1 Inventory Analysis ................................................................................................ ............................. 13  4.2 Impact Assessment ................................................................................................ ........................... 14  4.2.1 Impact Category ................................................................................................ ......................... 14  4.2.2 Uncertainty ................................ ................................................................ ................................ 18  4.2.3 Sensitivity Analysis ................................................................................................ ..................... 19  4.2.4 Chain of Custody Inquiry ................................................................................................ ............ 21  4.2.5 Functions and Impacts ................................................................................................ ............... 22  5.0 Conclusion ................................ ................................................................................................ ............. 24  6.0 Authors’ Segment ................................ .................................................... Error! Bookmark not defined. Appendix A: IE Input Document1  Appendix B IE Input Assumptions Document   iii  List of Tables   Ta ble 1: Building Characteristics ................................................................................................ ................... 1  Table 2: Bill of Materials ................................................................................................ ............................. 13  Table 3: Environmental Impact Results for All Impact Categorises ................................ ............................ 16  Table 4: Chain of Custody Inquiry ................................................................................................ ............... 21  Table 5 Functional Area ................................................................................................ .............................. 22  Table 6: Table of Examined Functional Units ................................................................ .............................. 23   iv  List of Figures   Figure 1: Generic unit processes within Building Construction process by Impact Estimator software ...... 3  Figure 2: Schematic drawing of system boundary ................................................................ ........................ 5  Figure 3: Relative Effect of Top Five Materials on Environmental Impact Categories ............................... 20  1  1.0 Introduction  The UBC Law Building, Allard Hall, was newly constructed and completed in August of 2011 . It is named after Peter A. Allard, a law alumnus, to recognize him and his family for their generous support and connection to UBC Law. This building is intended to be a center for legal education and research, serving as a hub for students and for the legal community to come together. It is the primary building for UBC Law. Before it, two buildings existed: The Curtis Building, and the Curtis Building Extension. These facilities experienced problems with ventilation and moisture, and with them considered as out dated establishments, a drive for a new building was made. Allard Hall was designed by Diamond and Schmitt Architects and managed by UBC Properties Trust with a budget of approximately $60.0M ., At 141,0 00 square meters, the building aims to provide classroom space, a law library, meeting space, and an auditorium. On top of providing high quality student space, it also boasts an energy savings of 50 -6 0% and achievement of LEED Gold Standard. Below is a table identifying the primary building characteristics ( Table 1 ). It outlines the key components and summarizes what the building is composed of.  Table 1: Building Characteristics Structure  Reinforced concrete frame, concrete columns and beams, on suspended concrete slabs  Floors Basement: Concrete slab on grade; Ground, Second, Third, Fourth Floors: Suspended slabs  Exterior Walls Reinforced Concrete or Concrete Block  Interior Walls Steel Stud w/ Gypsum Board  Windows Standard Glazing  Roof Steel Roof Deck Z275 Zinc Coated     2  2.0 Goal and Scope  The Goal & Scope serves as an effective way of documenting the execution of LCA studies. The purpose of defining the Goal of the study is to unambiguously state the context of the study, whereas the Scope details how the actual modeling of the study was carried out. Documenting the current LCA projects provides credible references for the future development of LCA.  For this LCA study report on the new Allard Hall Law Building, the format immediately below has been used to unambiguously outline the details of the parameters outlined in ISO 1404 0 and 14044 . 2.1 Goal of Study The following section defines the context of LCA study: its intended application, reason of carring, intended audience and Intended comparative assertions. Intended Application Describes the purpose of the study The LCA study is intended to develop a study of the impacts associated with Allard Hall using LCA methods, as well as contribute to the UBC LCA Database. Reason of carrying Describes the motivation for carrying out the LCA study The LCA study project was carried out upon the request of CIVL 498E as an input into the UBC LCA Database. The LCA study of Allard Hall will serve as an effective reference of the overall environmental performance of the new law building —Allard Hall. The study will also be used as a demonstration of the current assessment methods in the development of LCA. Intended audience Describes those who the LCA is intended to be interpreted by The intended audiences are the stakeholders involved in the policy making of sustainable buildings from UBC Sustainable Office, engineers, architects and building users. Governments, investors, and LEED professionals and anyone that is interested in the learning and applying of building LCA are also the group we are communicating with. 4  second floor creating a fascinating view from inside the building. It has large capacity for both classrooms and office areas.  While providing an educational environment, this building is also featured in Law Faculty administration offices and general law consulting services.  The detailed functional area of Allard Hall is summarized in the Building Function section. In LCA study of Allard Hall, the main processes summarize the “Cradle to Grave” stages of the building cycle of the study building. The building demolition of the old building (“grave”) in particular serves as the site preparation of Allard Hall in the construction process since the excavation activity involves the removal of debris from the deconstructed structures. The construction product manufacturing and building construction process are the “cradle to gate” stage where the building project developed from construction tendering to before user operation.  The main service periods of the building project are the operation and maintenance stages.  The demolition and recycling of the building wastes are the end-of -life stage of the building project.  This is the point where the project is terminated. Functional Unit A performance characteristic of the product system being studied that will be used as a reference unit to normalize the results of the study T he functional units used in this study to normalize the LCA results for the Allard Hall include:  per generic post-secondary academic building square foot constructed  System Boundary Details the extent of the product system to be studied in terms of product components, life cycle stages, and unit processes The LCA study on Allard Hall covers all stages in the building cycle. Reference data from the previous building LCA study are applied in the construction phase of Allard Hall. In this process, impacts of unit processes such as energy extraction, refinement, delivery process, building demolition process and transportation are considered.  The unit processes involved in waste treatment are not included in the study system. The construction product manufacturing is the production of structural assemblies of the building. In our study, the following are considered:  Foundations: pad footings and strip footings, both scheduled and special; slabs on grade  Walls: furring, curtain walls and special interior walls  Fl oors: summarized using weighted average  Columns and beams intersection: scheduled and special  Roof 6  The primary impact assessment method used in the Allard Hall LCA study is the mid-point impact assessment methodology developed by the US Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA), the Tool for the Reduction and Assessment of Chemical and other environmental Impacts (TRACI) version 2.2.  The impact categories selected and the units used to express them (i.e. category indicators) are listed below.  Global warming potential – kg CO 2  equivalents  Acidification potential – H +  mol equivalents  Eutrophication potential – kg N equivalents  Ozone depletion potential – kg CFC - 11  equivalents  P hotochemical smog potential – kg NOx equivalents  Human health respiratory effects potential – kg PM 2. 5  equivalents  Weighted raw resource use – kg   Fossil fuel consumption – MJ  Interpretation to be used Statement of significant issues, model evaluation results and concluding remarks Detailed discussion of uncertainty, sensitivity and functional units are included in the results section. Remarks and suggestions are given in the discussion section as well as the conclusion section. Data requirements Explicit statement of all data sources used to measure, calculate or estimate information from in order to complete the study of the product system The raw data source used in the study is the structural drawing set provided by Diamond Schmitt Architects. Data use includes basic dimensional measurements of the structural elements, specific material use and design loads. Data are further modified by assumptions in the final modelling process. Assumptions Explicit statement of all assumptions used by the modeller to measure, calculate or estimate information in order to complete the study of the product system Two types of assumptions are used in this study. The first is in the quantity takeoff process where we determined building characteristics and material specifications. The second is in the data input of the Impact Estimator modelling, where some data have to be modified to align with input requirements. The details of the assumptions are stated in the Model Development section of this report. A full assumption document is available in the appendix.   7  Value choices and optional elements Details of the application and use of normalization, grouping, weighting and further data quality analysis used to better understand the LCA study results Value choices and optional elements are not considered in this study for two reasons. First, comparative study is not the goal of this report, and thus the data do not have to be further adjusted. Second, this report provides sufficient documentation of the execution of the study, and thus the data are justified and the analysis results are acceptable.    Limitations Describe the extents to which the results of the modelling carried out on the product system accurately estimate the impacts created by the product system defined by the system boundary of the study The extent of how the LCA study is carried out largely depends on the system boundary that is defined in the previous sections. The cut-off method applied in this study defines that the waste treatments, including reuse, recycling of the wastes are excluded from the study, thus is limited in scope. Last but not least, the Athena life cycle inventory (LCI) database reflects the average level of the North American industry.  This needs to be taken in to consideration, as the actual upstream effects may differ from the industry average.  This limitation is caused by the lack of participation of manufacturers in LCA. Data quality requirements Qualitative and quantitative description of sourced data used in the LCA study, as well as the methods used to collect and integrate missing data The sources of data used in the development of this LCA study are from the courtesy of Diamond Schmitt Architects. The information given in the drawing was relatively accurate, but there is still some ambiguity involved for some assemblies. The accuracy of the quantity takeoff relates to the modeling in the Impact Estimator which estimates a bill of materials from building characteristics provided to it by the user.  