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Sustainable transportation solutions for UBC Athletics & Recreation Dreihaar, Adam; Hirsche, Kailee; Kim, Kyuwon; Yuen, Suzanne 2012-03

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UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report         Sustainable Transportation Solutions for UBC Athletics & Recreation Adam Dreihaar, Kailee Hirsche, Kyuwon Kim, Suzanne Yuen  University of British Columbia APSC 364 March 1, 2012            Disclaimer: “UBC SEEDS provides students with the opportunity to share the findings of their studies, as well as their opinions, conclusions and recommendations with the UBC community. The reader should bear in mind that this is a student project/report and is not an official document of UBC. Furthermore readers should bear in mind that these reports may not reflect the current status of activities at UBC. We urge you to contact the research persons mentioned in a report or the SEEDS Coordinator about the current status of the subject matter of a project/report”. 	  	  	  	   	  	   APSC	  364	  	  	  	  [SUSTAINABLE	  TRANSPORTATION	  SOLUTIONS	  FOR	  UBC	  ATHLETICS	  &	  RECREATION]	  March	  2012	  By	  Adam	  Dreihaar,	  Kailee	  Hirsche,	  Kyuwon	  Kim	  &	  Suzanne	  Yuen	  [TRANSPORTATION	  GROUP	  2]	   APSC	  364	  	  	  1	  	  Table	  of	  Contents	  LIST	  OF	  TABLES	   2	  LIST	  OF	  FIGURES	   2	  1.0	  INTRODUCTION	   3	  2.0	  BACKGROUND	   3	  2.1	  UBC	  TRANSPORTATION	  SYSTEM	   3	  2.2	  UBC	  A&R	  CURRENT	  TRANSPORTATION	  SYSTEM	   4	  2.3	  ECONOMIC	  IMPACT	  CONSIDERATIONS	   5	  2.4	  ENVIRONMENTAL	  IMPACT	  CONSIDERATIONS	   5	  2.5	  SOCIAL	  IMPACT	  CONSIDERATIONS	   6	  2.6	  JURISDICTIONS	   6	  2.7	  EFFECTS	   7	  3.0	  SUSTAINABLE	  TRANSPORTATION	  OPTIONS	   7	  3.1	  UBC	  THUNDERBIRDS	  TRANSIT	  PROGRAM	   8	  3.2	  THUNDERBIRDS	  AS	  AN	  AGENT	  OF	  CHANGE	   9	  3.3	  UBC	  ATHLETICS	  &	  RECREATION	  BICYCLE	  INCENTIVES	   10	  3.4	  UBC	  ATHLETICS	  &	  RECREATION	  COMMUNICATION	  &	  AWARENESS	  STRATEGIES	   11	  4.0	  SUSTAINABILITY	  INDICATOR	  MATRIX	   12	  5.0	  OUR	  FINDINGS	   13	  6.0	  RECOMMENDED	  ACTION	  FOR	  UBC	  A&R	   13	  7.0	  REFERENCES	   15	  APPENDIX	  A:	  SUSTAINABILITY	  INDICATOR	  MATRIX	   18	  APPENDIX	  B:	  TABLES	  &	  FIGURES	   21	  APPENDIX	  C:	  ALTERNATE	  SUSTAINABLE	  TRANSPORTATION	  OPTIONS	   25	  APPENDIX	  C.1	  ALTERNATE	  OPTION:	  WEBCASTING	  UBC	  SPORTS	  EVENTS	   25	  APPENDIX	  C.2	  ALTERNATE	  OPTION:	  RIDE-­‐SHARING	  APP	   26	  APPENDIX	  C.3	  ALTERNATE	  OPTION:	  UBC	  THUNDERBIRDS	  SHUTTLE	  SERVICES	   28	  	  	   	  [TRANSPORTATION	  GROUP	  2]	   APSC	  364	  	  	  2	  	  List	  of	  Tables	  TABLE	  1:	  SPECTATOR	  TRANSPORTATION	  COSTS	   5	  TABLE	  2:	  BICYCLING	  INCENTIVES	   10	  TABLE	  3:	  CHANGE	  IN	  PERSON	  TRIPS	  BY	  MODE	  FROM	  1997	  TO	  2010	   21	  TABLE	  4:	  IMPACT	  OF	  FARESAVER	  TICKETS	  ON	  REVENUE	   22	  TABLE	  5:	  IMPACT	  ON	  REVENUE	  FOR	  REGULAR	  SEASON	  AND	  PLAYOFF	  GAMES	   23	  TABLE	  6:	  CO₂E	  EMISSIONS	  REDUCTION	   24	  TABLE	  7:	  WEBCASTING	  IMPACTS	  &	  IMPLICATIONS	   26	  TABLE	  8:	  RIDE-­‐SHARE	  APP	  IMPACTS	  &	  IMPLICATIONS	   27	  	  	  List	  of	  Figures	  FIGURE	  1:	  MODE	  SHARE	  DISTRIBUTIONS	   21	   	  [TRANSPORTATION	  GROUP	  2]	   APSC	  364	  	  	  3	  	  1.0	  Introduction	  UBC	  Athletics	  and	  Recreation	  (UBC	  A&R)	  already	  has	  a	   leadership	  role	   in	  maintaining	  school	  spirit	  and	  modelling	  positive	  sportsmanship.	   	  The	  University	  of	  British	  Columbia	  (UBC)	  as	  an	  institution	  is	  striving	  to	  be	  a	  world-­‐leader	  in	  sustainability,	  so	  it	  is	  fitting	  that	  UBC	  A&R	  has	  begun	  looking	  for	  ways	  to	  become	  a	  leader	  on	  campus	  in	  this	  avenue	  as	  well.	  	  A	  life-­‐cycle	  analysis	  of	  a	  UBC	  basketball	  event	  revealed	  that	  about	   three	   quarters	   of	   associated	   greenhouse	   gas	   emissions	   came	   from	   the	   transportation	   of	   team	  members	   and	   spectators	   (Dolf	   et	   al.,	   2011).	   	  Consequently,	   a	   focus	   on	   transportation	   is	   necessary	   to	  improve	  the	  sustainability	  of	  UBC	  A&R’s	  events.	  	  The	  following	  study	  assesses	  the	  current	  state	  of	  UBC	  A&R’s	   transportation	   solutions	   and	   explores	   four	   options	   for	   reducing	   associated	   greenhouse	   gas	  emissions.	  	  Each	  of	  these	  four	  options	  is	  evaluated	  with	  a	  matrix	  of	  indicators	  to	  pinpoint	  the	  strengths	  and	  weaknesses	  of	  each	  option.	   	  Finally,	  UBC	  A&R	   is	  provided	  with	   recommendations	   for	   leading	  UBC	  into	  a	  more	  sustainable	  future.	  2.0	  Background	  The	  transportation	  options	  available	  to	  spectators,	  staff	  and	  participants	  at	  UBC	  Athletics	  &	  Recreation	  events	   have	   a	   large	   influence	   on	   UBC	   A&R’s	   ability	   to	   set	   and	   meet	   sustainability	   targets	   for	   their	  operations.	   In	   order	   to	  make	   changes	   to	   the	   current	   transportation	   systems	   and	   to	   set	   realistic	   goals	  around	  sustainability,	  an	  understanding	  of	  the	  current	  transportation	  systems	  for	  UBC	  and	  for	  UBC	  A&R	  is	   required.	   This	   section	   briefly	   outlines	   the	   current	   transportation	   patterns	   at	  UBC	   and	   for	  UBC	  A&R	  sports	  events.	  Some	  of	  the	  current	  cost	  implications	  to	  both	  parties	  are	  presented,	  as	  well	  as	  the	  social	  and	  environmental	  impacts	  that	  these	  transportation	  systems	  have	  on	  UBC	  and	  the	  surrounding	  areas.	  In	  order	   to	  outline	  the	  difficulties	   that	  may	  be	  encountered	  when	  attempting	  to	  make	  changes	   to	   the	  current	   transportation	   system,	  a	  description	  of	   the	   jurisdictions	  governing	   transportation	   to	  and	   from	  UBC	  and	  the	  populations	  that	  may	  be	  affected	  by	  these	  changes	  are	  included.	  2.1	  UBC	  Transportation	  System	  The	  past	  13	  years	  has	  seen	  significant	  changes	  in	  the	  modes	  of	  travel	  to	  and	  from	  UBC.	  According	  to	  the	  UBC	  Fall	   2010	  Transportation	  Status	  Report,	   the	  main	  modes	  of	   transportation	   include	   transit,	   single-­‐occupant	  vehicles	   (SOV’s),	  high-­‐occupancy	  vehicles	   (HOV’s),	  bicycles,	  on	   foot	  and	  others	   such	  as	   truck	  and	  motorcycle	  (UBC	  TP,	  2011).	  The	   UBC	   Fall	   2010	   Transportation	   Status	   Report	   provides	   a	   summary	   of	   the	   transportation	   data	  collected	   between	   1997	   and	   2010	   and	   examines	   the	   trends	   seen	   over	   this	   time.	   Of	   particular	  significance	   is	   the	   increased	   use	   of	   public	   transit:	   over	   13	   years,	   an	   increase	   of	   233%	  was	   seen	  with	  ridership	   more	   than	   tripling.	   This	   increase	   is	   largely	   attributed	   to	   the	   introduction	   of	   the	   U-­‐Pass	   in	  September	   2003,	   which	   is	   a	   subsidized	   transit	   pass	   for	   UBC	   students.	   A	   full	   summary	   of	   the	  transportation	  modes	  in	  1997	  and	  2010	  are	  provided	  in	  Appendix	  B.	  	  According	   to	   the	  UBC	  2009	  Vancouver	  Transportation	  Survey	   (a	  survey	  of	  UBC	  students,	   staff,	   faculty,	  residents	  and	  other	  employees),	  the	  majority	  of	  transit	  users	  are	  students.	  62%	  of	  students	  and	  44%	  of	  [TRANSPORTATION	  GROUP	  2]	   APSC	  364	  	  	  4	  	  staff	  claimed	  to	  use	  transit	  everyday,	  while	  only	  22%	  of	  residents	  and	  faculty	  made	  the	  same	  claim.	  It	  is	  noted	  in	  the	  report	  that	  faculty	  and	  visitors	  use	  transit	  the	  least,	  and	  that	  the	  use	  of	  transit	  by	  students	  is	  mostly	  due	   to	   the	  U-­‐Pass	   system	  (UBC	  TP,	  2010).	  This	  demonstrates	   that	   the	  mode-­‐share	   to	  UBC	   is	  affected	  by	  the	  payment	  structure	  for	  transit.	  There	   are	   currently	   six	   express	   bus	   routes	   into	   UBC	   (routes	   43,	   44,	   84,	   258,	   480,	   and	   the	   99	   B-­‐line)	  which,	  when	  combined,	  make	  up	  63%	  of	  trips	  to	  and	  from	  UBC	  (TransLink,	  n.d.;	  UBC,	  2011).	  According	  to	  TransLink’s	  website,	   five	   of	   these	   routes	   travel	   between	  UBC	   and	   a	   SkyTrain	   station	   (TransLink,	   n.d.),	  suggesting	  that	  a	  large	  portion	  of	  trips	  made	  to	  UBC	  originate	  from	  far-­‐afield.	  2.2	  UBC	  A&R	  Current	  Transportation	  System	  Athletics	  and	  Recreation	  at	  UBC	  employs	  approximately	  100	  persons	  and	  manages	  the	  over	  20	  venues	  which	  are	  home	  to	  30	  UBC	  Thunderbirds	  sports	  teams	  (Dolf,	  2012).	  Many	  of	  these	  venues	  host	  events	  that	   attract	   50,	   000	   spectators	   annually	   (Dolf,	   2012),	   resulting	   in	   significant	   volumes	   of	   travel	   to	   and	  from	  UBC.	  A	  survey	  by	  UBC	  Athletics	  &	  Recreation	  of	  eight	  UBC	  Thunderbirds	  events	  in	  found	  that	  66%	  of	  staff	  and	  spectators	   travelled	  an	  average	  of	  107	  km	  by	  car,	  with	  an	  average	  vehicle	  occupancy	  rate	  of	  2.7	   (Dolf	  2012).	  Approximately	  one	  in	  ten	  participants	  arrived	  by	  city	  bus	  and	  one	  in	  seven	  chose	  to	  walk	  or	  cycle	  to	  the	  events.	  	   	  [TRANSPORTATION	  GROUP	  2]	   APSC	  364	  	  	  5	  	  2.3	  Economic	  Impact	  Considerations	  Below	   is	   a	   table	   outlining	   the	   costs	   that	   spectators	   pay	   for	   a	   one-­‐way	   trip	   to	   a	   UBC	   Athletics	   &	  Recreation	   event,	   based	   on	   the	   average	   distances	   travelled.	   