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Re-envisioning the UBC Botanical Garden Chen, Fangqing; Hajen, Christian; Lee, Adrian; Miller, Jordan; Wong, Jonathan; Yau, Linus Nov 28, 2013

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 UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student ReportAdrian Lee, Christan Hajen, Fangqing Chen, Jonathan Wong, Jordan Miller, Linus YauRe-envisioning the UBC Botanical Garden Conceptual Design ReportCIVL 445November 28, 2013University of British Columbia Disclaimer: “UBC SEEDS provides students with the opportunity to share the findings of their studies, as well as their opinions, conclusions and recommendations with the UBC community. The reader should bear in mind that this is a student project/report and is not an official document of UBC. Furthermore readers should bear in mind that these reports may not reflect the current status of activities at UBC. We urge you to contact the research persons mentioned in a report or the SEEDS Coordinator about the current status of the subject matter of a project/report”.  November 28, 2013  Siegfried F. Stiemer, Dr.-Ing. (Ph.D) Professor of Civil Engineering University of British Columbia 6250 Applied Science Lane Vancouver BC, Canada  V6T 1Z4  Dear Dr. Stiemer: RE: CIVL 445 - Conceptual Design Report Please find attached our report titled Re-envisioning the UBC Botanical Garden, as part of the CIVL 445 course deliverables. The purpose of this report is to present a conceptual design for redeveloping the UBC Botanical Garden with a justification and in-depth analysis of each component. It also encompasses an estimated implementation plan and cost for the entire project. We hope you find this report satisfactory. Regards,  Group #15 Enclosures (1) Copy of requested report, “Re-envisioning the UBC Botanical Garden”    Re-envisioning	the	UBC	Botanical	Garden	Conceptual Design Report   Prepared by: UBC CIVL 445 Group #15 Fangqing Chen Chris?an Hajen Adrian Lee Jordan Miller Jonathan Wong Linus Yau  Submi?ed: November 28, 2013  RE-ENVISIONING THE UBC BOTANICAL GARDEN  UBC CIVL 445 GROUP #15    PAGE I OF 35 EXECUTIVE	SUMMARY	The UBC Botanical Garden & Centre for Plant Research occupies 78 acres of land situated on the southwest corner of the UBC campus. It is the home to a collec?on of over 12 000 plants, including numerous rare and endangered species, represen?ng many regions around the world. This makes it the 2nd most diverse botanical garden in North America (UBC Botanical Garden and Centre for Plant Research, 2013b).  Improvement of the UBC Botanical Garden is required to increase the annual volume of visitors to a level that can provide funds to con?nue research and sustainability. To achieve this task, six different design components are proposed to be implemented over several phases. The six conceptual design components are as follows. 1. Direc?onal and scien?fic cataloguing signage 2. Moon Tunnel interior upgrades 3. Roo?op rainwater collec?on and distribu?on system 4. Stormwater drainage system 5. Greenhouse-café bistro and lounge 6. Elevated pedestrian walkway The first phase of the redevelopment plan will improve upon the visitor experience, and increase visitor engagement, by enhancing signage and aesthe?cs in the garden. The combina?on of thick foliage and low-strung signage in the west por?on of the garden makes its trails challenging to navigate for visitors. Enhancing the direc?onal signage and iden?fying garden landmarks will greatly contribute to the navigability of the garden. In addi?on, current plant signage only presents a taxonomical name, which has li?le meaning to most visitors. New scien?fic signage with improvements made to graphics and descrip?ons — with the possibility of interac?ve elements — would make the garden experience more educa?onal and engaging for visitors. The Moon Tunnel used to connect the east and west por?ons of the botanical garden is aesthe?cally displeasing when compared to the rest of the garden. Since the tunnel is unavoidable, due to the layout of the garden trail route, it is worthwhile to provide some upgrades. By simply covering the corrugated steel walls with wood, plants and signage, and by improving the interior ligh?ng, the ambiance and safety within the tunnel can be greatly improved. These upgrades are inexpensive to implement and will improve the overall garden experience. The stormwater drainage system in the botanical garden is currently inadequate to handle Vancouver’s rainfall condi?ons. Thus, a new subsurface drainage system will be installed along with a new gu?er system for the pathways in the garden. This system will use a series of catchment basins, perforated pipes, and concrete channels to redirect precipita?on back to the exis?ng stormwater drainage system. The stormwater drainage system may be retrofi?ed as a stormwater collec?on system in the future allowing the garden to reuse the water in its daily opera?ons. To address the current issue of excessive use of potable water in the botanical garden, a new rainwater collec?on system will be built to reduce the demand. The rainwater will be collected on the garden pavilion RE-ENVISIONING THE UBC BOTANICAL GARDEN  UBC CIVL 445 GROUP #15    PAGE II OF 35 roof next to the vegetable garden and stored in plas?c drums adjacent to the building. This will allow for collected rainwater to be piped into the nearby vegetable garden for the plants. The cost of implemen?ng a rainwater collec?on system is very low, and will yield huge benefits in addressing the sustainability of the garden. The greenhouse-café bistro and lounge consists of several glass domes which, with their unique architecture, will be iconic to the botanical garden. The glass domes will serve the purpose of plant conserva?on, by crea?ng a place to expand the floral collec?on with new species. It will also provide a place for visitors to relax and purchase coffee and snacks, with quiet study areas for students. Ul?mately, the greenhouse-café will bring in more revenue for the garden to support its mission in scien?fic research. The establishment will provide a comfortable environment which will a?ract students from the nearby campus area and likely increase overall a?endance. A new elevated pedestrian walkway will create a drama?c change to the west side of the UBC campus, as well as address three major concerns: safety, accessibility, and publicity. The elevated pedestrian walkway will be a single span steel truss bridge which will be both func?onal and aesthe?cally pleasing. It will create a circular loop which completes the garden tour and provide a safer pathway to cross SW Marine Drive. The façade of the MSE wall will include a UBC logo and welcome message for visitors arriving to the UBC campus. The six different design components will be implemented through various phases over 20 years. The work on the signage can commence immediately, as it is a simple upgrade. In the third year, upgrades to the tunnel can be undertaken, and by the fi?h year, the rainwater collec?on and stormwater drainage systems can be implemented. A?er the more essen?al upgrades have been completed in the garden, work on building the greenhouse-café can begin around year 10. Lastly, construc?on of the elevated pedestrian walkway is planned for year 17, and expected to be completed by year 20. Although the proposed plans to upgrade the botanical garden are ambi?ous, they are also financially feasible. The financial cost to implement all these conceptual design components range greatly. For example, the costs of upgrading the signage and Moon Tunnel, are rela?vely low as compared to large scale projects such as the greenhouse-café and elevated pedestrian walkway. The financial requirements of the projects are high, however, with proper planning, will be feasible procure. Overall, the conceptual design to re-envision the UBC Botanical Garden addresses the issues of sustainability to promote further steady growth into the future, thus allowing the garden to expand and diversify its collec?on. Accessibility to the garden is improved and the visitor experience is enhanced to promote educa?on in the garden. The proposed upgrades will establish the presence of the botanical garden on the UBC campus and provide a des?na?on for the community.   