A detail ed breakdown of the building characteristics input into the IE are presented in the appendix. Quality of the outcome data depends on the quantity takeoff and characterization process that is built in the Impact Estimator since all the calculation parameters and calculation procedures are provided by the software’s own database.  We dedicated our best efforts in measuring, but some human errors are inevitable.  The study of the database is not included in the scope of this study.     8  Type of the critical review A review of the methods, data, interpretations, transparency and consistency of the LCA study- to be included in the LCA report This study is conducted in a transparent and communicative way so that it is readily available for any third party who is interested in life cycle assessments to review and comment.  However, a review is not included in this report. Type and format of the report required for the study Statement of the type and format follow by the report  This report followed the final report outline provided by Rob Sianchuk - the instructor of CIVL 498E. This project is carried out under in the UBC Civil Engineering department.                     9  3.0 Model Development  The purpose of this section is to demonstrate how the model used in our analysis was developed. This is important because it explains how one may recreate our model, and will include a breakdown of what wo rk was done and the assumptions that were made. 3.1 Structure and Envelope 3.1.1 Material Take Off Development The software used for conducting material quantity take off was On-Screen Takeoff 3. This software is able to quantify materials in several different ways, including area conditions, linear conditions, and count conditions. Using the structural drawings and these conditions, the total amount of building material is estimated. Area conditions are used primarily for the floors, pad footings and roof. The Athena Impact Estimator requires the span and width parameters, which essentially requires of us the total floor and roof areas. When measuring the floor areas, beams and columns are overlapped, but footings and wall are not. Linear conditions were used to perform takeoffs of  walls and strip footings. Beyond the linear condition obtained, the height and thickness of the wall or footing was determined. Care must be taken to account for thickness of the slabs involved and avoid double counting. When the condition is being used, it snaps to planes at 0°, 90°, and 15° intervals in between. An option also exists to account for slope, though there was no cause to use it in this project. The count condition is used for columns, beams, doors, and windows.  Columns and beams structures were analyzed in a joint condition with the slabs because they are evenly distributed throughout the floor area, supporting the upper structures.  Therefore, the only information needed to analyze columns and beams is the, the number of beams and columns, floor area, bay and span size of the columns. Not all functions of the software are used. The main intent is to find inputs for use in the IE. Basic quantities (areas, length, count) are recorded and in the notes section, information regarding key properties is to be shown. Specific nomenclature is also used when operating the software, to allow for a consistent and smooth transition into the use of IE. The assemblies are defined as one of the following: foundation, walls, columns/beams, floors, roofs, or extra basic material. The assemblies are then labeled dependant on their type (ex. Concrete Suspended Slab) and a unique characteristic (ex. 2.4KN LL) to distinguish from other similar assemblies. When doing quantity take offs, the main challenge is deciding on what assumptions to use, as the structural drawings are very detailed and elaborate. Research is done to ensure logical assumptions are considered, and notes of these assumptions are clearly made.  1 0   3.1.2 Material Take Off Assumptions Various assumptions were required to be made in order to complete the analysis for the Allard Hall Law building. The detail of the provided structural drawings was great; however, certain key properties required by the Athena Impact Estimator were not listed, such as percent fly ash content. In this section, we identify the significant assumptions that were made and how we accounted for them. Data input in Impact Estimator are in imperial form . Metric data have to be approximated to match with the imperial data selection . Structural components such as foundation, columns and beams are made of reinforced concrete, and thus we assume the property of concrete to be consistent, unless otherwise specified. Footings Several assumptions are made in the data input stage of the modeling . All measurements taken using Onscreen Takeoff for slabs do not overlap with footings and walls, but do overlap columns and beams . For any foundation types, dimension needs to be modified if the width is larger than 500mm (19.68 in) . This requires the adjustment of length or depth to maintain the volume of material . For the slabs on grade, the interior and exterior ones have 20MPa and 32MPa, respectively . They are approximated as 3000Psi and 4000Psi in the modeling . Because of the imperial unit, rebar sizes have to be approximated too. Typically, 10M rebar correspond to #4, 15M rebar correspond to #5 and 20M rebar correspond to #6 in the model . Reinforced members with rebar size larger than 20M are assumed to be #6. Walls All cast in place concrete walls were assumed to be made of 30MPa concrete. Actual walls varied from 25 to 40MPa, 30MPa was used for balance. Flyash percentage for the concrete mix was not specified, so the “average” input in the impact estimator was used. All concrete reinforcement was taken as #15M (the lowest value allowed by the impact estimator). Most reinforcement was actually #10M with very few #20M bars in the larger shear walls. Walls thicker than 300mm had to have their lengths adjusted to obtain the correct volume of concrete (the impact estimator limits concrete wall thicknesses to either 200mm or 300mm). Simple math was used to do this.  Retaining walls were ignored because landscape drawings were unavailable. Interior wall heights were taken as the floor height minus the thickness of the slab. The slab was assumed to be 200mm thick in all areas. For interior partition walls, a steel stud thickness of 25Ga was used when unknown. Insulation was referred to only as “Batt Insulation,” so the impact estimator input “Fiberglass Batt” was used as a surrogate. The plans also referred to “gypsum board 16mm type X” and “16mm fire code C.” The closest input in the impact estimator was “gypsum fire rated type X 16mm.” Reinforcement for concrete block walls was unknown, so the input #10M was used. Insulation type for the exterior partition walls was unknown (and referred to only as “semi - rigid insulation.” The input “polystyrene expanded” was used. An air and water barrier was specified for exterior walls but the type was unknown. “Polyethylene 3 mil” was used. The glazing type was unknown, so “standard glazing” was used. Some exterior partition types (specifically W1.1 and W3.1) consisted only of an outer envelope 1 1   covering over a structural concrete wall rather than the usual concrete block wall. Because these structural walls were already counted and an envelope can’t be added without backing, the equivalent length of section of structural wall was removed and re-added with the W1.1 and W3.1 envelope types. The type of wood used for the forum sliding doors and the wood panel balcony were unknown, so the extra material basic material input in the Impact Estimator was use for “cedar wood bevel siding” . Columns and Beams Columns and beams are not modeled individually. Together with the contribution area, they are considered as a joint member in the modeling. These members are generally considered as having an even distribution in the floor plan, while in real life, building designs intentionally have irregular patterns of column placing for aesthetic reasons . The dimension of the columns and beams are not considered . Rather, this modeling process takes the floor plan as a whole study target, and only the numbers of columns and beams are coun ted. The exact data for live load are calculated as a weighted average of the designing load plan of that floor, and it is also approximated in the model due to limited selections in the IE . Floors The floors in the building are all either suspended slabs or slab on grade. Much of the data required by the Athena Impact Estimator is provided by the detailed structural drawings. Due to how specific the options are, however, for concrete strength, and live load, numbers had to be rounded, in some cases significantly. Th e concrete strength of slab on grade was specified  as 20MPa or 32MPa for interior and exterior, respectively. For input into IE, the values of 3000psi and 4000psi were used in place. When modeling the suspended slabs, all of them had a specified strength of 30MPa, which was also inputted into IE as 4000psi. The live loading throughout the building was provided not only in the general notes of the structural drawings, but also with a live load map. This enabled us to easily separate the building into the different zones when measuring the floor areas. Due to limitations in IE however, we were not able to input all of the information available to us, as only values of 50psf, 75psf, and 100psf were accepted. Observed numbers ranged from 50psf to 200psf, and they were rounded to the closest available value. Another important parameter not disclosed in the provided structural drawings was the % fly ash content. The assumption was made that an average value was used, and this was inputted for all slabs on grade and suspended slabs. The parameter span length is the distance between columns and walls. In order to have a resulting single value for this parameter, a weighted average was calculated based on column layouts. The floors were broken down into sections where column spacing was consistent, and based on the area of space taken, an average span was found to describe a single type of slab. 1 2   Roof The roof of the building consists of two classifications: Suspended Concrete Slab, and Steel Joist. As the roof is stepped, it begins to appear on the third floor in some areas, but is predominantly only on the roof. However, a quantity take off was taken for all roof areas. The Roof Suspended Slab, as with the other slabs is assumed to have an average % fly ash concentration. The concrete strength, as previously specified is 30MPa, to be inputted as 4000psi. The live load of the roof was noted as 2.4KN in the drawings, and as such an input of 50psf is used. The span length was calculated as similar to the spans of the other suspended slabs. The other aspect of the roof is the Steel Joist Decking. Not as much detail as required by IE, is provided by the structural drawings. What was retrieved however was the joist size of W250 X22 . The deck thickness was listed as 38mm, due to the upper bound in IE being 19mm, 19mm was used. Many other parameters were required, but not described in the drawings, and typical values were assumed: No decking Type, 18 Gauge Steel, and Joist spacing of 24.  Greater details about the assumptions made for the entire model can be found in Appendix B (IE Input Assumptions Document). Specific information such as the calculations made and methods used for our assumptions will be available.   1 3   4.0 Results and Interpretation  This section provides the results from the building model, showing the impact measures as outputted from the Athena Impact Estimator. The results are categorized into the used assembly groups, and discussion of these attained values is provided. The effects of uncertainty and sensitivity are also exp lored, and the chain of custody for the material found is inquired and commented on. 4.1 Inventory Analysis  Before looking at the environmental impacts, it is first important to look at the material that is being modeled. The IE creates a list of material based on the assembly inputs. One of the outputs produced is a Bill of Materials, listing the total amount of all materials and the assembly group using it. Table 2: Bill of Materials  To help analyse this information, the top five materials with the largest contribution to the building are identified. These have been noted as the Batt Fibreglass, Concrete Blocks, Steel Rebar, Fire-Rated Gypsum Board, and 30MPa Concrete. Foundation WallsColumns and BeamsFloors Roofm2 2233 2233m2 2768. 3392 2768. 339m2 25704. 0231 25704. 02m2 6511. 9641 6511. 964m2 2768. 3392 2768. 339Tonnes 42. 3318 42. 3318m2 (25mm) 43466. 9237 43466. 92m2 760. 1536 760. 1536Tonnes 0. 5129 0. 5129m2 456. 7021 456. 7021m3 292. 0775 292. 