Currently,	   UBC	   A&R	   does	   not	   pay	   for	   or	  subsidize	  spectator	  travel.	  	  Table	  1:	  Spectator	  Transportation	  Costs	  Travel	  Mode	   Average	  Distance	  (km)	  Average	  Vehicle	  Occupancy	  Cost	  of	  Trip	  per	  Person	  Notes	  on	  Cost	   Source	  Car	   107	   2.7	   $4.64	  ($12.52	  if	  SOV)	  Fuel	  efficiency:	  9.0L/100km	  Cost	  of	  gas:	  $1.30/L	   	  Walk	   4	   1	   $0.00	   No	  charge	   	  Bus	  City	   32	   1	   $5.00	   32	  km	  =	  3	  zones,	  Rate	  applies	  to	  adults	   Translink,	  n.d.	  Bus	  Coach	   77	   1	   $10-­‐15	   Greyhound	  tickets	  vary	  depending	  on	  time	  of	  travel	   Greyhound,	  2011	  Plane	   2814	   1	   $200-­‐$400	   Using	  trip	  from	  Winnipeg	  to	  Vancouver	  to	  represent	  distance	  of	  2800	  km	  Varies	  with	  distance	  and	  time	  Flight	  Network,	  2012	  Bike	   5	   1	   $0.00	   No	  marginal	  cost;	  Cost	  of	  bike	  is	  fixed	  and	  variable	   	  All	  distances	  and	  vehicle	  occupancies	  retrieved	  from	  Dolf,	  2012.	  2.4	  Environmental	  Impact	  Considerations	  The	  environmental	   impacts	  of	   travel	   to	  and	  from	  UBC	  are	   largely	  attributable	  to	  vehicle	   traffic.	   	  A	  Life	  Cycle	   Analysis	   of	   a	   UBC	   Thunderbirds	   basketball	   game	   attributed	   100%	   of	   transportation-­‐related	   CO2	  emissions	  to	  car	  and	  bus	  traffic	  (SOV’s	  contribute	  the	  most	  per	  capita	  emissions).	  In	  order	  to	  reduce	  the	  carbon	   footprint	   of	   transportation	   to	   and	   from	   UBC	   games,	   the	   number	   of	   SOV’s	   must	   be	   reduced;	  increasing	   car	   occupancy	   to	  people	   reduces	  per	  person	  emission	   levels	   to	  below	   that	   of	   transit	   (Dolf,	  2012).	   	  This	   is	   particularly	   important	   to	   note	   given	   that	   68%	   of	   spectators	   at	   the	   basketball	   game	  travelled	   by	   car	   (Dolf,	   2012).	  While	   vehicle	   traffic	   is	   important	   to	   target,	   an	   analysis	   of	   more	   sports	  events	  revealed	  that	  a	  surprising	  4.5%	  of	  spectators	  flew	  to	  Vancouver	  to	  attend	  the	  event	  (Dolf,	  2012).	  Combined,	   vehicle	   and	   airplane	   travel	   are	   responsible	   for	   the	   bulk	   of	   the	   CO2-­‐equivalent	   (CO2e)	  emissions	  associated	  with	  UBC	  A&R	  events.	  While	   CO2	   is	   a	   major	   concern	   due	   to	   its	   effects	   on	   the	   climate,	   there	   are	   a	   number	   of	   other	  environmental	   impacts	  associated	  with	  vehicle	  transit.	   	  These	  include	  direct	  emissions	  of	  methane	  and	  nitrous	   oxide,	   as	   well	   as	   fugitive	   emissions	   of	   HCFCs	   associated	   with	   mobile	   air	   conditioning	   (B.C.	  [TRANSPORTATION	  GROUP	  2]	   APSC	  364	  	  	  6	  	  Ministry	   of	   Environment,	   2011).	   	  Other	   environmental	   impacts	   of	   transport	   to	   and	   from	  UBC	   include	  gradual	  damage	  to	  roadways,	  particularly	  associated	  with	  heavy	  trucks	  (UBC	  TP,	  2011).	  2.5	  Social	  Impact	  Considerations	  The	   social	   effects	   of	   transportation	   vary	   greatly	   by	   mode	   of	   travel.	   	  Those	   taking	   public	   transit	   are	  subject	  to	  longer	  travel	  times	  (compared	  to	  travel	  by	  car),	  long	  waits	  between	  connections,	  being	  passed	  by	   full	   buses,	   and	   overcrowding	   during	   peak	   hours	   (Cato,	   2006).	   	  Furthermore	   public	   transit	   is	   not	   a	  feasible	  option	  for	  everyone	  as	  some	  individuals	  are	  travelling	  from	  areas	  outside	  the	  city	  of	  Vancouver.	  In	   these	  areas,	   there	  may	  not	  be	  adequate	  accessibility	   to	   transit.	  The	  ability	   to	  have	  productive	   time	  (i.e.	   reading	  or	   studying)	  on	   the	  bus	  may	   compensate	   for	   the	   longer	   travel	   times	  associated	  with	   this	  mode,	  but	  this	   is	   limited	  by	  the	  availability	  of	  seating	  (Cato,	  2006).	   	  The	  increased	  use	  of	  public	  transit	  since	  the	  implementation	  of	  the	  U-­‐Pass	  has	  had	  positive	  implications	  in	  terms	  of	  equality;	  taking	  transit	  has	   come	   to	   characterize	   part	   of	   the	   student	   experience,	   as	   opposed	   to	   something	   only	   tolerated	   by	  those	  who	  cannot	  afford	  a	  car	  (UBC	  TP,	  2011).	  It	   is	   well	   documented	   that	   cycling	   contributes	   to	   improved	   fitness.	   	  Commuting	   by	   bicycle	   has	   been	  associated	  with	  decreased	   levels	  of	  obesity	  and	   increased	  cardiovascular	   fitness	   (Oja	  et	  al.,	   2011).	   	  As	  walking	   is	  also	  an	  active	   form	  of	   transportation,	   it	   likely	  has	  similar	  effects	  depending	  on	  the	  distance	  travelled.	   	  Unfortunately,	   these	   modes	   of	   transportation	   also	   leave	   travellers	   most	   susceptible	   to	  weather	  conditions.	  	  Additionally,	  people	  may	  not	  feel	  safe	  walking	  alone	  at	  night.	  To	  mitigate	  this	  UBC’s	  student	  society,	  the	  AMS,	  have	  implemented	  a	  program	  called	  Safewalk	  (where	  a	  co-­‐ed	  team	  will	  walk	  people	   to	   their	   destinations).	   However,	   their	   services	   offered	   by	   Safewalk	   are	   limited	   to	   on-­‐campus	  routes	  only	  and	  visitors	  to	  the	  campus	  may	  not	  be	  aware	  of	  this	  service	  (AMS	  Salfewalk,	  n.d.).	  Many	   people	   consider	   travel	   by	   car	   the	   most	   convenient	   and	   comfortable	   mode	   of	  transportation.	  	  Based	  on	  high	  rates	  of	  SOV’s,	  most	  drivers	  actually	  have	  more	  seats	  than	  passengers	  in	  their	  vehicles	  (UBC	  TP,	  2011).	  	  Car	  travel	  also	  provides	  privacy	  and	  flexibility	  in	  one’s	  schedule;	  however,	  travel	   by	   car	   has	  many	   costs	   that	   in	   some	   cases	  may	   outweigh	   the	   benefits.	   	  Traffic	   congestion	   and	  deliberate	   limited	   parking	   at	   UBC	   may	   contribute	   to	   drivers’	   stress.	   	  Both	   of	   these	   have	   further	  implications	   for	   door-­‐to-­‐door	   travel	   time	  and	  accessibility	   (Cato,	   2006).	   	  In	  most	   cases	   this	  mode	  also	  provides	  less	  opportunity	  for	  exercise	  than	  any	  other	  modes	  of	  transportation.	  Car-­‐pooling	  can	  alleviate	  some	  of	  these	  social	  impacts,	  as	  some	  parking	  spaces	  at	  UBC	  are	  reserved	  for	  high-­‐occupancy	  vehicles;	  however,	  coordinating	  with	  another	  person	  on	  car-­‐pooling	  reduces	  the	  flexibility	  in	  the	  driver’s	  schedule	  (UBC	  TP,	  n.d.).	  2.6	  Jurisdictions	  There	  are	  three	  major	  jurisdictions	  that	  are	  responsible	  for	  UBC	  Athletics	  &	  Recreation’s	  transportation	  systems.	   They	   are	   as	   follows:	   UBC,	   TransLink	   and	   the	   City	   of	   Vancouver	   (UBC	   TP,	   2005).	  While	   these	  three	  jurisdictions	  are	  distinct	  from	  each	  other,	  they	  collaborate	  to	  assume	  the	  responsibility	  of	  moving	  people	  to	  and	  from	  the	  UBC	  Vancouver	  campus.	  [TRANSPORTATION	  GROUP	  2]	   APSC	  364	  	  	  7	  	  The	   Strategic	   Transportation	   Plan	   represents	   UBC’s	   views	   on	   the	   university’s	   transportation.	   UBC’s	  Board	  of	  Governors	  approved	  the	  Strategic	  Transportation	  Plan	  (STP)	   in	  1999	  (UBC	  TP,	  2005).	  Since	   its	  conception,	   the	   STP	   has	   been	   responsible	   for	   portraying	   “a	   wide	   range	   of	   transportation	   initiatives	  intended	  to	  reduce	  automobile	  traffic,	   increase	  transit	  ridership	  and	  manage	  travel	  demand”	   (UBC	  TP,	  2005).	  Collaboration	  between	  these	  three	  parties	  is	  crucial	  to	  reduce	  the	  carbon	  footprint	  of	  transportation	  to	  and	   from	   UBC.	   For	   example,	   UBC	   and	   TransLink	   negotiated	   to	   produce	   the	   aforementioned,	   widely	  successful	  U-­‐Pass	   program.	   Currently,	   all	   three	   parties	   are	   in	   round-­‐table	  meetings	   to	   create	   a	   rapid-­‐transit	  plan	  for	  the	  Broadway	  corridor	  to	  UBC	  (UBC	  TP,	  2005).	  When	  these	  three	  parties	  reach	  a	  consensus,	  they	  recommend	  policies	  to	  the	  Ministry	  of	  Transportation	  to	  be	  implemented.	  For	  example,	  the	  STP	  recommended	  that	  the	  Ministry	  of	  Transportation	  “implement	  further	  parking	  restrictions	  and	  prohibitions	  on	  Marine	  Drive	  and	  16th	  Avenue”	  in	  order	  to	  discourage	  UBC	  commuters	  from	  parking	  off-­‐campus	  (UBC	  TP,	  2005).	  UBC,	  TransLink,	  the	  City	  of	  Vancouver,	  and	  the	  Ministry	  of	  Transportation	  are	  the	  decision-­‐making	  stakeholders	  on	  UBC’s	  transportation	  matters.	  2.7	  Effects	  Decisions	   related	   to	   UBC's	   transportation	   system	   have	   an	   effect	   on	   a	   large	   portion	   of	   the	   UBC	  community	   (students,	   faculty,	   staff),	   the	  University	  Neighbourhood	  Association	   and	   the	  population	  of	  the	  Greater	  Vancouver	  Regional	  District.	  Moreover,	  it	  can	  be	  argued	  that	  UBC	  transportation	  decisions	  have	  an	  effect	  outside	  the	   lower	  mainland:	  UBC	  Athletics	  &	  Recreation	  holds	  varsity	  sport	  events	  that	  draw	  competitors	  and	  spectators	  from	  across	  Canada	  (Dolf	  et	  al.,	  2011).	  For	  these	  reasons,	  it	   is	  crucial	  that	   multi-­‐stakeholder	   meetings	   take	   place,	   so	   that	   all	   stakeholders	   have	   an	   input	   in	   making	   UBC’s	  transportation	  system	  sustainable.	  