RE-ENVISIONING THE UBC BOTANICAL GARDEN  UBC CIVL 445 GROUP #15    PAGE III OF 35 TABLE	OF	CONTENTS	LIST OF FIGURES ........................................................................................................................................... IV 1 INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................................................... 1 1.1 Purpose ......................................................................................................................................... 1 1.2 Background ................................................................................................................................... 1 1.3 Descrip?on .................................................................................................................................... 2 1.4 Scope ............................................................................................................................................. 2 1.5 Stakeholders .................................................................................................................................. 3 2 CONCEPTUTAL DESIGN COMPONENTS ............................................................................................... 5 2.1 Direc?onal and Scien?fic Cataloguing Signage ............................................................................. 5 2.2 Moon Tunnel Interior Upgrades .................................................................................................... 6 2.3 Roo?op Rainwater Collec?on and Distribu?on System ................................................................ 7 2.4 Stormwater Drainage System ........................................................................................................ 8 2.5 Greenhouse-Café Bistro and Lounge .......................................................................................... 10 2.6 Elevated Pedestrian Walkway ..................................................................................................... 11 3 COSTS-BENEFIT ANALYSIS ................................................................................................................. 13 3.1 Direc?onal and Scien?fic Cataloguing Signage ........................................................................... 13 3.2 Moon Tunnel Interior Upgrades .................................................................................................. 14 3.3 Roo?op Rainwater Collec?on and Distribu?on System .............................................................. 14 3.4 Stormwater Drainage System ...................................................................................................... 16 3.5 Greenhouse-Café Bistro and Lounge .......................................................................................... 17 3.6 Elevated Pedestrian Walkway ..................................................................................................... 18 4 IMPLEMENTATION PLAN ................................................................................................................... 20 5 IMPLEMENTATION COST ................................................................................................................... 21 6 CONCLUSIONSS & RECOMMENDATIONS .......................................................................................... 22 7 REFERENCES ...................................................................................................................................... 23 APPENDIX A: CONCEPTUAL DESIGN SKETCHES ................................................................................... A-1 APPENDIX B: MAP OF THE UBC BOTANICAL GARDEN ......................................................................... B-1 APPENDIX C: PLANT HARDINESS ZONES .............................................................................................. C-1  RE-ENVISIONING THE UBC BOTANICAL GARDEN  UBC CIVL 445 GROUP #15    PAGE IV OF 35 LIST	OF	FIGURES	Figure 1: Conceptual sketch of scien?fic cataloguing signage. ................................................................. A-1 Figure 2: Conceptual sketch of Moon tunnel interior upgrades. .............................................................. A-1 Figure 3: Conceptual sketch of rainwater collec?on and distribu?on system #1. .................................... A-2 Figure 4: Conceptual sketch of rainwater collec?on and distribu?on system #2. .................................... A-2 Figure 5: Conceptual sketch of stormwater drainage system #1. ............................................................. A-3 Figure 6: Conceptual sketch of stormwater drainage system #2. ............................................................. A-3 Figure 7: Conceptual sketch of greenhouse-café bistro and lounge. ........................................................ A-4 Figure 8: Conceptual sketch of elevated pedestrian walkway #1. ............................................................ A-4 Figure 9: Conceptual sketch of elevated pedestrian walkway #2. ............................................................ A-5 Figure 10: Conceptual sketch of elevated pedestrian walkway #2. .......................................................... A-5 Figure 11: Map of the UBC Botanical Garden. ........................................................................................... B-1 Figure 12: Plant hardiness zones in southwestern Bri?sh Columbia. ........................................................ C-1    RE-ENVISIONING THE UBC BOTANICAL GARDEN  UBC CIVL 445 GROUP #15    PAGE 1 OF 35 1 INTRODUCTION	1.1 Purpose	The purpose of this project is to redevelop the UBC Botanical Garden by implemen?ng possible conceptual designs. These conceptual designs address current issues within the garden while staying true to the garden’s mission of scien?fic research, conserva?on, display, and educa?on. All of this together creates a sustainable future for the botanical garden. In order for a business to be sustainable, a steady source of income must be available, which has been a challenge for the garden. Currently, the UBC Botanical Garden relies on a progressively shrinking annual allowance from the university to pay for staffing, and limited revenues from a?endance are u?lized to service the exis?ng plants in the collec?on. The hope is that the proposed upgrades will also increase local interest in the garden and consequently a?ract more paying visitors so that extra revenue will be available for future development, collec?on expansion and addi?onal staffing. The conceptual design components introduced adhere to the mission of the re-envisioning project: To redevelop the UBC Botanical Garden to enhance the community’s experience and educa?on, promote sustainable research and conserva?on, and establish its presence on the campus. 