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Baseline inventory of the UBC food system : socially and ecologically responsible food options and action… Chan, Cathy; Chendan, Samuel; Gaffney, Leigh; Lin, Ashley; Tang, Charlene Apr 30, 2012

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UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report          Baseline Inventory of the UBC Food System: Socially and Ecologically Responsible Food Options and Action Plan  Cathy Chan  Samuel Chendan  Leigh Gaffney  Ashley Lin  Charlene Tang University of British Columbia LFS 450 April 2012        Disclaimer: “UBC SEEDS provides students with the opportunity to share the findings of their studies, as well as their opinions, conclusions and recommendations with the UBC community. The reader should bear in mind that this is a student project/report and is not an official document of UBC. Furthermore readers should bear in mind that these reports may not reflect the current status of activities at UBC. We urge you to contact the research persons mentioned in a report or the SEEDS Coordinator about the current status of the subject matter of a project/report”. UBC Food System Project 2012 | Baseline Inventory of the UBC Food System: Socially and Ecologically Responsible Food Options and Action Plan   1 | P a g e   v        University of British Columbia Food System Project 2012     Baseline Inventory of the UBC Food System:        Socially and Ecologically Responsible Food Options and Action Plan     Scenario 3 | Group 7   Cathy Chan | Samuel Chendan | Leigh Gaffney  Ashley Lin | Charlene Tang      University of British Columbia  Faculty of Land and Food Systems            Land and Food Systems 450     2012  UBC Food System Project 2012 | Baseline Inventory of the UBC Food System: Socially and Ecologically Responsible Food Options and Action Plan  2 | P a g e   Table of Contents ►ABSTRACT ........................................................................................................... 3 ►MEDIA RELEASE ................................................................................................... 4 ►INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................... 5 Problem Statement  .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  5  Value Assumptions  .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  8  ►LITERATURE REVIEW............................................................................................ 9 McGill University  ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  9  Simon Fraser  University  ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  10  University of Oregon  .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  10  Past UBCFSP Projects  .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11  City of Vancouver Initiatives  .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11  ►METHODOLOGY ................................................................................................ 12 ►FINDINGS .......................................................................................................... 16 Inventory List  .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  16  Triple O’s ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  16  Starbucks Coffee  .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  16  Packaging  .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  16  Survey  ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  17  Pre - Intervention  .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  17  Post - Interve ntion .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  17  ►DISCUSSION....................................................................................................... 18 Challenges with Franchises  .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  18  Customer Behaviours & Disposal Bins  .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  19  Packaging  .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  19  Inventory List  .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  20  ►STAKEHOLDER RECOMMENDATIONS ................................................................. 21 Recommendations for Triple O’s ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  21  Recommendations for LFS 450 Teaching Team & Future Students  .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  24  ►SCENARIO EVALUATION .................................................................................... 25 ►CONCLUSION ..................................................................................................... 26 ►ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ...................................................................................... 27 ►REFERENCES ...................................................................................................... 27 ►APPENDICES ...................................................................................................... 29 UBC Food System Project 2012 | Baseline Inventory of the UBC Food System: Socially and Ecologically Responsible Food Options and Action Plan  3 | P a g e   ►ABSTRACT  This is the first attempt by the University of British Columbia Food System Project to engage franchises in working towards a sustainable campus. The problem identified illustrate that franchises on campus are currently exempt from following the various strategies and initiatives set forth by the university to curb unsustainable practices. Therefore, through a Baseline Inventory of Socially and Ecologically Responsible Food Options, the team was able to evaluate the sustainability of food options at three franchises – Triple O’s, Tim Hortons and Starbucks Coffee. Although Tim Hortons and Triple O’s have implemented composting bins on-site, the current resources in place are ineffective in guiding correct waste sorting behaviour. The team collaborated with Triple O’s to categorize their packaging materials into compostable, recyclable and garbage items. Templates were created for Triple O’s to consider; however, they expressed desire to design their own signage. To demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed intervention, temporary signage were put up at Triple O’s; surveys conducted at the restaurant during peak hours were compared to pre-intervention observations. Through the survey, improvements were noted after signs were in place. Recommendations to stakeholders involved are given based on data and observations collected.     Overflowing Waste at Triple O's  UBC Food System Project 2012 | Baseline Inventory of the UBC Food System: Socially and Ecologically Responsible Food Options and Action Plan  4 | P a g e   ►MEDIA RELEASE  he thi rd scena rio of the Universit y of Britis h Colum bia Food Sys tem Project invol ves three fr anchises on the UBC campus and ev aluates  the  sociall y and ecolo gicall y responsi ble food opti ons the y provid e. These franchises include Triple O’s, Tim Hortons and Starbucks Coff ee. Th e main go al of this project  was to comp are t he practi c es of franchis es to other UBC food outl et s as fran chises do not have to adhe re to sustain able standards set b y UBC. A promi nent factor was the inac curat e waste dispo sal seen at the fr an chises. We partner ed wit h Triple O’s Supervi sor, Josie Midha to conduct furt her res ear ch on waste dispo sal. The knowled ge de ficit on the proper disposal of waste materials at Triple O’s was resolved through working with Victoria W akefield, the Purchasin g Man a ger of UBC Food Services. Throu gh Vi ctori a, we le arned th at most of the items were rec ycl able or compos table, with onl y sev eral items that belon g in garb a ge .  Several on site visits helped to determine how waste was disposed of by patrons of Triple O’s through detailed surve ys that were conducted to observe customers’ behaviour s  of waste dispos al ha bit s. We first conducted the su rve y throu gh observ ati on of dispo sal patterns with ex ist ing no - visual signa ge (bins labell ed: garba ge, rec ycle, compos ti ng). Th e nex t visits included two  on - sit e visi ts wit h the addit ion of Triple O’s packaging- specific visual si gna ge. Wit h our result s compil ed, we then establi shed se veral recommendations for Triple O’s and othe r stakeho lders .  Through thi s proje ct, our team hopes to encou ra ge other fran chises at UBC to becom e more acti ve in the movement towards more sust ainable ope rati ons. We also hope to improve the ove rall re c ycli n g and compos ti ng knowled ge of students to further estab li sh UBC as a lead er in sustainabil it y.     