3.0	  Sustainable	  Transportation	  Options	  In	  order	   to	   improve	   the	   current	   transportation	   situation	  with	   regards	   to	  UBC	  Athletics	  &	  Recreation’s	  events	  and	  to	  promote	  sustainable	  transportation	  options,	  we	  put	  forward	  a	   list	  of	  four	  programs	  and	  technologies	   as	   options	   for	   UBC	   Athletics	   &	   Recreation	   (UBC	   A&R)	   to	   consider.	   	  The	   social	   and	  environmental	  impacts	  are	  outlined	  for	  each	  option,	  as	  well	  as	  the	  cost	  for	  stakeholders.	  Each	  of	  these	  options	   shows	  some	  potential	   for	   research	  and	   they	  all	  aim	  to	   improve	   the	  sustainability	  of	  UBC	  A&R	  and	   the	   events	   they	   are	   responsible	   for.	   	  These	   four	   options	   include	   1)	   the	   introduction	   of	   transit	  discounts,	  2)	  competition	  between	  UBC	  Thunderbirds	  teams	  to	  help	  promote	  cycling	  and	  to	  encourage	  UBC	   sports	   teams	   to	   act	   as	   agents	   of	   change	   towards	   sustainable	   practices,	   3)	   biking	   incentives	   to	  increase	  the	  number	  of	  people	  cycling	  to	  events,	  and	  4)	  online	  communication	  &	  awareness	  strategies.	  These	   options	  were	   selected	   from	   a	   longer	   list	   of	   options	   considered	   and	   the	   decision	  was	   based	   on	  which	  options	  other	  groups	  were	  developing,	   the	   interests	  of	  our	  group	  members,	  and	  the	   interest	  of	  UBC	  A&R	   in	  exploring	  and	   investigating	   these	  options.	  We	  have	   included	  a	  description	  of	   three	  other	  options	  in	  Appendix	  B	  for	  reference.	  [TRANSPORTATION	  GROUP	  2]	   APSC	  364	  	  	  8	  	  3.1	  UBC	  Thunderbirds	  Transit	  Program	  This	  option	  is	  a	  program	  to	  help	  increase	  the	  usage	  of	  public	  transit	  for	  transportation	  to	  and	  from	  UBC	  Thunderbirds	   sporting	   events:	   the	   aim	   is	   to	   decrease	   the	   greenhouse	   gas	   (GHG)	   emissions	   associated	  with	   UBC	   Athletics	   &	   Recreation.	   According	   to	   a	   survey	   of	   spectators	   and	   staff	   conducted	   at	   8	   UBC	  Thunderbirds	  home	  games,	  only	  7%	  of	  spectators	  arrived	  by	  bus,	  while	  68%	  of	  spectators	  arrived	  by	  car	  (Dolf,	  2012).	  If	  the	  number	  of	  spectators	  using	  transit	  can	  be	  increased,	  a	  positive	  impact	  on	  UBC	  A&R’s	  GHG	  emissions	  could	  be	  realized.	  In	  order	  to	  encourage	  the	  use	  of	  public	  transportation	  to	  and	  from	  UBC	  Athletics	  &	  Recreation	  events,	  spectators	  who	  use	  transit	  could	  be	  rewarded	  with	  a	  TransLink	  FareSaver	  ticket.	  This	  card	  would	  cover	  the	  cost	  of	  one	  zone	  of	  travel	  (Translink,	  n.d.)	  and	  would	  perhaps	  cover	  the	  cost	  of	  their	  ride	  home	  after	  the	   event.	  When	   the	   spectator	   arrived	   at	   the	   game,	   they	  would	   present	   their	   transit	   ticket	   (that	   had	  been	   validated	   within	   the	   previous	   hour)	   while	   purchasing	   their	   event	   ticket	   and	   would	   receive	   a	  complimentary	   FareSaver	   ticket.	   This	   deal	  would	   not	   be	   available	   for	   UBC	   students	   or	   the	   University	  Neighbourhood	  Association	  since	  they	  only	  pay	  $2	  per	  event	  ticket	  and	  students	  already	  have	  a	  U-­‐Pass	  (UBC	  Thunderbirds,	  n.d.).	  	  Since	   partnerships	   with	   TransLink	   are	   difficult	   to	   negotiate,	   the	   responsibility	   of	   implementing	   and	  covering	  the	  costs	  of	  this	  program	  will	  rest	  primarily	  with	  UBC	  A&R.	   It	   is	  hoped	  that	  a	  discounted	  rate	  could	  be	  negotiated	  for	  the	  FareSaver	  tickets	  due	  to	  the	  volume	  that	  would	  be	  purchased,	  but	  all	  cost	  estimations	   are	   performed	   using	   the	   prices	   of	   FareSaver	   booklets	   ($21.00	   and	   $17.00	   for	   Adult	   and	  Concession	  10-­‐ticket	  booklets,	  respectively)	  that	  can	  be	  purchased	  at	  retailers	  around	  Metro	  Vancouver	  (Translink,	  n.d.).	  A	  breakdown	  of	  the	  2011/2012	  Thunderbirds	  ticket	  sales	  and	  the	  potential	   impact	  on	  ticket	  revenue	  is	  provided	  in	  Appendix	  B.	  From	  our	  calculations,	  the	  cost	  of	  handing	  out	  FareSaver	  tickets	  could	  lead	  to	  a	  22%	  decrease	  in	  ticket	  revenue	  if	  100%	  of	  people	  attending	  games	  used	  public	  transit.	  It	  is	  hoped	  that	  this	  program	  would	  help	  increase	  the	  number	  of	  spectators	  attending	  games,	  but	  an	  increase	  of	  29%	  would	  be	  needed	  to	  offset	  the	  lost	  revenue.	  In	  order	  to	  combat	  this	  risk,	  it	  is	  suggested	  that	  this	  program	  be	  implemented	  during	  playoffs	  when	  Adult	  tickets	  are	  $15	  instead	  of	  the	  regular	  $10	  (UBC	  Thunderbirds,	  n.d.).	  It	  is	  also	  highly	  unlikely	   that	   every	  person	  attending	   the	   games	  would	   arrive	  by	  bus,	   so	   Table	   5	   in	  Appendix	  B	   shows	  scenarios	  for	  100%,	  50%	  and	  25%	  transit	  ridership	  during	  both	  the	  regular	  season	  and	  the	  playoffs.	  To	  achieve	  25%	  transit	  usage,	  UBC	  A&R	  would	  only	  see	  a	  6%	  revenue	  loss	  during	  the	  regular	  season,	  or	  a	  4%	  loss	  during	  playoffs.	  It	  is	  clear	  that	  the	  impact	  of	  the	  FareSaver	  tickets	  decreases	  with	  higher	  Adult	  ticket	  prices	  and	  that	  the	  impact	  is	  also	  tied	  to	  transit	  ridership.	  As	  stated	  before,	  only	  about	  7%	  of	  spectators	  took	  the	  bus	  to	  8	  UBC	  Thunderbirds	  games	   in	  a	   survey	  by	  Dolf	   (2012).	  Using	   the	  data	  provided	  by	   the	   survey	  and	  CO2e	  emissions	   factors	   from	   the	   ecoinvent	   database	   (Swiss	   Centre	   for	   Life	   Cycle	   Inventories,	   2010),	   an	  increase	  in	  transit	  ridership	  to	  25%	  could	  lead	  to	  a	  decrease	  in	  CO2e	  emissions	  of	  7%	  (see	  Appendix	  B	  for	  [TRANSPORTATION	  GROUP	  2]	   APSC	  364	  	  	  9	  	  calculations).	   This	   decrease	   in	   GHG	   emissions	   is	   kept	   small	   due	   to	   the	   immense	   impact	   of	   those	  spectators	  who	  fly	  to	  Vancouver	  to	  attend	  games	  at	  UBC.	  The	   long-­‐term	   benefits	   of	   initiating	   such	   a	   program	   are	   primarily	   the	   behavioural	   changes	   that	   are	  hoped	   to	  occur	   in	   the	  people	   travelling	   to	  and	   from	  UBC	  Thunderbirds	  games.	   If	   these	  people	  can	  be	  shown	   the	   convenience	   and	   affordability	   of	   using	   transit,	   it	  may	   become	  habitual.	   This	   program	  may	  also	   result	   in	   increased	   ticket	   sales	   at	   UBC	   Thunderbirds	   games	   and	   may	   provide	   opportunities	   to	  conduct	  behavioural	  research,	  studies	  on	  the	  effects	  of	  increased	  transit	  usage	  on	  the	  overall	  impact	  of	  Thunderbirds	  games,	  or	  studies	  on	  advertising	  methods	  and	  their	  effectiveness.	  While	  this	  program	  will	  require	  that	  UBC	  A&R	  incur	  some	  costs	  for	  purchasing	  and	  distributing	  FareSaver	  tickets,	  there	  is	  the	  potential	  to	  increase	  the	  number	  of	  spectators	  attending	  UBC	  Thunderbirds	  games	  and	  to	  reduce	  UBC	  A&R’s	  environmental	  impact.	  The	  economic	  impacts	  to	  UBC	  A&R	  to	  increase	  transit	  ridership	  to	  25%	  are	  relatively	  low,	  but	  the	  improvement	  in	  GHG	  emissions	  could	  be	  high	  –	  especially	  if	  high-­‐emission	  modes	  of	  travel	  are	  targeted.	  	  3.2	  Thunderbirds	  as	  an	  Agent	  of	  Change	  UBC’s	   Thunderbirds	   sports	   teams	   are	   no	   strangers	   to	   competition.	   	  This	   option	   addresses	   how	   to	  mobilize	   our	   Thunderbirds	   teams	   to	   cultivate	   active	   agents	   of	   change	   in	   the	   UBC	  community.	   	  Specifically,	  this	  option	  will	   increase	  the	  spectator	  mode	  share	  of	  cyclists	  from	  its	  current	  rate	  of	  3%.	  A	  point	  system	  (“Cycle	  Points”)	  will	  harness	  the	  competitive	  spirit	  of	  UBC	  Thunderbirds	  and	  encourage	  them	   to	   be	   leaders	   and	   role	   models	   in	   their	   community.	   	  Thunderbirds	   teams	   will	   earn	   points	   by	  promoting	   cycling	   to	   games	   on	   campus.	   	  Creativity	   is	   encouraged.	   	  Some	   examples	   of	   strategies	   they	  may	  use	  are	  personal	  interaction,	  Facebook	  events,	  or	  poster	  campaigns.	  	  Team	  members	  will	  incur	  any	  costs	  for	  promotion.	  Points	   are	   recorded	  when	   cyclists	   (including	   bicycling	   Thunderbirds)	   show	   up	   to	   Thunderbirds	   games	  and	   check	   in	   with	   a	   volunteer	   at	   the	   bike	   racks	   where	   they	   can	   demonstrate	   they	   arrived	   on	   their	  bikes.	  	  They	  would	  be	  asked	  whether	  they	  biked	  due	  to	  a	  Thunderbirds	  initiative	  and	  if	  so	  which	  team	  it	  was	   (and	   how	   they	   heard	   about	   it).	   	  Whichever	   team	   spurred	   the	   change	   would	   acquire	   a	   Cycle	  Point.	   	  Cycle	   Points	   would	   accumulate	   throughout	   the	   year	   and	   would	   be	   divided	   by	   the	   number	   of	  players	  on	  the	  team	  at	  the	  end	  of	  the	  year.	  The	  team	  with	  the	  most	  Cycle	  Points	  per	  team	  member	  at	  the	  end	  of	  the	  year	  wins.	  