Open Collections

UBC Undergraduate Research

An investigation of biodiesel application in the UBC boiler Azucena, Ralph; Chiang, Kevin; Cheng, Tony 2012-03-29

Your browser doesn't seem to have a PDF viewer, please download the PDF to view this item.

Notice for Google Chrome users:
If you are having trouble viewing or searching the PDF with Google Chrome, please download it here instead.

Item Metadata

Download

Media
18861-Azucena_R_et_al_SEEDS_2012.pdf [ 948.54kB ]
Metadata
JSON: 18861-1.0108568.json
JSON-LD: 18861-1.0108568-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 18861-1.0108568-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: 18861-1.0108568-rdf.json
Turtle: 18861-1.0108568-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 18861-1.0108568-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 18861-1.0108568-source.json
Full Text
18861-1.0108568-fulltext.txt
Citation
18861-1.0108568.ris

Full Text

UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report           An Investigation of Biodiesel Application in the UBC Boiler  Ralph Azucena  Kevin Chiang  Tony Cheng University of British Columbia APSC 262 March 29, 2012           Disclaimer: “UBC SEEDS provides students with the opportunity to share the findings of their studies, as well as their opinions, conclusions and recommendations with the UBC community. The reader should bear in mind that this is a student project/report and is not an official document of UBC. Furthermore readers should bear in mind that these reports may not reflect the current status of activities at UBC. We urge you to contact the research persons mentioned in a report or the SEEDS Coordinator about the current status of the subject matter of a project/report”.    AN INVE S T IGATIO N OF BIODIE S E L APPL ICAT ION IN THE UBC BOIL E R        Submi tt ed to  Paul Winkelman  b y  Ralph Az ucena  Kevin Chiang  Ton y Chen g        Applied Science 262  – Technolo g y and Societ y II  The Universit y of Britis h Col umbi a  29 March 2012ii |  P a g e  ABSTRACT T he formal report discusses biodiesel as an alternative fuel source that can be used in UBC to realize a more sustainable source of energy that can help direct the university into a more eco -friendly community. The university is currently one of the leader s in sustainable development and establishing the Centre for Interactive Research on Sustainability  (CIRS) building in UBC, which is the greenest building in North America, shows the university’s commitment to sustainable living.  The report examines the s ocial, environmental and economic aspect of implementing biodiesel as the main fuel source for the UBC boiler. The production of biodiesel and its price using waste cooking oil are also analyzed to confirm the feasibility of biodiesel use in UBC. By taking  into account the cost effectiveness, energy density and availability of raw materials, it can be  determined how economical and reasonable it is to use biodiesel in heating oil to heat up UBC buildings. The capital cost to establish the infrastructure and equipments needed for the system that uses heating oil also needs consideration.  Furthermore, to establish biodiesel as the best renewable fuel source, biodiesel’s environmental and social impact need to be more evident. Biodiesel should be able to convince the community that investing in biodiesel is worth it. Using the data gathered from several research pape rs, it is evident that biodiesel has major advantages in terms of reducing carbon emission. However, with the current heating system established in the UBC boiler, it is hard to justify the cost of switching to biodiesel since the heating system has  been i n use for several years. Consequently, overhauling the heating system requires huge capital that will  never be recovered when biodiesel is used.  iii |  P a g e  Table of Contents ABSTRACT ................................................................................................................................................ ii LIST OF FIGURES ................................................................................................................................... iv LIST OF TABLE ......................................................................................................................................... v GLOSSARY ............................................................................................................................................... vi LIST OF ABBREVIATION .................................................................................................................... vii 1.0 INTRODUCTION .......................................................................................................................... 1 2.0 BIODIESEL ANALYSIS ............................................................................................................... 2 2.1  Biodiesel Production  ................................ ................................ ................................ ........  