T  UBC Food System Project 2012 | Baseline Inventory of the UBC Food System: Socially and Ecologically Responsible Food Options and Action Plan  5 | P a g e   ►INTRODUCTION   The UBC Food S ystems Project (U BC FS P ) is a coll aborati ve, mul ti - fac ete d comm unit y - bas ed ini ti ati ve that aim s to progr ess the Universit y of Britis h Col umbi a (UBC ) towards a visi on of a sust ainable food s ystem. As a lar ge component of the capston e cou rse in th e Land, Food and Comm unit y Series, the UBCFS P is unique in that it buil ds upon the work of ove r ten generati ons of rese arch ers. Guided by an annu all y updated Vision Statement for a Sustainable Food System to refle ct the compl ex nature of food s yst ems, th e UBC FS P , as a Comm unit y Based Acti on Rese arch ini ti ati ve, bene fits the student resea rche rs, the t eachin g te am, the stakeh olders invo lved and futur e gener ati ons of UBC students.              This report begin s with a definiti on of the problem at hand and a ddr esses how thi s  project is relevant in the cont ex ts of the glob al, North Ameri can, and UBC food s yste ms. A discussi on of the UBCFS P Visi on S tatement will provide insight into our team’s values and perspectives on the principles stated. The methodolo g y se cti on details how the  pr oject pro gress ed throu gh uti li zing literature review , surve ys, stakeholde r mee ti ngs, and ex ami nati on of projects conduct ed b y past Land and Food S ystem s (LFS ) 450 students. The proceedin g s ecti on object ivel y illust rates the findi ngs  and out comes gather ed about consumers’ disposal habits, a baseline inventory list, and packaging at the on - campus fran chises investi gated.  From these findi ngs, the discussion secti on describes th e impli cati ons of the data and t he connecti ons it has to th e UBC Food S ystem. From synthesiz ing inform ati on obtained and critic all y evaluatin g the  project scenario’s objectives, we were able to develop specific, time - bound recomm endati ons fo r all stakeholders invo lved.  Problem Statement      In a global repo rt co nduc ted in 2007, Canada was ranked last out of sev ente en countries and received a “D” grade on the municipal waste generation calculator (The Conference Board of Canada, 2011). Canada produced 894 kil ograms pe r capit a of muni cipal waste – well above the av era ge of 63 5 kil ograms pe r capit a and more than twice as much as J apan, the top perfor mi ng countr y (Th e Confe rence UBC Food System Project 2012 | Baseline Inventory of the UBC Food System: Socially and Ecologically Responsible Food Options and Action Plan  6 | P a g e   Board of Canad a, 2011). The muni cipal waste gen erated per capit a in Cana da has been on the rise si nce 1980 and alm ost doubled between 1990 an d 2006 (The Confer enc e Bo ard of Canada, 2011 ). Stati sti cs Canada (2008 ) esti mates that approx im atel y 35 mill ion tonnes per ye ar of waste is bein g gene rated, and that more than 78% of th is ends up at land fills . However, an esti mated 50 – 60% is organic wast e tha t can be diverted from landfil ls if alt ernati ve te chnologi es are in pla ce (Statist ics Canada, 2008).  Waste diversion opti ons are not onl y important on the household level, but also on the business and indus tr y lev els as well . Businesses, includi ng fa st food chains and fran chises, ac count  for 67% of the waste gene rated across C anada (Statist ics Canad a, 2008). There fore, it is becomi ng incr easin gl y mor e imperati ve that sociall y and ecolo gicall y responsi b le food and waste mana gement opti ons be implemente d nati onwide. In rec ent yea rs, sustaina ble waste mana gement pr ogr ams have become mo re visi ble, particularl y withi n Canadian universiti es s uch as UBC.  The UBC Food S ystem i nvolves a compl ex network of coll abor ators, stake holders, and students including UBC  Food Ser vices, the Alm a Mate r Societ y Food and Bev er a ge Department (AMS FB D), UBC Waste Mana gemen t, and the Fa cult y of Lan d and Food S ystems. In 2005, UBC implemented a universit y - wide, five - ye a r strate g y comm it ted to creati n g a mor e sust ainabl e campus (Ca mpus & Comm unit y Planning, 20 11). UBC aim ed to achie ve thi s b y ope rati n g in a sociall y and ecolo gic all y responsi ble wa y. This me ant that food and wast e operati ons on - c ampus had to fulfill its social responsi bil it y th rou gh improving human healt h an d safet y,  incr easin g sust a inabili t y insi de and outs ide the universit y, and m aking UBC a sust ainable comm unit y model (Campus & C omm unit y Plannin g, 201 1). The universit y defined it s ecologi cal responsi bil ity as reducin g poll uti on, conserving resour ces, and protecti ng  biodi ve rsit y (Campus & Comm unit y P lanning, 2011).   Throughout the ye ars, UBC has put int o place sus tainabil it y pro gr ams such as WasteFre e UBC, on - campus compos ti ng, and the provisi on of fairl y trad ed and or ganic coff ee at all UBC Food Servi ces -run outl et s. In addit ion, the AMSFB D provides di scounts for reus able cont ainers and support the UBC Food System Project 2012 | Baseline Inventory of the UBC Food System: Socially and Ecologically Responsible Food Options and Action Plan  7 | P a g e   purchase of UBC Farm produce. Th ese sust ainabil it y ini ti ati ves, among ma n y others, d emons trate th at advancin g sust ainabili t y efforts is a top priorit y at UBC.  In reco gni tion as a leader in sustainability, UBC received a “Gold” rating by the Sustainability Trackin g, Assessm ent an d Rati ng S ystem fo r sustainabil it y achi evements i n higher educ ati on in 2011 (UBC Public Affairs, 2011). That same year, UBC was also named Canada’ s first Fair Trade Camp us through an evaluation co nducted b y Fair Trad e Ca nada (U BC Publi c Aff air s, 2011). This evaluation, however, ex pli cit l y ex clu ded on - campus fran chise s from the assessment (U BC Publi c Affairs, 2011 ) .           Although ther e have bee n  gr eat efforts to promot e sust ainabili t y, on - campu s franchises are ex cluded from the standa rds of  sust ainabili t y that UBC - run food outl ets are mandated to foll ow. Fran chised food provid er s have becom e an inhe re nt part of the UBC camp us with a populati on of  48,000. Therefore, franchises represent an area of improvement in the UBC Food System’s movement towards a more sust ainable campus comm unit y.  This project serves to au dit and evaluate the ex tent to which franchises m a ke an acti ve ef fort in providi ng soci all y and ec ologicall y responsi ble fo od opti ons across campu s. Wit h baseli ne inventory dat a of food and food pack a ging opti ons from thre e sel ect fr anchises – Triple O’s, Tim Hortons, and Starbucks Coffee – an evaluation ca n be conducted to assess the sustai nabil it y of their operati ons throu gh the products the y off er. Thro ugh gath erin g thi s information, on - campus fr anchi ses will be encour a ged to become a mor e int e grat e d component of the UBC comm unit y, workin g to gether towa rds a sha red go al of a sust ainable UB C Food S ystem.   Inte grati on of on - campus franchises will not onl y benefit the UBC Vancou ver Campus , rathe r, its success can be looked upon as an example and replicated outside the university’s boundaries in municipal, provincial, national and global arenas  wher e fr anc hises ex ist . Wit h the goal that ex ternal food syste m poli cies wil l be affe cted and modi fied to refle ct the shift to responsi ble sustainabil it y int ernall y withi n the UBC Food S ystem, coll a borati on with franchis e outl ets and developm ent o f strate gies to be implem ented UBC Food System Project 2012 | Baseline Inventory of the UBC Food System: Socially and Ecologically Responsible Food Options and Action Plan  8 | P a g e   and evaluated on campus are key steps along this process. Ultimately, an evaluation of the project’s success will further secure UBC’s position as a leader in campus sustainability while challenging other campus es across t he nati on a nd the world to ex plore innovative solut ions.  Value Assumptions After our init ial meeti n g , the team unanim ousl y agr eed that we wanted to affe ct chan ge at the franchises in ou r scen ari o. Whether the chan ge is  gr eat or small, we wer e opti mi sti c and will ing to learn more about fr anchise op e rati ons on the UBC camp us. Through m eeti ngs with J osie Midha, manager of Triple O’s on campus, their issues with improper waste disposal strategies were revealed and explained . While Triple O’s and Tim Horton s have impleme nted compos t bins on site , current cues to acti on in aidi ng sortin g beh aviours of their patrons  are inad equate . Our group felt that the lack of appli cable knowledge hinders people’s awareness to the effects of overflowin g land fills due to ex cessi ve waste produced.  