Some	  of	  the	  possible	  prizes	  that	  could	  be	  provided	  by	  UBC	  A&R	  are:	  • Symbolic	  title/annual	  trophy	  [free	  to	  $100]	  (Trophy	  Centre,	  n.d.)	  • All-­‐You-­‐Can-­‐Eat	  Sushi	  dinner	  at	  BC	  Sushi	  [$20/person]	  (Urban	  Spoon,	  n.d.)	  • Westcadia	  BBQ	  catered	  meal	  [$26/person	  +	  space	  booking	  fee]	  (Westcadia,	  n.d.)	  • 3	  hour	  Bike	  Kitchen	  workshop	  at	  UBC	  [$10/person]	  (AMS	  Bike	  Co-­‐op,	  2012)	  [TRANSPORTATION	  GROUP	  2]	   APSC	  364	  	  	  10	  	  Sponsorships	  could	  be	  solicited	  to	  cover	  expenses	  or	  to	  donate	  prizes.	  	  If	  prizes	  are	  on	  a	  per-­‐person	  basis	  (such	  as	  with	  dinner)	  it	  is	  recommended	  that	  varsity	  teams	  be	  broken	  down	  to	  a	  more	  manageable	  size	  (eg.	  8-­‐12	  people)	  for	  the	  purposes	  of	  this	  competition.	  	  For	  instance,	  the	  Varsity	  Football	  team	  would	  be	  subdivided	   into	   roughly	   ten	   sub-­‐teams	   who	   would	   compete	   against	   each	   other	   and	   differentiate	  themselves	  from	  each	  other	  for	  their	  promotion	  initiatives	  with	  sub-­‐team	  names	  or	  colours.	  This	  program	  can	  be	  expanded	  so	  Cycle	  Points	  can	  be	  earned	  at	  other	  Athletics	  &	  Recreation	  events	  (eg.	  Storm	   the	  Wall)	   or	   even	   on	   regular	   school	   days	   by	   setting	   up	   check-­‐in	   points	  with	   volunteers	   (these	  would	  be	  specifically	  advertised	  by	  the	  teams,	  perhaps	  as	  a	  “Bike	  to	  School	  Day”	  with	  clear	  directions	  as	  to	  where	  to	  check	  in).	  	  Coaches	  might	  also	  track	  points	  for	  Thunderbirds	  who	  arrive	  to	  team	  practice	  on	  their	  bicycles	  for	  additional	  Cycle	  Points.	  	  Other	  non-­‐varsity	  teams	  such	  as	  UBC	  Triathlon	  Club	  and	  junior	  teams	  could	  also	  be	  invited	  to	  opt	  in.	  This	  program	  would	  develop	  an	   image	  of	  Thunderbirds	  as	  people	  who	  are	  enthusiastic	  about	  bicycling	  and	  eager	  to	  lead	  by	  example	  to	  make	  travelling	  to	  their	  events	  more	  sustainable.	   	  The	  ability	  of	  team	  members	   to	   earn	   Cycle	   Points	   regardless	   of	   which	   Thunderbirds	   team	   is	   playing	   would	   increase	  attendance	  at	  games	  in	  general,	  as	  there	  would	  be	  encouragement	  for	  fans	  that	  would	  be	  loyal	  to	  one	  team	   to	   check	   out	   other	   teams’	   games.	   	  It	   also	   has	   true	   potential	   to	   shift	   regular	   patterns	   of	   travel	  across	   campus	   through	   the	   “Bike	   to	   School	   Days”	   mentioned	   above,	   and	   also	   through	   the	   example	  Thunderbirds	  would	  set.	  	  The	  Cycle	  Points	  would	  make	  tracking	  the	  success	  of	  this	  initiative	  possible.	  	  As	  cycling	  becomes	  a	  more	  mainstream	  part	  of	  UBC	  students’	  and	  Thunderbirds	  spectators’	  culture,	  A&R	  can	  show	  that	  they	  helped	  lead	  the	  way.	  3.3	  UBC	  Athletics	  &	  Recreation	  Bicycle	  Incentives	  This	  option	  is	  aimed	  to	  increase	  the	  likelihood	  and	  attractiveness	  of	  cycling	  to	  UBC	  games.	  The	  main	  idea	  is	   to	   provide	   freebies	   for	   cyclists	   to	   increase	   motivation	   to	   cycle	   to	   games	   and	   as	   an	   added	   bonus	  promote	  these	  incentives	  (UBC	  A&R’s	  logo	  could	  be	  incorporated	  in	  the	  give-­‐aways).	  Below	  are	  ideas	  for	  this	  option	  as	  well	  as	  some	  suggestions	  for	  carrying	  out	  the	  idea	  and	  cost	  implications.	  Table	  2:	  Bicycling	  Incentives	  Prize	   Cost	  to	  UBC	  A&R	  “Freebies”	  	   o LED	  Tyre	  tire	  Valve	  Caps	  Neon	  Lights	  for	  bikes:	  small,	  can	  get	  UBC	  Thunderbirds	  colors,	  increases	  safety	  when	  cycling	  at	  night,	  comes	  in	  a	  variety	  of	  colors	  [Cost:	  $0.99-­‐	  $3.00	  CDN	  (Ebay)]	  o Food	  at	  concession	  stands	  (ie.	  hot	  dogs,	  chocolate	  bars,	  drinks)	  [Cost:	  $1.50-­‐$9.00	  (depending	  on	  venue	  and	  item)	  (Haas,	  forthcoming)]	  o T-­‐shirts	  with	  UBC	  A&R	  or	  Thunderbirds	  logo	  and	  biking	  incentives	  on	  it	  [Cost:	  $3.95-­‐$4.95/T-­‐shirt	  (Great	  West	  Graphics,	  2012,	  Orion	  Screen	  Works,	  2012)]	  o Water	  bottles	  with	  UBC	  A&R	  or	  Thunderbirds	  logo	  and	  biking	  incentives	  on	  it	  [Cost:	  $45	  for	  one-­‐time	  set	  up	  charge,	  $1.58/bottle	  (for	  150	  bottles)	  (Print	  A	  Promo,	  2011)]	  [TRANSPORTATION	  GROUP	  2]	   APSC	  364	  	  	  11	  	  Provide	  a	  bike	  valet	  service	   o Offer	  a	  secure	  place	  for	  cyclists	  to	  park	  their	  bikes	  during	  the	  game	  [Cost:	  ~$400	  on	  average—amount	  can	  be	  subsidized	  if	  we	  found	  sponsors,	  had	  volunteers,	  provided	  fencing,	  etc.	  (The	  Bicycle	  Valet,	  2012)]	  Incorporate	  a	  stamp	  system	  to	  trade	  for	  freebies	  o The	  first	  time	  someone	  cycles	  to	  an	  event,	  they	  will	  be	  given	  a	  stamp	  card,	  where	  they	  can	  accumulate	  stamps	  each	  time	  they	  cycle	  to	  attend	  an	  event.	  After	  accumulating	  a	  certain	  amount	  of	  stamps	  (i.e.	  10)	  can	  obtain	  a	  prize.	  [Cost:	  aside	  from	  cards	  and	  stamps	  (which	  should	  cost	  less	  than	  $50	  altogether),	  it	  will	  vary	  depending	  on	  the	  prizes	  given	  out]	  Draws	  at	  the	  end	  of	  each	  game/season	  for	  prizes	  (draw	  tickets	  given	  to	  cyclists)	  o Cyclists	  to	  events	  will	  be	  entered	  in	  a	  draw,	  to	  be	  drawn	  at	  the	  end	  of	  each	  game	  or	  accumulated	  to	  draw	  for	  a	  prize	  at	  the	  end	  of	  a	  season	  [Cost:	  depending	  on	  the	  demand	  for	  these	  ticket	  stubs,	  may	  not	  be	  very	  costly,	  again,	  probably	  less	  than	  $50,	  and	  extra	  cost	  will	  be	  dependent	  on	  the	  prize]	  	  The	   above	   options	   can	   be	   implemented	   alone	   or	   in	   combination.	   Although	   it	   is	  mainly	   aimed	   at	   the	  individual	  level,	  it	  may	  spread	  to	  a	  community	  level	  as	  it	  gets	  passed	  around	  by	  personal	  communication	  or	  by	  promotion	  (seeing	  the	  logos).	  This	  aims	  to	  promote	  positive	  ideas	  about	  cycling	  to	  events,	  and	  in	  some	  cases,	   increases	  the	  safety	  of	  cyclists	  outside	  of	  events	  (eg.	  bike	  lights).	  This	  works	  well	  with	  the	  UBC	  sustainability	  and	  GHG	  emission	  goals,	  since	  cycling	  may	  decrease	  the	  number	  of	  people	  driving	  to	  events,	   promote	   healthier	   lifestyles,	   and	   spread	   the	   idea	   of	   sustainability	   throughout	   the	   UBC	  community.	  3.4	  UBC	  Athletics	  &	  Recreation	  Communication	  &	  Awareness	  Strategies	  UBC	  A&R	  has	  indicated	  that	  they	  would	  like	  a	  bigger	  online	  presence.	  In	  this	  option,	  the	  goal	  is	  for	  UBC	  A&R	   to	   fully	   integrate	   sustainability	   education	   into	   their	   online	   platform.	   This	   option	  will	   have	  many	  steps.	  First,	  UBC	  A&R	  should	  begin	   to	  sell	   their	   tickets	  online.	  As	  potential	   spectators	  buy	   their	   ticket,	  the	  various	  sustainability	  initiatives	  (i.e.	  transit	  fare	  rebate,	  bike	  valet)	  will	  be	  advertised.	  Second,	  as	  the	  event	  approaches,	  ticket-­‐holders	  will	  receive	  a	  reminder	  newsletter.	  In	  this	  newsletter,	  there	  could	  be	  a	  “How	   to	   Get	   Here”	   section	   that	   encourages	   sustainable	   modes	   of	   travel	   (transit,	   bike,	   walk)	   by	  summarizing	  personal	  benefits	  of	  choosing	  a	  sustainable	  mode	  of	  travel.	  Some	  examples	  are	  below:	  • You	  will	  save	  $10	  on	  parking	  • You	  will	  have	  “productive	  time”	  on	  the	  bus	  (i.e.	  time	  to	  read)	  • You	  will	  get	  your	  daily	  exercise	  -­‐	  did	  you	  know	  that	  biking	  for	  30	  minutes	  burns	  300	  calories?	  Furthermore,	  this	  section	  may	  include	  facts	  regarding	  climate	  change.	  For	  example:	  • Cars	  are	  the	   leading	  source	  of	  GHG	  emissions	   in	  Canada	  –	  help	  UBC	  A&R	  reduce	   its	   impact	  on	  the	  environment	  by	  taking	  an	  alternate	  mode	  of	  transportation	  [TRANSPORTATION	  GROUP	  2]	   APSC	  364	  	  	  12	  	  Online	  advertising	  on	  UBC	  A&R’s	  website	  has	  the	  potential	  to	  reduce	  the	  environmental	  impact	  that	  is	  associated	  with	   spectators’	   transportation.	   This	   option	   is	   attractive	   as	   it	   has	   very	   low	   capital	   costs	   to	  UBC	   A&R	   (mainly	   hiring	   a	   Web	   Developer	   to	   launch	   a	   new	   website	   and	   send	   out	   e-­‐newsletters).	  Moreover,	  there	  are	  lots	  of	  advertising	  options	  on	  the	  newsletter,	  which	  may	  be	  a	  source	  of	  revenue	  for	  UBC	  A&R.	  4.0	  Sustainability	  Indicator	  Matrix	  In	   order	   to	   compare	   the	   feasibility	   of	   our	   options	   and	   their	   potential	   benefit	   in	   terms	   of	   sustainable	  modes	  of	  transportation,	  we	  have	  developed	  10	  indicators.	  We	  compared	  each	  of	  our	  proposed	  options	  against	  our	  matrix	  of	   indicators	  to	  obtain	  the	  best	  option	  for	  UBC	  A&R	  to	  implement.	  These	  indicators	  aim	  to	  evaluate	  the	  social,	  environmental	  and	  economic	  aspects	  of	  our	  options	  to	  ensure	  that	  they	  are	  feasible	  and	  that	  they	  help	  UBC	  A&R	  achieve	  their	  sustainability	  goals.	  