1.2 Background	The UBC Botanical Garden was instated in 1916 as a living library of botanical species. As the first university botanical garden in Canada, it has gone from a small living library to one of the most highly regarded botanical garden in the world. The garden formed as a result of an ini?a?ve in 1911 to document all na?ve BC flora. The botanist, John Davidson, was tasked with compiling all species, and enlisted the assistance of local experts around the province. He set up the collec?on on a two acre plot at Colony Farm. When the First World War hit, economic depression forced the shutdown of the Provincial Botanical Office, and at the same ?me, Davidson’s temporary garden was moved to UBC. The 25 000 plants of 900+ species were gradually transported to their new Point Grey home (UBC Botanical Garden and Centre for Plant Research, 2013a). The new site was s?ll in its natural state, covered in large trees, uneven ground, and large boulders. The land was cleared and graded un?l 85 acres of free space were finally completed. Most of this land ended up as the experimental farm (now UBC farm) but five acres were used for the UBC Botanical Garden, which became the new home of the Colony Farm when the 25 000 species were moved in the period from 1916 to 1917 (UBC Botanical Garden and Centre for Plant Research, 2013a) When UBC moved to Point Grey in 1925, the garden finally became a component of the UBC campus, and with that move came further expansion to the garden including the installa?on of an alpine garden as well as subgrade drainage. At the start of the Great Depression in 1929, funding cuts interrupted development of the UBC Botanical Garden, but a?er numerous years of economic difficulty, the botanical garden had RE-ENVISIONING THE UBC BOTANICAL GARDEN  UBC CIVL 445 GROUP #15    PAGE 2 OF 35 numerous plant beds, tree nurseries, displays of na?ve flora, a rock garden, an aqua?c garden, and various other displays (UBC Botanical Garden and Centre for Plant Research, 2013a). Today the UBC Botanical Garden has grown to 110 acres, a larger version to what it was in the late 1930s, with a variety of domes?c and foreign species. 1.3 Description	The 110 acre garden is located on the west side of Point Grey, bordering the coastline and straddling SW Marine Drive on both sides. The east and west sides of the garden are joined by the Moon Tunnel, which allows passage of people under the four lanes of SW Marine Drive without interrup?ng the flow of traffic above. The garden is bordered on the southeast by 16th Avenue, on the northwest by Stadium Road, to the northeast by Thunderbird Stadium and to the southwest by Old Marine Drive (see Appendix B: Map of the UBC Botanical Garden). Being so close to the ocean, the area experiences extensive modera?on and heavy precipita?on through much of the year. Point Grey is listed as a 7a Hardiness Zone- one of the most temperate areas in Canada (see Appendix C: Plant Hardiness Zones) (Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, 2013). Given the clearing of trees in plant bed areas, the area receives close to full sun, and receives ample water through a combina?on of rain during the wet season (October to June) and municipal tap water during the dry summer season (July to September). 1.4 Scope	1.4.1 Issues	Each conceptual design was developed to address a specific issue iden?fied at the UBC Botanical Garden; these problems were iden?fied through consul?ng garden representa?ves, along with several site visits to gain insight on exis?ng condi?ons. At the conclusion of the brainstorming process, the following issues were chosen to be of highest importance: ● Plant species were not clearly iden?fied ● Displeasing moon tunnel ambiance ● Excessive use of potable water ● Improper drainage of stormwater ● Low revenue and visitor a?endance ● Rela?vely small presence on UBC campus Having noted these issues as base for the designs, more in-depth assump?ons would have to be made in order to tailor designs to be?er fit and mi?gate these problems.  To tend to the low revenue and visitor a?endance, it is reasonable to assume that revenue will have the same posi?ve correla?on to visitor a?endance independent of ?me; therefore an increase in visitor a?endance will generate an increase of revenue. Consequently, assump?ons are made in light of increasing visitor a?endance by mainly adding incen?ve for visitors to come and improving aesthe?cs in the area. The issue with aesthe?cs of the botanical garden were iden?fied to be comprised of mainly the RE-ENVISIONING THE UBC BOTANICAL GARDEN  UBC CIVL 445 GROUP #15    PAGE 3 OF 35 lack of aesthe?cs in the moon tunnel, and the improper signage. It may be further assumed that with accessibility and aesthe?cs improved, the UBC Botanical Garden will have a larger presence in the UBC community. Many members of the UBC Botanical Garden have men?oned that one of the more severe problems the garden is facing was the excessive use of potable water. Assuming that the expenses of potable water will also be a burden, decreasing usage of potable water will then help solve this problem. It is also assumed that the current issues the botanical garden is facing, namely pooling, flooding, soil erosion, and cliff erosion, are all caused by precipita?on alone.  With these assump?ons made, resolving these issues will provide UBC Botanical Garden with a more environmentally and economically sustainable agenda. 1.4.2 Limitations	One of the main restric?ons of the design process was that there would be no numerical analyses on any sort of design. For example, the specific physical dimensions of all of the conceptual design components will not be taken into serious detailing as emphasis is placed on the roles that the designs will play in the UBC Botanical Garden community. Consequently, a detailed cost analysis is not performed due to the limited detail of the conceptual design components. Other than not incorpora?ng in-depth numerical analyses in all the proposed designs, there are other restric?ons to how the designs will be incorporated. These limita?ons may be categorized into two types; the first type being limita?ons due to the assump?ons, and the second type being the restric?ons due to exis?ng condi?ons of the garden. The assump?ons made will limit the designs’ validity to within the premises of the assump?ons themselves (i.e. an increase in visitors will directly increase revenue). The second type of limita?on, namely the in-situ restric?ons, involves parameters that set the upper bound of the efficiencies in the designs. These restric?ons include the size and constructability of the designs, and furthermore, UBC Botanical Garden’s vision. Since the garden has limited space given that the collec?on of plants may not be removed in most situa?ons, the designs, including their respec?ve construc?on phases, will be tailor-made to fit into the garden physically without viola?ng the UBC Botanical Garden’s visions. Finally, the physical boundaries of the garden itself will provide a clear perimeter of where the designs may only be implemented and planned. 1.5 Stakeholders	The key stakeholders of this project have been iden?fied in order to establish the most effec?ve approach to deliver informa?on about the proposed construc?on to all par?es. Communica?on tools would include informa?on packages that could be adapted for stakeholder websites, social media and channels or email/newsle?ers. Stakeholders are encouraged to share and discuss informa?on with their networks.  