Whil e we agree with man y of the principles listed in the Vision Statement for a Sustainable UBC Food System, ve r y few had direct relation to our scenario. We also reco gni z e the difficult y in recomm en din g ch an ges when corpo rati ons ar e invol ved. Although possi ble, it is certainl y not feasi ble withi n the time span  of this project to implement permanent changes to the corporation’s front - li ne retail outl ets. Structured at the bott om of the hierarch y t o th e corpor ate brands th e y repr esent, ch an ge is of ten mana ged throu gh a top-down approach; a bottom-up scenario invol vin g students wit h limi ted knowledge about the compan y or the indus tr y is not often con sidered.   We feel that the visi on statement is an adeq u ate li st of guidi n g principl es for the UBC Food S ystem. Whil e the majorit y of the principl es are not directl y appli cable to our scena rio, the y do refle ct what all stakeholders o f the UBC Food S ystem wa nt for their campus . Ho w ever, a few principl es are ove r - ide ali sti c and unatt a inable at the pres ent tim e for the UBCFS P . For ex ampl e, we often t ake fo r gr anted the inex pensive i ngr edients sourc ed uneth icall y from developi n g nati ons. In order to alt e r this UBC Food System Project 2012 | Baseline Inventory of the UBC Food System: Socially and Ecologically Responsible Food Options and Action Plan  9 | P a g e   practi ce, it ma y tak e ye ar s before concr ete ch an ge s can  be gin to occu r ev en at UBC, a campus often s ynon ymous with sustainabil it y. Ther efor e, it ma y take seve ral more ye ars of the UBC FS P before UBC is trul y sust ainable. We beli eve that it is also important to include a principl e defining what shou ld be consi de red so ciall y, environmentall y and economi call y feasibl e food opti ons.  Although each te am me mber ma y come from dif ferent b ack grounds and view the project throu gh various lenses and paradi gms, coll ecti vel y ou r tak e on the scen ario is soli d and uniform. Whil e ini ti ati ng chan ge is desir able, we reco gnise that limi ts do exist . Though we ma y be hi ndered b y thes e obst acles , we feel that our efforts will and can be mom entous for future UBCFS P teams.   ►LITERATURE REVIEW  McGill University               In Ma y 2010, McGill University’s Office of Sustainability acquired Big Hanna, an in - vess el compos ter for their do wn town campus  (Waste, 20 12) . The on - c ampus com post er is the lar gest of its kind in North America and co mpos ts pre - consum er foo d waste dail y from vario us campus food servi ce locati ons. Wit h the inst allation of Bi g Hann a, at least 62 tonnes of or ganic waste gene rated at the universit y can be pro cess ed on - sit e annuall y  (Was te 2012) . The in - vess el compos ter also provides great opportuni ti es for students to get involved throu gh course wo rk as well as th e Goril la Compost ing pr oject, a student - run volunt ee r - b ased or ganiz ati on  (Goril l a Missi on Statement, 2010) . In addit ion to the dive rsion of campus gen erated or ganic waste to the compos ti ng fa cil it y, the Go rilla  Compos ti ng project at McGill has ambit ions to implement a vermicult ure ini ti ati ve (i.e. worm sw ap) that will help to educate their local comm unit ies about vermi compos ti ng  (Go rilla Mission Statement, 2010) . In the long term, the Goril la Compos ti ng project looks to install a campus - wide compos ti ng infr astructu re for ever y M cGill buil ding and residen ce with an ap propriatel y siz ed compos ti ng fa cil it y  (Go rilla Mission Statement, 2010) .  UBC Food System Project 2012 | Baseline Inventory of the UBC Food System: Socially and Ecologically Responsible Food Options and Action Plan  10 | P a g e            Lookin g towa rds the futu re, McGil l has creat ed Vi sion 2020, a go al that aim s to harness the ener g y behind v arious on - campus sust ainabili t y in it iatives that wil l develop and build an overa rchin g visi on and acti on plan for the universit y comm unit y b y 2020  (Visi on 2020, 2012) . Com ponents of Visi on 2020 include McGill’s $800, 000 per ye ar Sust ainabili t y Projects fund, Lo c al Food Da y events, and t he creati on of th e Offi ce of Sustainabil it y in 2010  (Visi on 2020, 2012) . In ex panding sust ainabili t y initiatives already in place and creating new innovative programs, McGill’s vision o f a more sust ainable campus comm unit y will be achiev ed.  Simon Fraser University  At Sim on Fraser Univ ers it y (SFU ), the y hav e re ce ntl y implemented two un it s for compos table and rec yc lable mat erials (Waste initi ati ves, 2012). The coll ected materials are then  tr ansported to an off campus compos ti ng facil it y in Richmond for furth er proc essi ng (Bo wen et al. 2008). In the Zero Wa ste SFU report, sever al reco mm endati ons were mad e to help decre ase the amo unt of waste at SFU (Bo wen et al. 2008). Of thes e re comm endati ons, the most difficult is to combat the hea v y use of St yro foam  plat es as the y are non - compos tabl e; cups and plasti c cutl e r y used  are also not rec yc l ed. In the SFU report, the y also all uded to sever al post secondar y inst it uti ons and programs as guides fo r i mproving their campus es (Burn ab y Mount ain, Surr e y Cent ral and Do wntow n Harbour Centr e), most notabl y the Univ ersit y of Ore gon, Toronto Green Bin Program and the Universit y of Britis h Col umbia.  University of Oregon   The Offic e of Sust ainabil it y at the Un ive rsit y of Oregon has  be en on campus since 2007 and has helped encou ra ge sust ain able pra cti ces on campus  (About the Offi ce of Sus tainabil it y, 2012) . Despit e the recent addit ion of the Off ice of Sust ainabili t y, the universit y has b een implementi ng gr een pr acti c es for over 20 yea rs. Simi lar to UBC, the Unive rsit y Of Ore gon has a Cli mate Acti on Plan in place to tr y t o reduce gre enhouse gas emi ssi ons  (Rainwater & Nys trom, 2010) . La st ye ar, in 2011, the universit y al so int roduced a Sustainabil it y Centr e wher e s tudents from a variet y of academi c back grounds come to ge ther UBC Food System Project 2012 | Baseline Inventory of the UBC Food System: Socially and Ecologically Responsible Food Options and Action Plan  11 | P a g e   to discuss and possibl y implement their ideas abo ut new sust ainabili t y ini ti ati ves  (About the Office of Sustainabil it y, 2012) . Th e Sustainabil it y C enter is onl y one of the six teen student groups that dedica te their time to sust ainable practi ces.  Past UBCFSP Projects  B y looki ng back on the accompl ishm ents of previ ous LFS 450 UBC FS P s, it all owed our team to buil d a foundati onal understandin g of wh ere the present scen ario fit int o the bigger pictur e of the fo od s ystem. Two ke y repo rts provided the team wit h t he nec essar y ba ck ground information to guide fu rt her resea rch.  In the first repo rt, the con cern ove r sociall y and ec ologicall y responsi ble fo od opti ons were also investi gated and repo rted throug h a Sustainable Fo od Purchasing Guide dev eloped b y Bell et al. (201 0). The team of rese arch ers stressed the importanc e of local, seasonal and socia ll y equit able options for UBC food providers to conside r in their purchasin g pr ac ti ces (Bell et al., 2010).   In the second report, whi le investi gati n g on the waste behaviours of studen ts in UBC Food Services dining hall s, Cheng et al. (2011), found that curr ent designs for UBC Food Servi ce kit chen s did not facil it ate ef ficient co mpos ti ng and rec ycli n g as compost  and rec ycli n g bins were not well sit uate d for convenienc e. Post consumer waste was also obser ved by th e Chen g et al. (2011) to be adequ atel y s orted in residence dini n g hall s. The y did also note that miscatego riz ati on of was te ma y rende r some item s to be c ontaminated and thus non - compos table at the In - Vessel Compos ter. One of the conc erns that the resea rche rs noted was th e lack of consi stenc y in s igna ge ac ross locati ons o n the UBC Van couve r Campus and the ef fect this had on the eff ecti veness of so rting beh a viour in students.  