2  2.2  Biodiesel Economics ................................ ................................ ................................ .........  6  2.3  Environmental impact ................................ ................................ ................................ ......  8  2.4  Biodiesel social impact.  ................................ ................................ ................................ ....  9  3.0 BIODIESEL USE IN HEATING OIL ........................................................................................ 11 3.1  Investigation of Biodiesel Impact in the Environment  ................................ ...................  11  3.2  Investigation of the Economic Impa ct of Biodiesel  ................................ ........................  12  3.3  Social Impact of Biodiesel in Heating Oil  ................................ ................................ ........  13  4.0 PROPOSING BIODIESEL IN HEATING OIL IN UBC .......................................................... 15 4.1  Investigating Environmental Impact of Biodiesel  ................................ ..........................  15  4.2  Investigating Economic Impact of Biodiesel  ................................ ................................ ..  15  4.3  Investigating Social Impact of Biodiesel Use in the UBC boiler  ................................ .....  17  5.0 CURRENT HEATING SYSTEM IN UBC ................................................................................. 18 6.0 CONCLUSION ............................................................................................................................. 19 LIST OF CITATION ............................................................................................................................... 20   iv |  P a g e  LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1 -  Chemical Reaction to Produce Ester (Biodiesel) ................................ .................  3  Figure 2 -  Process of Biodiesel Production  ................................ ................................ .........  4       v |  P a g e  LIST OF TABLE Table 1 -  Average Values of Emissions in Parts Per Million (PPM)  ................................ ...  12  Table 2 -  Average Values During Continuous Operation Period of 24 days  .....................  13  Table 3 -  Biodiesel Energy vs Natural Gas  ................................ ................................ .........  18  vi |  P a g e  GLOSSARY G lycerin :                    A h ighly hygroscopic (absorbs moisture in the air) material; by-product in transesterification M ethano l:                        Simple alcohol used in the Transesterification process  M ethyl Ester:            A type of fat ty acid ; also known as biodiesel  T ransesterification :      A process of exchanging organic group R’’ of an ester with  the  organic group R’ of an alcohol; often catalyzed adding  acid or base catalyst   vii |  P a g e  LIST OF ABBREVIATION ASTM:    American Society for Testing and Materials  B5:    5% Biodiesel and 95% Diesel Fuel  B20:    20% Biodiesel and 80% Diesel Fuel  B100:    100% Biodiesel  CO :     Carbon Monoxide  NO :     Nitric Oxide  NO 2 :    Nitrogen Dioxide  NO x :    Nitrogen Oxides  PM:    Particular Matter  PPM:    Parts Per Million  SO 2 :    Sulfur Dioxide    1 |  P a g e  1.0 INTRODUCTION For our project report, we decided to do research on the feasibility of using higher levels of blends in UBC’s heating oil operations. Biodiesel is one of the forms of alternative energy that is most commonly discussed and can potentially be a viable optio n to supplant petroleum. It is being promoted because of its potential to power the world with lower emissions level than petroleum, hence, help the environment tremendously. It is through this belief that a variety of biodiesel applications are continued to be explored. In our report we chose to research biodiesel applications in heating oil. Biodiesel is a common application in this field and several states has mandated a minimum of 2% biodiesel be included in all petroleum based heating oil. We believe t hat this is just the minimum and it is reasonable to surmise that it is potentially more economically viable to use heating oil at around 10% blend of biodiesel. Throughout our report we will investigate the viability of this application in UBC. We will fi rst explore the general points of biodiesel, exploring its production process, economics, environmental effects, and social effects. Later on we move on to exploring the application of biodiesel’s application in heating oil. After gathering all the information needed, we tried to understand the optimal plan for UBC to use biodiesel in heating oil applications.      2 |  P a g e  2.0 BIODIESEL ANALYSIS With sustainability becoming a much more important issue, it makes sense for us to discuss other forms of alternative ene rgies.  We chose to discuss the alternative energy biodiesel.  Biodiesel like petroleum can be used to generate great amounts of energy, but biodiesel can do it in a much cleaner fashion, with costs that appear to be manageable.  