Key stakeholders were classified into two categories based on the extent of the impact and their involvement in the project, termed as either “primary” or “secondary” stakeholders. Primary stakeholders are internal par?es that engage in economic ac?vi?es and construc?on guidelines. Secondary stakeholders are external par?es that would be affected by or can affect the project. RE-ENVISIONING THE UBC BOTANICAL GARDEN  UBC CIVL 445 GROUP #15    PAGE 4 OF 35 Primary Stakeholders were determined to be the following: ● The University of Bri?sh Columbia (UBC) ● Community Advisory Council of the University Endowment Land ● UBC Botanical Garden Secondary Stakeholders were determined to be the following: ● UBC Students ● Residents (especially Hawthorn Place Strata Councils) ● UBC Faculty and Departments (especially The Faculty of Science) ● Student Housing and Hospitality Service (SHHS) ● UBC Centre for Plant Research ● Campus Volunteers ● UBC and Botanical Garden Staff  	RE-ENVISIONING THE UBC BOTANICAL GARDEN  UBC CIVL 445 GROUP #15    PAGE 5 OF 35 2 CONCEPTUTAL	DESIGN	COMPONENTS	2.1 Directional	and	Scienti?ic	Cataloguing	Signage	2.1.1 Design	New exhibit signage will present both the plant’s layman and taxonomical names in addi?on to other important informa?on. This will improve both ecological and environmental impact awareness. Revised signs will have a main sec?on displaying dis?nguishing physical and chemical features of the plants and another sec?on delinea?ng the species’ ecological characteris?cs and roles in the ecosystems in which they live. This will be followed by a final sec?on explaining the plants’ conserva?on status, including human ac?vi?es which are having a nega?ve impact on its survival in the wild. A QR code placed on the corner of the sign will link a visitor’s electronic device to addi?onal informa?on online, with the possibility of unique website design on behalf of the UBC Botanical Garden to be incorporated into this design aspect. Figure 1 in Appendix A shows a conceptual sketch of the proposed scien?fic signage. Re-vamped direc?onal signage will be more colourful and prominent both inherently and by physical placement. The new signs will be higher off the ground and placed in high-visibility spots at garden trail intersec?ons in order to be of the most benefit to visi?ng guests. Intersec?ons may be given names which will be iden?fiable by use of the signage in reference to a poten?al new map system which will significantly improve the ability of newcomers to navigate the garden and visit the exhibits they are interested in. 2.1.2 Justi?ication	New or modified signs can also be used effec?vely to improve the educa?onal value of exis?ng plant exhibit descriptors. In the few loca?ons where exis?ng plant cap?ons are currently present, they generally contain minimal informa?on, in some cases presen?ng only a taxonomical name which has li?le meaning to most visitors. The majority of these signs are also dishevelled and in need of maintenance, which makes replacements pragma?c. New signage with improvements made to graphics and scien?fic descrip?ons — with the possibility of interac?ve elements — would make the garden experience much more educa?onal and engaging, especially for families with young children. This would broaden the visitor base in the Vancouver community and poten?ally serve as an inexpensive, short-term star?ng point for procuring addi?onal revenues, which the UBC Botanical Garden could then use on other larger projects to upgrade the garden and create even more revenues. The combina?on of thick foliage and low-strung signage in the South Garden por?on of UBC Botanical Garden currently makes its trails and roads challenging to navigate for the visitor. These difficul?es are complicated by the lack of available reference landmarks, as plant exhibits are infrequently and inconspicuously labelled. The patron experience is integral to a?rac?ng new guests and en?cing the previous guests to return with others. An improved signage scheme will greatly contribute to the navigability and amenity of the garden while also serving it in its mission to be a scien?fic, educa?onal ins?tu?on. Signs ac?ng as way finding aids can be improved through increased prominence. Visibility is the main issue with the current naviga?on signs, as many are obscured by foliage, low to the ground, or poorly placed. RE-ENVISIONING THE UBC BOTANICAL GARDEN  UBC CIVL 445 GROUP #15    PAGE 6 OF 35 Signage usability can be significantly improved by either replacing the exis?ng signs or by augmen?ng the exis?ng set so as to address these physical features. Addi?onally, revisions to the garden map can be integrated with the signage network renova?ons to improve cross-referencing between the two tools so that guests can be?er find their way around. 2.2 Moon	Tunnel	Interior	Upgrades	2.2.1 Design	Moon tunnel renova?ons will include efforts to cover the pavement bo?om and two sides of the tunnel with wood panelling and gra?ng, with the possibility for low light-requirement variants of ivy or other hanging species of plants to be placed on the wood. Installa?on of augmented tunnel interior ligh?ng is also planned in order to improve safety and ambience of the tunnel, and to improve the aesthe?c con?nuity of the garden so that visitors do not need to traverse a long sec?on of corrugated steel pipe when passing from one area of the UBC Botanical Garden collec?on to the next. Other features which may be added in the future include exhibit or informa?on signage on the walls within the tunnel with specific hanging plant species described. A conceptual sketch of the upgraded renova?ons are shown in Figure 2 in Appendix A. 2.2.2 Justi?ication	The moon tunnel which connects the northern and southern por?ons of the garden is a project which was not completed to the full extent of its original design, and this is obvious when its crude aesthe?cs are juxtaposed with the features of other garden structures. Although there is limited available space for func?onal improvements within the tunnel, the overall quality of the garden experience can be refined by renova?ng or adorning the tunnel interior so as to conceal the presently exposed corrugated steel pipe surface.  Covering the steel with wood or plants will provide con?nuity in the garden atmosphere and maintain the venue’s themes of biodiversity, naturalism and conserva?on throughout the visitor experience. A sharp break in the garden mood currently exists in the visita?on circuit in the garden, as guests must walk through a long stretch of barren tunnel with no aesthe?c or educa?onal value in order to get from one side of the garden to the other. The tunnel represents a sizable por?on of the garden path which is unavoidable for visitors who want to take the en?re garden in during their excursion, and so it is worthwhile to complete inexpensive aesthe?c improvements to the interior as a small step in improving the overall experience. The placement of new material within the tunnel also presents opportuni?es to improve the poor interior ligh?ng scheme. The tunnel is dim even in the day?me, and addi?onal or more powerful lights mounted on the ceiling could greatly improve the safety of guests travelling through the tunnel, especially those with poor eyesight. The lights would also ostensibly be of benefit when garden a?endance increases and there are larger simultaneous traffic volumes in opposing direc?ons present in the tunnel. RE-ENVISIONING THE UBC BOTANICAL GARDEN  UBC CIVL 445 GROUP #15    PAGE 7 OF 35 2.3 