City of Vancouver Initiatives   The Cit y of Vancouve r has taken sev eral steps to i nit iate sust ainable practi c es in an att empt to reduce the city’s carbon footprint and become “green”. Some of these initiatives include becoming the leade r in cli mate control  (Robertson et al., 2009) . As global warmin g and other poll uti on iss ues come to UBC Food System Project 2012 | Baseline Inventory of the UBC Food System: Socially and Ecologically Responsible Food Options and Action Plan  12 | P a g e   the forefront, Vancouver’s mayor, Gregor Robertson, has commissioned for Vancouver to undergo a series of ch an ges to beco me a more sust ainable cit y. The Gre enest Cit y Act ion Team has proposed an acti on plan that was app r oved last spring and is cu rrentl y at the implementa ti on stage of th e Van cou ver 2020 visionar y plan  (Robertson et al., 2009) . Some specific projects alr ead y in plac e ar e the new bike lanes buil t to encoura ge more green transportati o n  (Bikew a ys and Maps, 2 011) . One Da y, an onli ne resourc e pa ge has also be en set up to provide Van couverites inform ati on on how to reduc e waste at hom e and int roduce moneta r y i ncenti ves for green hous eholds  (One Da y, 2008) . This onl ine resource aim s to creat e sust ainabili t y awar eness at the fami l y lev el.  The Cit y of Vancouve r al so has waste reducti on an d rec ycli n g ini ti ati ves for its residents. Progr ams include the Re sidenti al Drop - Of f Area, Disposal Bans and Yard T rimm ings Coll ecti on and Compos ti ng. These ini ti ati ves will aid the Cit y of Vancouve r in diverti n g up to 70% of their waste from the garba ge to the compo st, a vast improvement fr om the 55% diverted in 2010 (Cit y of Vancouve r, 2011).  ►METHODOLOGY            To achieve th e pro ject obj ecti ves, a variet y of differ ent methods wer e used. Our first step involved contacti n g our comm unit y pa rtner, Josie Midha. We met with J osie in - person in order to determi ne which iss ues she wanted us to focus on and obtained an i n ventor y list of the food and pack a ging items use d at Triple O’s. During this initial meeting we were also given a tour of the restaurant, kitchen, and refri ge rators to get a feel of the la yout of the resta urant. Furth ermore, we observed the restaur ant duri ng operati on to determine custom er traffic flow thro ughout the spa ce.          In order to loc ate more s ustainable food pa cka g ing alternatives for Triple O’s we att end ed the BC Food Servic e Ex po 2012 at the Vancouv er Conven ti on Centre on Januar y 29, 2012. W e talked to a number of diff erent com panies about their biode gradable packa gin g produ cts and arr an ged for a nu mber UBC Food System Project 2012 | Baseline Inventory of the UBC Food System: Socially and Ecologically Responsible Food Options and Action Plan  13 | P a g e   of samples to be sent to Triple O’s. We then met with Josie at the restaurant to discuss the economic viabili t y of these samples and the poss ibi li t y of impl ementati on.          With the aim of crea ti ng a new desi gn for the dispo sal uni ts located at Triple O ’s at UBC, we contacted and set up a meeti ng with Victoria Wak efield, the pur chasin g ma nager fo r UBC Student Housing and Hospit ali t y Services . At our me eti ng, we brou ght sampl es of ever y containe r and packa gin g item used at Triple O’s so they could be tested at UBC's large - scal e In - V es sel Compos ter. When we receiv ed the test result s from Victoria, we wer e then able to cate goriz e ea c h container and pack a ging item as compostable, re c yclab le, or garb a ge.           Nex t, we measured the di mensions of the disposal bins and took phot ograph s of each pack a ging and container item ( see Appendix A ). We then imported the photos into Photos hop and created a n umber of differ ent desi gns for th e dispo sal bin signs ( see Appendix B ). In addit ion, we cr eated a sim il ar signage design to fill the small Plex iglass stands found on the top of each t able in the restaur ant ( see Appendi x C ). We presented our design s to J osi e during our nex t meeti ng and she app rove d our design invol vin g th ree colour - cod ed secti ons, co mpos t (gr een), rec ycl e ( yell ow), and ga rba ge (red ) , with the images o f each t ype of packa gin g pla ced acco rdingl y. How ever, we needed to come up with a wa y of pro vin g the effe cti veness of ou r new dispo sal bin signs.           In order to do so, we cr ea ted a che ckli st on ex cel containi ng a list of the pac kagin g pr oducts available at Triple O’s and the three columns with the headings: garbage, recycle, and compost (see Appendix D ). We then sat at a table at the Triple O’s restaurant and observed and recorded the amount of ti mes that custom ers sorted their pack a gin g items into the waste bins corr ec tl y befo re our new si gns were placed on the disposal bi ns. More specifi ca ll y, i f a custom er put a bur ge r wrapper into the garba ge bin, we would place an “x” underneath the column for garbage and note which item was sorted incorrectly. W e conducted these obs e rvati ons on a Tuesda y (March 6, 2012) and Thur sda y (Mar ch 8, 2012) be gi nnin g at 11am and endin g at ap prox im atel y 12:30pm . We reco rded obse rvati ons of 30 custom ers for ea ch of the UBC Food System Project 2012 | Baseline Inventory of the UBC Food System: Socially and Ecologically Responsible Food Options and Action Plan  14 | P a g e   two disposal bins located in the restaurant. Th ere f ore, we had a tot al of 60 observati ons for each dis posal bin for a tot al of 120 obs ervati ons prio r to sign im plementation. Our rati on ale for participant sele cti on was not specific as the participants used for thi s stud y were sim pl y custom ers that used the dispo sal bins at Triple O’s during the times and days we were observing. Thus, we had a response r ate of 100%. We chose Tuesday at 11am because the lunch hour on Tuesday is the busiest day of the week for Triple O’s due to the “Triple O Tuesday” burger special. Thursday, on the other hand, is a regular day (much less customers) at Triple O’s during th e lunch hou r. Comparing thes e two da ys was bene ficial to determi ne whether the re was a patt e rn between in corr ect sort ing of packa gin g items and the volume of custom ers at the restaur ant. Furth ermo re, we conducted ou r obs ervati ons from a table at the restau r ant (as oppose d to standing nex t to the disposal bins with clipboards) in order to prevent influ encin g or interf erin g wit h the customers’ sorting decisions.          After our first set of obse rvati ons, we conta cted a number of print ing stor es in order to  cr eate a budget fo r the printi n g an d laminating of our new dispo sal bin signa ge. On ce we had gathe red thi s information we had another meeti n g with J osie to subm it our budget. Unfo rtunatel y, ou r plans to pri nt, laminate, and plac e our new disposal bins sig na ge up in the restaurant was not approved b y the hi gh er management of Triple O’s. Considering the inconvenience of this news, we then had an additional meeti ng with Sophia Bak er - Fren ch to discuss our opti ons as a successful evaluation of our scen ario reli ed upon the impl ementati on of the sign a ge. Thus, we decided to cr eate a sim pli fied, small er, tempora r y set of paper si gns to plac e on the disposal bins inst ead of our ori ginal desi gn ( see Appendix E ). These s igns were printed on letter siz e paper with thre e basic pictures of White Spot Triple O’s packaging items cate goriz ed unde r the he adings: ga rba ge, compos t, and rec yc le.  After gett i ng these t emporar y si gns approved b y Josie, we pl aced them on each of the two disposal bins in the restaurant usi n g tape.              With the impl ementation of these tempora r y si gns, we went back on a subsequent Tuesd a y (March 20, 2012 ) and Th ursda y (Ma rch 22, 2012) from 11am to 12: 30pm and observed anoth er 120 UBC Food System Project 2012 | Baseline Inventory of the UBC Food System: Socially and Ecologically Responsible Food Options and Action Plan  15 | P a g e   students in tot al to complete our data coll ecti on. Thus, we wer e  able to compare the dif fer enc e in cor rect dispo sal bin use before and after the implementati on of our new si gns. Wit h the data we coll ected from the ex cel checkli sts ; we were able to anal yz e and visuall y displ a y our findi ngs  ( see App endices F -  I ). We the n presented th ese gr ap hs to Josie. Alt hough we used thi s data, it was not as accu rate as we had ho ped because we were not able to use our ori ginal, lar ge r, color - cod ed, laminated signa ge desi gn. This original design would have likel y creat ed more noti ce abl e result s. Another iss ue we had with our data includ ed customers use of the White Spot Triple O’s take - o ut bags. It was impossi ble to account fo r what ma y have be en insi de the take - out bag when it was pla ced in the dispo sal uni t. Thus, the custom ers ma y or  ma y not hav e sorted their packa gin g items cor rectl y.               