The process of making biod iesel is also very simple and can easily be adopted by the masses.  Due, to this factor biodiesel could become a much more important commodity in the future.  Below we explore the four main factors that involve biodiesel: production, economics, environment al and social.   2.1 Biodiesel Production  T he basis for producing  biodiesel is adding fats and oils with alcohol  to create a chemical  reaction. T hese chemicals react to produce fatty acid methyl ester and  glycerin; ester is the fuel used as biodiesel . The  chemical process is il lustrated below in (Figure 1). This product results in the production of one hundred pounds of biodiesel and ten pounds of  glycerin, if we originally have one hundred pounds of fat and oil and ten pounds of alcohol    3 |  P a g e   Figure 1 - Chemical Reaction to Produce Ester (Biodiesel)   T here are three main ways to produce biodiesel and they are base catalyzed transesterification   of the oil,   direct acid catalyzed  transesterification  of the oil  and conversion of the oil to its fatty acids and then to biodiesel.   Today, the most commonly used processes for producing biodiesel is the base  catalyzed transertification  of the oil. We choose this process because it is performed in low temperature and pressure situations, it  yields high conversion rates at 98% with minimal side reactions and reaction time, it is a direct conversion with no intermediate compound, and no exotic materials of conversion are needed.   This process will be the topic of discussion because it is currently the most common process .     In using base catalyzed  transesterification  of the oil for biodiesel production there are six main steps that must be completed.   They are mixing of alcohol and catalysts, reaction, separation alcohol removal,  glycerin  neutralization and methyl ester wash.     4 |  P a g e   Figure 2 - Process of Biodiesel Production  Firstly, we must mix the catalysts and the alcohol.   For the catalyst we typically use sodium hydroxide or potassium and for the alcohol we typicall y use methanol.   We then mix the two compounds together with a standard agitator or mixer.       After the catalysts and the alcohol are mixed, we move on to the main reaction.   Here, we add the vegetable oils, used cooking oils or animal fats with the cata lyst and the alcohol.   For a complete reaction to occur we must completely close the system to the atmosphere or there is the potential that the alcohol can be lost.   While, this reaction is being performed the temperature must be kept above boiling point at around one hundred and sixty degrees Celsius.   The mix is kept in there from anywhere between 5 |  P a g e  one to eight hours before the reaction is complete.   To further ensure that a complete reaction will occur, the excess alcohol must be removed during this proc ess.   Also, the amount of water present in the reaction must be tightly monitored because excess water leads to the problems with the formation of soap.   This will eventually lead to the separation of glycerin  by - products downstream.     Now that the reaction is complete, there should be three main products that exist, the biodiesel, the  glycerin  and a large amount of methanol.   It is time that we separate these two elements.   There are two main approaches to doing this.   One is letting the gravity sep arate it, since  glycerin  is substantially  denser it is destined to sink.   The other method is to use a centrifuge to separate the two materials.   A centrifuge is a rotating unit that keeps the encompassed specimen at an angle and then spun at high speeds s o that the two chemical elements of varying den sities separate from each other; t his is a much faster process.     Once  the biodiesel and the glycerin  are separated,  it is time to separate the e xtra alcohol from each compound .   We do this by either a flash evaporation process or by distillation.   While this process is being completed the alcohol is collected and will be re -used in future reactions.   When collecting the alcohol, water must be filtered from the recovered alcohol.   Next, the  glycerin  by - product should be further neutralized which certain acids, because before this process it will contain some of the unused catalysts and soaps.   After this process is complete it finally becomes crude  glycerin.   Furthermore, we refine the 6 |  P a g e  crude glycerin  by further  removing alcohol and water this will allow one to obtain 80 -88 %  glycerin.     Finally, the only product left is the methyl ester.    This product needs to be purified and we do this by washing it with warm water.   This removes the residual catalysts and soaps.   Once washed we dry the biodiesel and it should be tested.   Now that the biodiesel is done it must be analyzed and evaluated to ensure that it is of commercial grade and meets the standards and qualifications of the American Society for Testing Materia ls (ASTM ).   