Rooftop	Rainwater	Collection	and	Distribution	System	2.3.1 Design	The roo?op water collec?on system uses the exis?ng roof of the Garden Pavilion Building to store rainwater for future use. The building is located approximately 20m from the vegetable garden plots, tracts of soil which require large amounts of water during the summer growing season. Given the high annual rainfall on the west coast, the roof area will channel the water into large recycled plas?c drums using a closed gu?er system. The intake pipe is to be fi?ed with sieve-like screens to stop the ingress of both leaves and insects. A conceptual sketch of the proposed layout of the rainwater collec?on system is shown in Figure 3 and Figure 4 in Appendix A. The closed pipe leading into the rain barrel allows the conserva?on of hydraulic head. In this case, the pressure difference from the gu?er to the rain barrel’s release valve provides the force necessary to distribute water laterally toward the vegetable garden. Using PVC piping, water can be directed manually or put on a ?mer to micro-irrigate vegetable plots during mornings of summer months. By using one large rain barrel, footprint space and total costs are minimized, but the tremendous load from eight months of stored water could have structural effects on whichever surface the barrel rests on, including soil. If it is found through soil compac?on studies that excess se?lements are possible, a second barrel may be installed to distribute the dead load. The ou?low valve at the bo?om of the rain barrel will feed a single transmission line, which will fork off at the vegetable garden into smaller distribu?on lines. This will maintain the efficiency of the system and will ensure sufficient flow during the morning watering period. 2.3.2 Justi?ication	Given the vast fluctua?ons in rainfall throughout the year, vegetable cul?va?on without a reliable water source is a difficult prospect. Vancouver’s five month growing period sees consistent moisture and sunlight for the early months of May to June, followed by periods of drought through the later months of July through September. Without a system of water collec?on, the UBC Botanical Garden currently irrigates not only its vegetable garden, but everything including the ponds using potable tap water from Metro Vancouver. Relying on tap water brings two principal concerns. The first concern is soil saliniza?on, a consequence of using salt-laden irriga?on water, which deposits salts and eventually poisons soil over ?me. Unlike rainwater, even the clean tap water provided by Metro Vancouver has a salt content that has the poten?al to build up in soil over ?me. Secondly, leafy greens and most other vegetables require large quan??es of water. Given the large area of the vegetable garden combined with botanical garden’s overall, large water requirements cause a large strain on the municipal reservoirs during the dry summer months, and incur tremendous fees for the use of such vast quan??es of water. By collec?ng rain water in large barrels throughout the year, the botanical garden sees the following advantages: RE-ENVISIONING THE UBC BOTANICAL GARDEN  UBC CIVL 445 GROUP #15    PAGE 8 OF 35 ● U?liza?on of natural rainfall to eliminate the saliniza?on risk ● Reduc?on of surface runoff to ease burden on surface water drainage system ● Reduc?on of demand for potable tap water during drought periods ● Cost savings from both water use and runoff discharge ● Demonstra?on to public about the ease of implemen?ng a rainwater collec?on system Numerous guest speakers from the UBC Botanical Garden have noted the lack of funding available for project implementa?on. A water collec?on and distribu?on system is economical, with the only costs being those of the purchase of the rain barrel, a number of small valves, and small diameter rubber tubing to distribute to the vegetable garden. The components of the water collec?on and distribu?on system are easy to install, allowing the UBC Botanical Garden to cut installa?on costs by using volunteer labour. The plas?c water storage tanks – the largest components of the system – are moveable between two people. The loca?on of the water collec?on and distribu?on system on the roof next to the vegetable garden is perfectly close to the main pedestrian loop, allowing easy access by the public and by botanical garden maintenance personnel for irriga?on control during summer months. With no addi?onal footprint required for the collec?on system, and only a series of small-diameter plas?c lines running to the nearby vegetable garden, there will be no substan?al effect on the environment on an ecological or aesthe?c standpoint. The UBC Botanical Garden’s ul?mate goal is to a?ract visitors. Dwindling numbers – especially during the fall and winter months – have prompted staff to seek economical ways to a?ract students as well as the general public to not only boost recogni?on of the botanical garden to more Vancouverites, but to generate the revenues necessary to maintain and improve the property. With the growth in popularity of balcony gardens and roo?op plots in densely populated urban areas such as downtown, the implementa?on of a space-efficient rainwater collec?on and irriga?on system is an appealing op?on sure to explode in the near future. By crea?ng this innova?ve and sustainable feature, the roo?op water collec?on system complies with the mission to promote sustainability of the botanical garden, to draw more recogni?on and a?endance from the public and to educate those visitors about simple ways to undertake sustainable prac?ces. 2.4 Stormwater	Drainage	System	2.4.1 Design	A stormwater drainage system may be installed in the botanical garden by adding a network of pipes and collec?on systems. There will be two parts of the system, namely the surface collec?on and the sub-surface collec?on. The surface collec?on part of the system will ensure collec?on of precipita?on, while the sub-surface collec?on will be installed to collect water that has percolated through the soil. Both parts of the design will be typical designs that may be implemented throughout various parts of the garden which have rela?vely higher eleva?ons, to ensure enough water eleva?on head for the system to work completely under gravity. Figure 5 and Figure 6 in Appendix A show the typical the schema?cs of the conceptual surface collec?on and sub-surface drainage systems. RE-ENVISIONING THE UBC BOTANICAL GARDEN  UBC CIVL 445 GROUP #15    PAGE 9 OF 35 The surface drainage part will include the use of catchment pits and roadside gu?ers. The roadside gu?ers will direct surface runoff created by precipita?on to catchment pits at lower eleva?ons. This system will hence be a network of concrete channels connected to catchment pits. These catchment pits will then be connected to the exis?ng main storm drain pipe. The roadside gu?ers will be covered with steel covers (with small openings for water to fall through) placed along the length of the channel to minimize clogging (i.e. fallen leaves that may pile up within the channel). The sub-surface drainage part of the system will include the use of a series of perforated pipes, filter material, and a series of larger pipes. Since this drainage design will be underground, the perforated pipes will be responsible for draining the water that has percolated through the soil, while the filter material will surround perforated pipe in order to stop small par?cles (i.e. silt or clay) from entering the drainage system. These perforated pipes will then be collected via larger pipes and led to the exis?ng main storm drain pipe.  