Next, our group gathered a list of the inventory items at Triple O’s, Tim Horton’s, and Starbucks C offee on the UBC campus by condu cti ng a number of site visi ts. We cate goriz ed each produ ct into the ex cel sheet provide d fro m LFS 450 . This help ed us determi ne the number of sociall y and ecologi ca ll y responsible food options available at Triple O’s, Tim Horton’s, and Starbucks Coffee (see App endix J ).            In order to write our final report we also conducte d a literature review to find other relev ant information on fran chise sust ainabili t y ini ti ati ves. To determi ne the amount of municipal waste gen e rated by Can ada (p er capit a an nuall y) for a mo re global perspecti ve, we used Go ogle Schola r as a search engin e. We typed in the key words “Canada municipal waste” and were directed to a document titled, “Waste Management Industry Survey: Business and Government Sectors 2008,” available on the Statistics C anada websit e. To gath er information on other sustainabil it y effo rts bein g implemented on simil a r  universit y campus es, we also looked at the websit es of McGill , Sim on Fras er, and Unive rsit y of Or e gon. The other websit es that we gather ed sourc es fro m include: UBC Food Se rvices, UBC Sustainabil ity, and UBC Buil din g Ope rati on s.  UBC Food System Project 2012 | Baseline Inventory of the UBC Food System: Socially and Ecologically Responsible Food Options and Action Plan  16 | P a g e   ►FINDINGS  Inventory List    Through various on site visi ts and interviews wit h our comm unit y pa rtner, an inventor y list of all the franchises’ socially and ecologically food options was compiled ( see Appendix J ) . Onl y items th at quali fied in at least one of the cate go ries were inc l uded. Where no items ar e listed under the outl et headin g (e. g. Tim Horton s, David Lam Business ), the y did not carr y an y ite ms that were av ail able fo r consi derati on in this repo rt.  Triple O’s The bee f patt ies ar e sour ced from Alb erta. Th e ch icken strips, chicken brea st, veggie burger, ice cr eam, fr ench fries, tom atoes and chee se are all sourced from Britis h Col umbi a. Tripl e O’s will also start serving Fair Trade Cof fee in th e Fall of 2012.  Starbucks Coffee Onl y one lo cati on on campus has  merchandise th at was conside red fo r the report. The Italian Ro ast Coffee is Fair Trade ; the Yukon Blen d Coffee is or ganic.   Packaging   After consul tation wit h Victoria Wakefield, it was determined that thre e packa gin g opti ons currently used at Triple O’ s are non - r ec yclabl e or non - compos table as the y are mad e with pol yst yr e ne (Rec ycle Code 6). The y are the clea r ca esar clams hell container, St yr ofoam  pouti ne container wit h cl ear lid, and the St yrofo am  gr av y container with lid.   Twent y oth er packa gin g opti ons were also cate gor iz ed as rec ycl able or com post able wit h guidan ce from Victoria Wakefield. Ther e was on e addit ional packa gin g opti on – the take - out fries container – that was yet t o be determi ned and it was sent via Victoria Wak efield to the In - V essel C ompos ter for furthe r ex ami nati on. The result s of the test are sti ll unavail a ble at this moment.  UBC Food System Project 2012 | Baseline Inventory of the UBC Food System: Socially and Ecologically Responsible Food Options and Action Plan  17 | P a g e   Survey In order to gain a more si te - specific understanding of the Triple O’s environment, surveys were carri ed out befor e and aft er empl o yin g th e int erve nti on.  Two surve ys wer e performed befor e and tw o were perfo rmed aft er the int erventi on. Throu gh the surve ys condu cted fo r this scenario, our te am wa s able to coll ect and assem ble data to provide a qu a nti tative perspecti ve to u nderstand the cu rrent situ ati on at T riple O’s. The data, and subsequent findings and outcomes, presented here are primary in nature and do not reflect an y statis ti cal signifi canc e as stati sti cal anal yses and tests we re not conducted.  Pre-Intervention On both da ys th at the sur ve ys wer e ca rried out, les s than one - qua rter of the surve yed custom ers demons trated the abil it y and confiden ce in ensuring all waste we re sorted prop erl y ( see Appendix F ). T he data collected shows that the majority of customers that dine in at Triple O’s are not awa re of the co rre ct cate goriz ati on of their was te. Furthe rmore, the y de mons trated that the majorit y of the waste wil l go to the first av ail able opening that the y s ee. Th ere was ver y poo r understandin g of wh at was to be consi der ed comp osti ng or rec ycli n g and th erefo re result ed in deposi ti ng the majorit y int o the ga rba ge receptacl e.  The top thre e items that were record ed as being miscat e gorised wer e the bur ge r wrap pers, fri es liner and tra y line r ( see Appendix I).  Post-Intervention  After empl o yin g our inte rv enti on, the team was able to see that the numbe r of custom ers who wer e able to co rre ctl y sort all of thei r waste in creas ed ( see Appendix G ). Wit h the help of visual aids, the most dramatic improvement was seen in the cor rect pla ce ment of items that are com post able ( see Appen dix H). The number of cu stom ers who wer e able to corre ctl y id enti f y and cate gorise th eir compos ta ble waste is shown to have doubled. Ga rba ge and rec ycli n g sti ll proved to be a chall en ge as the numbers do not refle ct co mprehension of the visua l aids given.  Th e top UBC Food System Project 2012 | Baseline Inventory of the UBC Food System: Socially and Ecologically Responsible Food Options and Action Plan  18 | P a g e   three items most frequent l y miscate go rised rem ained the same: bur ger wr ap pers, tra y liners and fries liner ( see App endix I) .  Ther e is an ove rall de creas e in quantit y dispo s ed.  ►DISCUSSION Challenges with Franchises Involvi n g fra nchises in t his project proved to be rather ch all en ging with se veral problems. Comm unicati on with J osie Midha was ex tremel y efficient as both parties kept up regularl y with the progress. How ever, as a franchise op erator, Josie noted that some decisi ons can not be mad e lightl y. For ex ampl e, the signa ge imp lementation was termi nat ed due to the unfor eseen noti ficati on that J osie received about Triple O’s wanting to design the signage themselves. As such, a discussion with Sophia Bake r - Fren ch result ed in prepari n g an alt ern ati ve s olut ion. The effe cti venes s of the int erventi on was debatable becaus e it beca me obvious to some that the y were bein g surve ye d. One ex ampl e observed showed a man with two trays who immediately left Triple O’s after seeing our table and lea ving his tra ys on the counter.  Fran chises outl ets on campus were obse rved to b e ex tremel y bus y. Wit hout adequate contacts to the mana gement at othe r outl ets, it proved more chall engin g than init iall y anti cipated. Starbucks C offee and Tim Horton’s had their own agend a and promoti ons throughout the ter m and were not able to s pare time to meet wit h students requesti n g for int ervi e ws. On - sit e visi ts and phone call s to Starbucks Co ffee and Tim Horton’s were made responses were not received. Therefore, the altern ati ve was to source out onli ne information, on - sit e observati ons and prior knowledge about the esta bli shments. We were als o ex pli cit l y informed b y Josie though other sup ervis ors at other outl ets might ex press interest in participati ng; their sched ules sim p l y could not ac c omm odate meeti ngs with students.  UBC Food System Project 2012 | Baseline Inventory of the UBC Food System: Socially and Ecologically Responsible Food Options and Action Plan  19 | P a g e   Customer Behaviours & Disposal Bins Through th e surve ys and observati ons pre -  and po st - int erventi on , it  was noted that custom ers actuall y stopp ed and too k time in sorting out their trash. The main con cern was that the majorit y of custom ers did not have a clear ide a of wh ere to dis pose the items properl y and ended up throwin g ever ythi n g in the garb a ge . Most of the custom ers have a consciousness abou t sus tainable init iatives but are la cking th e knowled ge of how and wher e to throw the garb a ge. Ho wev er, it is also noted through the surve ys that som e people do not pa y much att enti on and do not even bother sorting  out the garb a ge. When custom ers go in gr oup to throw out the ga rb age, ther e is a trend of fo ll owing what the pr eviou s person had done and thi s often caus e a conti nuati o n of the same mistakes.  