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Triple bottom line assessment of sustainable transport options Sharifikhah, Maziar; Lo, Roger; Sambu, Meredith; Bres, Erika Nov 22, 2012

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UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report       Triple Bottom Line Assessment of Sustainable Transport Options Maziar Sharifikhah, Roger Lo, Meredith Sambu, Erika Bres  University of British Columbia APSC 261 November 22, 2012           Disclaimer: “UBC SEEDS provides students with the opportunity to share the findings of their studies, as well as their opinions, conclusions and recommendations with the UBC community. The reader should bear in mind that this is a student project/report and is not an official document of UBC. Furthermore readers should bear in mind that these reports may not reflect the current status of activities at UBC. We urge you to contact the research persons mentioned in a report or the SEEDS Coordinator about the current status of the subject matter of a project/report”.  1    Triple Bottom Line Assessment of Sustainable Transport Options Stakeholder: UBC Farm – Veronik Campbell  November 22nd, 2012  Maziar Sharifikhah Roger Lo Meredith Sambu Erika Bres                 2   Contents 1.0 A Triple Bottom Line Assessment for Transportation Options for UBC Farm .................................... 3 2.0 Car Sharing and Car Rental ................................................................................................................. 3 2.1 Car rental............................................................................................................................................. 4 2.2 Car sharing .......................................................................................................................................... 4 2.2.1 Benefits of Car Sharing ..................................................................................................................... 4 2.2.2 Downsides of Car Sharing ................................................................................................................ 5 2.2.3 Options for Car Sharing Services in Vancouver ................................................................................ 5 2.3 Conclusion of Car Rental and Car Sharing ......................................................................................... 10 3.0 The Diesel Truck Option .................................................................................................................... 11 3.1 Environmental Factors of a Diesel Truck .......................................................................................... 11 3.2 Economic Factors of a Diesel Truck .................................................................................................. 12 3.3 Maintenance of a Diesel Truck.......................................................................................................... 13 3.4 Conclusion for the Option of a Diesel Truck ..................................................................................... 13 4.0 Introduction to a Biodiesel Truck ...................................................................................................... 14 4.1 Environmental Social and Economic Factors of a Biodiesel Truck .................................................... 14 4.2 Economically ..................................................................................................................................... 15 4.2.1 Oil Prices......................................................................................................................................... 15 4.2.2 Manufacture of Biodiesel (*optional at UBC Farm) ....................................................................... 16 4.2.3 Maintenance Costs ........................................................................................................................ 17 4.3 Socially .............................................................................................................................................. 17 4.4 Environmentally ................................................................................................................................ 18 4.4.1 Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Emissions ..................................................................................................... 19 4.4.2 Life Cycle Air Emissions .................................................................................................................. 21 4.4.3 Cold Weather ................................................................................................................................. 22 4.4  Concluding Remarks for the Biodiesel Truck Option ....................................................................... 23 5.0 Conclusion ......................................................................................................................................... 24 References .............................................................................................................................................. 