After it is approved it is ready for use as a commercial fuel.      2.2  Biodiesel Economics  T he economics of biodiesel depends highly on how you acquire it.   If one were to buy biodiesel in the marketplace, the price is generally a little high er than the price of petroleum even with the subsidies that governments currently provide to the public  (McMillen et al , 2005) .    Currently the Canadian government subsidizes around 10 - 20 cents per gallon of biodiesel made; this helps to make it more feas ible, but does not provide an advantage over petroleum.    An option that UBC can consider is, taking the waste cooking oil that it currently has from its food services system and convert this into biodiesel.   The system for basic premade equipment, that co mes ready for operation, typically costs a few thousand dollars for a small scaled version. If a larger scaled system is desired the price can scale up to 20 000 $.   The life expectancy of these machines is expected to last from a few years up to ten years .    According to Justin Richie, UBC would have 14 000 liters of waste 7 |  P a g e  oil every month.   This would amount to 3500 gallons per month or 42000 gallons per year.    This suggests that UBC would require a large scale pre made machine for it to be able to conver t its own waste cooking oil.   If we say that the machine runs for six hours a day and that the labour  cost of the person running it is 10$ per hour then the monthly cost of their salary would be around 1800$ and around 21 600 $ per year.   Also, let’s assume that the machine will have a lifespan of eight years.   That means that the machine would cost around 25 000$ per year.   So if you add the total costs divided by total volume one should get the average cost per gallon:   (2160 0$+ 2500 0$)/4200 0gallons=1.10 do llars/ gallons.  This shows that it would be cheaper for UBC to make its own bio diesel and use it as heating oil as the oil price and diesel prices currently oscillates in the ranges of 3.7 - 4 $/gallon and 4.0 - 4.4$/gallon.   So from this it makes sense for U BC to use a B20 blend(20% biodiesel blend mixed with 80% petroleum) , if they were using a 100% petroleum based heating oil system.    Also, in the process of making biodiesel, by products such as glycerin , would form. This product can be sold on the open m arket at around 0.3 - 0.9 dollars per gallon.   This money can be used to offset the cost of methanol that is used to start this process.     However, in UBC’s heating systems, they use natural gas to provide heating oil for the systems.   From a cost point of view natural gas is priced at 0.3 $/ gallon.   This is dramatically lower than any blend or any petroleum based heating oil that anyone can buy.   It would be totally unfeasible for UBC to consider a switch from natural gas to anything else.   It is optimum f or UBC to continue running natural gas from a heating oil point of view.     8 |  P a g e   2.3 Environmental impact  Biodiesel is being promoted as an alternative energy because of the potential that it can be a clean alternative to petr oleum.   It emits 100% less sulf ur dioxide, 37% less unburned hydro carbons, 46% less carbon monoxide, and 84% less particulate matter  (Environment Canada, 200 9) .    One of its key advantages in this area is that it doesn’t tilt the carbon tilt the carbon balance of the world.   It is just p rocessing the carbons that are already out in the world, petro fuels on the other hand releases ancient carbon into the atmosphere .  Furthermore, in research it has been shown that if all factors of production are accounted for  (production, transportation, manufacturing and distribution) bio diesel is four times more efficient in amount of fossil fuels used.     Biodiesel is not only good for the environments in the reduced emissions that it will inevitably create.   It is also much safer for the environment.   This is because it is made from bio mater ials.   This allows it to be bio degradable.   Also, biodiesel is a non - toxic compound, which means that the danger in transporting of this material is very low.   Another key advantage bio diesel holds is in its flash  point.   Compared to petroleum its flash point is significantly higher (at around 130 degrees Celsius), which means it is much less flammable, hence it is much safer.    Note petroleum flash point is around 64 degrees Celsius.     However, the boilers in UBC  currently use natural gas and like biodiesel it is considered a much cleaner option to petroleum.   Natural gas emits 21% more carbon monoxide, which is its main disadvantage.   In other areas though like in nitrogen oxides it emits 9 |  P a g e  80% less, sulphur dioxid e 100% less, 92% less in particulates and 100% less mercury  (Natural Gas Organization,  2010) .     These numbers show that natural gas also has a distinct advantage in being a cleaner fuel for the environment.   Their emissions numbers are comparable to biod iesel.   From an environmental standpoint switching neither fuel really has much of an advantage over the other.      