0775m3 1497. 6054 1280. 0123 469. 4726 2025. 572 420. 9769 5693. 639Blocks 34717. 3679 34717. 37k g 2751. 059 2751. 059m2 (25mm) 14011. 3077 14011. 31Tonnes 6. 2225 6. 2225Tonnes 42. 7567 77. 0185 119. 7753Tonnes 205. 5112 205. 5112Tonnes 3. 4291 3. 4291Tonnes 32. 1521 32. 1521m2 2151. 7593 2151. 759m3 726. 0972 726. 0972Tonnes 2. 3625 2. 3625m2 514. 1651 514. 1651Tonnes 0. 369 0. 369Tonnes 5. 3976 133. 0627 173. 8924 114. 0167 22. 3913 448. 7607Tonnes 3. 0623 1. 1321 4. 1944m3 3. 7693 3. 7693L 10. 0225 10. 0225m2 1365. 4443 492. 5246 1857. 969L 579. 2532 579. 2532Tonnes 2. 5455 2. 5455#15 Organic Felt3 mil P olyet hyleneConstruction MaterialAssembly Group5/ 8"  Fire-Rated Ty pe X Gy psum Board5/ 8"  Regular Gy psum BoardAir BarrierAluminumBatt . FiberglassCedar W ood Bevel SidingHollow S truct ural S teelJoint CompoundCold Rolled S heetCommercial(26 ga. ) S teel CladdingConcrete 20 MPa (flyash av)Concrete 30 MPa (flyash av)Concrete BlocksEPDM membrane (black , 60 mil)Water Based Latex PaintWelded W ire Mesh / Ladder WireMetric Modular (Modular) BrickMortarNailsNat ur l S t onePaper T pR bar, Rod, Light SectionsB uilding TotalUnitScrews Nuts & B oltsSmall Dimension S oft wood Lumber, kiln-driedS olvent Based Alk y d PaintS tandard GlazingE x panded P olyst yreneGalvanized S heetGalvanized S t udsGlazing Panel1 4   The most common of these is both the 30MPa concrete and the rebar. This is because every basic assembly uses poured concrete. There is heavy use of concrete in the floors, but the rebar is used predominantly in the beams and columns as much more capacity is expected to be required in those elements. The concrete type listed (30MPa w/ average flyash) was assumed when modeling. As previously discussed, a higher range of concrete types is expected, but due to input limitations, have been simplified into this one major type. The next materials most used appear solely in the wall’s assembly. The main structural element of the walls is assumed to be concrete blocks. With the amount of wall elements present in the building, there is no surprise that this number is very high. Another major component of the walls is the use of fire-rated gypsum and batt fibreglass. Though there were many assumptions stated for the quantifying of the walls assembly, the materials were modelled very accurately. There were no major limitations requiring substitution in the model inputs. 4.2 Impact Assessment 4.2.1 Impact Category In this LCA study, a total of eight impact categories are tested as the outcome of the modelling.  These are global warming potential, acidification potential, eutrophication potential, ozone depletion potential, photochemical smog potential, human health respiratory effects potential, weighted raw resource use and fossil fuel consumption.  A brief description of the eight categories is provided below.  Global warming potential : a reference measure of how much a product has contributed to the global warming issue.  It is expressed as an equivalent mass of CO 2 .  Greenhouse gases (eg. CH 4 , NO x ) other than CO 2 are converted to the same unit.  The Impact Estimator has a sectional approach corresponding to each life cycle stages and the global warming potential is then summed in the outcome table. Acidification potential: measures a more regional impact that affects human health when high level of NO x  and SO2 are detected.  Acid rains are one of the concerns from acidification.  The air and water emission from the product are calculated for acidification potential.  It is expressed as an equivalent weight of H + .    Eutrophication potential: the extent of surface waters contamination by nutrients that are previously scarce. When such nutrient is added to a water body, fast proliferation of aquatic photosynthetic plants can be resulted . High level of eutrophication can quickly deplete oxygen so that other creatures can die from lack of oxygen and decompose to pollute the water.  Eutrophication is measured by equivalent weight of N.  Ozone depletion potential: measures the contribution to reduce the thickness of ozone layers within the stratosphere due to CFCs, HFCs, and halons emission.  The ozone depletion potential of each of the contributing substances measured as equivalent weight of CFC- 11.  1 5   Smog Potential: impact from air emission from industry and transportation causing photochemical smog.  It is measured as equivalent weight of NO x .   Human health respiratory effects potential: Parti culate matters of various sizes (PM10 and PM2.5) have a considerable impact on human health.  It is defined as  the number one cause of human h ealth deterioration due to its impact on the human respiratory system , such as asthma and bronchitis.  This is measured as equivalent weight of PM 2.5 .   Weighted raw resource use : measures the relative effects of different resource extraction activities.  The Athena Sustainable Materials Institute survey ed a number of North America resource extraction activities and evaluate the study target based on this average.  It is expressed in kg.  Fossil fuel consumption: energy including  all direct and indirect energy is accounted.   They  are used to transform or transport raw materials into products and buildings, including inherent energy contained in raw or feedstock materials that are also used as common energy sources.   This impact category  captures the indirect energy from the unit proce sses (processing, transporting, converting and delivering) in the main process.  Fossil fuel consumption  is reported in mega- joules (MJ).    A summary of impact category measurements per square foot area (finished) by life cycle stages is listed in the follow table. 1 6    Table 3: Environmental Impact Results for All Impact Categorises  Foundation Wall s FloorsColumns & BeamsRoofMaterialkg CO2 eq 476557. 76 1308844 623841. 611 231465. 41 247403. 05 2888112.009Transportationkg CO2 eq 14297. 179 30311. 88 18439. 5884 6880. 4852 4744. 6361 74673.76435Totalkg CO2 eq 490854. 9 1339156 642281. 199 238345. 9 252147. 7 2962786.053Site Preperationkg CO2 eq - - - - - 312315.4505Materialkg CO2 eq 10409. 417 25211. 8 29536. 2479 7. 1911985 6650. 268 71814.92008Transportationkg CO2 eq 21767. 349 76774. 63 25124. 4076 6651. 7381 6910. 9598 137229.0797Totalkg CO2 eq 32176. 77 101986. 5 54660. 6554 6658. 929 13561. 23 209044.0506Materialkg CO2 eq 0 309796. 5 0 0 0 309796.468Transportationkg CO2 eq 0 18221. 49 0 0 0 18221.4866Totalkg CO2 eq 0 328017. 9 0 0 0 328017.93Materialkg CO2 eq 12799. 774 15919. 11 15264. 3763 4700. 689 4789. 4037 53473.35203Transportationkg CO2 eq 10762. 46 16629. 52 12462. 9322 3288. 9159 2848. 7686 45992.59177Totalkg CO2 eq 23562. 23 32548. 63 27727. 3086 7989. 605 7638. 172 99465.9426A nnual kg CO2 eq 0 0 0 0 0 0Totalkg CO2 eq 0 0 0 0 0 0546593. 9 1801709 724669. 163 252994. 434 273347. 1 3911629. 122Foundation Wall s FloorsColumns & BeamsRoofMaterialkg CFC-11 eq 0. 00096 0. 002103 0. 0011493 0. 000266506 0. 000239 0.004718281Transportationkg CFC-11 eq 6. 00E- 07 1. 3E- 06 7. 74E- 07 2. 86E- 07 1. 99E- 07 3.16299E-06Totalkg CFC-11 eq 0. 001 0. 002103 0. 00115 0. 000266792 0. 0002392 0.00475947Site Preperationkg CFC-11 eq - - - - - 243787.4004Materialkg CFC-11 eq 0 7. 7E- 10 0 3. 41E- 12 0 7.73411E-10Transportationkg CFC-11 eq 8. 90E- 07 3. 11E- 06 1. 03E- 06 2. 73E- 07 2. 87E- 07 5.58809E-06Totalkg CFC-11 eq 9. 00E- 07 3. 01E- 06 1. 03E- 06 2. 73E- 07 2. 87E- 07 5.49909E-06Materialkg CFC-11 eq 0 0 00031 0 0 0 0.000310388Transportationkg CFC-11 eq 0 7. 43E- 07 0 0 0 7.43138E-07Totalkg CFC-11 eq 0 0 00031 0 0 0 0.000310431Materialkg CFC-11 eq 5. 80E- 07 7. 2E- 07 6. 88E- 07 2. 12E- 07 2. 16E- 07 2.41524E-06Transportationkg CFC-11 eq 4. 40E- 07 6. 82E- 07 5. 10E- 07 1. 35E- 07 1. 17E- 07 1.88333E-06Totalkg CFC-11 eq 1. 00E- 06 1E- 06 1. 20E- 06 3. 46E- 07 3. 32E- 07 3.88047E-06A nnual kg CFC-11 eq 0 0 0 0 0 0Totalkg CFC-11 eq 0 0 0 0 0 00. 0010019 0. 002418 0. 00115223 0. 000267411 0. 0002398 243787. 4054Foundation Wall s FloorsColumns & BeamsRoofMaterialmoles of H+ eq 162808. 71 583503. 9 213699. 41 79482. 82408 66305. 139 1105799.987Transportationmoles of H+ eq 6056. 2442 12910. 18 7673. 0676 2632. 482448 1994. 1039 31266.07509Totalmoles of H+ eq 168865 596414. 1 221372. 5 82115. 30653 68299. 243 1137066.105Site Preperationmoles of H+ eq - - - - - 255191.5918Materialmoles of H+ eq 5299. 2448 13006. 22 15376. 646 4. 006653704 3472. 6094 37158.72282Transportationmoles of H+ eq 6904. 6822 25023. 71 7924. 1328 2150. 941394 3370. 3287 45373.79375Totalmoles of H+ eq 12203. 93 38029. 92 23300. 78 2154. 948048 6842. 938 82532.51878Materialmoles of H+ eq 0 176849 0 0 0 176848.9653Transportationmoles of H+ eq 0 5911. 795 0 0 0 5911.795368Totalmoles of H+ eq 0 182760. 7 0 0 0 182760.7407Materialmoles of H+ eq 709. 64439 882. 5864 846. 28674 260. 6153486 265. 53386 2964.666744Transportationmoles of H+ eq 3394. 4162 5244. 85 3930. 735 1037. 304599 898. 48474 14505.79099Totalmoles of H+ eq 4104. 061 6127. 437 4777 022 1297. 919947 1164. 0186 17470.4589A nnual moles of H+ eq 0 0 0 0 0 0Totalmoles of H+ eq 0 0 0 0 0 0185172. 991 823332. 2 249450. 302 85568. 17453 76306. 2 1675021. 389End-of-Li feOperating EnergyAssembly TotalAssembl y GroupBuilding TotalManufacturingConstructionMaintenanceOperating EnergyAssembly TotalLi fe Cycle Stage ProcessAcidification PotentialBuilding TotalManufacturingConstructionMaintenanceEnd-of-Li feAssembly TotalLi fe Cycle Stage ProcessOzone La yer DepletionAssembl y GroupManufacturingConstructionMaintenanceEnd-of-Li feOperating EnergyLi fe Cycle Stage ProcessGloba l Warming PotentialAssembl y GroupBuilding Total1 7    Foundation Wall s FloorsColumns & BeamsRoofMaterialkg N eq 119. 58395 475. 0918 284. 677362 268. 44263 137. 27404 1285.069778Transportationkg N eq 6. 3806571 13. 60522 8. 07698352 2. 7589617 2. 1000861 32.92190732Totalkg N eq 125. 9646 488. 697 292. 754346 271. 2016 139. 3741 1317.991625Site Preperationkg N eq - - - - - 243797.6123Materialkg N eq 4. 2359811 12. 44689 15. 3631491 0. 0013368 3. 4694001 35.51675513Transportationkg N eq 7. 1553007 25. 97876 8. 20858627 2. 2318724 3. 5748299 47.14934517Totalkg N eq 11. 39128 38. 42565 23. 5717354 2. 233209 7. 04423 82.66610041Materialkg N eq 0 98. 3034 0 0 0 98.3033988Transportationkg N eq 0 6. 135455 0 0 0 6.1354554Totalkg N eq 0 104. 4389 0 0 0 104.43885Materialkg N eq 0. 4872624 0. 606009 0. 58108503 0. 1789461 0. 1823233 2.035626233Transportationkg N eq 3. 2068171 4. 954984 3. 71349517 0. 9799759 0. 8488282 13.70409987Totalkg N eq 3. 69408 5. 560992 4. 29458021 1. 158922 1. 031151 15.73972521A nnual kg N eq 0 0 0 0 0 0Totalkg N eq 0 0 0 0 0 0141. 04996 637. 1225 320. 620661 274. 593731 147. 44948 245318. 4487Foundation Wall s FloorsColumns & BeamsRoofMaterialkg N Ox eq 2407. 628849 5436. 85 2972. 67 834. 89976 700. 61031 12352.65856Transportationkg N Ox eq 139. 8628437 298. 3954 176. 892 60. 162042 46. 035029 721.3473017Totalkg N Ox eq 2547. 491693 5735. 735 3149. 6 895. 0618 746. 6453 13074.53381Site Preperationkg N Ox eq - - - - - 244021.3165Materialkg N Ox eq 117. 4222664 314. 03 377. 082 0. 0311297 85. 127203 893.6925991Transportationkg N Ox eq 154. 2012182 560. 4162 176. 863 48. 132042 78. 011182 1017.623614Totalkg N Ox eq 271. 6234846 874. 4062 553. 94 48. 16317 163. 1384 1911.271227Materialkg N Ox eq 0 1704. 85 0 0 0 1704.85015Transportationkg N Ox eq 0 132. 4161 0 0 0 132.4161271Totalkg N Ox eq 0 1836. 996 0 0 0 1836.9963Materialkg N Ox eq 9. 118635687 11. 341 10. 8744 3. 348799 3. 4119999 38.09483459Transportationkg N Ox eq 75. 76163618 117. 0649 87. 732 23. 152109 20. 05372 323.7643384Totalkg N Ox eq 84. 88027186 128. 3649 98. 606 26. 50091 23. 46572 361.8177749A nnual kg N Ox eq 0 0 0 0 0 0Totalkg N Ox eq 0 0 0 0 0 02903. 995449 8575. 502 3802. 146 969. 72588 933. 24942 261205. 764Foundation Wall s FloorsColumns & BeamsRoofMaterialkg PM2. 5 eq 1115. 465923 5653. 788 1395. 6896 447. 5113 374. 96 8987.414929Transportationkg PM2. 5 eq 7. 35757296 15. 68687 9. 3165438 3. 1873626 2. 4219765 37.97033063Totalkg PM2. 5 eq 1122. 823496 5669. 475 1405. 006 450. 6987 377. 382 9025.385146Site Preperationkg PM2. 5 eq - - - - - 243800.5617Materialkg PM2. 5 eq 4. 80005525 14. 61644 17. 408945 0. 003789 3. 9313943 40.76062186Transportationkg PM2. 5 eq 8. 299907588 30. 11463 9. 5230281 2. 5876833 4. 1118031 54.63705278Totalkg PM2. 5 eq 13. 09996284 44. 73107 26. 93197 2. 591472 8. 043197 95.39767084Materialkg PM2. 5 eq 0 4135. 226 0 0 0 4135.226479Transportationkg PM2. 5 eq 0 7. 113116 0 0 0 7.113115664Totalkg PM2. 5 eq 0 4142. 34 0 0 0 4142.339624Materialkg PM2. 5 eq 0. 675570225 0. 840208 0. 8056516 0. 2481017 0. 252784 2.822315797Transportationkg PM2. 5 eq 4. 079325056 6. 303131 4. 7238596 1. 2466069 1. 0797766 17.43269915Totalkg PM2. 5 eq 4. 754895282 7. 143339 5. 529511 1. 494709 1. 