25  3  1.0 A Triple Bottom Line Assessment for Transportation Options for UBC Farm The UBC farm truck is a 1996 Toyota Tacoma and is nearing the end of its life cycle. There are numerous sustainable options to replace this truck and leave a good impact environmentally, economically and socially for the farm. The UBC farm has a reputation for sustainability through its wide array of organic crops and sustainable practices when harvesting them. The truck they use should reflect these positive change they are trying produce for the planet. For this project, UBC Farm has asked students enrolled in the APSC 261 course to consider several options with regards to the purchase of a new truck to be used to make deliveries to restaurants which use UBC farm products, carry carts full of vegetables to campus every Wednesday for the Wednesday Market, run the occasional farm errand in town, and hauling heavy farm equipment. Due to the strenuous tasks the truck will undergo for the duration of its life, the farm only expects and budgets for the truck to work for three years. The farm has recommended three types options to be assessed before they make their final decision for a new truck. A regular used diesel truck, a truck that runs on biodiesel fuel or a car rental or car sharing program. Our team members set out to describe all three options to the farm in order for an informed decision to be made. We looked at the environmental impact of the decision, the feasibility of the decision economically and the convenience and efficiency this kind of option might bring for the farm.   2.0 Car Sharing and Car Rental Car sharing and car rental share some characteristics, they are both community involvement programs aimed at saving the consumer money but also limiting usage to each individual consumer and sharing the vehicles just as the name implies. This can bring economic benefits because even though these programs are for profit the truck UBC farm uses is not used daily. 4  The pattern of use is also worth taking note as less of these trucks are being produced as they being shared by the collective community, so even though the truck life will be shorter it will not be shorter proportionally to the number of people using them resulting in a net positive environmental benefit.  2.1 Car rental Car rental is the practice of going to a car rental agency and renting a vehicle for a predetermined amount of time. This fashion of obtaining a car is primarily used for vacations and to move heavy equipment such as furniture. Normally there are no start up fees associated with this method and for that reason this tends to be the best option in the very short term This can prove costly even after the first month, even at low cost rentals in the summer time will range from $150-$250 for three days (the amount of time needed) for trucks. These trucks need to picked up and put back at specific rental agency locations. Frequently cars cannot be booked any days in advance and certain vehicles may not always be available. For the farm there may be some issues with reliability as they cannot skip days to the market. Environmentally car rental is no different than owning a regular gas powered car, as almost all cars provided by rental agencies are gas powered. Though because more people are using a single car this does decrease manufacturing needs to produce more vehicles. Car sharing has this same benefit along with numerous economic benefits that traditional car rental does not have.  2.2 Car sharing 2.2.1 Benefits of Car Sharing  Car sharing programs are companies that own a wide variety of vehicles in many locations around Vancouver that customers can borrow at will. Some of the benefits to this style of transportation are that you don’t own the vehicle, which gets rid of maintenance fees, the 8      Here is the “Home area” in Vancouver:     Zipcar: http://www.zipcar.com/  Have cars, trucks, and SUVs  Cars don’t have fixed locations, so there could be less choice if all trucks are far away  75$ one-time fee to join, 30$ annual fee  Up to 200 km/day free  Joining fees 9  One-time acct. setup $75  Each driver annual fee $30  Vancouver rates from* Monday – Friday Hourly rates from $8  7-to-7 Business $53  Full day$63  What's included Gas (they give you a card to use to fill it up) Insurance  Up to 200 kilometers per day   You can book a vehicle in advance Here is a Map of the Zipcar Neighbourhoods, however, the cars move around semi freely:    10  Source: http://www.zipcar.com/vancouver/business/find-cars  This can be used to find where vehicles are at specific times  2.3 Conclusion of Car Rental and Car Sharing  After checking through the different companies I think that MODO is the best option, because they have a variety of vehicles available, you can book in advance, and they have special rates for non-profit or profit businesses. They seem to be the most flexible and user friendly choice as well.  