2.4 Biodiesel social impact.  Biodiesel’s social impact starts from its ability to help us clean our environment.  If bio fuels and petro fu els are both able to complete the same task, the biofuel would be able to do it in a way that helps us to clean our environm ent and keep people healthy. It will help us clean our environment because biofuel  naturally emit less than petro fuels.   This leads to less pollution being emitted into the atmosphere, which in turn results in less air pollution. Less air pollution would allow the general population to be able to live healthier lives with less risk of contracting respiratory diseases caused by air pol lution.     For our specific project, biodiesel usage in heating oil applications in UBC, this project as shown would be economically unfeasible, but the social benefits of having it is that it opens up potential for research for this at UBC.   Since, UBC sh ould be a centre for innovation, this further enables us to continue to try and experiment with using biodiesel in unconventional ways, that could lead to biodiesel being able to be implemented in the masses to replace petro based fuels in many other appli cations.     10 |  P a g e  Employment in this field could also be a social impact.   If biodiesel continues to develop, it may open up many employment opportunities locally and decrease our dependence on external sources of  fuel.   This is great because it would provide a more stable industry locally for many citizens to be employed long term.     A potentially negative impact of biodiesel however, is that if this becomes a more prevalently used technology,   there could be a dramatic rise in food prices, since biodiesel and food would be competing for fertile landing.   If food prices rise, the welfare of all citizens in that nation or region will be severely affected and this may lead to political instability within the region.       11 |  P a g e  3.0 BIODIESEL USE IN HEATING OIL T he rapid growth of green house gases in earth has been a major environmental concern over the past few years because of global warming. Many industrialized countries already made the move to try and reduce the amount of carbon emission to the atmosphere by using more sustainable and renewable resources while using less fossil fuel; this approach should help diminish the effects of global warming. One of the major alternatives for renewable resource is biodiesel and it can potentially be used as  heating oil blend which is used in residential heating systems. Initial experimental investigation of biodiesel as heating oil blend demonstrates that there is a strong reduction in carbon monoxide (CO) and particular matter (PM) emission in a residential  heating system (Macor, 200 7) .   3.1 Investigation of Biodiesel Impact in the Environment Biodiesel has showed fascinating results when used in residential boilers for space heating; studies show that boiler efficiency has negligible change when biodiesel blend is used (Macor, 2007) . It can be used in its pure form to replace home heating oil, although a blend of 5 - 20% is usually used because it is the most efficient blend. In an experiment, B20 show significant decrease in CO, HC and SO2 emissions with respect to regular heating oil. The combustion of B20 in a residential - scale hot water boiler  reportedly reduces SO2 by 20% while PM is reduced by 13% (Macor, 2007) . The emissions of CO, NO, NO2, NOx, and SO2 are recorded and listed below on table 1 .  12 |  P a g e  Table 1 - Average Values of Emissions in Parts Per Million (PPM)  Biodiesel Heating  CO  3.3 ± 0.2 38 ± 2 NO 106 ± 5 101 ± 5 NO2 7.4 ± 5 6.8 ± 5 NOx 113.4 ± 7 108 ± 7 SO2 2.5 ± 2 0.29 ± 2  In the experiment, the data is gathered all day for twenty four consecutive days but only takes into account one day for both biodiesel  and heating oil. From this table, it can be concluded that the carbon emission of biodiesel is at least ten times less than heating oil while every other emissions are negligible. Biodiesel is less harmful to the environment and it will reduce oil consump tion by a few million gallons a year if all heat ing oil customers switched to B5 , a 5%  blend of biodiesel  (Macor, 2007); the use of biodiesel has a large implication in driving down air pollution. Furthermore, biodiesel is biodegradable and non - toxic; biodiesel is as biodegradable as sugar and less toxic than table salt. With this information, we can deduce t hat using biodiesel in heating oil can help a lot in reducing green house gases and solve global warming.    3.2 Investigation of the Economic Impact of Biodiesel Normal heating oil and commercial biodiesel B100 have been experimented with to determine the  efficiency of burning biodiesel compared to regular heating oil. The performance of the boiler using biodiesel has been measured with the following 13 |  P a g e  components: fuel flow rate meter, energy meter and thermometer. In table xx below, it can be seen that usin g biodiesel has little effect on the performance of the boiler. The instrumentation equipment was connected to a computer to gather data and, based on table 2  below , we can see that there is a slight increase in fuel consumption but the overall performance  is comparable.   