332561 20.25501564A nnual kg PM2. 5 eq 0 0 0 0 0 0Totalkg PM2. 5 eq 0 0 0 0 0 01140. 678354 9863. 689 1437. 46748 454. 784881 386. 75776 257083. 9392End-of-Li feOperating EnergyAssembly TotalAssembl y GroupBuilding TotalManufacturingConstructionMaintenanceEnd-of-Li feOperating EnergyAssembly TotalLi fe Cycle Stage ProcessHuman Health Re spiratory EffectsAssembl y GroupBuilding TotalManufacturingConstructionMaintenanceEnd-of-Li feOperating EnergyAssembly TotalLi fe Cycle Stage Process Smog PotentialAssembl y GroupBuilding TotalManufacturingConstructionMaintenanceLife Cycle Stage ProcessEutrophication Potential1 8     The environmental impacts of Allard Hall are strongly related to the material manufacturing, energy consumption and emissions.  From the tables above, Allard Hall contributes most in fossil fuel consumption and weighted resource use because the mass concrete use.  It also contributes a considerable amount to global warming potential and acidification potential.  The global warming potential reflects th e building’s concrete emission and emission related to its energy use, which is moderate. Its contributions in other impact categories are not significant. 4.2.2 Uncertainty Service Life - We are making a very rough estimate of the service life of this building. Construction at UBC occurs at a rapid rate, and as we’ve seen by the building that was on site before Allard Hall was constructed, buildings are often torn down before their expected life expires. Foundation Wall s FloorsColumns & BeamsRoofMaterial ecologically 4681726. 493 5959314 5481213. 2 1. 00E+06 1. 00E+06 18122254.08Transportation ecologically 5893. 247672 13341. 85 7470. 3157 2581. 9 2010 31297.31759Total ecologically 4687619. 741 5972657 5488684 1. 00E+06 1. 00E+06 18148960.89Site Preperation ecologically - - - - -07Material ecologically 3582. 772549 8088. 649 10218. 498 0. 5231 2301. 3 24191.7431Transportation ecologically 6898. 229827 25125. 54 7908. 2456 2156. 6 3587. 2 45675.81314Total ecologically 10481. 00238 33214. 19 18126. 74 2157 5888 69866.93155Material ecologically 0 375857. 8 0 0 0 375857.7775Transportation ecologically 0 5881. 674 0 0 0 5881.67379Total ecologically 0 381740. 2 0 0 0 381740.2213Material ecologically 4623. 127183 5749. 794 5513. 3124 1697. 8 1729. 9 19313.93369Transportation ecologically 3387. 635488 5234. 374 3922. 8829 1035. 2 896. 69 14476.78205Total ecologically 8010. 762671 10984. 16 9436. 195 2733 2627 33791.12144A nnual ecologically 0 0 0 0 0 0Total ecologically 0 0 0 0 0 04706111. 506 6398596 5516246. 94 1004890 1008515 18638949. 12Foundation Wall s FloorsColumns & BeamsRoofMaterial MJ 2925493. 9 13281380 5. 00E+06 3567604. 4 2630148. 4 27404627.07Transportation MJ 251455. 31 569954. 5 318651 109980. 12 85811. 914 1335852.881Total MJ 3176949 13851335 5. 00E+06 3677585 2715960 28421829.38Site Preperation MJ - - - - - 1237027.74Material MJ 154573. 19 348694. 4 440861 21. 335051 99285. 666 1043435.611Transportation MJ 292797. 98 1067017 335631 91570. 961 153233. 77 1940251.029Total MJ 447371. 2 1415712 8. 00E+05 91592. 3 252519. 4 3007194.918Material MJ 0 1548943 0 0 0 1548943.13Transportation MJ 0 249748. 8 0 0 0 249748.755Total MJ 0 1798692 0 0 0 1798691.9Material MJ 196342. 09 244191. 1 234148 72106. 202 73467. 041 820254.453Transportation MJ 143773. 39 222150. 1 166490 43935. 92 38056. 086 614405.5077Total MJ 340115. 5 466341. 3 4. 00E+05 116042. 1 111523. 1 1434021.952A nnual MJ 0 0 0 0 0 0Total MJ 0 0 0 0 0 03964435. 7 17532081 6200000 3885219. 4 3080002. 5 36194546. 18End-of-Li feOperating EnergyAssembly TotalAssembl y GroupBuilding TotalManufacturingConstructionMaintenanceEnd-of-Li feOperating EnergyAssembly TotalLi fe Cycle Stage Process Fossi l Fuel UseAssembl y GroupBuilding TotalManufacturingConstructionMaintenanceLife Cycle Stage ProcessWeighted Re source Use1 9   Methods and Tools used in Modeling - There is uncertainty inherent in the programs used to model the building. Several assumptions had to be made to determine surrogate materials in cases when the actual construction material did not have a matching input available in the impact estimator.  Collection - The fact that the people responsible for performing detailed quantity takeoffs are students with little field experience may be a source of inaccuracy. This is especially true when making a comparative assertion with other campus buildings. With no background in the software and in some cases, no background reading structural plans, the level of detail and accuracy may be highly inconsistent from one project to the next. Inaccurate Data - Energy use data presents uncertainty due to seasonal variations in temperature, waning building maintenance, and changes in occupancy will all contribute to shifts in energy use. Also, because this is a new building, no history is available and only a rough estimate of this number can be assumed. No Data - There were cases when the exact building material was unknown and an educated guess was made. In cases where large quantities or particularly harmful substances were involved, this may be a source of significant uncertainty. Impact Assessment - Any uncertainty involved with impact assessment is directly related to the limitations of the impact assessment software. The impact assessment is generated automatically, and the accura cy of emission impacts, characterization factors, etc. is based on Athena’s databases.  4.2.3 Sensitivity Analysis  A sensitivity analysis is essential for accurately interpreting the output results from IE in the design of a building. As previously discussed, there are uncertainties that we encounter when modeling such a large scale project. Certain quantities are expected to not be completely accurate, and the methods used to calculate impacts may differ amongst other analysis methods. This fact once again emphasizes the importance of documenting the procedures of a LCA, but also leads us into the question of: What kind of changes will happen due to our uncertainties? One way we can look at this aspect, is by measuring the sensitivity of the building’s material. The top five materials, as previously identified in the inventory analysis, were further analysed for sensitivity. The quantity of each material was changed by a % of weight, and the differing environmental impacts outputted by IE were noted. Below is a figure illustrating the changes observed when increasing, individually, each of the top five materials by 10%. 2 0    Figure 3: Relative Effect of Top Five Materials on Environmental Impact Categories  An obvious first observation is the dominance of concrete in the graph. In almost every category, concrete has the largest effect on the environmental impact categories, with a 7.72% increase in weighted resource. Other properties can also be extracted, such as that concrete contributes the most impact towards ozone depletion, and rebar use contributes most heavily to eutrophication.  Other materials have very minute impacts, resulting in observed differences less than 1.0%. This is telling us that at the least, any quantifying of these material take offs are not absolutely reliant on full accuracy. There is some leniency in both human error, and the assumptions made. The other more impactful materials should be measured more in depth however, to ensure the most realistic model. This data is also revealing that the most sensitive category to material quantity is the weighted resource use. This can easily be linked to the fact that much of the building makes use of concrete, which is also a fairly dense material. The categories of eutrophication and ozone depletion are also very responsive to material changes in the building. That being said, decisions in detailing of the main components will make significant differences on the value of those impact categories.  2 1   4.2.4 Chain of Custody Inquiry  The specific materials used in this building project have a significant effect on the environmental impacts. As seen in the sensitivity analysis, a change in material of only 10% can alter impact categories at the building scale sufficiently enough, to make a material’s full profile valuable in assessment. To get a better understanding of what kind of impact material choice can have on a project, different materials were traced back to their extraction origins. This enables us to envision the traveling required for a material to reach its final destination. For our case study, we traced the Steel Decking used in the Allard Hall Law Building. The structural drawings specified the use of VicWest brand decking, or something similarly approved. Assuming that the building contractors did indeed use decking as specified, information of local VicWest providers was inquired. In the below table, information regarding the chain of custody is summarized. Table 4: Chain of Custody Inquiry Material Life cycle stage Company Name Date of contact Latitude of facility Longitude of facility Transportation mode to facility Transportation mode from facility Steel Decking Extraction Wabush Mine - 50.21896 -66.3833   Water Steel Manufacturing Dofasco - 43.26851 -79.8445 Water Rail Decking Manufacturing Vicwest 28-Mar-12 49.14484 -123.002 Rail Truck Construction UBC Properties Trust 24-Mar-12 49.26903 -123.253 Truck -  VicWest in Delta, BC was able to provide us with a complete material tracing for the steel they manufacture. This factory, based in Vancouver, imports steel from Hamilton, Ontario, from a large steel Manufacturer, Dafasco. Furthermore, this Ontario based manufacturer imports its raw material from several different mines, located across America, but predominantly from within the province in Quebec. Raw materials are transported via water, and rail. The short distances across land are handled by  truck, including the transportation from manufacturing to the building site. Somewhat surprisingly, information about material extraction for steel in Canada was very easy to find. Due to the increasing use of LEED design in North America, for a product such as steel, this information is essentially required to be publicly available. If a manufacturer wants to stay competitive, and with designers wanting to achieve LEED standards, being able to provide a full material profile is necessary to allow clients to reach their goals. 2 2   4.2.5 Functions and Impacts Building Functions Allard Hall Building is a multifunctional structure serving both institutional and office functions.  The building has a spacious interior for spectacular art pieces and lounge as well as a beautiful atrium on the second floor creating a fascinating view from inside the building. It has large capacity for both classrooms and office areas.  While providing an educational environment, this building also provides the Law Faculty administration offices and general law consulting service space.  The detailed functional areas of Allard Hall is summarized below. Table 5 Functional Area Starewells/Halls/ Atriums  3594 4  26.8 1%  O f fice/Office Spaces  2997 9  22.3 6%  Library  2716 9  20.2 7%  Classroom  1315 4  9.81%  Mechanical Rooms  1204 4  8.98%  Study/Research/Prep/Computer Lab R ooms  6975  5.20%  Washrooms/ Locker Rooms  4302  3.21%  Storage Rooms  2269  1.69%  Auditorium/Lecture Halls  2210  1.65%  Testing Labs  0  0.00%  Total  1340 46  100%  Functional Units A functional unit is a measure of performance for a product or building undergoing an LCA. It is a reference unit th at ex presses impacts per amount of delivered performance by the product system. In the case of a building, the main use is occupancy. Several options of how to express occupancy are available, but the most fitting one will take the purpose (study space, office space, and storage space) of the building into account. The law building is clearly an academic building, but its use is split between study space for students and office space for law faculty. Large portions of space are reserved for the law library as well, which is useful to both students and faculty. Because of the mixed use nature of this building, several potential functional units exist, including: Per generic floor area – impacts are divided by the square footage of the whole building. Per library area – impacts are divided by the square footage reserved study spaces and book stacks Per office area – impacts are divided by the square footage reserved for administration and staff use Per classroom area– impacts are divided by the square footage reserved for holding lectures   2 3   Table 6: Table of Examined Functional Units   Per Functional Area (/ft2)  TOTAL Impact Generic Floor Area  Library Floor Area  Office Area  Classroom Area  Fossil Fuel Consumption MJ 3 50 35 36 0 .5 1  261 .36 81 90 9  128 9 .5 34 41 5  1 16 8 .6 63 41 5  228 0 .3 54  Weighted Resource Use kg 1 94 79 12 5 .5 6  145 .31 67 23 8  716 .96 14 47 4  649 .75 90 16 8  126 7 .8 42  Global Warming Potential (kg CO2 eq) 3 59 93 13 .65 6  26.851 33 20 5  132 .47 86 94 7  120 .06 11 64 7  234 .26 93  Acidification Potential (moles of H+ eq) 1 41 98 29 .79 5  10.5 92 10 86 4  52.259 18 49 1  47.360 81 24  92.412 77  HH Respiratory Effects Potential (kg PM2.5 eq) 1 32 83 .37 75 4  0.0990 95 66 5  0.4889 16 69  0.4430 89 41 4  0.8645 78  Eutrophication Potential (kg N eq) 1 52 0 .8 36 35 8  0.0113 45 63  0.0559 76 89 9  0.0507 30 05 6  0.0989 87  Ozone Depletion Potential (kg CFC-11 eq) 0 .0050 48 87  3.7665 2E - 08  1.8583 2E - 07  1.6841 4E - 07  3.29E - 07  Smog Potential (kg NOx eq) 1 71 84 .39 74 4  0.1281 97 76 4  0.6325 00 18 2  0.5732 14 49 8  1.1184 85   In the above table, the total building impacts are divided by the different functional units used in our analysis. The generic floor area is useful because it allows us to see the impact of the entire building as a whole, in units of measurement that can be immediately compared to other buildings. However, as previously stated, all buildings are not valued equally for simply, their floor space. What the floor space is used for is also an essential parameter to know. It is for that reason, aside from total floor area, the functional units of library space, office area, and classroom are chosen. For example, one is able to assess the building in its ability to provide book stacks in relation to environmental impact. The value of this type of functional unit breakdown is for when comparing to other buildings of different size. This new UBC Law building now has a clearly defined and measured value for environmental impact, separated into different categories for purpose. From this point, it can now be compared to other projects that have had an LCA conducted.  