When using a rental service, in this case specifically Modo, these are the steps you would need to take. First, sign up. There is a deposit (which you will get back at the termination of the contract) and a membership fee, and you will need to decide on the number of drivers to register. On the days that a specific vehicle is needed, it would be wise to book in advance. The vehicle can be picked up at its designated location, used for the time needed, and returned later. The main issue with a car sharing program is the inconvenience of picking up and dropping off the vehicle. This could be solved by employees picking them up on the way to work, from wherever they are commuting from. If this is not an option, there is a truck located relatively near campus, and a few vehicles kept right on campus. The other issue with car sharing is that the vehicles need to be available for others, so booking one specific vehicle at the same time every week is not the best for the company; however there are lots of different trucks around, as well as mini vans with Stow and go seating that can be substituted occasionally. Aside from these two convenience issues car sharing is a very good option from an environmental and economic point of view. 11  3.0 The Diesel Truck Option  There are plentiful options in the open market for used cars. This gives us and more importantly the farm flexibility in choosing a safe, environmentally friendly and reliable option. We also need to consider as any car owner would the cost of maintenance incurred after purchasing the used truck. A secondary investigation has been done to understand the implication of buying a truck in this way.  Some of the main positive tenents 3.1 Environmental Factors of a Diesel Truck According to a new study at CICERO, both gasoline and diesel give a net climate warming effect (Bond 1982). The study shows that diesel causes more warming than gasoline in the first decade after emission into the atmosphere, while gasoline causes most warming after that period. When the emphasis is on more long-term climate changes, diesel clearly comes out best due to lower CO2 emissions per kilometer driven over the entire life cycle of the vehicle. The reason for the difference between diesel and gasoline is in the composition of their emissions. We know from before that passenger cars with diesel engines emit, depending on their condition, about 20 percent less of the greenhouse gas carbon dioxide (CO2) than its gasoline counterpart. However, other than CO2, the exhaust contains a number of other components such as nitrogen oxide (NO), carbon monoxide (CO), and particles. With the exception of CO, emissions of these components are generally higher from diesel cars, and lead to lower air quality and negative health effects. But the particles CO and NO also have important climate effects. The emission of NO not only contributes to the formation of ozone that has a climate warming effect, but it also reduces the amount of the greenhouse gas methane, which results in a cooling effect. Soot particles from diesel engines absorb solar radiation and cause warming.  12  According to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), because diesel has a higher carbon content, it also emits more carbon dioxide per gallon of fuel consumed when compared to gasoline. However, the higher fuel economy of diesel reduces the amount of greenhouse gas emissions over the car’s lifetime. There are also certain fuel additives, such as smoke suppressants and detergent additives that have been developed to decrease the effect of diesel fuel on the environment. Smoke suppressants are organic compounds that reduce the amount of soot emitted by diesel engines, but conversely also increase the number of ultra-fine particles released into the atmosphere, as well as overall sulfate emissions. Detergent additives are used to keep engines cleaner by removing oil deposits on fuel injectors, which also increases efficiency of the engine. 3.2 Economic Factors of a Diesel Truck The benefits of using diesel fuel include higher fuel economy and lower costs generally. According to a study recently conducted by Carnegie Mellon’s Tepper School of Business, diesel cars are generally a better value than gasoline cars. Cars that use diesel fuel have higher residual value, which is an estimate of an object’s future worth. In some cases, the researchers observed residual values up to 30 percent higher for diesel, which indicates much lower depreciation. Diesel cars’ higher fuel economy also leads to lower vehicle operating costs. Since diesel fuel is more efficient (due to its higher density), each trip will require less fuel and will reduce money spent on fuel.  They are lots of options for used diesel trucks when searching the market, this ensures that the farm can find almost exactly what they are looking for. Narrowing the results down, we can find based solely on fuel efficiency Toyata trucks tend to perform the best, the Tacoma series in 13  particular. It is also the main selling point of the Toyota Tacoma, but with the most fuel economy we can infer it also has the least waste attributed to the atmosphere. The weight of the car structure is light and horse power is absolutely enough for delivery the vegetables and haul heavy equipment while we chose this truck for its fuel efficiency on the road.  3.3 Maintenance of a Diesel Truck The mileage is another important factor that we have to consider during the process of selecting the optimum truck. The farm has budgeted the truck to last 3 years therefore mileage is an issue for them to consider as it correlates with the life cycle of the truck.  