Table 2 - Average Values During Continuous Operation Period of 24 days Characteristics Heating Oil Biodiesel Ambient Temperature – C° 9.4 ± 0.5 14 ± 0.5 Fuel Flow Rate – l/h 40.6 ± 0.4 44.5 ± 0.4 Water Flow Rate – kg/s 8 ± 0.2 7.95 ± 0.2 Hot Water Temp - C° 58 ± 0.5 54.7 ± 0.5 Cold Water Temp - C°  46 ± 0.5 44.5 ± 0.5 Fire-place Power – kW 429 ± 4 362 ± 4 Thermal Power –kW 401.8 ± 18 339 ± 17 Boiler Efficiency 0.93 ± 0.04 0.93 ± 0.05 Specific consumption – gr/kWh 83.9 ± 4 115.5 ± 6    Using biodiesel in heating system will not have a major impact on people’s jobs because standard heating oil use will not completely end since  a B20 blend will be used , not B100 . Consequently, jobs that involved disposing waste cooking oil will instead shift to transporting them to biodiesel production site.  3.3 Social Impact of Biodiesel in Heating Oil Using biodiesel as fuel to heat up buildings can improve the well - being of p eople because we are using fuel that is 100% biodegradable. The potential leakage of heating 14 |  P a g e  oil from a household can damage ground water, which can be dangerous to, not only the household with heating oil, but also to its neighbors. On the other hand, if biodiesel leaks at all, it will decompose like sugar, as previously mentioned.  In addition, less energy for transportation will be consumed with biodiesel because it is manufactured locally, meaning the fuel only needs to travel a small distance to reach the consumers. Overall, air pollution will shrink as more biodiesel is used in heating oil. Using a renewable fuel such as biodiesel also raises sustainability awareness in the community which in turn encourages environment friendly living.    15 |  P a g e  4.0 PROPOSING BIODIESEL IN HEATING OIL IN UBC We propose that UBC looks into a plan where they take their waste cooking oil from UBC food services and convert that to biodiesel. In doing this it will be necessary for UBC to buy equipment for this process to be done eff iciently. Using the biodiesel that the school make we suggest that the school consider blending it with its heating oil and formulate a blend up to 20% diesel with 80% petroleum. We believe doing this UBC will be able to cut costs, be more environmentally friendly, as well as help further the progress in biodiesel.   4.1 Investigating Environmental Impact of Biodiesel Using biodiesel to heat up buildings in UBC can help render waste cooking oil from UBC kitchens useful again instead of disposing them. Generating biodiesel within UBC premises means waste cooking oil does not need to be transported out of UBC so cars do not have to travel in and out of UBC and generate air pollution from the process. Furthermore, UBC is one of the leading institutions tha t promote sustainable development. Encouraging renewable resources will also stimulate other organizations to follow suit and research on sustainability. As a result, carbon emission will decrease and global warming will be minimized.   4.2  Investigating Economic Impact of Biodiesel Every month UBC generates 14 tons  of waste cooking oil that can be converted to biodiesel. To fully convert all of the waste cooking oil, UBC must invest in large scaled 16 |  P a g e  equipment that is able to handle 80 gallons every three hours. This type of machine generally lasts 20 000 $ and lasts around 8 years. We will assume that the labor  costs would be around 10 dollars per hour and is needed around 6 hours per day for 7 days a week. This yearly wage would come to a total of around 21 600$ per year. Now if we expect that the machine will last for eight years we believe the average cost of the machine per year will be at around 2500 dollars per year. Ever year, UBC is capable of producing up to 42 000 gallons of biodiesel. The average cost per gallon of diesel would then be calculated by the total cost/the number of gallons of biodiesel produced which would give you a dollar/gallon ratio of 0.57. This shows that making biodiesel lo cally is a good investment and cheaper than the open market. It is significantly lower than the price of petroleum (3.7 - 4.0$) and diesel (4.0 - 4.4 $). So according to this it makes sense for UBC to pursue this option. Also in the process of making biodiesel,  it also makes another product called glycerin . On the open market raw glycerin  can be sold for 0.3 - 0.9 dollars per gallon. This money would be used to offset the cost of methanol that is used to start the biodiesel production process.  H owever , we later  discovered that this was not a very viable option. This is because UBC actually uses natural gas to power its heating systems and natural gas is tremendously lower in price around 0.3$ per gallon which is tremendously lower in price no matter how much of die sel you decide to incorporate.   