Another op?on of this design may be to retrofit this en?re system to allow for collec?on of stormwater by direc?ng both subsystems in this design towards a stormwater deten?on/reten?on system instead of towards the main storm drain. This will also address the issue of sustainability as more stormwater may be reused rather than relying on potable water. 2.4.2 Justi?ication	Prodigious amounts of rainfall in the Vancouver area may not be properly diverted through the exis?ng drainage system at the UBC Botanical Garden. Proper drainage is crucial to preven?ng pooling and flooding on the grounds, and to maintaining quality of water sources. Excessive surface runoff can be mi?gated through the use of surface and sub-surface drainage systems. The sub-surface drainage (SSD) system will involve using perforated plas?c pipes, filter material, and a pipe main, and gravity. By implemen?ng a good drainage system in the botanical garden, visitors will benefit from a be?er experience of their tour in and around the perimeter, along with protec?ng the garden from excessive runoff erosion causing dras?c landscape changes. The proposed surface drainage system will help account for surface runoff on impermeable surfaces like paved roads that will inhibit mud pits and puddles from forming. Muddy roads may be a heavily weighted factor for the visitor’s decision upon coming to visit the garden, and the surface drainage system is a solu?on to this problem. The idea of the SSD system was built on knowledge of environmental risks posed by poor sub-surface drainage on cul?vable land. Saliniza?on of soil will decrease its ability to yield crop, and is usually caused by a build-up of salt from irriga?on water. Another poten?al threat of poor drainage in the area leads directly to the pools and ponds in the botanical garden; when surface runoff carrying agrochemicals, such as fer?lizers, are transported into these bodies of water, they create a buildup of these chemicals, poten?ally causing eutrophica?on. As noted during the site visit to the botanical garden, the seepage into the ground seeps laterally a?er percola?ng through a certain depth of soil, and finally out onto the cliff face. This phenomenon is dangerous as it may lead to cliff instability through erosion of constant flow of RE-ENVISIONING THE UBC BOTANICAL GARDEN  UBC CIVL 445 GROUP #15    PAGE 10 OF 35 water, involving poten?al weathering problems. These environmental consequences may be taken care of by introducing the SSD system in areas with a lot of soil exposure. By implemen?ng the drainage system, UBC Botanical Garden will benefit from not only being able to provide a be?er environment for its users and visitors, but also being able to mi?gate poten?al harm to the environment. If needed, this storm drainage system may be turned into a stormwater collec?on system by redirec?ng main drainage pipes to a storage tank. With this design, a more sustainable future may be developed for the botanical garden. 2.5 Greenhouse-Café	Bistro	and	Lounge	2.5.1 Design	The café lounge will be a hybrid restaurant-greenhouse facility which will serve the func?ons of a café, bistro and study lounge, while simultaneously ac?ng as a commercial prelude to showcase a small por?on of the garden’s collec?on in the interest of en?cing people who are already in the area to visit the garden. The preliminary design involves a series of spherical glass structures joined in a diamond forma?on, with the whole establishment to be situated in the grass clearing just outside the UBC Botanical Garden’s west entrance, next to the parking area off of SW Marine Drive. Implementa?on of the project may also include modifica?ons to garden land use in the vegetable garden or near the entry area in order to grow some species of food or coffee which will be served in the café itself. A conceptual sketch of the layout of the proposed greenhouse-café is shown in Figure 7 in Appendix A. The interior of the building is to be comfortably furnished in a heterogeneous manner. One por?on of the building — near the food order area — will act as a compound restaurant and coffeehouse similar to a Tim Hortons restaurant and serve as the main eatery area. Other spaces will be fashioned to accommodate group or individual study with a lounge-style interior where people can stay for extended periods of ?me and over the course of their stay re-visit the café area for more coffee or snacks. Different plant species may be used for which a greenhouse atmosphere is appropriate and the structure may also have features to promote cooling in the summers and warmth in the winter in order to make interior condi?ons amenable to students and other visitors. 2.5.2 Justi?ication	Introducing food or service businesses to the welcome area at the entrance of the UBC Botanical Garden could significantly benefit garden a?endance by a?rac?ng more people to the general area. Loca?on-wise it is evident that the garden is quite isolated, and currently offers few a?rac?ons to lure the UBC students who comprise the majority of nearby residents. But the garden’s remoteness can have a place in the lives of university students if marketed correctly. A project which targets student a?endance is worthwhile because many live close to the university campus and it would be those people who would most readily make repeated trips to the garden. In addressing student needs, the two most prominent observa?ons passersby on the UBC campus would make are those of students studying and of students lining up to buy coffee. There are people studying in every single building on campus no ma?er what their intended use, and the mul?ple coffee shops sca?ered over the RE-ENVISIONING THE UBC BOTANICAL GARDEN  UBC CIVL 445 GROUP #15    PAGE 11 OF 35 grounds are constantly filled with people. Addi?onally, the largest agglomera?ons of people are concentrated in areas where ample study space and good coffee-making intersect. It is conceivable thus that a café-lounge situated in the grass clearing at the entrance of the botanical garden could serve as a major magnet for students to the UBC Botanical Garden area. Seclusion is a highly desirable feature of study space, and the garden could transform its apparent weakness into strength by marke?ng its café as an isolated but homey haven for the students to work while also sa?sfying their caffeine needs with quality coffee. With a well-designed building and a spacious and well-furnished interior, the garden café could likely serve the nearby student popula?ons housed in the Totem and Marine Drive residences in a similar manner to that of the Beanery Café which services the Fairview Residences, an establishment which has a special and enduring place in the hearts of countless current students and UBC alumni alike. Although the café would provide minimal educa?onal features, it would allow the garden to be?er integrate itself into the UBC community fabric and strongly improve its financial and social standing. Ideally, UBC Botanical Garden would operate the café as an auxiliary but independent component of their organiza?on, so that customers of the café would not necessarily have to enter the garden themselves, while the garden could s?ll u?lize the profits derived from the business. The increased traffic to the area could also poten?ally improve the garden’s future pitches to UBC leadership for local transit configura?on and parking improvements, which are a major limita?on to its current bid for increased a?endance. These types of upgrades would have a ripple effect that would ul?mately increase the garden’s capacity and value over ?me, and provide more revenues suppor?ng its mission in scien?fic research. 