A few lim it ati ons are obs erved throu gh the su rve ys conducted in  Triple O’s. The garbage bins are easily filled up especially on the busiest day of the week, Triple O’s Tuesday, where there is a promotion. Through th e surve y, the team discover ed that cust omers tended to throw ev er ythi n g on the tra y int o an y open and em pt y holes wh en the other ones are fille d. The lack of paper rec ycli ng creat ed over - filli ng of the compos ti ng bin.  Packaging As noted in the findi ngs, the three items cur rentl y in use that are of most co ncern wit h respect to waste dispos al are the caesar salad clamshell, poutine container with lid and gravy container with lid . The y ar e repo rted b y Josie Midha to have be en sel ected due to their functi o nali t y in keepin g pouti ne and gr av y at a consi stent temperatur e without ne gati ve l y influencin g the qu ali t y of  the product. The y ar e currentl y all consi d e red t o be waste an d ar e dispo sed of as such.  After consul tation wit h Victoria Wakefield that concluded that these items were mad e with class - 6 pol yst yren e plasti cs that are not readil y re c ycled or compos ted, the team di scussed the possi bil it y of subst it uti ng the current p acka gin g opti ons with an alt ernati ve that was sent by one of the compani es visi ted at the Britis h Col umbi a Food Service Ex po. Of the thre e pack a gin g listed of concern, th e ca e sar UBC Food System Project 2012 | Baseline Inventory of the UBC Food System: Socially and Ecologically Responsible Food Options and Action Plan  20 | P a g e   salad clamshell h as the hi ghest likelihood in bein g subst it uted. There ar e no n - class - 6 cl ear plasti c clamshells made in the exact format currently used at Triple O’s; therefore, the team believes that a transit ion ma y not be too difficult.  Further corr esponden ce with Victo ria Wakefield concluded that sour cing out a compl etel y new supplier was neither practical nor economically feasible. A suggestion was made to encourage Triple O’s to collaborate wit h UBC Food Servic es and work with the ex ist ing suppl iers that UBC Food Serv i ce s currentl y ord ers eco - friendly packaging from. If an agreement can be reached between Triple O’s and UBC Food Se rvices in ad opti ng an alt e rnati ve to t he three stat ed pack a gin g opti ons without compromi sing the finan c ial viabili t y of its operati ons and p roduct inte grit y, then a step towards dee per partnerships can be estab li shed.  Inventory List  The Baseli ne Inv entor y for thi s scenario is summ a rised in Appendix  J . The original inventor y s et out to evaluate food opti ons and cate go rise them as sociall y or ecolo gic all y responsi ble. The cate go ries included ve gan, ve getari an, medicati on free, glut e n free, m ade on campus , local (wit hin 250 kilom etres), organic and Fair Trad e. Howeve r, soon afte r coll ecti ng th e nec essar y data it was noted that the majorit y of the cate go ries would n ot have an y food opti ons listed under them. The fi nal inventor y list onl y included the cate gories l ocal, or ganic and Fair Trade. The te rm local,  alt hough ori ginall y de fined as being produced withi n a 250 ki lom etre radius of the cam pus, was ex panded to inc lude an y item that is produced in the province of Britis h Col umbi a. This was done to ill ustrate the differ en ce betw een items that we re brought i n from other provinces (e.g. beef from Alberta at Triple O’s). Init iall y, the objecti ve in sourcing th e nec essar y data and compi li n g an inv entor y list was to illust rate what is avail abl e in terms of sociall y and ecolo gicall y responsi ble food items. It was determ ined shortl y aft er that the la ck of sociall y and ecologi ca ll y responsi ble food opti ons at all three franchises proved that an inventor y list to illust rate what is not avail able would be mo re approp riate. Th ere fore , the UBC Food System Project 2012 | Baseline Inventory of the UBC Food System: Socially and Ecologically Responsible Food Options and Action Plan  21 | P a g e   inventor y list onl y in cluded it ems that were qu ali fied to be consi der ed local, organic or Fair Trade; it is a subst anti all y shorter list than origin all y anti cipated .  What can be infe rred fro m the inventor y coll ected is that much improvement is needed from the franchises to inco rporat e m ore sociall y and ecolo gicall y responsi ble food opti ons, especiall y Starbu cks Coffee and Tim Horton’s.  This inventory list shows where  furthe r partne r ships and opportuni ti es can be investi gated. Ho weve r, it may also demonst rate th e compl ex it y of oper ati ng a fran chise outl et on a universit y campus and th e contra cts in place that s ti pulate what can or cann ot be done b y the license e (UBC Food Services ).  Whil e UBC Food Servic es curr entl y ov erse es the operati ons of the Starbu c ks Coffee outl ets at Pacific Spirit  Place and Fred Kaise r Buil din g, the team also looked int o the corporat e locati on (i.e. operated b y Starbu cks Coffee ) at Te chnolo g y Enterprise Facil it y 3. A com parison was done to eval uate the differ ence in food opti ons avail able against lic ensed stores op e rated b y UBC Food Se rvices. Th e inventor y list ( see Appen dix J ) shows that the corporate store do es off er on e Fair Trad e ce rtified wh ole bean cof fe e (Italian Roas t) and one certified or gan ic whole bean coff ee (Yu kon Blend).  Consequentl y, the compi lation o f this Baseli ne In ventor y indi c ates that mo re diverse food opti ons, especiall y sociall y and ec ologicall y responsi ble fo od opti ons, are need ed at all franchise lo cati ons on the UBC Van couver Campus .     ►STAKEHOLDER RECOMMENDATIONS Recommendations for Triple O’s  UBC Food System Project 2012 | Baseline Inventory of the UBC Food System: Socially and Ecologically Responsible Food Options and Action Plan  22 | P a g e   1. To implement the colour-coded, Triple O’s packaging-specific signage created for the disposal units and restaurant tabletops.   This recommendation is for the Triple O’s on UBC campus and is the responsibility of Triple O’s higher mana gem ent to ap pro ve and provid e fundin g fo r the produ cti on of the signa ge as soon as poss ibl e. Several pot enti al desi gns can be found in Appendi x B. Accordin g to our ob servati ons compi led prior to an y si gna ge bein g imple mented ( see Appendix F ) , 77% of consum ers mad e at lea st one or more mi stakes while sorti ng their waste and onl y 23 % sorted com pletel y corr ectl y. On the second da y of obs ervati o ns, 80% of the customers at Triple O’s sorted one or more of their waste items incorrectly, and a mere 20% sorted without error. It i s noted in ou r findin gs th a t the majorit y of the wast e items, alt hou gh compo stable, were placed in the garbage. However, after implementation of our temporary signage with Triple O’s specific visuals ( see App endix G ), correct so rting of waste items b y cons u mers incre ased to 42% on both da ys o f observ ati on post - int erventi on. It is se en th at the number of indivi du als who disposed of their waste appropriately doubled as a result of the simple signage. Therefore, a combination of Triple O’s specific visuals wit h aest heti call y appeali n g colou r - codin g of the proposed signa ge will be highl y effe cti ve in redu cing was te and incre asin g prope r dispo sal of compos table and rec yc lable items wit hin the restaurant.   2. To make the frequently utilized Triple O’s packaging the most prominent on the signage using visuals with labels.   This is a recommendation for Triple O’s if they were to implement the proposed signage. Appendix I lists the most frequentl y uti li z ed items util iz ed according to our findi ngs. As an ex tra precauti on  to pr event the se items from bein g incor rectl y sorted, si gna ge shoul d include lar ger and cle arl y labell ed  pictures of th e te n specific items. In partic ular, it ma y be bene ficial to include pictures of wh at the item would look like after use. For ex ampl e, d uring our obs ervati ons it was noted that consum er s had problems imagini n g the burger wrappe rs flat as depicted on our si gna ge be cause their wrapp ers wer e UBC Food System Project 2012 | Baseline Inventory of the UBC Food System: Socially and Ecologically Responsible Food Options and Action Plan  23 | P a g e   either wr apped around fo od or crinkled. The refo re , to have cle ar, promi nent visuals of the more freque ntl y used items wo uld be ver y ben eficial.    