In	  order	  to	  judge	  the	  suitability	  of	  our	  indicators	  for	  UBC	  Athletics	  &	  Recreation	  to	  consider	  when	  trying	  to	  increase	  the	  sustainability	  of	  their	  events,	  we	  used	  a	  relative	  ranking	  system.	  Due	  to	  lack	  of	  data	  and	  the	   variability	   of	   our	   options,	   in	   terms	   of	   their	   individual	   target	   populations	   and	   objectives,	   it	  was	  decided	   	  that	   	  an	   	  absolute	   	  determination	   	  of	   	  our	   	  options’	   	  rank	   	  in	   	  terms	   	  of	   	  sustainability	   	  was	  both	  unattainable	  and	  impractical.	  Our	  ranking	  system	  required	  that	  our	  options	  were	  ranked	  relative	  to	  each	   other	   (from	   first	   to	   last)	   for	   each	   indicator,	  with	   the	   first	   place	   option	   being	   the	   one	   that	  most	  effectively	  met	   the	  objective	   for	   the	   individual	   indicator.	   Some	  of	  our	   indicators	  were	  weighted	  more	  heavily	  than	  others	  due	  to	  their	  relative	  importance	  (e.g.	  economic	  cost	  to	  UBC	  A&R	  was	  weighted	  more	  heavily).	  To	  achieve	  a	  final	  determination	  of	  our	  most	  effective	  option,	  the	  rank	  was	  multiplied	  by	  the	  weight	  for	  each	  indicator	  and	  all	  ranks	  were	  summed	  for	  each	  option.	  The	  option	  with	  the	  lowest	  score	  was	  deemed	  to	  be	  our	  best	  option.	  In	  order	  to	  compare	  our	  options,	  we	  assumed	   that	  each	  one	  would	  be	  a	  “resounding	  success”	  and	  we	  ranked	  them	  according	  to	  what	  we	  believe	  to	  be	  their	  maximum	  potential.	  Our	  indicators	  were	  chosen	  to	   reflect	   our	   interpretation	   of	   the	   vision	   UBC	   A&R	   presented	   to	   us	   and	   to	   highlight	   the	   relative	  strengths	   and	   weaknesses	   of	   our	   options.	   This	   method	   still	   included	   an	   analysis	   of	   negative	  consequences	  (e.g.	  more	  people	  taking	  transit	  may	  reduce	  the	  number	  of	  cyclists)	  while	  allowing	  us	  to	  focus	  on	  the	  (anticipated)	  impacts	  of	  each	  of	  our	  options.	  While	  our	  options	  are	  almost	  entirely	  choice-­‐based	  and	  behaviour-­‐oriented,	  we	  approached	  them	  with	  the	  assumption	  each	  will	  have	  an	  impact	  on	  sustainable	  transportation	  to	  and	  from	  UBC	  A&R	  events.	  It	  should	  be	  noted	  that	  this	  ranking	  system	  reflects	  our	  opinions	  of	  the	  options	  and	  our	  interpretations	  of	  the	  individual	  indicators.	  This	  is	  by	  no	  means	  the	  only	  interpretation	  of	  the	  Options;	  others	  may	  have	  slightly	   different	   rankings	   and	   rationale	   for	   those	   rankings.	   This	   is	   one	   of	   the	  main	   drawbacks	   of	   this	  approach:	   the	   results	   of	   the	   Sustainability	   Indicator	   Matrix	   are	   based	   on	   speculation	   and	   are	   quite	  subjective.	   It	   is	   entirely	   possible	   that	   our	   matrix	   could	   provide	   different	   results	   if	   more	   information	  became	   available,	   or	   if	   another	   person	   or	   group	   of	   people	   evaluated	   our	   options	   using	   this	   matrix.	  [TRANSPORTATION	  GROUP	  2]	   APSC	  364	  	  	  13	  	  However,	  we	  think	  that	  with	  the	   information	  available,	   the	  results	  of	  our	  analysis	  are	  reasonable.	  The	  Sustainability	  Indicator	  Matrix	  that	  we	  have	  completed	  for	  our	  options	  can	  be	  found	  in	  Appendix	  A.	  	  5.0	  Our	  Findings	  Our	   feasibility	  matrix	   demonstrated	   that	   Communication	  &	  Awareness	   Strategies	   is	   the	  most	   feasible	  option	   for	  UBC	  A&R	   to	   implement	  because	   it	   is	   the	   least	   costly	  and	   is	   available	   to	  nearly	  all	   users.	   	  It	  provides	   information	  to	  decrease	  travel	  times	  and	   increase	  ease	  of	  travel	  while	  promoting	  sustainable	  modes	   of	   travel	   to	   and	   from	   UBC	   A&R	   events.	   Because	   it	   will	   enumerate	   various	   options	   for	   each	  person,	  and	  each	  person	  in	  turn	  can	  account	  for	  their	  personal	  barriers	  to	  various	  forms	  of	  transit	  (e.g.	  travelling	   with	   children,	   needing	   wheelchair	   accessibility,	   etc.),	   it	   scored	   the	   highest	   for	   equity	   and	  safety;	  none	  of	  the	  other	  options	  are	  as	  accommodating	  to	  such	  diverse	  needs.	  Second	   place	  was	   given	   to	   the	   Bicycling	   Competition	   option	   because	   it	   has	   the	   potential	   to	   increase	  overall	  game	  attendance	  while	  increasing	  the	  cycling	  mode-­‐share.	  	  However,	  it	  may	  not	  be	  accessible	  or	  available	   to	   all	   spectators.	   Bicycling	   Incentives	   came	   in	   at	   a	   close	   third,	   for	   similar	   reasons	   to	   the	  competition	  option,	  but	  it	  may	  not	  reach	  out	  to	  such	  a	  large	  population	  and	  may	  involve	  a	  greater	  cost.	  The	   Thunderbirds	   Transit	   Program	   was	   deemed	   the	   least	   feasible,	   mainly	   because	   of	   the	   high	   cost	  implications	  for	  A&R.	  	  6.0	  Recommended	  Action	  for	  UBC	  A&R	  We	  recommend	  that	  UBC	  A&R	  implement	  the	  Communication	  &	  Awareness	  Strategy	  as	  soon	  as	  possible.	  We	  recommend	  the	  following	  steps:	  1. Re-­‐launch	  a	  new	  UBC	  A&R	  website	  that	  allows:	  a. Online	  purchasing	  of	  tickets	  b. Newsletters	  to	  ticket	  holders	  2. Clearly	  list	  all	  the	  transportation	  options	  available	  to	  spectators	  on	  the	  website	  a. Emphasize	  the	  benefits	  of	  more	  sustainable	  modes	  of	  travel	  (i.e.	  walk,	  bike	  transit)	  by	  talking	  about	  health	  benefits	  and	  the	  productive	  time	  b. Discourage	  unsustainable	  modes	  of	  travel	  (SOV’s)	  with	  high	  parking	  rates	  and	  carbon	  footprint	  information	  3. Launch	  interactive	  infographics,	  graphs	  and	  maps	  to	  help	  spectators	  visualize	  their	  transportation	  impact	  on	  the	  environment	  We	   believe	   that	   a	   robust	   new	   website	   that	   can	   communicate	   transportation	   options	   is	   necessary	   in	  order	  for	  UBC	  A&R	  to	  achieve	  sustainability.	  Furthermore	  this	  option	  is	  very	  feasible	  because	  it	  has	  a	  low	  capital	  cost.	  By	  communicating	  this	  valuable	  information	  to	  people,	  UBC	  A&R	  will	  be	  able	  to	  encourage	  spectators	  to	  choose	  more	  sustainable	  modes	  of	  travel.	  [TRANSPORTATION	  GROUP	  2]	   APSC	  364	  	  	  14	  	  That	  being	  said,	  one	  limitation	  of	  our	  relative	  ranking	  system	  is	  that	  it	  is	  not	  conducive	  to	  identifying	  a	  particular	  threshold	  beyond	  which	  our	  options	  are	  considered	  worthwhile	  to	  implement.	  	  By	  highlighting	  the	   strengths	   and	   weaknesses	   of	   each	   individual	   option,	   we	   have	   provided	   UBC	   A&R	   with	   the	   tools	  required	   to	  make	   their	   own	   decisions	   regarding	   our	   proposed	   options.	   	  Each	   one	   of	   our	   options	   has	  significant	  strength	  and	  potential	  for	  creating	  positive	  change	  on	  campus.	  	  None	  of	  our	  options	  require	  infrastructural	   changes	   or	   large	   initial	   capital	   investments.	   	  Furthermore,	   all	   four	   options	  would	  work	  very	   well	   with	   one	   another.	   	  Therefore	   we	   recommend	   that	   UBC	   A&R	   consider	   implementing	   a	  combination	   of	   these	   options.	   	  The	   Communications	   &	   Awareness	   Strategy	   can	   actively	   promote	   the	  other	  three	  options	  (Bicyclings	  Competition,	  Biking	   Incentives,	  and	  FareSaver	  ticket	  rebates).	  UBC	  A&R	  should	  run	  a	  trial	  period	  where	  at	  least	  one	  other	  option	  is	  advertised	  through	  their	  website	  and	  email	  newsletter.	  	  	  	   	  [TRANSPORTATION	  GROUP	  2]	   APSC	  364	  	  	  15	  	  7.0	  References	  AMS	  Bike	  Co-­‐op.	  (2012).	  Women's	  Night	  -­‐	  March	  28.	  Retrived	  on	  March	  25,	  2012	  from,	  	   <­‐events/>	  AMS	  Safewalk.	  (n.d.)­‐safewalk/	  B.C.	  Ministry	  of	  Environment	  (December	  2011).	  Methodology	  for	  Reporting	  B.C.	  Public	  Sector	  	   Greenhouse	  Gas	  Emissions.	  	  Retrieved	  on	  January	  30,	  2012	  from,	  	   <	   c_Sector_GHG_Emissions.pdf>	  	  Baecker,	  R.,	  Fono,	  D.,	  Blume,	  L.,	  Collins,	  C.,	  Couto,	  D.	  (2007).	  Webcasting	  made	  interactive:	  persistent	  	   chat	  for	  text	  dialogue	  during	  and	  about	  learning	  events.	  Department	  of	  Computer	  Science,	  	   University	  of	  Toronto.	  Retrieved	  on	  Feb	  13,	  2012	  from,	  	  Bicycle	  Valet,	  The.	  (n.d.)	  General	 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 Sushi	  Menu.	  Retrieved	  on	  March	  25,	  2012	  from,	  	   <­‐vancouver/restaurants/180136-­‐b-­‐c-­‐sushi/menu>	  	  West	  Coast	  Express.	  (2010).	  Station	  and	  Parking	  Information.	  Retrieved	  on	  January	  30,	  2012	  from,	  	   <>	  Westcadia.	  (n.d.)	  Our	  Menues.	  Retrieved	  on	  March	  25,	  2012	  from,	  <­‐	   menus>	  	   	  [TRANSPORTATION	  GROUP	  2]	   APSC	  364	  	  	  18	  	  Appendix	  A:	  Sustainability	  Indicator	  Matrix	  	  	  Category Criteria Indicators Objectives Justification Indicator Ranking Social Health Participant physical activity [increase/decrease compared to business as usual levels (before these incentives were put in place)] Improve health of participants and community. UBC must take initiative to be a leader in promoting health in the community in order to "promote the values of a civil and sustainable society", in line with UBC's TREK 2010 vision. 