2.6 Elevated	Pedestrian	Walkway	2.6.1 Design	For the final conceptual design component, construc?on of a new elevated pedestrian walkway is proposed over SW Marine Drive near the entrance to the UBC Botanical Garden. The walkway will be a single span steel Pra? truss bridge which will be both func?onal and aesthe?cally pleasing. The steel truss will be painted white for an elegant look, and create an airy and free environment. Along the eastern abutment of the bridge will be a mechanically stabilized earth (MSE) wall, where the façade of the MSE wall will include a welcome message and UBC logo. The func?onality of the pedestrian walkway can be increased by allowing both the public and garden visitors to use the bridge. A ramp will be built along the MSE wall to the elevated entrance of the bridge for public access, as well as a one-way exit from the UBC Botanical Garden leading to the bridge. On the west side of the bridge will be a curving ramp returning to the parking area and entrance to the botanical garden. The walkway will be constructed using wooden planks to present a natural surface mo?f. In addi?on, plants will be grown in planters along the edge of the walkway and climb up the barrier on either side to create a ‘green walkway’. There is also poten?al for signage, which may provide a history of the UBC Botanical Garden, to be installed along the pedestrian barriers along the walkway. This would improve the educa?onal value and en?ce pedestrians to enter the garden. Figure 8 through Figure 10 in Appendix A show various views of the elevated pedestrian walkway in its final alignment over SW Marine Drive. RE-ENVISIONING THE UBC BOTANICAL GARDEN  UBC CIVL 445 GROUP #15    PAGE 12 OF 35 2.6.2 Justi?ication	A new elevated pedestrian walkway will create a drama?c change to the west side of the UBC campus, as well as address three major concerns: safety, accessibility, and publicity. The current un-signalled crosswalk across SW Marine Drive poses a safety concern that the elevated pedestrian walkway will eliminate. Northbound traffic along SW Marine Drive is proceeding at a high rate of speed, and there is insufficient signage to warn drivers of the upcoming crosswalk. Although traffic volume is low, this risk of serious injury or death is s?ll present. The elevated pedestrian walkway will create an elevated walkway to allow pedestrians to avoid this risk. Also, having a ramp on both ends of the elevated walkway will allow accessibility for bikes and wheelchairs as well. Currently, access to the UBC Botanical Garden is an inconvenience to visitors arriving on foot. A new elevated pedestrian walkway will allow visitors from UBC to easily gain access to the garden entrance by crea?ng a direct route to the entrance gate. In addi?on, due to the current layout of the botanical garden, there is only a single route between the west and east sides of the garden: the Moon Tunnel. This requires that visitors must return to the entrance along the same route. By implemen?ng a one way exit gate at the east end of the elevated pedestrian walkway, visitors can forgo the need to return through the Moon Tunnel back to the entrance and parking area. In this way, the elevated pedestrian walkway creates a loop to complete the walking tour around the botanical garden. Even though the botanical garden is located near the entrance to the UBC campus at SW Marine Drive, very few people know about the garden. The new proposed elevated pedestrian walkway will eliminate this problem by crea?ng a landmark loca?on for the botanical garden. Also, as the first elevated pedestrian walkway on campus, it will be a landmark for students and faculty. It will include a sign with the UBC logo along the MSE wall on the east side SW Marine Drive welcoming visitors to UBC and the botanical garden.  	RE-ENVISIONING THE UBC BOTANICAL GARDEN  UBC CIVL 445 GROUP #15    PAGE 13 OF 35 3 COSTS-BENEFIT	ANALYSIS	3.1 Directional	and	Scienti?ic	Cataloguing	Signage	3.1.1 Ecological	There are minimal environmental costs with the undertaking of new signage installa?on; indirect effects include the crea?on of waste in disposal of old signage and greenhouse gas emissions from the manufacture of new signs from durable synthe?c materials. These material effects can be mi?gated with sustainable design of the new signs, and by proper recycling or environment-friendly methods of material disposal. The new signs themselves can add educa?onal value by promo?ng conserva?onal awareness for endangered species or by teaching visitors about crucial facets of plant ecology like the effects of invasive species and overuse of pes?cides and herbicides. The signs with their QR codes are an educa?onal tool that could poten?ally be used in several ways to teach concepts not just in botany and conserva?on, but also in plant-environmental impacts of human ac?vi?es. 3.1.2 Social	Increased public awareness with respect to plant ecology can be invaluable in changing behaviours of people toward the natural environment, with effects not just in the vicinity of UBC but in na?onal parks and forests all over Bri?sh Columbia. The changes in a?tudes of people spurred by the acquisi?on of new knowledge can also have posi?ve effects on the UBC Botanical Garden’s future bids for other engineering or development ini?a?ves. The new features will increase popular interest and poten?ally provide the socio-poli?cal pressure which is required to compel projects that require a larger ini?al monetary investment. It is also expected, in general, that the improvement of the overall quality of the garden by the presence of educa?onal signage will serve to increase a?endance to some degree due to word-of-mouth from new visitors a?er development takes place. The new signs could also provide concrete reasoning for environmental interest groups or school classes to visit the garden, as visits will be intellectually s?mula?ng experiences. 3.1.3 Economic	A small ini?al monetary investment is associated with the detailed design, manufacturing and installa?on of new signage, including removal and disposal of the old signs. These would primarily cover material costs and web-facili?es design as required by the inclusion of any smartphone-interac?ve features embedded in the new exhibit descrip?ons. Designs will be complete by the end of the proposal phase with the possibility for fine-tuning and adjustments remaining at proposed project start. It is expected that new signage will play a role in enhancing the garden experience to the extent that more paying visitors will be a?racted to the botanical garden, increasing its revenue stream. With more informa?ve and aesthe?cally pleasing exhibit signs, patrons will realize they are paying to enter a carefully catalogued and cul?vated collec?on of plants — almost like a museum — rather than a garden with RE-ENVISIONING THE UBC BOTANICAL GARDEN  UBC CIVL 445 GROUP #15    PAGE 14 OF 35 occasional wooden signs. The signs add value to the garden, which will likely increase the willingness of locals to pay to enter. 