By Bond's "Lemon's model" we can insinuate that if they are looking for a truck that will last them the amount of time they would like and they are looking in the 2001 models for the price point, they should want no more than 230 000km on the vehicle to leave the greatest possibility of it lasting 3 years.  The transmission of the truck is a worthy point of discussion as well. Doing some primary research we can find that on average trucks that use a standard transmission tend to cost less used or new. A standard transmission may also factor into convenience as starting it in cold weather can be easier and being in low gear generates more torque for when the car has to go through dirt or mud. Finding certified drivers may be a potential downsides but as long as the talent is available a standard transmission is the right decision for a diesel truck. 3.4 Conclusion for the Option of a Diesel Truck A diesel truck brings familiarity, it is an old mode of transportation and many see its merits thus its continued use. Based on environmental research we can see its releasing more CO2 into the atmosphere but gains ground because of its fuel efficiency over its gasoline counterpart. Maintenance for the truck doesn't need to be a grave concern as it does not give this option a large advantage or disadvantage over other trucks, through mileage and other basic checkups we 14  can assure that maintenance is kept to a minimum. In total value diesel looks like it comes on top with many sources claiming the entire life cycle can be up to 30% cheaper than a similar gasoline truck. Environmentally and economically we can follow that a diesel truck in the end is a completely viable option for the UBC farm.  4.0 Introduction to a Biodiesel Truck  Currently UBC Farm is using a Toyota Tacoma (1996) to carry out their errands. As the truck is gaining years, UBC Farm is looking into the option of buying an old diesel vehicle and converting it to biodiesel. This option shall be evaluated using triple bottom line assessment.  4.1 Environmental Social and Economic Factors of a Biodiesel Truck  With the rising cost and limited supply of petroleum fossil fuels, the world is looking for a solution to solve for the fuel demands of today’s society. Enter biodiesel, which can be used in most diesel engines since 1994. This allows for the use of biodiesel fuel by a regular diesel truck. This reduces extra costs to maintenance and servicing that would be otherwise encountered. However, such blends tend to be low blends of biodiesel such as B5 (Biodiesel Conversion Simplified).   Biodiesel can be blended and used in many different concentrations, including B100 (pure biodiesel), B20 (20% biodiesel, 80% petroleum diesel), B5 (5% biodiesel, 95% petroleum diesel) and B2 (2% biodiesel, 98% petroleum diesel) (Alternative Fuels Data Center).  15  Brewing of biodiesel, in a biodiesel processor, can be done from one’s garage. Organic Mechanic offers biodiesel processors and all the necessary equipment - filters, heaters, testing equipment and pumps – that aid in fuel independency (Biodiesel Conversion Simplified).  4.2 Economically  Biodiesel is a domestically produced, clean-burning, renewable substitute for petroleum diesel. Using biodiesel as a vehicle fuel increases energy security, improves public health and the environment, and provides safety benefits (Alternative Fuels Data Center).  4.2.1 Oil Prices  One of the main concerns in further usage of biodiesel is the economic viability of its production. A few years ago, biodiesel unit price was relatively higher than that of petroleum-derived diesel fuel. One of the major reasons for this difference in prices lies in the social implications that come about from the production of biodiesel. Crops used for human consumption also hold the potential to be used for biodiesel production. However, currently, due to the dramatic increase of crude mineral oil price, cost of biodiesel is not too far from diesel price, as can be seen from Table 1 below (Pinzi, S.).  Fuel Price (USD/t), Sept 2007 Price (USD/t), Sept 2008 diesel fuel 733 1017 16  Fuel Price (USD/t), Sept 2007 Price (USD/t), Sept 2008 RME1 (B100) 1020−1060 1415 SME2 (B99) 850−865 1185 PME3 (B99) 780−850 990 Table 1. Price of Biodiesel from Different Raw Materials and Diesel Fuel (Pinzi, S.)  Currently, regular diesel prices range from $1.22 CAD to $1.80 CAD in the general British Columbia area (n.d.). The price of biodiesel blend B100 in Vancouver is $1.68 CAD and is only available through Vancouver Biodiesel Co-op located on 360 Industrial Ave, Vancouver. (The Little Pump that Could).  4.2.2 Manufacture of Biodiesel (*optional at UBC Farm)  The Alma Mater Society (AMS) at the University of British Columbia (UBC) have already set forth on trying to produce their own biodiesel with the help members of the Chemical and biological Engineering Sustainability Club. The project is still at its early stages however, with the purchase of a biodiesel truck by UBC Farm, this project may well be underway (Butler, J.).  