1 Social Safety Feeling of security [increase/decrease, low/med/high] Improve the safety of people travelling to/from UBC A&R events. Compromised safety of users not only increases the cost of our transportation Options, but will also reduce the likelihood people will want to use them. 1 Social Morale/school spirit # of spectators [increase/decrease compared to BAU/before these incentives/programs were put in place] Sustain or enhance current levels of community participation and engagement at games. Attendance at the games enables community members to experience entertainment and inspiration.  It also motivates the team members.  Spectator presence is seen as an essential component to Thunderbirds games. 1 Social Sustainability education Promotes involvement & awareness [low/medium/high] Increase sustainability awareness to UBC community Since UBC has goals set for sustainability in their policies, raising awareness will allow for increased support and eventually lead to practice by the community. 1 Social Accessability/equity Available to everyone [Fully, partially, not accessible] Provide services for all persons. We believe equity to be a vital component of social sustainability, and acknowledge that UBC upholds equity as a value as evidenced by their Equity Office. 1 Social Demand on personal time Projected travel time [increase/decrease] Provide viable and sustainable method of travel that do not burden consumers unnecessarily by taking up a lot more of their time. Bears on the feasibility of the project - users may not opt for Options that dramatically increase demands on personal time. 1 Environmental GHG's & air pollution Projected mode-share distribution relative to other Options [increase/decrease of various modes] Decrease use of SOVs and airplanes, increase cycling and walking and help UBC meet targets for GHG emission reductions. UBC has commitments to reduce GHG emissions. The mode-share distribution should show higher numbers for HOV, cycling, walking and/or transit in order to be seen as helping UBC meet those targets. 2 Economic Cost to A&R Cost implications relative to other Options Provide Options that are affordable for UBC A&R to implement, and are thus feasible. If costs of implementation are too large, they may pose an insurmountable obstacle.  We would like to ensure the Options we propose are feasible to implement. 2 Economic Profit Revenue from ticket sales [increase/decrease] Maintain or increase profit while increasing sustainable practices. Allows A&R to continue to operate and undertake further sustainability initiatives. 2 Economic User affordability Potential cost savings for user? [Y/N, low/medium/high] Provide sustainable travel methods that are also affordable. People will not use a method of travel if it doesn't have a benefit, which is often cost (but can be in terms of time or health improvements). 1 	  [TRANSPORTATION	  GROUP	  2]	   APSC	  364	  	  	  19	  	  Category Criteria Indicators Transit Ticket Option Communication/Awareness Strategy Ranking Reasons Ranking Reasons Social Health Participant physical activity [increase/decrease compared to business as usual levels (before these incentives were put in place)] 4 This Option may improve the physical activity of those who forgo driving, but we fear it may deter people from walking or cycling to the events. 3 Includes information for all modes of travel, so may not directly influence users' choices with regard to healthy travel modes. Social Safety Feeling of security [increase/decrease, low/med/high] 1 If more people are walking back and forth between the venue and the nearest bus stops, spectators should feel a greater sense of security in numbers. 2 Information online does not threaten security and may encourage behaviors outside of someone's comfort zone, but consumer makes the ultimate decision. Social Morale/school spirit # of spectators [increase/decrease compared to BAU/before these incentives/programs were put in place] 3 This Option may not specifically promote an increase in spectators, but an increase will be required to offset the revenue loss per ticket. 1 Online ticket sales may increase the number of spectators attending and may make it easier to buy tickets and plan for events and nights-out at games. Social Sustainability education Promotes involvement & awareness [low/medium/high] 4 No promotion of sustainability education is included, but this Option could be used to show the positive impact caused by switching from driving to using transit. 3 Educational information can be presented via this Option, but it is expected that retention of or interest in that information will be limited. Social Accessability/equity Available to everyone [Fully, partially, not accessible] 2 TransLink has made transit use available to nearly everyone: all buses can transport riders in wheelchairs and scooters, and are accessible to the elderly with priority seating. Transit service decreases further inland, but service is still available. 1 Most people have internet in their homes or have access to the internet. Of all our Options, this will likely be the most accessible. Social Demand on personal time Projected travel time [increase/decrease] 2 Transit is faster than cycling or walking, and provides significantly more productive time than driving. 1 The information provided will save users time in terms of finding venue locations and planning the best travel routes. Environmental GHG's & air pollution Projected mode-share distribution relative to other Options [increase/decrease of various modes] 2 Has the potential to significantly decrease the number of SOVs because buses serve a large portion of Metro Vancouver. It may slightly decrease the number of people walking and cycling, since they will want to get a discounted rate as well. 1 Provides the opportunity for A&R to advertise the modes that they see as most sustainable and encourage their use, through statistics against unsustainable modes and improved access to information about sustainable ones. Economic Cost to A&R Cost implications relative to other Options 4 The cost of purchasing FareSavers will be much more than the cost of any of our other Options. This cost may be too much for UBC A&R to consider this Option. 2 Development and maintenance of the website will cost money, but there is a wealth of student and professional talent around campus to help in its creation. A new website may not be required, just changes to the current web page. Economic Profit Revenue from ticket sales [increase/decrease] 4 The cost of purchasing FareSavers could be high, and may reduce the total revenue from ticket and season's pass sales by 20%. A large increase in spectators would be required to compensate for these losses. 2 Online ticket sales will make UBC Thunderbirds games more accessible and may increase the number of people attending. Economic User affordability Potential cost savings for user? [Y/N, low/medium/high] 3 Users will get a cost savings on their tickets in the form of a TransLink FareSaver. 4 The use of systems like Ticketmaster or Eventbrite cost money for the consumer and could result in higher ticket prices.    39 Rank: 4th 25 Rank: 1st 	  [TRANSPORTATION	  GROUP	  2]	   APSC	  364	  	  	  20	  	  Category Criteria Indicators Bicycling Competition Bicycling Incentives Ranking Reasons Ranking Reasons Social Health Participant physical activity [increase/decrease compared to business as usual levels (before these incentives were put in place)] 1 This has the potential to create a culture of cycling around campus that promotes active, healthy lifestyles. 2 This will involve a bike valet, and is more individual based (rather than attracting a group effort to bike). Social Safety Feeling of security [increase/decrease, low/med/high] 3 Cycling imposes dangers on its own, but since the majority of the target population will likely be on campus or near campus, these dangers may be diminished. The possibility of group travel may also increase security. 4 Cycling imposes dangers on its own (ie. other cars, unevenly paved roads, etc), and when cycling at night or in the dark, increases the risk (especially for people cycling alone). Social Morale/school spirit # of spectators [increase/decrease compared to BAU/before these incentives/programs were put in place] 2 All varsity athletes promote any game on campus, regardless of who is playing. 4 There will be no direct monetary ticket discount, but rather a freebie, unsure of turnout/attractiveness of freebie incentive (therefore, may not increase # spectators). Social Sustainability education Promotes involvement & awareness [low/medium/high] 2 Athletes can choose to incorporate sustainability education into their promotion campaigns. 1 Can use freebies given at games as a promotion of the existence of these incentives (ie. print incentive reason on the item or just have logo, etc). Social Accessability/equity Available to everyone [Fully, partially, not accessible] 4 Not everyone who attends games go to the UBC campus where varsity athletes will likely focus their campaign. 3 Not everyone has access to a bike, and only those who are physically capable of riding a bike can take part. Social Demand on personal time Projected travel time [increase/decrease] 3 Travel by bike is not "productive time" (though it counts for exercise) and takes longer than driving.  It's faster than walking and similar to riding buses, depending on transfers and timing. [Same for both cycling Options] 3 Travel by bike is not "productive time" (though it counts for exercise) and takes longer than driving.  It's faster than walking and similar to riding buses, depending on transfers and timing. [Same for both cycling Options] Environmental GHG's & air pollution Projected mode-share distribution relative to other Options [increase/decrease of various modes] 3 This Option promotes cycling, and the promotion of other teams' games by varsity athletes will bring cyclists who wouldn't otherwise come, so the biking mode share will increase. 