2 4   5.0 Conclusion  A life cycle assessment on the new UBC Law Building, Allard Hall, was conducted and the resulting environmental impacts were assessed. A number of significant values have been discovered, including a bill of materials to display the assumed construction materials used in analysis:   This revealed to us that the likely top 5 represented materials used in the building were Batt Fibreglass, Concrete Blocks, Steel Rebar, Fire-Rated Gypsum Board, and 30MPa Concrete.   From this a sensitivity analysis was also done, which demonstrated the dominating influence concrete has on the overall building impact, with as much of a 7.72 % increase in weighted material use, when independently increased by 10% in weight. The environmental impact categories are not particularly sensitive to the other materials, except for Eutrophication Potential, which is significantly influenced by a change in rebar quantity.   When looking solely at the overall environmental impacts and the building ’s life cycle, it is shown that the cycle with the biggest contribution is material manufacturing. Of all stages of the life cycle, this is one that needs the most attention if one wishes to reduce emissions. The greatest impacts come in the form of fossil fuel consumption and weighted resource, and this attributed to the extensive use of concrete.  A Chain of Custody Inquiry was done and the results showed that steel decking used in the Allard Hall building originated from Eastern Canada, due to the lack of Iron Ore mines on the West Coast, and also due to the large steel manufacturing plants in Ontario. This transportation is not over extensive, but is still important to consider when looking at possible improvements.  The functional units for this building were taken as square footage of floor area, in the form of generic, library, office, and classroom space. The values attained are to be used as a baseline to compare other similar buildings in terms of performance using the aforementioned building uses. Al l of the data that has been collected is to be added to the UBC Building Database. This information is intended to be used as reference in the future, so that quantifiable comparisons can be made.        Appendix A: IE Input Document    Assembly As sembly T ype  Assembly Name  Input Fields  Input Values  Known/Measured  IE Inputs  1 .0 Foundations  1.1 Concrete Slab On Grade             1.1.1 SOG_10 0mm_Exterior            Length (ft)  57.78  57.78      Width (ft)  57.78  57.78      Thickness (in)  4  4      Concrete (psi) 4000  400 0       Concrete flyash %  -  Average     1.1.2 SOG_10 0mm_Interior            Length (ft)  154.98  154 .98      Width (ft)  154.98  154 .98      Thickness (in)  4  4     Concrete (psi) 3000  300 0       Concrete flyash %  -  Average     1.1.3 SOG_20 0mm_Interior            Length (ft)  54.42  54.42      Width (ft)  54.42  54.42      Thickness (in)  8  8     Concrete (psi) 3000  300 0       Concrete flyash %  -  Average   1.2  Concrete Footing             1.2.1  Footing_F1             Length (ft)  49.2  49.2       Width (ft)  4.9  4.9       Thickness (in)  17.7  17.7       Concrete (psi) 4351  400 0       Concrete flyash %  -  average      Rebar  #5  #5     1.2.2  Footing_F2              Length (ft)  70.85  70.85       Width (ft)  5.90  5.90       Thickness (in)  19.68  19.68       Concrete (psi) 4351  400 0       Concrete flyash %  -  average      Rebar  #5  #5     1.2.3 .  Footing_F3             Length (ft)  52.48  57.73       Width (ft)  6.56  6.56       Thickness (in)  21.65  19.68       Concrete (psi) 4351  400 0       Concrete flyash %  -  average      Rebar  #6  #6     1.2.4  Footing_F4             Length (ft)  135.79  176 .53       Width (ft)  7.54  7.54       Thickness (in)  25.58  19.68       Concrete (psi) 4351  400 0       Concrete flyash %  -  average      Rebar  #6  #6     1.2.5  Footing_F5             Length (ft)  9.84  16.73       Width (ft)  9.84  9.84       Thickness (in)  33.46  19.68       Concrete (psi) 4351  400 0       Concrete flyash %  -  average      Rebar  #8  #6     1.2.6  Footing_F6             Length (ft)  17.71  17.71       Width (ft)  2.95  2.95       Thickness (in)  9.84  9.84       Concrete (psi) 4351  400 0       Concrete flyash %  -  average      Rebar  #4  #4     1.2.7  Footing_SF1             Length (ft)  555.39  555 .39       Width (ft)  1.97  1.97        Thickness (in)  9.84  9.84       Concrete (psi) 4351  400 0       Concrete flyash %  -  average      Rebar  #5  #5     1.2.8  Footing_SF2             Length (ft)  420.43  462 .47       Width (ft)  6.56  6.56       Thickness (in)  21.65  19.68       Concrete (psi) 4351  400 0       Concrete flyash %  -  average      Rebar  #8  #6     1.2.9  Footing_SF3             Length (ft)  54.15  70.39       Width (ft)  8.20  8.20       Thickness (in)  25.58  19.68       Concrete (psi) 4351  400 0       Concrete flyash %  -  average      Rebar  #8  #6     1.2.10  Footing_SF4             Length (ft)  57.72  57.72       Width (ft)  4.92  4.92       Thickness (in)  13.78  13.78       Concrete (psi) 4351  400 0       Concrete flyash %  -  average      Rebar  #6  #6     1.2.11  Footing_1500mm_LowerFloor          Lower floor @ Elevator Pit  Length (ft)  54.42  163 .26       Width (ft)  21.33  21.33       Thickness (in)  59.04  19.68       Concrete (psi) 4351  400 0       Concrete flyash %  -  average      Rebar  #10  #6     1.2.12  Footing_250mm_LowerFloor             Length (ft)  3.28  3.28       Width (ft)  3.94  3.94       Thickness (in)  9.84  9.84       Concrete (psi) 4351  400 0       Concrete flyash %  -  average      Rebar  #4  #5     1.2.13  Footing_400mm_GroundFloor            Length (ft)  40.10  40.10       Width (ft)  52.48  52.48       Thickness (in)  15.74  15.74       Concrete (psi) 4351  400 0       Concrete flyash %  -  average      Rebar  #6  #6     1.2.14  Footing_750mm_GroundFloor            Length (ft)  48.25  48.25       Width (ft)  9.84  9.84       Thickness (in)  19.68  19.68       Concrete (psi) 4351  400 0       Concrete flyash %  -  average      Rebar  #8  #6     1.2.15  Footing_400mm_GroundFloor            Length (ft)  8.20  8.20       Width (ft)  4.92  4.92       Thickness (in)  15.74  15.74       Concrete (psi) 4351  400 0       Concrete flyash %  -  average      Rebar  #5  #5     1.2.16  Footing_500mm_GroundFloor            Length (ft)  14.76  14.76       Width (ft)  4.92  4.92       Thickness (in)  19.68  19.68        Concrete (psi) 4351  400 0       Concrete flyash %  -  average      Rebar  #6  #6     1.2.17  Footing_1500mm_GroundFloor             Length (ft)  56.25  168 .75       Width (ft)  6.56  6.56       Thickness (in)  59.04  19.68       Concrete (psi) 4351  400 0       Concrete flyash %  -  average      Rebar  #8  #6  2.0  Walls  2.1 Cast in Place              2.1.1  Wall_Cast - in -Place_200mm_Basement              Length (f t)  863. 00  863. 00        Height (f t)  13.7 0  13.7 0        Thickness (in)  7.87  8        Concrete (psi)  -  4000        Concrete flyash %  -  average        Rebar  #15M  #5      2.1.2  Wall_Cast - in -Place 300mm Basement              Length (f t)  233. 00  233. 00        Height (f t)  13.7 0  13.7 0        Thickness (in)  11.8 1  11.8 1        Concrete (psi)  -  4000        Concrete flyash %  -  average        Rebar  #15M  #5      2.1.3  Wall_Cast - in -Place_400mm_Basement              Length (f t)  41.0 0  54.6 8        Height (f t)  13.7 0  13.7 0        Thickness (in)  15.7 5  11.8 1        Concrete (psi)  -  4000        Concrete flyash %  -  average         Rebar  #15M  #5      Opening  T ype  Door  Door        Number  1  1.00 0        Material  Hollow Metal  Steel Interior Door      2.1.4  Wall_Cast - in -Place_450mm_Basement              Length (f t)  72.0 0  108. 03        Height (f t)  13.7 0  13.7 0        Thickness (in)  17.7 2  11.8 1        Concrete (psi)  -  4000        Concrete flyash %  -  average        Rebar  #15M  #5      Opening  T ype  Door  Door        Number  1  1        Material  W ood  Hollow Core W ood Interior Door      2.1.5  Wall_Cast - in -Place_600mm_Basement              Length (f t)  15.0 0  30.0 0        Height (f t)  13.7 0  13.7 0        Thickness (in)  23.6 2  11.8 1        Concrete (psi)  -  4000        Concrete flyash %  -  average        Rebar  #15M  #5      2.1.6  Wall_Cast - in -Place 1000mm Basement              Length (f t)  7.00  23.3 4        Height (f t)  13.7 0  13.7 0        Thickness (in)  39.3 7  11.8 1        Concrete (psi)  -  4000        Concrete flyash %  -  average        Rebar  #15M  #5      2.1.7  Wall_Cast - in -Place_200mm_Main            (see assumptions)  Length (f t)  619. 00  430. 00        Height (f t)  12.4 7  12.4 7        Thickness (in)  7.87  8         Concrete (psi)  -  4000        Concrete flyash %  -  average        Rebar  #15M  #5      2.1.8  Wall_Cast - in -Place 300mm Main              Length (f t)  855. 00  855. 00        Height (f t)  12.4 7  12.4 7        Thickness (in)  11.8 1  11.8 1        Concrete (psi)  -  4000        Concrete flyash %  -  average        Rebar  #15M  #5      2.1.9  Wall_Cast - in -Place_400mm_Main              Length (f t)  166. 00  221. 38        Height (f t)  12.4 7  12.4 7        Thickness (in)  15.7 5  11.8 1        Concrete (psi)  -  4000        Concrete flyash %  -  average        Rebar  #15M  #5      Opening  T ype  Door  Door        Number  4  4        Material  W ood  Hollow Core W ood Interior Door      2.1.1 0  Wall_Cast - in -Place 450mm Main              Length (f t)  289. 00  433. 62        Height (f t)  12.4 7  12.4 7        Thickness (in)  17.7 2  11.8 1        Concrete (psi)  -  4000        Concrete flyash %  -  average        Rebar  #15M  #5      Opening  T ype  Door  Door        Number  5  5        Material  W ood  Hollow Core W ood Interior Door      2.1.1 1  Wall_Cast - in -Place_600mm_Main              Length (f t)  57.0 0  114. 00        Height (f t)  12.4 7  12.4 7         Thickness (in)  23.6 2  11.8 1        Concrete (psi)  -  4000        Concrete flyash %  -  average        Rebar  #15M  #5      2.1.1 2  Wall_Cast - in -Place_1000mm_Main              Length (f t)  28.0 0  93.3 4        Height (f t)  12.4 7  12.4 7        Thickness (in)  39.3 7  11.8 1        Concrete (psi)  -  4000        Concrete flyash %  -  average        Rebar  #15M  #5      2.1.1 3  Wall_Cast - in -Place_300mm_5thFloor              Length (f t)  19.0 0  19.0 0        Height (f t)  16.4 0  16.4 0        Thickness (in)  11.8 1  11.8 1        Concrete (psi)  -  4000        Concrete flyash %  -  average        Rebar  #15M  #5      2.1.1 4  Wall_Cast - in -Place 400mm 5thFloor              Length (f t)  29.0 0  38.6 7        Height (f t)  16.4 0  16.4 0        Thickness (in)  15.7 5  11.8 1        Concrete (psi)  -  4000        Concrete flyash %  -  average        Rebar  #15M  #5      Opening  T ype  Door  Door        Number  1  1        Material  Hollow Metal  Steel Interior Door      2.1.1 5  Wall_Cast - in -Place_450mm_5thFloor              Length (f t)  63.0 0  94.5 3        Height (f t)  16.4 0  16.4 0        Thickness (in)  17.7 2  11.8 1        Concrete (psi)  -  4000         Concrete flyash %  -  average        Rebar  #15M  #5      Opening  T ype  Door  Door        Number  1  1        Material  Hollow Metal  Steel Interior Door    2.2 Partition Walls              2.2.1  Interior_Partition _P 1_ Basement              Length (f t)  30.0 0  30.0 0        Height (f t)  13.7 0  13.7 0        Wall T ype  -  Non Load Bearing        Stud Weight  -  Light (25Ga)        Sheathing T ype  none  none        Stud T hickness (in)  1 5/8 x 3 5/ 8  1 5/8 x 3 5/ 8        Stud Spacing (in)  16  16      Envelope  Category  G ypsum Board  Gypsum Board        Material/Number  16mm type X / 2  G ypsum Fire Rated T ype X 5/8"        Material/Number  -        Envelope  Category  Insulation  Insulation        Material  Batt Insulation  Fiberglass Batt        Thickness (mm)  92  92      Opening  T ype  Door  Door        Number  1  1        Material  Hollow Metal  Steel Interior Door      2.2.2  Interior_Partition _P 2_ Basement              Length (f t)  149. 