Manufacturing costs and raw feedstock prices are the main economic criteria to consider                                                           1 RME: rapeseed oil methyl ester 2 SME: soybean oil methyl ester 3 PME: palm oil methyl ester 17  for biodiesel production to compete with diesel fuel. Manufacturing costs of biodiesel include direct costs for oil extraction, reagents, operating supplies, and manpower, as well as indirect costs related to insurance and storage (Pinzi, S.).   Moreover, several studies have identified that the price of feedstock is by far one of the most significant factors affecting the economic viability of biodiesel manufacture. In fact, approximately 70% − 95% of total biodiesel production cost arises from the cost of the raw material. Thus, to produce a competitive biodiesel, the feedstock price is a factor that needs to be taken into consideration (Pinzi, S.).  4.2.3 Maintenance Costs  As most regular diesel trucks, manufactured after 1994, are able to use lower blends of biodiesel fuel (B5 and B10), maintenance and service costs do not differ much between the use of either type of fueled vehicle. This price changes from service point to service point and also on the damage to the vehicle, if any.      4.3 Socially  The major obstacle for large-scale adoption of biodiesel from vegetable oils is the production of sufficient amounts of oilseed crops without significantly affecting food supply and cost. To reach 18  this goal, researchers, industries and some governments have put a lot of effort proposing and developing alternative sources to produce biofuels. A large proportion of these efforts are focused on conversion of lignocellulosic4 feedstocks to ethanol (second-generation fuels) (Pinzi, S.).   Moreover, there is currently a social controversy over biofuels produced from energy crops5 that are primarily used for feeding purposes. In case the that scientific community eventually finds an efficient technology to produce alcohol from agricultural pruning and forest residues that definitely will not compete with human food consumption, this will provide us with an insufficient quantity of biofuels. Plantations of trees to process biomass into alcohol may be needed, leading to the same social alarm caused by the use of energy crops (first-generation fuels) instead of crops for food (Pinzi, S.).  However, having a biodiesel fueled truck on UBC Farm encourages the surrounding community to also take note of their carbon foot print. This is an important step towards catering for a better future and healthy generations to come.  4.4 Environmentally  The biggest advantage that biodiesel has over petroleum diesel is its environmental friendliness                                                           4 Lignocellulosic biomass refers to plant biomass that is composed of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. The carbohydrate polymers (cellulose and hemicelluloses) are tightly bound to the lignin. Lignocellulosic biomass can be grouped into four main categories: agricultural residues (including corn stover and sugarcane bagasse), dedicated energy crops, wood residues (including sawmill and paper mill discards), and municipal paper waste (Lignocellulosic biomass). 5 An agricultural or tree crop grown for the specific purpose of being converted into heat, power, or transportation fuels (Glossary) 19  (Demirbas, Ayhan.).   4.4.1 Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Emissions   Table 2 and Figure 1 summarize CO2 flows from the total life cycles of biodiesel and petroleum diesel and the total CO2 released at the tailpipe for each fuel. The dominant source of CO2 for both the petroleum diesel and the biodiesel life cycles is the combustion of fuel in the vehicle (Sheehan, J.).     Figure 1. Comparison of Net CO2 Life Cycle Emissions for Petroleum Diesel and Biodiesel Blends (Sheehan, J.)  20   Table 2. Tailpipe Contribution to Total Life Cycle CO2 for Petroleum Diesel and Biodiesel (g CO2/bhp-h) (Sheehan, J.)  For petroleum diesel, CO2 emitted from the tailpipe represents 86.54% of the total CO2 emitted across the entire life cycle of the fuel. Most remaining CO2 comes from emissions at the oil refinery, which contribute 9.6% of the total CO2 emissions (Sheehan, J.).  For biodiesel, 84.43% of the CO2 emissions occur at the tailpipe. The remaining CO2 comes almost equally from soybean agriculture, soybean crushing, and soy oil conversion to biodiesel. Figure 2 shows the effect of biodiesel blend levels on CO2 emissions (Sheehan, J.).   Figure 2. Effect of Biodiesel Blend level on CO2 Emisions (Sheehan, J.)  21  4.4.2 Life Cycle Air Emissions   Figure 3. Life Cycle Air Emissions for B100 and B20 Compared to Petroleum Diesel Life Cycle Air Emissions (Sheehan, J.)  The Figure above summarizes the differences in life cycle air emissions for B100 and B20 versus petroleum diesel fuel (Sheehan, J.). From these results it is observed that Biodiesel Blends B20 and B100 produce less of Carbon Monoxide (CO), Total Particulate Matter (TPM), Hydrofluoric acid (HF), Sulfur Oxides (SOx) and Methane (CH4) than petroleum diesel. However,   Nitrogen Oxides (NOx), Hydrochloric acid (HCl) and Total 22  Hydrocarbons (THC) are produced more by vehicles operating on biodiesel as opposed to petroleum diesel.  