4 This option promotes cycling, and gives cyclists incentive to pass on the message, or will attract new cyclists to bike to games, thus increasing the biking mode share Economic Cost to A&R Cost implications relative to other Options 3 Most costs are minimal (eg. photocopying) and incurred by team members.  UBC A&R only needs to provide a prize, such as dinner for the team. 1 The money for freebies should be relatively inexpensive and we could also get sponsors for these items (therefore free for UBC A&R). Economic Profit Revenue from ticket sales [increase/decrease] 1 There is projected to be at least some increase in the number of people to attend, and ticket prices are unaffected. 3 Doesn't affect ticket sales, since there is no discount on the tickets (unless one of the incentives we decide to use is a discounted sale price). # people may increase, attracted by the freebies/incentives. Economic User affordability Potential cost savings for user? [Y/N, low/medium/high] 2 Assuming people don't buy a bike specifically to attend the game, costs to the user are negligeable (bike maintenaince). 1 Virtually no user costs (except for the initial purchase of a bike) and all incentives are of benefit to the user (supported by UBC A&R or other sponsors).    31 Rank: 2nd 34 Rank: 3rd [TRANSPORTATION	  GROUP	  2]	   APSC	  364	  	  	  21	  	  Appendix	  B:	  Tables	  &	  Figures	  Table	  3	  below	  shows	  the	  changes	  in	  the	  number	  of	  person	  trips	  by	  travel	  mode	  from	  1997	  to	  2010	  as	  described	  by	  the	  UBC	  Fall	  2010	  Transportation	  Status	  Report.	  The	  same	  information	  is	  displayed	  in	  Figure	  1	  as	  mode	  share	  distributions	  for	  1997	  and	  for	  2010.	   Table	  3:	  Change	  in	  Person	  Trips	  by	  Mode	  from	  1997	  to	  2010	  Travel	  Mode	   Fall	  1997	   Fall	  2010	   Change	  from	  1997	  to	  2010	  Person	  Trips	   %	  of	  Total	   Person	  Trips	   %	  of	  Total	  Transit	   19000	   17.9%	   63300	   48.7%	   44300	   233.2%	  SOV	   46000	   43.4%	   44500	   34.3%	   -­‐1500	   -­‐3.3%	  HOV	   36100	   34.0%	   18300	   14.1%	   -­‐17800	   -­‐49.3%	  Bicycle	   2700	   2.5%	   1300	   1.0%	   -­‐1400	   -­‐51.9%	  Pedestrian	   1400	   1.3%	   800	   0.6%	   -­‐600	   -­‐42.9%	  Truck	  &	  Motorcycle	  	  	  900	   0.8%	   1700	   1.3%	   800	   88.9%	  	  Totals	   106100	   	  	   129900	   	  	   23800	   22.4%	  Source:	  UBC	  Fall	  2010	  Transportation	  Status	  Report	  (UBC	  TP,	  2011)	  	  Source:	  UBC	  Fall	  2010	  Transportation	  Status	  Report	  (UBC	  TP,	  2011)	  Transit	  48.7%	  SOV	  34.3%	  HOV	  14.1%	  Truck	  &	  Motorcycle	  1.3%	  Bicycle	  1.0%	  Pedestrian	  0.6%	  Fall	  2010	  Mode	  Share	  Transit	  17.9%	  SOV	  43.4%	  HOV	  34.0%	  Truck	  &	  Motorcycle	  0.8%	  Bicycle	  2.5%	  Pedestrian	  1.3%	  Fall	  1997	  Mode	  Share	  Figure	  1:	  Mode	  Share	  Distributions	  [TRANSPORTATION	  GROUP	  2]	   APSC	  364	  	  	  22	  	  The	  impact	  of	  handing	  out	  FareSaver	  tickets	  as	  part	  of	  the	  UBC	  Thunderbirds	  Transit	  Program	  is	  outlined	  below.	  The	  information	  for	  gate	  sales	  came	  from	  personal	  communication	  with	  Andrew	  Haas	  (Facilities	  Coordinator	  for	  Thunderbird	  Park	  and	  Stadium),	  consisting	  of	  numbers	  from	  the	  2011/2012	  season.	  These	  numbers	  were	  not	  used	  to	  obtain	  absolute	  revenue,	  but	  rather	  to	  calculate	  relative	  decreases	  in	  revenue;	  the	  numbers	  provided	  a	  sample	  of	  the	  distribution	  of	  ticket	  sales.	  It	  should	  be	  noted	  that	  Youth,	  Seniors,	  Visiting	  Students	  and	  UBC	  Faculty	  &	  Staff	  were	  all	  counted	  together,	  so	  in	  order	  to	  estimate	  the	  revenue	  losses,	  their	  numbers	  have	  been	  split	  evenly	  (as	  seen	  in	  Table	  4).	  Table	  4	  also	  assumes	  that	  100%	  of	  spectators	  would	  be	  using	  transit	  and	  would	  receive	  a	  FareSaver	  ticket.	  Table	  4:	  Impact	  of	  FareSaver	  tickets	  on	  Revenue	  Sources:	  (A.	  Haas,	  personal	  communication,	  March	  7,	  2012;	  TransLink,	  n.d.;	  UBC	  Thunderbirds,	  n.d.)	  Table	  4	  assumes	  that	  100%	  of	  spectators	  will	  receive	  FareSaver	  tickets.	  Table	  5	  outlines	  the	  revenue	  scenarios	  for	  regular	  season	  and	  playoff	  games	  for	  varying	  success	  of	  the	  program.	  “Transit	  Ridership”	  means	  the	  percentage	  of	  total	  spectators	  who	  would	  receive	  FareSaver	  tickets.	  	  	  	  	  Individual	  Game	  Tickets	   Ticket	  Cost	   Proposed	  FareSaver	  Discounts	   Revenue	  Per	  Ticket	  %	  Revenue	  Loss	  Number	  of	  Tickets	  Sold	  Revenue	  w/o	  FareSavers	  Revenue	  w/	  FareSaver	  Discounts	  Adult	   $10.00	   1	  adult	   $2.10	   $7.90	   21%	   3418	   $34,180.00	   $27,002.20	  Youth,	  Seniors,	  Visiting	  Students	   $5.00	   1	  concession	   $1.70	   $3.30	   34%	   1488	   $7,440.00	   $4,910.40	  UBC	  Faculty/Staff	   $5.00	   1	  adult	   $2.10	   $2.90	   42%	   1488	   $7,440.00	   $4,315.20	  UBC	  Students,	  UNA	   $2.00	   No	  discount	   $2.00	   0%	   4198	   $8,396.00	   $8,396.00	  Family	  Pass	  (max	  2	  adults)	   $20.00	   2	  adult	   $4.20	   $15.80	   21%	   169	   $3,380.00	   $2,670.20	  Approximate	  Required	  Spectator	  Increase:	   29%	   	   22%	   10761	   $60,836.00	   $47,294.00	  [TRANSPORTATION	  GROUP	  2]	   APSC	  364	  	  	  23	  	  Table	  5:	  Impact	  on	  Revenue	  for	  Regular	  Season	  and	  Playoff	  Games	  Adult	  Ticket	  Cost	   Transit	  Ridership	   %	  Revenue	  Loss	  Required	  Spectator	  Increase	  Regular	   $10.00	   100%	   22%	   29%	  Playoffs	   $15.00	   100%	   17%	   21%	  Regular	   $10.00	   50%	   11%	   13%	  Playoffs	   $15.00	   50%	   9%	   10%	  Regular	   $10.00	   25%	   6%	   6%	  Playoffs	   $15.00	   25%	   4%	   5%	  Sources:	  (A.	  Haas,	  personal	  communication,	  March	  7,	  2012;	  TransLink,	  n.d.;	  UBC	  Thunderbirds,	  n.d.)	  In	  order	  to	  estimate	  the	  reduction	  in	  CO2e	  emissions	  associated	  with	  25%	  transit	  ridership	  to	  UBC	  Thunderbirds	  games	  the	  transportation	  survey	  data	  from	  Dolf	  (forthcoming)	  was	  used.	  The	  emissions	  factors	  used	  were	  taken	  from	  the	  ecoinvent	  database	  v2.2	  provided	  by	  the	  Swiss	  Centre	  for	  Life	  Cycle	  Inventories,	  and	  were	  used	  assuming	  an	  average	  vehicle	  occupancy	  rate	  of	  2.6	  for	  cars	  traveling	  to	  UBC	  Thunderbirds	  games.	  As	  can	  be	  seen,	  the	  majority	  of	  the	  emissions	  are	  caused	  by	  those	  flying,	  while	  those	  driving	  cars	  cause	  bulk	  of	  the	  rest.	  It	  is	  assumed	  in	  this	  estimation	  that	  all	  of	  the	  spectators	  switching	  to	  transit	  use	  would	  normally	  have	  driven	  to	  the	  games.	  This	  assumption	  may	  not	  be	  completely	  realistic,	  since	  spectators	  who	  would	  normally	  walk	  or	  cycle	  to	  events	  may	  be	  inclined	  to	  take	  transit	  to	  get	  a	  FareSaver	  ticket.	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  [TRANSPORTATION	  GROUP	  2]	   APSC	  364	  	  	  24	  	  Table	  6:	  CO₂e	  Emissions	  Reduction	  Travel	  Mode	   25%	  Transit	  Ridership	   Business	  As	  Usual	   Emissions	  Factors	  %	  People	   t	  CO₂	  eq	   %	  People	   t	  CO₂	  eq	   Occupancy	   kg	  CO₂	  eq	  /	  pkm	  Bike	   2%	   0.0	   2%	   0.0	   1	   0.0096	  City	  Bus	   25%	   0.7	   7%	   0.2	   Ave.	   0.1040	  Coach	  Bus	   6%	   0.2	   6%	   0.2	   Ave.	   0.0520	  Car	   51%	   5.8	   68%	   7.8	   2.6	   0.1215	  Motorbike	   0%	   0.0	   0%	   0.0	   1	   0.1218	  Plane	   5%	   14.9	   5%	   14.9	   Ave.	   0.1258	  Walk	   10%	   0.0	   10%	   0.0	   1	   0.0000	  Totals	   100%	   21.6	   100%	   23.1	   Reduction:	   7%	  Source:	  (Dolf,	  forthcoming;	  Swiss	  Centre	  for	  Life	  Cycle	  Inventories,	  2010)	  	   	  [TRANSPORTATION	  GROUP	  2]	   APSC	  364	  	  	  25	  	  Appendix	  C:	  Alternate	  Sustainable	  Transportation	  Options	  Over	  the	  course	  of	  this	  project,	  a	  number	  of	  possible	  Options	  were	  brought	  to	  the	  table.	  Due	  to	  the	  high	  capital	   costs	   of	   some	   and	   the	   close	   cooperation	   required	   by	   TransLink	   for	   others,	  we	   decided	   not	   to	  investigating	  these	  options	  any	  further	  and	  to	  concentrate	  on	  those	  seen	  in	  the	  main	  body	  of	  this	  report.	  We	  have	  decided	  to	  include	  our	  extra	  options	  in	  the	  Appendices	  so	  that	  UBC	  A&R	  will	  have	  more	  ideas	  to	  draw	  from	  than	  just	  those	  presented	  in	  the	  report.	  	  Appendix	  C.1	  Alternate	  Option:	  Webcasting	  UBC	  Sports	  Events	  Webcasting	  UBC	  sporting	  events	  will	  be	  a	  sustainable	  way	  to	  support	  UBC	  Thunderbirds	  without	  having	  to	  travel	  to	  UBC	  via	  unsustainable	  modes	  of	  transportation.	  In	  his	  on-­‐going	  research,	  Dolf	  (forthcoming)	  found	  that	  in	  a	  study	  of	  eight	  UBC	  basketball	  games,	  forty-­‐two	  spectators	  traveled	  on	  airplanes	  (4.5%)	  to	  see	   the	   games	   at	   UBC.	   Compared	   to	   other	   transportation	   modes	   (i.e.	   coach	   bus,	   transit,	   bike,	   car),	  airplanes	  have	  the	  highest	  carbon	  footprint.	  Webcast	  refers	  to	  a	  process	  of	  streaming	  media	  on-­‐line	  for	  viewing	  on	  a	  web	  browser	  on	  a	  personal	  computer	  (Baecker	  et	  al.,	  2007).	  	  If	  UBC	  A&R	  were	  to	  webcast	  sports	  events,	  there	  is	  the	  potential	  that	  spectators	  will	  not	  board	  airplanes	  to	  watch	  games	  as	  webcasts	  provide	  a	  way	  to	  be	  a	  spectator	  at	  UBC	  A&R	  events	  without	  having	  to	  travel	  to	  UBC.	  Table	  7	  summarizes	  the	  costs	  and	  benefits	  of	  webcasting	  sports	  events.	