00  149. 00        Height (f t)  13.7 0  13.7 0        Wall T ype  -  Non Load Bearing        Stud Weight  -  Light (25Ga)        Sheathing T ype  none  none        Stud T hickness (in)  1 5/8 x 3 5/ 8  1 5/8 x 3 5/ 8        Stud Spacing (in)  16  16       Envelope  Category  G ypsum Board  Gypsum Board        Material/Number  16mm type X / 3  G ypsum Fire Rated T ype X 5/8"        Material/Number  -        Envelope  Category  Insulation  Insulation        Material  Batt Insulation  Fiberglass Batt        Thickness (mm)  92  92      Opening  T ype  Door  Door        Number  6  6        Material  W ood  Hollow Core W ood Interior Door      2.2.3  Interior_Partition _P 4_ Basement              Length (f t)  75.0 0  75.0 0        Height (f t)  13.7 0  13.7 0        Wall T ype  -  Non Load Bearing        Stud Weight  -  Light (25Ga)        Sheathing T ype  none  none        Stud T hickness (in)  (2x) 1 5/8 x 3 5/8  1 5/8 x 3 5/ 8        Stud Spacing (in)  16  16      Envelope  Category  G ypsum Board  Gypsum Board        Material / Number  16mm type X / 2  G ypsum Fire Rated T ype X 5/8"        Material / Number  -        Envelope  Category  Insulation  Insulation        Material  Batt Insulation  Fiberglass Batt        Thickness (mm)  184  184      2.2.4  Interior_Partition _P 1_ Main              Length (f t)  1,05 0.00  1,05 0.00        Height (f t)  12.4 7  12.4 7        Wall T ype  -  Non Load Bearing        Stud Weight  -  Light (25Ga)        Sheathing T ype  none  none         Stud T hickness (in)  1 5/8 x 3 5/ 8  1 5/8 x 3 5/ 8        Stud Spacing (in)  16  16      Envelope  Category  G ypsum Board  Gypsum Board        Material/Number  16mm type X / 2  G ypsum Fire Rated T ype X 5/8"        Material/Number  -        Envelope  Category  Insulation  Insulation        Material  Batt Insulation  Fiberglass Batt        Thickness (mm)  92  92      Opening  T ype  Door  Door        Number  47  47        Material  W ood  Hollow Core W ood Interior Door      2.2.5  Interior Partition P 2 Main              Length (f t)  4,86 9.00  4,86 9.00        Height (f t)  12.4 7  12.4 7        Wall T ype  -  Non Load Bearing        Stud Weight  -  Light (25Ga)        Sheathing T ype  none  none        Stud T hickness (in)  1 5/8 x 3 5/ 8  1 5/8 x 3 5/ 8        Stud Spacing (in)  16  16      Envelope  Category  G ypsum Board  Gypsum Board        Material/Number  16mm type X / 3  G ypsum Fire Rated T ype X 5/8"        Material/Number  -        Envelope  Category  Insulation  Insulation        Material  Batt Insulation  Fiberglass Batt        Thickness (mm)  92  92      Opening  T ype  Door  Door        Number  197  197        Material  W ood  Hollow Core W ood Interior Door       2.2.6  Interior_Partition _P 3_ Main              Length (f t)  349. 00  349. 00        Height (f t)  12.4 7  12.4 7        Wall T ype  -  Non Load Bearing        Stud Weight  -  Light (25Ga)        Sheathing T ype  none  none        Stud T hickness (in)  1 5/8 x 3 5/ 8  1 5/8 x 3 5/ 8        Stud Spacing (in)  16  16      Envelope  Category  G ypsum Board  Gypsum Board        Material/Number  16mm type X / 1  G ypsum Fire Rated T ype X 5/8"        Material/Number  16mm  Fire Code C / 2  G ypsum Fire Rated T ype X 5/8"      Envelope  Category  Insulation  Insulation        Material  Batt Insulation  Fiberglass Batt        Thickness (mm)  92  92      Opening  T ype  Door  Door        Number  3  3        Material  W ood  Hollow Core W ood Interior Door      2.2.7  Interior_Partition _P 4_ Main              Length (f t)  387. 00  387. 00        Height (f t)  12.4 7  12.4 7        Wall T ype  -  Non Load Bearing        Stud Weight  -  Light (25Ga)        Sheathing T ype  none  none        Stud T hickness (in)  1 5/8 x 3 5/ 8  1 5/8 x 3 5/ 8        Stud Spacing (in)  16  16      Envelope  Category  G ypsum Board  Gypsum Board        Material / Number  16mm type X / 2  G ypsum Fire Rated T ype X 5/8"        Material / -     Number      Envelope  Category  Insulation  Insulation        Material  Batt Insulation  Fiberglass Batt        Thickness (mm)  184  184      Opening  T ype  Door  Door        Number  8  8        Material  W ood  Hollow Core W ood Interior Door      2.2.8  Interior_Partition _P 5_ Main              Length (f t)  146. 00  146. 00        Height (f t)  12.4 7  12.4 7        Wall T ype  -  Non Load Bearing        Stud Weight  -  Light (25Ga)        Sheathing T ype  none  none        Stud T hickness (in)  1 5/8 x 3 5/ 8  1 5/8 x 3 5/ 8        Stud Spacing (in)  16  16      Envelope  Category  G ypsum Board  Gypsum Board        Material / Number  16mm Fire Code C / 2  G ypsum Fire Rated T ype X 5/8"        Material / Number  -        Envelope  Category  Insulation  Insulation        Material  Batt Insulation  Fiberglass Batt        Thickness (mm)  92  92      Opening  T ype  Door  Door        Number  4  4        Material  W ood  Hollow Core W ood Interior Door      2.2.9  Interior_Partition _P 6_ Main              Length (f t)  256. 00  256. 00        Height (f t)  12.4 7  12.4 7        Wall T ype  -  Non Load Bearing        Stud Weight  -  Light (25Ga)        Sheathing T ype  none  none         Stud T hickness (in)  1 5/8 x 3 5/ 8  1 5/8 x 3 5/ 8        Stud Spacing (in)  24  24      Envelope  Category  G ypsum Board  Gypsum Board        Material / Number  16mm Fire Code C / 1  G ypsum Fire Rated T ype X 5/8"        Material / Number  25mm for elevator, fire resistant  G ypsum Fire Rated T ype X 5/8"      Envelope  Category  Insulation  Insulation        Material  Batt Insulation  Fiberglass Batt        Thickness (mm)  64  64      2.2.1 0  Interior_Partition _P 9_ Main              Length (f t)  148. 00          Height (f t)  12.4 7          Wall T ype  -  Non Load Bearing        Stud Weight  -  Light (25Ga)        Sheathing T ype  none  none        Stud T hickness (in)  1 5/8 x 6  1 5/8 x 6        Stud Spacing (in)  16  16      Envelope  Category  G ypsum Board  Gypsum Board        Material / Number  16mm Type X / 2  G ypsum Fire Rated T ype X 5/8"        Material / Number  -        Envelope  Category  Insulation  Insulation        Material  Batt Insulation  Fiberglass Batt        Thickness (mm)  152  152      Opening  T ype  Door  Door        Number  4  4        Material  W ood  Hollow Core W ood Interior Door      2.2.1 1  Interior_Partition _P 10_ Main              Length (f t)  84.0 0          Height (f t)  12.4 7           Wall T ype  -  Non Load Bearing        Stud Weight  -  Light (25Ga)        Sheathing T ype  none  none        Stud T hickness (in)  1 5/8 x 6  1 5/8 x 6        Stud Spacing (in)  16  16      Envelope  Category  G ypsum Board  Gypsum Board        Material / Number  16mm Type X / 3  G ypsum Fire Rated T ype X 5/8"        Material / Number  -        Envelope  Category  Insulation  Insulation        Material  Batt Insulation  Fiberglass Batt        Thickness (mm)  152  152      Opening  T ype  Door  Door        Number  2  2        Material  W ood  Hollow Core W ood Interior Door      2.2.1 2  Interior_Partition _P 3_5 thFloor              Length (f t)  48.0 0          Height (f t)  16.4 0          Wall T ype  -  Non Load Bearing        Stud Weight  -  Light (25Ga)        Sheathing T ype  none  none        Stud T hickness (in)  1 5/8 x 3 5/ 8  1 5/8 x 3 5/ 8        Stud Spacing (in)  16  16      Envelope  Category  G ypsum Board  Gypsum Board        Material/Number  16mm type X / 1  G ypsum Fire Rated T ype X 5/8"        Material/Number  16mm  Fire Code C / 2  G ypsum Fire Rated T ype X 5/8"      Envelope  Category  Insulation  Insulation        Material  Batt Insulation  Fiberglass Batt        Thickness (mm)  92  92       Opening  T ype  Door  Door        Number  5  5        Material  Hollow Metal  Steel Interior Door      2.2.1 3  Interior_Partition _P 5_5 thFloor              Length (f t)  49.0 0          Height (f t)  16.4 0          Wall T ype    Non Load Bearing        Stud Weight  -  Light (25Ga)        Sheathing T ype  none  none        Stud T hickness (in)  1 5/8 x 3 5/ 8  1 5/8 x 3 5/ 8        Stud Spacing (in)  16  16      Envelope  Category  G ypsum Board  Gypsum Board        Material / Number  16mm Fire Code C / 2  G ypsum Fire Rated T ype X 5/8"        Material / Number  -        Envelope  Category  Insulation  Insulation        Material  Batt Insulation  Fiberglass Batt        Thickness (mm)  92  92      Opening  T ype  Door  Door        Number  1  1        Material  Hollow Metal  Steel Interior Door      2.2.1 4  Interior_Partition _P 6_5 thFloor              Length (f t)  10.0 0          Height (f t)  16.4 0          Wall T ype  -  Non Load Bearing        Stud Weight  -  Light (25Ga)        Sheathing T ype  none  none        Stud T hickness (in)  1 5/8 x 2 1/ 2  1 5/8 x 3 5/ 8        Stud Spacing (in)  24  24      Envelope  Category  G ypsum Board  Gypsum Board         Material / Number  16mm Fire Code C / 1  G ypsum Fire Rated T ype X 5/8"        Material / Number  25mm for elevator, fire resistant  G ypsum Fire Rated T ype X 5/8"      Envelope  Category  Insulation  Insulation        Material  Batt Insulation  Fiberglass Batt        Thickness (mm)  64  64      2.2.1 5  Interior_Partition _P 23_ Basement              Length (f t)  245. 00  245. 00        Height (f t)  13.7 0  13.7 0        Wall T ype  Concrete Block  Concrete Block        Reinforcement  -  #4      Opening  T ype  Door  Door        Number  12  12        Material  Hollow Metal  Steel Interior Door      2.2.1 6  Interior_Partition _P 23_ Main              Length (f t)  37.0 0  37.0 0        Height (f t)  12.4 7  12.4 7        Wall T ype  Concrete Block  Concrete Block        Reinforcement  -  #4      Opening  T ype  Door  Door        Number  2  2        Material  Hollow Metal  Steel Interior Door      2.2.1 7 Exterior_Partition _W 1_Main              Length (f t)  1,15 9.00  1,15 9.00        Height (f t)  13.1 2  13.1 2        Wall T ype  Concrete Block  Concrete Block        Reinforcement  -  #4      Envelope  Category  Cladding  Cladding        Material  Brick (modular metric)  Brick (modular metric)       Envelope  Category  Air and Vapour Barrier  Air and Vapour Barrier        Material  Air Barrier  Air Barrier      Envelope  Category  Air and Vapour Barrier  Air and Vapour Barrier        Material  Vapour Retarder Membrane  Polyeth ylene 3 mil      Envelope  Category  Insulation  Insulation        Material  semi- rigid, flexible (polyurethane?)  Polyst yrene Expanded        Thickness  125  125      Opening  T ype  Window  Window        Number  75  75        Total Area (ft²)  2743 .80 0  2743 .80 0        Frame Type  -  Aluminum Frame        Glazing T ype  -  Standard Glazing        Fixed / Operable  Fixed  Fixed      2.2.1 8 Exterior_Partition _W 1.1_Main              Length (f t)  109. 00  109. 00        Height (f t)  13.1 2  12.4 7        Wall T ype  See 1.1. 7          Reinforcement  See 1.1. 7        Envelope  Category  Cladding  Cladding        Material  Brick (modular metric)  Brick (modular metric)      Envelope  Category  Air and Vapour Barrier  Air and Vapour Barrier        Material  Air Barrier  Air Barrier      Envelope  Category  Air and Vapour Barrier  Air and Vapour Barrier        Material  Vapour Retarder Membrane  Polyeth ylene 3 mil      Envelope  Category  Insulation  Insulation        Material  semi- rigid, flexible (polyurethane?)  Polyst yrene Expanded        Thickness (mm)  125  125      2.2.1 9 Exterior_Partition _W 2_Main               Length (f t)  58.0 0  58.0 0        Height (f t)  13.1 2  13.1 2        Wall T ype  Concrete Block  Concrete Block        Reinforcement  -  #4      Envelope  Category  Cladding  Cladding        Material  12mm prefinished wood  W ood Bevel Siding -  Cedar      Envelope  Category  Air and Vapour Barrier  Air and Vapour Barrier        Material  Air Barrier  Air Barrier      Envelope  Category  Air and Vapour Barrier  Air and Vapour Barrier        Material  Vapour Retarder Membrane  Polyeth ylene 3 mil      Envelope  Category  Insulation  Insulation        Material  semi- rigid, flexible (polyurethane?)  