4.4.3 Cold Weather   The cold performance characteristics of biodiesel blends (B5, B10 and B20) of six different types of biodiesel and diesel were investigated. The startability and driveability were tested with the passenger car and the light duty truck at -16°C and -20°C. The results of the cold performance of the biodiesel fuel blends are shown in Table 3 (Kim, J. K.).  23   Table 3. Results of Cold Weather performance of three difference biodiesel blends (Kim, J. K.)  From the table above, we are presented with a setback to biodiesel. This setback is more so present in smaller vehicles but may still occur in bigger vehicles. The empty spaces also denote a failed engine start attempt.    4.4  Concluding Remarks for the Biodiesel Truck Option  24  The advantages of biodiesel as diesel fuel are its portability, ready availability, renewability, lower sulfur and aromatic content, and higher biodegradability. The main disadvantages of biodiesel as diesel fuel are its higher viscosity, lower energy content, higher nitrogen oxide emission, lower engine speed and power, injector coking, engine compatibility with higher blends of biodiesel, high price, and higher engine wear (Balat, M.). There is also the issue surrounding the potential for biodiesel to compete with our current food supplies.  The above review focuses on three main criteria that may influence UBC Farm’s decision in the choice of truck they make. Based on this review, a more modern diesel truck would suffice as that would allow for a more environmentally friendly fuel as well as guarantee engine start during cold weather climate. 5.0 Conclusion The UBC farm system is an extraordinary landmark in sustainability and an example to be followed. In order for future growth and expansion the right decisions need to be made for them to still claim to be leaders in farming sustainability. Our team has outlined potential decisions and factors that will play into each of them. They will need to look at economic feasibility, environmental impact and other factors outlined in this report. Before UBC can make a decision they need to understand their own needs and categorize them by importance in order to take the benefits and faults of their own options and successfully choose their preferred transportation method.     25  References (n.d.). In Vancouver Gas Prices. Retrieved November 22, 2012, from http://www.vancouvergasprices.com/index.aspx?fuel=D  Alternative Fuels Data Center (2012, October 30). In U.S Department of Enegery. Retrieved October 30, 2012, from http://www.afdc.energy.gov/fuels/biodiesel_blends.html  Balat, M., & Balat, H. (2010). Progress in biodiesel processing. In Applied Energy (Vol. 87, pp. 1815-1835). Trabzon, Turkey: Sila Science and Energy Unlimited Company. Retrieved November 12, 2012, from UBC Library (ISSN 0306-2619).  Biodiesel Conversion Simplified (2010, March 12). In Cars Direct. Retrieved November 12, 2012, from http://www.carsdirect.com/green-cars/biodiesel-car-benefits-buyers-guide-and-fuel-conversion-info  Butler, J. (n.d.). CHBE Sustainability Biodiesel. In AMS Sustainability. Retrieved November 17, 2012, from http://amssustainability.ca/2012/02/03/chbe-sustainability-biodiesel-january-update/  Demirbas, Ayhan. "Importance of biodiesel as transportation fuel." Energy Policy. Vol. 35. Trabzon: Sila Science, 2007. 4661-70. UBC Library. UBC Library. Web. 12 Nov. 2012.  Glossary (n.d.). In Forest* A *Syst. Retrieved November 13, 2012, from http://www.forestasyst.org/glossary.html  Janaun, J., & Ellis, N. (2010). Perspectives on biodiesel as a sustainable fuel. In Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews (Vol. 14, pp. 1312-1320). Retrieved November 12, 2012, from UBC Library (ISSN 1364-0321).  Kim, J. K., Yim, E. S., Jeon, C. H., Jung, C. S., & Han, B. H. (2011, July 6). Cold Performance of Various Biodiesel Fuel Blends at Low Temperatures. International Journal of Automotive Technology, 13(2), 293-300. doi:10.1007/s12239−012−0027−2  Lignocellulosic biomass (2012, June 3). In Wikipedia. Retrieved November 12, 2012, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lignocellulosic  Pinzi, S., I. L. Garcia, F. J. Lopez-Gimenez, M. D. Luque de Castro, and G. Dorado. "The Ideal Vegetable Oil-based Biodiesel Composition: A Review of Social, Economical and Technical Implications." Energy & Fuels. Vol. 23. N.p.: American Chemical Society, 2009. 2325-41. UBC Library. UBC Library. Web. Retrieved November 13, 2012 from http://pubs.acs.org/doi/full/10.1021/ef801098a  Sheehan, J., Camobreco, V., Duffield, J., Graboski, M., & Shapouri, H. (1998, May). An Overview of Biodiesel and Petroleum Diesel Life Cycles. Retrieved November 12, 2012, from http://www.nrel.gov/vehiclesandfuels/npbf/pdfs/24772.pdf  The Little Pump that Could (n.d.). In Vancouver Biodiesel. Retrieved November 17, 2012, from 26  https://vancouverbiodiesel.org/  Ulusik, A. (2011). Advantages and disadvantages of biodiesels. ENERGY EDUCATION SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY PART A-ENERGY SCIENCE AND RESEARCH, 28(1), 221-226.  

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