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  [TRANSPORTATION	  GROUP	  2]	   APSC	  364	  	  	  26	  	  Table	  7:	  Webcasting	  Impacts	  &	  Implications	  Economic	  cost	  implications	   Environmental	  impacts	   Social	  impacts/potential	  community	  response	  Low	  capital	  costs	  o Armstrong	  Atlantic	  University	  spent	  $5000	  in	  start-­‐up	  costs	  in	  website	  construction,	  camera,	  and	  camera	  operators	  (Carnevale,	  2007)	  Virtually	  no	  GHG	  emissions	   An	  effective	  way	  to	  keep	  a	  dedicated	  fan	  base	  (Carnevale,	  2007)	  o Engages	  UBC	  fans	  who	  cannot	  physically	  travel	  to	  the	  games	  to	  be	  able	  to	  watch	  the	  sports	  events	  live	  Very	  low	  projected	  operating	  costs	  o The	  consumer	  bears	  the	  cost	  of	  accessing	  a	  computer,	  internet	  o A&R	  staff	  costs	  (i.e.	  camera	  operator,	  web	  master)	  o Potential	  for	  generating	  money:	  Abilene	  Christian	  University	  in	  Texas	  charges	  $89.95	  for	  a	  1-­‐year	  subscription	  to	  their	  sports	  webcasts	  (Carnevale,	  2007)	  UBC	  A&R’s	  energy	  used	  to	  stream	  the	  sports	  events	  on-­‐line	   Positive	  community	  response	  o Saves	  the	  spectators	  time	  and	  money	  because	  they	  are	  not	  traveling	  to	  the	  sports	  event	  (Carnevale,	  2007)	  o Webcasts	  still	  offer	  a	  forum	  for	  interactive	  engagement.	  E.g.	  instant	  messaging/virtual	  chatting	  with	  other	  fans	  (Baecker	  et	  al.,	  2007)	  	   By	  in	  large,	  the	  consumer	  bears	  the	  energy	  requirements	  to	  watch	  the	  sports	  events	  Potential	  controversy	  o May	  decrease	  attendance	  at	  sports	  events;	  UBC	  A&R	  loses	  money	  in	  ticket	  sales	  Webcasting	   sports	   events	   is	   an	   attractive	   option	   for	   UBC	   A&R	   when	   looking	   for	   ways	   to	   reduce	   the	  number	  of	  spectators	  traveling	  by	  airplane	  to	  sports	  events.	  Furthermore,	   investment	   into	  webcasting	  technology	   provides	   a	   valuable	   research	   opportunity	   in	   the	   field	   of	   community	   engagement	   and	  marketing.	  UBC	  can	  spearhead	  an	  exciting	  field	  in	  academia:	  webcasting	  to	  achieve	  sustainability.	  Appendix	  C.2	  Alternate	  Option:	  Ride-­‐Sharing	  App	  UBC	  Transportation	  Planning	  is	  seriously	  considering	  developing	  a	  real-­‐time	  ride-­‐sharing	  app	  in	  order	  to	  transform	  SOV	   trips	   into	  HOV	   trips.	  The	   idea	  of	  a	  mobile	  device	  app	   that	  allows	  carpooling	   is	  nothing	  new	  (Cozza,	  2011).	  This	  app,	  called	  Carsurfing,	  will	  match	  a	  driver	  and	  rider(s)	  who	  are	  traveling	  along	  the	   same	   route.	  Carsurfing	   is	  unique	   in	   that	   it	  will	   have	   “a	   fully	   automated	  cashless	  payment	   system,	  safety	   features,	   real-­‐time	   passenger	   information	   and	   commute	   reporting	   to	   enable	  more	   flexible	   and	  verifiable	  carpooling”	  (Heartline,	  2012).	  Table	  8	  summarizes	  the	  costs	  and	  benefits	  of	  webcasting	  sports	  events.	  [TRANSPORTATION	  GROUP	  2]	   APSC	  364	  	  	  27	  	  Table	  8:	  Ride-­‐Share	  App	  Impacts	  &	  Implications	  Economic	  cost	  implications	   Environmental	  impacts	   Social	  impacts/potential	  community	  response	  Medium	  capital	  costs	  o UBC	  A&R	  needs	  to	  develop	  the	  App	  and	  market	  it	  o The	  consumer	  bears	  the	  cost	  of	  buying	  the	  app,	  using	  the	  app	  on	  a	  mobile	  device	  Reduction	  in	  GHG	  by	  reducing	  the	  number	  of	  SOV	   Builds	  a	  stronger	  community	  o People	  sharing	  their	  cars,	  creates	  an	  opportunity	  for	  people	  to	  interact	  Positive	  feedback	  (Heartline,	  2012).	  o Saves	  money	  o Convenient:	  doesn’t	  have	  to	  conform	  to	  rigid	  carpooling	  schedules	  well-­‐in-­‐advance	  of	  their	  travels	  Potential	  controversy	  (Geraci,	  2012).	  o It	  may	  be	  too	  hard	  to	  find	  a	  ride	  to/from	  the	  desired	  destination	  o Lack	  of	  trust/friend	  network	  may	  be	  a	  barrier	  for	  people	  to	  use	  this	  app	  	  	  In	  order	  for	  this	  app	  to	  be	  successful	  it	  needs	  to	  consider	  some	  of	  the	  changes	  below:	  • Ride-­‐sharing	  needs	  to	  have	  more	  of	  an	  incentive	  (i.e.	  cheaper	  parking	  for	  HOV	  than	  SOV	  on	  UBC	  campus)	  • Marketing	  this	  app	  towards	  people	  who	  make	  a	  long	  commute/an	  inter-­‐city	  travel;	  people	  are	  more	  likely	  to	  plan	  more	  for	  a	  long	  trip	  than	  if	  it	  were	  a	  short-­‐distance	  trip	  or	  where	  transit	  is	  abundant	  (Geraci,	  2012).	  • “Users	  can	  only	  see	  information	  for	  the	  trips	  that	  they	  are	  interested	  in.	  This	  eliminates	  unnecessary	  noise	  and	  creates	  community	  around	  specific	  routes	  that	  people	  drive	  frequently”	  (Geraci,	  2012).	  	  If	   UBC	   Transportation	   Planning	   were	   to	   commit	   to	   implementing	   this	   Carsurfing	   app,	   then	   the	   UBC	  community’s	   transportation	   habits	   could	   become	   more	   sustainable.	   	  Carsurfing	   will	   provide	   ample	  research	  opportunities	  in	  the	  field	  of	  behaviour	  change	  in	  transportation.	  [TRANSPORTATION	  GROUP	  2]	   APSC	  364	  	  	  28	  	  Appendix	  C.3	  Alternate	  Option:	  UBC	  Thunderbirds	  Shuttle	  Services	  The	  shuttle	  option	  is	  aimed	  to	  help	  decrease	  the	  number	  of	  cars	  travelling	  from	  one	  side	  of	  campus	  to	  the	  other,	  and	  to	  encourage	  usage	  of	  public	  transit	  to	  UBC	  Thunderbirds	  sporting	  events.	  As	  mentioned,	  most	   spectators	   are	   arriving	   by	   car	   to	   the	   southern	   campus	   events	   and	   we	   aim	   to	   decrease	   these	  numbers	  in	  order	  to	  make	  UBC	  A&R	  events	  more	  sustainable.	  Some	  of	  the	  UBC	  A&R	  facilities	  are	  located	  south	  of	  the	  main	  body	  of	  the	  UBC	  campus.	  These	  facilities	  include	   the	   Doug	   Mitchell	   Thunderbird	   Sports	   Centre,	   the	   Tennis	   Centre,	   Thunderbird	   Park,	   and	  Thunderbird	  Arena.	  According	  to	  a	  beta	  program	  from	  Google	  Maps,	  these	  facilities	  are	  on	  average	  1.5	  km	  from	  the	  UBC	  Loop	  bus	  station	  and	  would	  take	  approximately	  17	  minutes	  to	  walk	  to.	  This	  may	  be	  an	  unacceptable	  distance	   for	  some	  users	   (parents	  with	  children,	  people	  with	  disabilities,	  etc.),	  or	  may	  be	  inconvenient	  for	  others,	  and	  as	  such	  a	  high	  number	  of	  people	  have	  been	  seen	  to	  arrive	  by	  car	  to	  UBC	  Thunderbirds	  games	  (as	  indicated	  by	  surveys	  taken	  by	  Dolf	  (forthcoming)).	  In	   order	   to	   make	   the	   use	   of	   transit,	   walking,	   and	   cycling	   more	   appealing,	   we	   propose	   the	   following	  options	   for	   a	   shuttle	   service	   from	   the	   UBC	   Loop	   bus	   station	   to	   some	   of	   the	   more	   distant	   facilities,	  namely	  Thunderbird	  Stadium.	  1. Run	  a	  shuttle	  bus	  from	  UBC	  North	  Loop	  to	  Thunderbird	  Stadium	  (and	  perhaps	  have	  a	  few	  pick-­‐up	  stops	  along	  the	  way)	  2. Runs	  for	  1	  hour	  before	  kickoff	  until	  15	  minutes	  after	  kickoff	  3. Will	  run	  for	  30-­‐60	  minutes	  (depending	  on	  needs	  of	  the	  shuttle)	  after	  the	  game,	  back	  to	  UBC	  North	  Loop	  4. Shuttle	  service	  from	  event	  to	  Mahoney’s	  (maybe	  also	  have	  a	  combo	  package	  to	  the	  restaurant	  with	  ticket)	  5. This	  will	  use	  the	  existing	  bus	  service	  offered	  by	  Mahoney’s	  6. Encourages	  people	  to	  visit	  the	  bar	  7. If	  people	  don’t	  want	  to	  go	  to	  the	  bar,	  the	  bus	  loop	  is	  within	  reasonable	  walking	  distance	  8. Only	  enable	  shuttle	  service	  into	  and	  out	  of	  event	  areas	  (mainly	  to	  prevent	  congestion	  and	  for	  safety	  around	  the	  area	  for	  pedestrians,	  cyclists,	  etc.)	  9. Especially	  for	  Thunderbird	  Stadium,	  if	  the	  parking	  lots	  will	  be	  closed	  down,	  people	  will	  take	  the	  shuttle	  if	  the	  shuttle	  was	  the	  only	  vehicle	  mode	  of	  transportation	  allowed	  into	  the	  area	  (along	  with	  walking	  and	  cycling)	  10. We	  can	  add	  more	  incentive	  for	  using	  the	  shuttle	  option	  by	  making	  it	  a	  combo	  for	  people	  who	  took	  transit	  or	  biked	  (match	  up	  bus	  times	  or	  have	  priority	  over	  those	  who	  drove?)	  	  The	  shuttle	  itself	  may	  not	  be	  very	  sustainable	  (depending	  on	  the	  type	  of	  vehicle	  we	  use	  as	  a	  shuttle),	  but	  in	  comparison	  to	  the	  alternatives,	  may	  be	  more	  convenient	  and	  reduces	  the	  amount	  of	  cars	  traversing	  campus	   if	   there	   are	   events	   taking	   place	   on	   different	   ends	   of	   campus.	   In	   a	   way,	   we	   can	   also	   raise	  awareness	  of	  sustainability	  to	  a	  broader	  audience,	  in	  hopes	  that	  there	  will	  be	  behavioural	  changes	  of	  the	  [TRANSPORTATION	  GROUP	  2]	   APSC	  364	  	  	  29	  	  people	  who	  were	  exposed	  to	  this	  initiative.	  However,	  it	  may	  be	  very	  costly	  to	  purchase	  shuttles	  to	  begin	  this	  proposal.	  As	  well,	  we	  don’t	  know	  for	  sure	  what	  response	  we	  should	  be	  expecting	  from	  users	  of	  this	  shuttle,	   since	   it	  may	   be	   inconvenient	   for	   individuals	   of	   certain	   age	   groups	   (ie.	  mothers	  with	   strollers,	  young	  children,	  elderly,	  disabled,	  etc.).	  


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