Polyst yrene Expanded        Thickness (mm)  125  125      2.2.2 0 Exterior_Partition _W 3_5thFloor              Length (f t)  188. 00  188. 00        Height (f t)  16.4 0  16.4 0        Wall T ype  Concrete Block  Concrete Block        Reinforcement  -  #4      Envelope  Category  Cladding  Cladding        Material  32mm stone veneer  Natural stone      Envelope  Category  Air and Vapour Barrier  Air and Vapour Barrier        Material  Air Barrier  Air Barrier      Envelope  Category  Air and Vapour Barrier  Air and Vapour Barrier        Material  Vapour Retarder Membrane  Polyeth ylene 3 mil      Envelope  Category  Insulation  Insulation        Material  semi- rigid, flexible (polyurethane?)  Polyst yrene Expanded        Thickness (mm)  125  125      2.2.2 1 Exterior_Partition _W 3.1_5thFloor               Length (f t)  80.0 0  80.0 0        Height (f t)  16.4 0  12.4 7        Wall T ype  See 1.1. 7         Reinforcement  See 1.1. 7        Envelope  Category  Cladding  Cladding        Material  32mm stone veneer  Natural stone      Envelope  Category  Air and Vapour Barrier  Air and Vapour Barrier        Material  Air Barrier  Air Barrier      Envelope  Category  Air and Vapour Barrier  Air and Vapour Barrier        Material  Vapour Retarder Membrane  Polyeth ylene 3 mil      Envelope  Category  Insulation  Insulation        Material  semi- rigid, flexible (polyurethane?)  Polyst yrene Expanded        Thickness (mm)  125  125      Opening  T ype  Door  Door        Number  4  4.00 0        Material  Hollow Metal  Steel Exterior Door      2.2.2 2 Exterior_Partition _W 4_5thFloor              Length (f t)  109. 00  109. 00        Height (f t)  16.4 0  16.4 0        Wall T ype  Steel z - girts  Non Load Bearing        Stud Weight  Heavy (2 0ga)  Heavy (2 0ga)        Sheathing T ype  none  none        Stud T hickness  200mm  1 5/8 x 8in        Stud Spacing  600mm  24in      Envelope  Category  Cladding  Cladding        Material  prefinished metal cladding  commercial -  26ga      Envelope  Category  Insulation  Insulation        Material  semi- rigid, flexible (polyurethane?)  Polyst yrene Expanded        Thickness (mm)  100  100      2.2.2 4 Special_Exterior_Partition_W 1_3400              Length (f t)  181. 00  181. 00         Height (f t)  11.1 5  11.1 5        Wall T ype  Concrete Block  Concrete Block        Reinforcement  -  #4      Envelope  Category  Cladding  Cladding        Material  Brick (modular metric)  Brick (modular metric)      Envelope  Category  Air and Vapour Barrier  Air and Vapour Barrier        Material  Air Barrier  Air Barrier      Envelope  Category  Air and Vapour Barrier  Air and Vapour Barrier        Material  Vapour Retarder Membrane  Polyeth ylene 3 mil      Envelope  Category  Insulation  Insulation        Material  semi- rigid, flexible (polyurethane?)  Polyst yrene Expanded        Thickness (mm)  125  125      Opening  T ype  Window  Window        Number  11  11        Total Area (ft²)  223. 700  223. 700        Frame Type  XXX  Aluminum Frame        Glazing T ype  XXX  Standard Glazing        Fixed / Operable  Fixed  Fixed      Opening  T ype  Door  Door        Number  2  2        Material  Glass  Aluminum Exterior Door, 80% Glazing      2.2.2 5 Special_Exterior_Partition_W 3_600              Length (f t)  642. 00  642. 00        Height (f t)  1.97  1.97        Wall T ype  Concrete Block  Concrete Block        Reinforcement  -  #4      Envelope  Category  Cladding  Cladding        Material  32mm stone veneer  Natural stone      Envelope  Category  Air and Vapour Barrier  Air and Vapour Barrier         Material  Air Barrier  Air Barrier      Envelope  Category  Air and Vapour Barrier  Air and Vapour Barrier        Material  Vapour Retarder Membrane  Polyeth ylene 3 mil      Envelope  Category  Insulation  Insulation        Material  semi- rigid, flexible (polyurethane?)  Polyst yrene Expanded        Thickness (mm)  125  125      2.2.2 6 Special_Exterior_Partition_W 1_50 - 50              Length (f t)  286. 00  286. 00        Height (f t)  13.1 2  13.1 2        Wall T ype  Concrete Block  Concrete Block        Reinforcement  -  #4      Envelope  Category  Cladding  Cladding        Material  Brick (modular metric)  Brick (modular metric)      Envelope  Category  Air and Vapour Barrier  Air and Vapour Barrier        Material  Air Barrier  Air Barrier      Envelope  Category  Air and Vapour Barrier  Air and Vapour Barrier        Material  Vapour Retarder Membrane  Polyeth ylene 3 mil      Envelope  Category  Insulation  Insulation        Material  semi- rigid, flexible (polyurethane?)  Polyst yrene Expanded        Thickness (mm)  125  125      Opening  T ype  Window  Window        Number  170  170        Total Area (ft²)  1875 .90 0  1875 .90 0        Frame Type  XXX  Aluminum Frame        Glazing T ype  XXX  Standard Glazing        Fixed / Operable  Fixed  Fixed      2.2.2 7 Special_Exterior_Partition_W 1_800              Length (f t)  724. 00  724. 00        Height (f t)  2.62  2.62         Wall T ype  Concrete Block  Concrete Block        Reinforcement  -  #4      Envelope  Category  Cladding  Cladding        Material  Brick (modular metric)  Brick (modular metric)      Envelope  Category  Air and Vapour Barrier  Air and Vapour Barrier        Material  Air Barrier  Air Barrier      Envelope  Category  Air and Vapour Barrier  Air and Vapour Barrier        Material  Vapour Retarder Membrane  Polyeth ylene 3 mil      Envelope  Category  Insulation  Insulation        Material  semi- rigid, flexible (polyurethane?)  Polyst yrene Expanded        Thickness (mm)  125  125      Opening  T ype  Door  Door        Number  2  2        Material  Glass  Aluminum Exterior Door, 80% Glazing      2.2.2 8 Special_Exterior_Partition_F M2_3 200              Length (f t)  724. 00  724. 00        Height (f t)  10.5 0  10.5 0        Wall T ype  Curtain  Curtain        Percent viewable glazing  50  50        Percent spandrel panel  50  50        Insulation thickness (mm)  125  125        Spandrel panel type  glass  Opaque Glass Spandrel Panel      2.2.2 9 Special_Exterior_Partition_F M2 3 400              Length (f t)  461. 00  461. 00        Height (f t)  11.1 5  11.1 5        Wall T ype  Curtain  Curtain        Percent viewable glazing  50  50         Percent spandrel panel  50  50        Insulation thickness (mm)  125  125        Spandrel panel type  glass  Opaque Glass Spandrel Panel    2.3 Furring              2.3.1  Furring_F 1_ Basement              Length (f t)  299. 00  299. 00        Height (f t)  13.7 0  13.7 0        Wall T ype    Non Load Bearing        Stud Weight  -  Light (25Ga)        Sheathing T ype  none  none        Stud T hickness (in)  1" metal furring system  1 5/8 x 3 5/ 8        Stud Spacing (in)  16  24      Envelope  Category  G ypsum Board  Gypsum Board        Material/Number  16mm regular  Gypsum Regular 5/8"        Material/Number  -  -      Opening  T ype  Door  Door        Number  5  5        Material  Hollow Metal  Steel Interior Door      2.3.2  Furring_F 3_ Basement              Length (f t)  126. 00  126. 00        Height (f t)  13.7 0  13.7 0        Wall T ype    Non Load Bearing        Stud Weight  -  Light (25Ga)        Sheathing T ype  none  none        Stud T hickness (in)  2 1/2  1 5/8 x 3 5/ 8        Stud Spacing (in)  16  16      Envelope  Category  G ypsum Board  Gypsum Board        Material/Number  16mm regular  Gypsum Regular 5/8"        Material/Number  -  -       2.3.3  Furring F1 Main              Length (f t)  362. 00  362. 00        Height (f t)  12.4 7  12.4 7        Wall T ype    Non Load Bearing        Stud Weight  -  Light (25Ga)        Sheathing T ype  none  none        Stud T hickness (in)  1" metal furring system  1 5/8 x 3 5/ 8        Stud Spacing (in)  16  24      Envelope  Category  G ypsum Board  Gypsum Board        Material/Number  16mm regular  Gypsum Regular 5/8"        Material/Number  -  -      Opening  T ype  Door  Door        Number  1  1        Material  Hollow Metal  Steel Interior Door      2.3.4  Furring_F3 _Main              Length (f t)  3,59 9.00  3,59 9.00        Height (f t)  12.4 7  12.4 7        Wall T ype    Non Load Bearing        Stud Weight  -  Light (25Ga)        Sheathing T ype  none  none        Stud T hickness (in)  2 1/2  1 5/8 x 3 5/ 8        Stud Spacing (in)  16  16      Envelope  Category  G ypsum Board  Gypsum Board        Material/Number  16mm regular  Gypsum Regular 5/8"        Material/Number  -  -      Opening  T ype  Door  Door        Number  5  5        Material  W ood  Hollow Core W ood Interior Door      2.3.5  Furring_F4 _Main              Length (f t)  730. 00  730. 00        Height (f t)  12.4 7  12.4 7         Wall T ype    Non Load Bearing        Stud Weight  -  Light (25Ga)        Sheathing T ype  none  none        Stud T hickness (in)  1 5/8 x 3 5/ 8  1 5/8 x 3 5/ 8        Stud Spacing (in)  16  16      Envelope  Category  G ypsum Board  Gypsum Board        Material/Number  16mm regular  Gypsum Regular 5/8"        Material/Number  -  -      Opening  T ype  Door  Door        Number  21  21        Material  W ood  Hollow Core W ood Interior Door    2.4 Curtain Walls              2.4.1 Curtain_Wall_FM2_ 600 _lounge              Length (f t)  73.0 0  73.0 0        Height (f t)  13.1 2  13.1 2        Wall T ype  Curtain  Curtain        Percent viewable glazing  85  85        Percent spandrel panel  15  15        Insulation thickness (mm)  125  125        Spandrel panel type  glass  Opaque Glass Panel Spandrel      Opening  T ype  Door  Door        Number  2  2        Material  Glass  Aluminum Exterior Door, 80% Glazing      2.4.2 Curtain_Wall_FM2_ 800 _lounge             Length (f t)  94.0 0  94.0 0        Height (f t)  13.1 2  13.1 2        Wall T ype  Curtain  Curtain        Percent viewable glazing  80  80         Percent spandrel panel  20  20        Insulation thickness (mm)  125  125        Spandrel panel type  glass  Aluminum Exterior Door, 80% Glazing      2.4.3 Curtain_Wall_FM2_ 0_lou nge              Length (f t)  104. 00  104. 00        Height (f t)  13.1 2  13.1 2        Wall T ype  Curtain  Curtain        Percent viewable glazing  100  100        Percent spandrel panel  0  0        Insulation thickness  -  -        Spandrel panel type  -  -      2.4.4 Curtain_Wall_FM2_ 150 0_lounge              Length (f t)  104. 00  104. 00        Height (f t)  13.1 2  13.1 2        Wall T ype  Curtain  Curtain        Percent viewable glazing  62  62        Percent spandrel panel  38  38        Insulation thickness (mm)  125  125        Spandrel panel type  glass  Opaque Glass Panel Spandrel      2.4.5 Curtain_Wall_Glass_forum              Length (f t)  109. 00  109. 00        Height (f t)  13.1 2  13.1 2        Wall T ype  Curtain  Curtain        Percent viewable glazing  100  100        Percent spandrel panel  0  0       Envelope  Insulation thickness  -  -        Spandrel panel type  -  -      Opening  T ype  Door  Door        Number  2  2        Material  Glass  Aluminum Exterior Door, 80% Glazing      2.4.6 Curtain_Wall_FM2_ 120 0_south west             Length (f t)  182. 00  182. 00       Height (f t)  13.1 2  13.1 2       Wall T ype  Curtain  Curtain        Percent viewable glazing  70  70        Percent spandrel panel  30  30        Insulation thickness (mm)  125  125        Spandrel panel type  glass  Opaque Glass Panel Spandrel      2.4.7 Curtain Wall FM2 200 0              Length (f t)  309. 00  309. 00        Height (f t)  13.1 2  13.1 2        Wall T ype  Curtain  Curtain        Percent viewable glazing  50  50        Percent spandrel panel  50  50        Insulation thickness (mm)  125  125        Spandrel panel type  glass  Opaque Glass Panel Spandrel      2.4.8 Curtain_Wall_FM2_Terrace             Length (f t)  129. 00  129. 00        Height (f t)  13.1 2  13.1 2        Wall T ype  Curtain  Curtain        Percent viewable glazing  100  100         Percent spandrel panel  0  0        Insulation thickness  -  -        Spandrel panel type  -  -    2.5 Special Interior Walls              2.5.1  Forum_Sliding _Doors            (extra materials input used)  Length (f t)  127. 00  (1249. 68 sf)      (converted to square feet)  Height (f t)  9.84          Wall T ype  Solid W ood Panel  Cedar W ood Bevel Siding      2.5.2  Forum_W ood_Panel_Balcony            (extra materials input used)  Length (f t)  54.0 0  (177.1 2 sf)      (converted to square feet)  Height (f t)  3.28          Wall T ype  2 woo d panels  Cedar W ood Bevel Siding      2.5.3  Forum Concrete Balcon y              Length (f t)  84.0 0  84.0 0        Height (f t)  3.28  3.28        Thickness (mm)  300. 00  300. 