3. To incorporate paper recycling as a component of the disposal units already present at Triple O’s.    Triple O’s on the UBC campus would be responsible for carrying out this recommendation. This can be accompl ished im mediatel y b y pl acin g pap er re c ycli n g re cepta cles beside the disposal uni ts and labell ing  it accordin gl y. A paper rec yc li ng bin wo uld be incredibl y bene fic ial as, acco rdin g to our findings, the most frequently utilized Triple O’s packaging items are the burger, tray, and fries liners which are all made out of rec ycl able/compos table paper mate r ial. Afte r disc ussi on with our comm unit y partner from Triple O’s, Josie Midha, and correspondence with Victoria Wakefield, purchasing manager at the UBC Student Hous ing and Hospit ali t y Servi ces, the y advised th at co mpos ti ng paper products, alt hough acc epta ble, is not the most effecti ve wa y to divert paper waste fro m the ga rba ge as it tends to clog the In - V essel Compos ter on the UBC campu s. This is because, as stat ed by Victoria Wake field during pe rsonal commun icati on, that the In - V esse l requires a 2:1 rati o  of or gani c material to compos table packa gin g and often ther e is not enough or ganic waste to keep the compo ster runnin g smoo thl y. The technolog y developed for rec ycli n g is cur rentl y m uch more adv anced th an compos ti ng technolo g y; therefor e, it would be mo st  advanta geous to uti li z e both s ystems as effe cti vel y as poss ibl e. Thus, the objecti ve for implementi ng pap er rec ycli n g would be to divert waste awa y from garba ge and int o bo th rec ycli n g and compos ti ng.   4. To change the poutine, gravy, and clamshell salad containers currently being utilized at Triple O’s to alternatives that can be recycled and/or composted and increase the size of ketchup containers.   Triple O’s will be responsible for carrying out this recommendation in conjunction with UBC Food Servic es an d discus sion can be gin imm ediatel y. At pr esent, the pouti ne and grav y containe rs at UBC Food System Project 2012 | Baseline Inventory of the UBC Food System: Socially and Ecologically Responsible Food Options and Action Plan  24 | P a g e   Triple O’s are composed of S t yrofo am , a mate rial that goes dir ectl y int o the ga rba ge. The cl amshell salad containers also go int o the garba ge due to the t ype of unrec yc labl e plasti c it is made out of (pol yst yr ene). However, the Triple O’s located at UBC has the unique ability to collaborate with UBC Food Services to find bett er alt ern ati ves to the packa gin g mentione d above. UBC Food Serv ices curr entl y has speci fic suppl iers for compos tabl e pack a ging and, as state d by Victo ria Wakefield, is ver y will ing to coope ra te with the franchise to sup pl y them with rec yclable/ compos table pack a ging for these speci fic items.  In addition, observations conducted at Triple O’s have shown tha t t ypic all y, di ne - in custom ers use mor e than one pape r ketchup cup for their food. It ma y be benefi cial to incre ase t he siz e of the 1 ounce cu ps to perhaps a 3 - ounce which ma y use less pape r mater ial in the long run.  Recommendations for LFS 450 Teaching Team & Future Students  5. To extend the UBCFSP project to other franchises like Tim Horton’s to help them create their own packaging-specific disposal units.   This recomm endati on is for the LFS 450 te achin g team and futur e LFS 45 0 students in coll aborati on w ith the UBC campus Tim Horton’s locations for the coming year. This project would involve contacting Tim Horton’s management, finding out what packaging is compostable and recyclable, creating visuals of each Tim Horton’s packaging item, producing an attra c ti ve design, and evaluatin g its effic ac y. It is of utmos t importance fo r future LFS 450 students to request approval for producin g and funding the disposal units by Tim Horton’s upper management beforehand. Implementing this recomm endati on fo r fr an chises on the UBC campus, especially one as popular as Tim Horton’s, would set a posit ive ex ampl e for other fr anchises to tak e strides towards the visi on of sust ainabili t y that the UBC food s ystem aim s to achieve.   6. At the beginning of the project, to collaborate with specific cooperative community partners from each franchise involved in the scenario.  UBC Food System Project 2012 | Baseline Inventory of the UBC Food System: Socially and Ecologically Responsible Food Options and Action Plan  25 | P a g e    This recommendation is for next year’s LFS 450 teaching team to gain contacts and is the responsi bil it y of futur e LFS 450 students to develop and maint ain relation s hips formed. Securin g conti nuous comm unicati on with specific indivi duals from all fran chises in volved in the scena rio who have agr eed to wo rk wit h students beforeh and wo uld be ex tremel y help ful in obtaini ng a more in - de pth look at franchise op er ati ons.  ►SCENARIO EVALUATION The selected methodology of observing the disposal habits of Triple O’s customers before and after si gna ge implementa ti on can provide crucial i nformation about the ef fi cac y of th e recomm ende d la yout fo r the dispo sal bins. Sampl ing prior  to impl ementing the pictur e signa ge will provide insi gh t to improper waste dispos al habit s. From this informa ti on, we are then able to gau ge if an y improv eme nts have been made as a result of our signage. Through surveying Triple O’s post - im plementation, w e shoul d be able to gathe r informa ti on on the effica c y of th e displ a ys b y comparin g our result s to our observ a ti ons prior to impl ementati on.  The primar y ev aluation method for thi s project is the surve y. Feedb ack fro m J osie and her staf f regardin g the us ef ulness of the signs will also be i ncluded. Project ev aluation for its success wil l be done by comp arin g the prim ar y dat a coll ected befor e and after si gna ge impleme ntation.  The inventor y list with information collected from all three fr anchises is als o par t of the evaluation plan. The inve ntor y list provides a good sense of how sustainabl e each fran chise cur rentl y is at UBC. From observing the franchises’ food menus and websites, we categorized the foods offered at each store and made not es on the t yp es of packa gin g us ed. B y cate goriz ing th e goods and products into local, organic or Fair Trade, we were then able to provid e recomm end ati ons to our comm unit y pa rtners. One of the difficult ies we face d when doing thi s proje ct is to coll ect the inventor y lists fro m all three fran ch ises. At first, we misint erprete d the guideline of the ev a luation methods for thi s project and end ed up tr yi ng to UBC Food System Project 2012 | Baseline Inventory of the UBC Food System: Socially and Ecologically Responsible Food Options and Action Plan  26 | P a g e   contact both Starbucks Coffee and Tim Horton’s in person for the inventory list. We failed to contact the mana gers from Star bucks and Tim Horton’s because they were too busy and they were not informed about our project. Ho wev er, we su ccess full y evalu ated the foods of fer ed at each of th e fr anchise b y t he end throu gh in - person vi sit s and looki ng at their menus or adve rtisements t he y had at the time.  The project primarily focused on Triple O’s as suggested by the teaching team and our community partners. Thro u gh int ervi ews and meeti n g with ou r comm unit y pa rtners we were able to come up wi th several recommendations for Triple O’s. Due to the time constr aint s of this project, a full ex ecuti on of our proposed desi gn was not feasibl e.       We strongl y re comm end future LFS 450 students t o discuss the project wit h the LFS teachin g team and the comm unit y partners earl y on in the te rm in order to full y under st and the tasks given and discuss the desired outco mes for the proje ct. It is crit ical to use all resou rc es provided includin g pa st UBCFS P reports, project stakeholders and te achin g te am. More spe cificall y, clear and open comm unicati on between project partn e rs and the teachin g te am is essenti al in driving succ ess for thi s project. Given the project time frame, it is also important to be set pra gmati c ex pectations of the proj ect as it progresses. Thou gh broad in nature with a mult it ude of aspects to con sider, the project all ows teams to investi gate indivi dual issues separ atel y while en suring the inte grit y of th e UBCFS P .   ►CONCLUSION  This is the first attempt in establi shing partn ershi ps between franchis es an d the UBCFS P . Fran chises ar e unique in that the y are  ex cluded fro m the operati onal standa r ds as set b y UBC; ther ef ore, franchises are not require d to fulfill campus standa rds for sust ainable practi ces. This pil ot project permitt ed the establi shment of dialogu e betw een franchises and th e UBCF S P with regards to soci all y and ecolo gicall y responsi ble food practi c es throu gh th e developm ent of a Basel ine Inv entor y. In echoin g one UBC Food System Project 2012 | Baseline Inventory of the UBC Food System: Socially and Ecologically Responsible Food Options and Action Plan  27 | P a g e   key guidi n g principl e of the Visi on Statement for a Sustainable Food S yste m that anchored thi s proj ect, our team firml y beli eves that “on-campus food providers [should continue to] work with off-campus distributors and wider food system actors to transition to a more sustainable system … and where possible positively influence food system policy beyond the university.” Thr ough foste rin g de ep er partnerships betw een all stakeholders invo lved, progr ess toward a sust aina ble campus can be achiev ed. To this end, these relatio nshi ps can bene fit students who are will ing to p art icipate and contribut e to a shared visi on of a sust ain able UBC Food S yst em whil e ensurin g that all fo od s ystem actors ar e adequatel y equipped wit h the knowled ge and tool s so that our shared visi o n is sustained.  ►ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS W e would like to thank Josi e Midha, Victoria Wa kefield and the La nd and Food S ystems T eachin g Team for their dedic ati on, guid ance and support throu gh out  thi s project.        ►REFERENCES  About the Offic e of Sust ainabili t y. (2012). University of Oregon. R etrieved Mar 28, 2012, from htt p:/ /sus tainabilit y.uo re gon.edu/o ffice - sust ainabi li t y/ about - offic e - sust aina bil it y    Bell , S., Falat, M., Be rr y, C., Young, S. (2010). Developm ent of sust ain abl e food purch asin g guide. Social Ecological Economic Development Studies Library, University of British Columbia . Retrieved from:  htt p:/ /www.sust ain.ubc.ca/si tes/sus tain.ubc.ca/file s/s eedsli brar y/Group %20 4%20S cenario %204%202010.F INA L_.pd f  UBC Food System Project 2012 | Baseline Inventory of the UBC Food System: Socially and Ecologically Responsible Food Options and Action Plan  28 | P a g e    Bikewa ys and Maps. (20 11). City of Vancouver. Retrieved Mar ch 28, 201 2, from htt p:/ /vancouver.ca/en gs vcs/t ransport/c ycli n g/bi kewa ys/i ndex .htm   Bowen, K., N yber g, H., Chow, D., Ruegg, J ., Bro wn - J ohn, E., Yuen, K., Fili p, O., Black, J . (2008). Ze ro Waste SFU. Simon Fraser University. R etrieved Mar 28, 2012, from htt ps :/ /dl -web.dropbox .com/ get/ lfs %20paper/ ZeroW asteSF U.pdf? w=83b0beea    Campus and Comm unit y Planning. (2011). Inspirations and aspirations: UBC sustainability strategy 2006-2010 final report. R etrieved from htt p:/ /www.sust ain.ubc.ca/si tes/sus tain.ubc .ca/ files/uploads/pdfs/P lans%20and%20Reports/ Inspi rati ons%20and%20Aspir a ti ons_Final%20Report_2 011.pdf   Cheng. B., Cheuk, J., La u, S., Liu, S., Ngan, A., Uy, J . (2011). Waste beh aviour in UBC food s ervi ces residenc e dini ng hall s. Social Ecological Economic Development Studies Library, University of British Columbia . Retrieved from:  htt p:/ /www.sust ain.ubc.ca/si tes/sus tain.ubc.ca/file s/s eedsli brar y/ LFS %204 50%20W aste%20Behaviour%20in%20UBC %20 R esidence% 20 Dining%2 0Hall s%20to%20c IR cle. pdf   Goril la Miss ion Statement. (2010). Gorilla Composting. R etrieve Mar 29, 2012, from htt p:/ /goril la.mcgil l.ca/m iss ionoverview.php    One Da y Vancouv er. (20 08). City of Vancouver. R etrieved Mar 30, 2012, from htt p:/ /vancouver.ca/oned a y/i ndex .htm   Rainwater, E., N ystrom, M. (2010). Universit y of Ore gon Clim ate Acti on Plan. Office of Sustainability. R etrieved from  htt p:/ /sus tainabil it y.uore gon. edu/si tes/sus tainabil it y.uo re go n.edu/fil es/os -reports/Univ%20%20O re gon%20Cl im ate%20A cti on%20P lanl.pdf    Roberston, G., Bo yd, D. R., Coad y, L., Col e, L., Cooli ng, K., Har court, M., Ho, C., Holl and, M., Lau, A., Nowlan, L., Price, G., Qua yl e, M., Reim er, A., Sa frata, R., Suz uki, D., Umedal y, M. S., Vrooman, T. (2009). Van couver 20 20 A  bright gr een future. City of Vancouver. R etrie ved from htt p:/ /vancouver.ca/ gr een estcit y/P DF/V ancouve r2 020 - ABrightG reen Futur e .pdf   Statist ics Canada. 2008. Waste Management Industry Survey: Business and Government Sectors 2008 . (Ott awa: Statist ics Canad a, 2008), Catalo gue no. 16F0023X, 14.   The Confer ence Boa rd of Canada. (2011 ). Municipal waste generation. R etrieved from http: // www.conf eren cebo ard.c a /hcp/details/ environment/ muni cipal - waste - gener ati on.aspx #_ftnref3   UBC Food System Project 2012 | Baseline Inventory of the UBC Food System: Socially and Ecologically Responsible Food Options and Action Plan  29 | P a g e   UBC Publi c Affai rs. (20 11). UBC receives first ‘gold’ in new university sustainability ratings. R etrieved from htt p:/ /www.publi caffairs.ubc. ca/2011/ 08/19/ ubc - re ceives - can ada% E2%80%99s - first -%E2%80%98 gold%E2 % 80%9 9 - i n - new - universit y - sust ain abil it y - r ati ngs/   UBC Publi c Affai rs. (20 11). UBC named Canada’s first fair trade campus. R etrieved from htt p:/ /www.pu bli caffairs. ubc.ca/2011/ 05/05/ ubc - n amed - c anada %E2%80% 99s - first - fair - trad e -campus /   Visi on 2020. (2012). Mc Gill . Sustainability. R etrieved Mar 29, 2012, from htt p:/ /www.mcgil l.ca/sus tainabil it y/ visi on2020     Waste. (2012). McGil l. Sustainability. R etrieved Mar 29, 2012, from htt p:/ /www.mcgil l.ca/sus tainabil it y/ campus - a cti on/waste    Waste Init iatives. (2012). Simon Fraser University. R etrieved Mar 28, 2012 , from htt p:/ /www.sfu.ca/sac/i nit iatives/burnab y/w aste.ht ml               ►APPENDICES   Appendix A Samples of photos taken for disposal bin signage (from left to right): coffee cup sleeves, poutine container with lid, caesar salad clamshell, gravy container with lid, salad dressing container with lid and tray liner. The complete set of photos is not included  UBC Food System Project 2012 | Baseline Inventory of the UBC Food System: Socially and Ecologically Responsible Food Options and Action Plan  30 | P a g e    Appendix B Signage design: (top left) colour-coded with sample pictures attached to template; (top right) colour coded without pictures attached; (bottom left) final design with inclusion of paper recycling; (bottom right) sample pictures to be used with final design (bottom left)   Appendix C Table-top signage design            Appendix D Survey used to collect primary data  UBC Food System Project 2012 | Baseline Inventory of the UBC Food System: Socially and Ecologically Responsible Food Options and Action Plan  31 | P a g e    Appendix E UBC Food System Project 2012 | Baseline Inventory of the UBC Food System: Socially and Ecologically Responsible Food Options and Action Plan  32 | P a g e   Temporary signage design (left to right): garbage, compost and recycle; (bottom) implementation of temporary signs at Triple O’s    Appendix F   Appendix G UBC Food System Project 2012 | Baseline Inventory of the UBC Food System: Socially and Ecologically Responsible Food Options and Action Plan   33 | P a g e   Appendix H   Appendix I      3  1  13  3  2  16  0  1  35  0  3  36  0510152025303540Garbage Recycling CompostingNumber of Customers Frequency of Correct Sorting in Each Bin 03 /06/2 01203 /08/2 01203 /20/2 01203 /22/2 012Pre-Intervention Post-Intervention 051015202530354045BurgerWrapperColdBeverageCupColdBeverageLidFriesContainerFries Liner KetchupContainerNapkin Straw StrawWrapperTray LinerQuantity of Item Item Frequency of Top 10 Items Most Improperly Sorted 03 /06/2 01203 /08/2 01203 /20/2 01203 /22/2 012Pre-Intervention Post-Intervention UBC Food System Project 2012 | Baseline Inventory of the UBC Food System: Socially and Ecologically Responsible Food Options and Action Plan  34 | P a g e   Appendix J (Baseline Inventory List)    

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