17 |  P a g e  4.3 Investigating Social Impact of Biodiesel Use in the UBC boiler Using biodegradable fuel in the UBC boiler has major implications in sustainability living. Using biodiesel in the UBC boiler raises social awareness while h elping UBC move into a more eco- friendly building that operates with zero carbon emission. The general impact on UBC employees will also be minimized since the process of producing biodiesel requires very little labor . The only requirement for UBC employee s would be to collect waste cooking oil, which is already performed in the first place. Burning biodiesel blend is proven to be cleaner than burning regular heating oil alone. The amount of particles released by burning 20% percent blend of biodiesel in he ating oil generates up to 13% less PM.    18 |  P a g e  5.0 CURRENT HEATING SYSTEM IN UBC T he UBC boiler currently uses natural gas as its fuel to produce heat for UBC buildings. In table 3  below, it can be seen that biodiesel and natural gas generate almost the same amount of energy, assuming that equal amount of fuel is used.   Table 3 - Biodiesel Energy vs Natural Gas Fuel Type Specific Energy  (MJ/kg) CO2 Gas made from Fuel Used (kg/kg) Energy per CO2 (MJ/kg Biodiesel  37.8         ~2.85  ~13.26 Natural Gas 38 – 50            (Ethane, Propane & Butane N/C:CO,NOx & Sulfates) ~3.00  ~12.67-16.67  (Bioenergy Feedstock Information Network, 2012)  Currently, biodiesel in Vancouver cost three times the cost of natural gas and the heating system has been established in UBC for a few years  (Ahouissoussi, 1998) . Changing the system to utilize biodiesel instead of natural gas would need new equipments that are designed for biodiesel, in addition, the whole infrastructure need to be overhauled. To justify the cost of switching from natural gas to biodiesel, the price of natural gas has to significantly rise up.      19 |  P a g e  6.0 CONCLUSION Initially ,  we thought th at UBC should incorporate a higher percentage blend of biodiesel in their heating oils.  We thought that this would not affect performance, be able to save the school money and also be a much more environmentally friendly alternative to burning more petrol eum.  H owever, we were incorrect  to assume this as UBC’s heating system uses natural gas and not petroleum.  Natural gas is a commodity that is dramatically cheaper in price compared to that of petro, diesel or even biodiesel.  It also, is good for the env ironment emitting at a much lower rate than what normal petroleum would.  We believe that the current plan that the UBC boiler has in place is a sound plan and there is no reason why they should convert to a system that burns a high percentage biodiesel bl end.        20 |  P a g e  LIST OF CITATION Ahouissoussi, N. B., & Wetzstein, M. E. (1998). A comparative cost analysis of biodiesel, compressed natural gas, methanol, and diesel for transit bus systems.  Resource and Energy Economics,  20(1), 1 - 15.   Bioenergy Feedstock Information Network (BFIN). (n.d.).  BFIN. Retrieved March 19, 20 12 , from https://bioenergy.ornl.gov/papers/misc/energy_conv.html   Macor, A., & Pavanello, P. (2007). Performance and emi ssions of biodiesel in a boiler for residential heating.  Energy,  34(12), 202 5 - 2032 .   Batey, John E. "COMBUSTION TESTING OF A BIO - DIESEL FUEL OIL BLEND IN RESIDENTIAL OIL BURNING EQUIPMENT." MASSACHUSETTS OILHEAT COUNCIL & NAT IONA L OILHEAT RESEARCH ALLIANCE   Health Effects of Air Pollution . Tech. Health Canada. Web. <http://www.hc -sc.gc.ca/ewh - semt/air/out - ext/effe/health_effects - effets_sante - eng.php#a2>.   ElSolh, Nada E.M. The Manufacture of Biodiesel from the Used Vegetable Oil. Thesis. Cairo Universities,  2011 .   Biodiesel Group. Biodiesel Fuel Study: Emission Benefits and Costs in Virginia. Thesis. State Advisory Board on Air Pollution, 2006   Commission to Study Production And Distribution Of Biodiesel In New Hampshire.Thesis. New Hampshire State Commision , 200 7   Krishna, C.R. Biodiesel Blends in Space Heating Equipment. Thesis. National Renewable Energy Laboratory Program, 2001   McMillen, Stan, Philip Shaw, Nicholas Jolly, Bryant Goulding, and Victoria Finkle. Biodiesel: Fuel for Thought, Fuel for Connecti cut’s Future. Thesis. CONNECTICUT CENTER   Global Subsidies Initiative. BIOFUELS -  AT WHAT COST ? Government Support for Ethanol and Biodiesel in China. Thesis. International Institute for Sustainable Development, 2008.   Rajag opal, Deepak, and David Zilberman. Review of Environmental, Economic and Policy Aspects of Biofuel. Thesis. The World Bank Development Research Group Sustainable Rural and Urban Development Tea, 2007   21 |  P a g e  Natural Gas and the Environment . Tech. Natural Gas Orga nization. Web. <http://www.naturalgas.org/environment/naturalgas.asp>.   

Cite

Citation Scheme:

        

Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            data-media="{[{embed.selectedMedia}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
https://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/dsp.18861.1-0108568/manifest

Comment

Related Items