00        Wall T ype  Concrete  T ypical Concrete Values      2.5.4  Library_Glass_Wall            (extra materials input used)  Length (f t)  58.0 0  (464 sf)      (converted to square feet)  Height (f t)  8.00          Wall T ype  Glass  Standard Glazing      2.5.5  Glass_Guard            (extra materials input used)  Length (f t)  1,19 1.00  1,13 7.70      (converted to square feet)  Panel Height (f t)  2.79  2.79         Panel Width (f t)  4.27          Panel gap (f t)  0.20  (3174 sf)        Wall T ype  Glass  Standard Glazing  3 .0   Columns and Beams 3.1  Concrete Column             3.1.1  Column_Concrete_Beam_N/A_Lowerlevel              Number of Beams 0  0        Number of Columns 6  6        Column Height(ft)  14.37  14.37        Bay sizes (ft)  19.68  19.68        Supported span (ft)  19.68  19.68        Supported Area(ft2)  387.30  388 .00        Live load (psf)  100.27  100      3.1.2  Column_Concrete_Beam_Concrete_GroundLevel              Number of Beams 20  20        Number of Columns 43  43        Column Height(ft)  13.12  13.12        Bay sizes (ft)  19.68  19.68        Supported span (ft)  19.68  19.68        Supported Area(ft2)  387.30  388 .00        Live load (psf)  113.48  100      3.1.3  Column_Concrete_Beam_Concrete_Level2               Number of Beams 11  11        Number of Columns 64  64        Column Height(ft)  13.12  13.12        Bay sizes (ft)  19.68  19.68        Supported span (ft)  19.68  19.68        Supported Area(ft2)  387.30  388 .00        Live load (psf)  134.72  100      3.1.4  Column_Concrete_Beam_Concrete_Level3              Number of Beams 8  8        Number of Columns 83  83        Column Height(ft)  13.12  13.12        Bay sizes (ft)  19.68  19.68        Supported span (ft)  19.68  19.68        Supported Area(ft2)  387.30  388 .00        Live load (psf)  111.22  100      3.1.5  Column_Concrete_Beam_Concrete_Level4              Number of Beams 13  13        Number of Columns 87  87        Column Height(ft)  13.12  13.12        Bay sizes (ft)  19.68  19.68        Supported span (ft)  19.68  19.68         Supported Area(ft2)  387.30  388 .00        Live load (psf)  53.59  75      3.1.4  Column_Hollow Structural Steel_Beam_N/A_Level5              Number of Beams 7  7        Number of Columns 31  31        Column Height(ft)  16.40  16.4        Bay sizes (ft)  19.68  19.68        Supported span (ft)  19.68  19.68        Supported Area(ft2)  387.30  388 .00        Live load (psf)  38.02  50  4.0 Floors  4.1 Concrete Suspended Slab            4.1.2 Floor _Concrete Suspended Slab_3.6L L            Roof Width (ft)  2618 .4 3  261 8 .4      Span (ft)  18.403  18.403      Concrete (psi) 4000  400 0      Concrete flyash %  -  Average       Live Load (psf)  75  75     4.1.3 Floor _Concrete Suspended Slab_4.8L L            Roof Width (ft)  2965 .0 5  296 5 .0 5      Span (ft)  19  19      Concrete (psi) 4000  400 0      Concrete flyash %  -  Average        Live Load (psf)  100  100   5.0 Roof  5.1 Concrete Suspended Slab  5.1.1 Roof _Concrete Suspended Slab_2.4L L             Roof Width (ft)  1280 .5 68  128 0 .5       Span (ft)  18.542  18.542       Concrete (psi) 4000  400 0       Concrete flyash %  -  Average       Live Load (psf)  50  50    5.2 Steel Joist Roof  5.2.1 Roof_Steel Joist Roof              Roof Width (ft)  3122 .8 3  312 2 .8 3       Span (ft)  18.04  18.04       Decking Type  -  None       Decking Thickness (in)  1.5  0.75       Steel Gauge  -  18       Joist Type  7/8 x 10  1 5/8 x 10        Joist Spacing  28  24                    Appendix B IE Input Assumptions Document                    As sembly  As sembly T ype  Assembly Name  Modeling Assu mption s  1 .0  Foundation          1.1  Concrete Slabs On Grade    The strength of the slabs on grade are dependant on being interior or exterior. These are denoted as 20 Mpa for Interior and 32 Mpa for Exterior and are taken in the Impact estimator as 3000psi and 4000psi respectively.                    All Slabs on Grade are assumed to have average content of fly ash.        All measurements in IE are in imperial form        All measurements taken using on screen take off for slabs do not overlap with footings and walls, but do overlap columns and beams.    1.2  Footings    All footings with width larger than 500 mm are assumed to have width equal to 500mm (19.68in.)              All footing concrete has average fly ash content        Rebar sizes are assumed as follows:        10M→#4       15M→#5       20M→#6       Rebar sizes larger than 20M will be assumed to be #6.        All measurements in IE are in emperial form  2.0  Walls          2.1  Cast In Place    All walls taken as 30M P A (4350 psi). Actual walls were between either 25, 30, or 40. In order to balance out and be conservative, 30 was chosen.        Flyash percentage not specified, "average" used.        Slab depth was taken as 200mm (0.656f t) in all locations. Reasonable considering that a majority of the slabs are 200mm and the difference between 200mm and 225mm is negligible         All reinforcement taken as #15M . Most reinforcement is actually 10M, with very few 20M bars in the larger shear walls.        Lengths adjusted and 12in. thickness used for impact estimator to achieve equivalen volumes. This may create an overestimation  for formwork but is necessary to not un derestimate concrete.      2.1.1  Wall Cast - in -Place_200mm_Basement        2.1.7  Wall_Cast - in -Place_200mm_Main  "Main" refers to the 1st to 4th floor, which share similar wall heights and other characteristics.    2.2  Partition Walls          2.2.1  Interior_Partition _P 1_ Basement  (and all other steel stud partition walls unless stated)  Stud thickness unk nown, taken as 25Ga.  Insulation t ype unk no wn, referred to only as Batt Insulation. "Fiberglass Batt" used.  G ypsum board 16mm Type X and 16mm Fire code C bot h taken as "G ypsum Fire Rated T ype X 5/8"      2.2.1 6 Exterior_Partition _W 1_Main  (and all other concrete block walls)  Reinforcement unk nown, taken as 10M (lowest value allowed by impact estimator).  Insulation t ype unk no wn, referred to only as semi - rigid insulation. "P olystyrene Expanded" used.  Air and water barrier unk nown. "P olyethyl ene 3 mil" used.  Glazing t ype unk no wn. "S tandard Glazing" used.      2.2.1 7 Exterior_Partition _W 1.1_Main  2.2.2 1 Exterior_Partition _W 3.1_5thFloor  Cladding exists over previously counted structural walls. No assembly used, only envelope.      2.2.1 8 Exterior_Partition _W 1.1_Main  In order to add cladding without a wall, part of the length of 2. 1.7 was removed and added to 2.2. 18 to balance out the amount of concrete used.       2.2.2 1 Exterior_Partition _W 3.1_5thFloor  In order to add cladding without a wall, part of the length of 2. 1.7 was removed and added to 2.2. 18 to balance out the amount of concrete used. No te, the presence of doors and height differential will make numbers slightly inaccurate.      2.3.1  Furring_F1 _Basement  22mm furring system used and smallest steel stud available is 92mm. Studs placed at 600mm spacing to compensate.    2.3  Furring          2.3.5  Furring_F4 _Main  Section on first floor drawing has 11f t of "F5." Doesn't exist in schedule, assumed it was F4 (similar to other furring in the area).    2.5 Special Interior Walls          2.5.1  Forum_Sliding_Doors  2.5.2  Forum_W ood_Panel_Balcony  T ype of wood unk no wn and no applicable input exists. Extra material "cedar wood bevel siding" used.      2.5.4  Library_Glass_Wall  2.5.5  Glass Guard  T ype of glass paneling unkno wn, extra material "standard glazing" used.  3 .0  Columns and Beams             Columns and Beams are not summarized as individual structural components.  Instead, a set of beam, column and floor intesection is analyzed in the Impact Estimator                    Aeras of each floor are measured based on Onscreen Takeoff.         All columns and beams concrete has average fly ash content        Bay sizes and span sized are assumed to be 6m based on their location on the grids in the structural drawings.               Live load of each floor calculated as an average of the load design of that floor.  Exact results are approximated later for input data.        4.0 Floors          4.1 Concrete Suspended Slab    All Slabs are not ed to be 30Mpa, which is rounded to 4000 psi        All Slabs on Grade are assumed to have average content of fly ash.        All measurements in IE are in imperial form        All measurements taken using on screen take off for slabs do not overlap with footings and walls, but do overlap columns and beams.        All spans lengths noted are found using a weighted average calculation. This calculation used the spans observed and averaged the values based on the area these were found. For details of these calculations, please refer to below.      4.1.2 Floor _Concrete Suspended Slab_3.6L L  The live load of 3.6KN was used for all classr oom and office areas as noted on the structural drawings provided      4.1.3 Floor _Concrete Suspended Slab_4.8L L  A live load of 4.8K N was used for all library areas and other high load areas as noted on the structural drawings provided. Because 4.8KN is the highest live load analysed by IE, this includes Live Loads of 7.2 and 9.8, also noted in the plans.  5.0 Roof          5.1 Concrete Suspended Slab    All Slabs are noted to be 30Mpa, which is rounded to 4000 psi        All Slabs on Grade are assumed to have average content of fly ash.         All measurements in IE are in imperial form        All measurements taken using on screen take off for slabs do not overlap with footings and walls, but do overlap columns and beams.        All spans lengths noted are found using a weighted average calculation. This calculation used the spans observed and averaged the values based on the area these were found. For details of these calculations, please refer to below.      5.1.1 Roof _Concrete Suspended Slab_2.4LL  The live load of 2.4KN was used for all roof ar eas as noted on the structural drawings provided    5.2 Steel Joist Roof    All measurements in IE are in imperial form        All spans lengths noted are found using a weighted average calculation. This calculation used the spans observed and averaged the values based on the area these were found. For details of these calculations, please refer to below.      5.2.1 Roof_Steel Joist Roof  The Joist Size as approximated to be W250 X2 2 based on its description in the drawings        Deck Thicness was listed as 38mm, but used 19mm in IE due to limitations.        All other factors were not provided and were assumed based on typical industry standards      Calculating Weighted Slab Span             Ground Floor  Area Calculation (ft)  Span % Contribution  Weighted Average Span (ft)  (Slab 3.6KN)  Dimension Area   50  37  185 0  50  0.1670 50 43 1  8.3525 21 55 9   71  90  454 0  8  0.4099 50 78 8  3.2796 06 30 3   33  19.5  643 .5  19.5  0.0581 06 46 1  1.1330 75 98 5   33  20  660  20  0.0595 96 37  1.1919 27 40 1   46  19.5  897  19.5  0.0809 96 88 5  1.5794 39 25 2   69  16.5  113 8 .5  16.5  0.1028 03 73 8  1.6962 61 68 2   69  19.5  134 5 .5  19.5  0.1214 95 32 7  2.3691 58 87 9       11074 .5      19.601 99 10 6                 Area Calculation (ft)  Span % Contribution  Weighted Average Span (ft)  Second Floor  Dimension Area  (Slab 3.6KN)  69.5  53.5  371 8 .2 5  17.833 33  0.3121 23 56 5  5.5662 03 57 7   67  34.5  231 1 .5  17.25  0.1940 35 80 2  3.3471 17 58 4   53  111  588 3  18.5  0.4938 40 63 3  9.1360 51 70 9       11912 .75      18.049 37 28 7         (Slab 4.8KN)  Entire Area has consistent span of 19m.      Use 19m for total area  18222  sf  19  span        Third Floor  Identical to second floor in regards to column spacing and area distribution.      Use the same weighted span     (Slab 3.6KN)  11241  sf  18.049 37 28 7     (Slab 4.8KN)  18147  sf  19            Fourth Floor  Identical to second floor in regards to column spacing and area distribution.      Use the same weighted span     (Slab 3.6KN)  14442  sf  18.049 37 28 7     (Slab 4.8KN)  12788  sf  19            Fifth Floor        (Slab 4.8KN)  Entire Area has consistent span of 19m.      Use 19m for total area  7179  sf  19  span                 Area Calculation (ft)  Span % Contribution  Weighted Average Span (ft)  (Slab 2.4KN)  Dimension Area   67.5  128  864 0  17.833 33  0.3927 62 97 8  7.0042 73 11 6   -  -  133 58  19  0.6072 37 02 2  11.537 50 34 1       21998      18.541 77 65 3         Roof  Max Allowable span is 5.5m      18.044 61 94 2  ft       All Spans were 19m, or greater.            Results Total Area Used Average Span     Slab 3.6K N  486 70 .25  18.402 65 78 9      Slab 4.8K N  563 36  19.0      Slab 2.4K N  219 98  18.541 77 65 3      Roof  6566  18.044 61 94 2       

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