3.2 Moon	Tunnel	Interior	Upgrades	3.2.1 Ecological	There are minor environmental impacts associated with the ligh?ng system, as having new brighter lights within the tunnel will cause a higher total energy consump?on for the garden for the sake of improved safety. However, the extra energy consump?on can be mi?gated through the use of low energy ligh?ng such as LEDs lights. Wood paneling will most likely be purchased from a building materials depot, and could be treated with benign chemicals for enhancing its durability in the face of exposure to the elements. The benefits of the tunnel covering are mainly aesthe?c in nature, but will help to preserve the overall natural mo?f of the garden within the tunnel to a greater degree than the original interior of corrugated steel pipe. 3.2.2 Social	Aesthe?c improvement of the moon tunnel may have subtle social impacts in improving visitor outlook of the UBC Botanical Garden, which contributes to word of mouth effects in increasing the garden’s renown in the local community. Improved safety ligh?ng within the tunnel may also encourage parents to bring children or seniors for return trips to the garden as the lights may make the tunnel por?on more welcoming and open. 3.2.3 Economic	The cost for this component will be rather small, consis?ng of materials costs for wood paneling, ligh?ng and circuitry, and poten?ally installa?on workmanship. The endeavour would be a small step in the overall bid to improve the quality of the garden experience, in this specific instance by improving safety within the tunnel and maintaining thema?c con?nuity in the conduit between the north and south garden areas. The upgrade may, in conjunc?on with other more significant upgrades, contribute to increased revenues through the effects of word of mouth. 3.3 Rooftop	Rainwater	Collection	and	Distribution	System	3.3.1 Ecological	The environmental benefits of implemen?ng the roo?op water collec?on and distribu?on system are significant. As with any form of irriga?on with treated or surface water, salt deposits can accumulate over ?me, rendering soil unusable. Rainwater has the benefit that it is not contaminated by salts, and can be used indefinitely without salt buildup. Because there is already municipal water conveyance piping running to and from various installa?ons (such as installed irriga?on, ponds, etc.), the environmental cost to keep supplying them is minimal. However, by demonstra?ng the effec?veness of the rainwater system, the public and perhaps other small commercial garden opera?ons will install a similar system, easing the municipal water demand and the need to excavate land to install waterworks infrastructure. RE-ENVISIONING THE UBC BOTANICAL GARDEN  UBC CIVL 445 GROUP #15    PAGE 15 OF 35 The environmental costs of such a system are negligible; especially given that the water tank can be made from 100% post-consumer plas?c and that it contains no toxic chemicals and requires no soil excava?ons or the use of machinery to install. The risk of such a system is the poten?al for a stagnant breeding ground for mosquitos. Clean, oxygenated, stagnant water makes for an ideal environment for mosquitoes to deposit larvae, which can hatch in the thousands in the summer and lead to increased risk of West-Nile Virus (Centers for Disease Control and Preven?on, 2013). To prevent such a risk, the collec?on barrel will be air?ght, with water running through a sieve to prevent ingress or egress by mosquitos. 3.3.2 Social	As with many of the other improvement projects proposed for the UBC Botanical Garden, the rainwater system is intended to draw visitors to the area, ul?mately genera?ng funding to improve the quality, quan?ty and diversity of the botanical species at the UBC Botanical Garden. As an educa?onal facility, the garden provide a community service, not only maintaining a living database of plant species, but by educa?ng the public in water conserva?on methods, backyard farming methods, compos?ng prac?ces, and by feeding the homeless with vegetable crops. The rainwater system will allow the botanical garden to con?nue its principal mandate of building an inventory of as many na?ve and non-na?ve species as possible, while reaching its secondary goals of educa?ng the public and feeding the homeless. 3.3.3 Economic	Like many retrofi?ng opera?ons, the payoff period for the water collec?on and distribu?on system is quan?fiable by direct cost savings over the exis?ng condi?on, in which all rainwater is diverted to the storm drains. Because the use of municipal water is paid for per unit volume, a reduc?on of consump?on by collec?ng rain water will reduce UBC’s demand for and fees from the use of municipal water. In the 2011 water audit, UBC paid Metro Vancouver $2.5 million dollars for the 4 billion litres of water it consumed (The University of Bri?sh Columbia, 2011). By implemen?ng this rainwater system, and expanding the concept, visible savings will be experienced by UBC.  In addi?on, revenue is expected from the increase in paying visitors, who will be lured in part by the innova?ve system. The UBC Botanical Garden may choose to stock the plas?c pipes, assembly and design guides, collec?on barrels and valves in the exis?ng gi? shop, further increasing both revenue and availability of supplies to the public. The cost of implemen?ng such a project is not significant due to the fact that a nearby slanted roo?op already exists, and that volunteer labour is readily available for installa?on of the design. The only installa?on costs are for the purchase of water reservoir tank, plas?c distribu?on tubing, and a number of brass valves leading up to the vegetable garden. Due to the lack of moving parts and the longevity of the materials, minimal maintenance or parts replacement is expected, resul?ng in an ini?al capital cost, but negligible running costs. RE-ENVISIONING THE UBC BOTANICAL GARDEN  UBC CIVL 445 GROUP #15    PAGE 16 OF 35 3.4 Stormwater	Drainage	System	3.4.1 Ecological	The ecological issues at hand revolving around a poor or a lack of a drainage system range from losing cul?vable soil, to causing a decrease in cliff stability. Without a proper drainage system, there may be a build-up of salt in the soil from any sort of irriga?on (including precipita?on), leading to a loss of cul?vable land. On a more severe scale, loss of soil may also be observed as surface runoff may erode soil along its path of flow. Furthermore, if the percola?on by rainwater into the upper aquifer that discharges off of the face of the adjacent cliff, the stability of the cliff will decrease over ?me due to erosion. With Vancouver’s diurnal temperatures fluctua?ng around the freezing point of water, freeze-thaw weathering and salt growth weathering may be a problem, lowering the stability of the cliff itself. The installa?on of the surface drainage system of at-grade channels will provide a path for surface runoff independent of any type of soil erosion, moreover providing an opportunity to store stormwater for future use. The system will decrease the amount of cliff erosion by redirec?ng a percentage of percolated precipita?on that flushes out on the face of the cliff. Although the poten?al weathering problems may s?ll be present, the drainage system will indirectly decrease its effect on cliff stability by reducing the amount of water discharging off the cliff. The collec?on and reuse of stormwater will lessen the stress on the shrinking supply of water in Bri?sh Columbia. As for the effects on exis?ng flora and possible fauna, it may be considered negligible as neither of the systems, a?er installa?on, would alter the exis?ng surface environment greatly. There is however an issue of laying out the sub surface drainage system with all the tree roots posing as a poten?al obstruc?on; this issue may be easily addressed during the actual implementa?on of the design with the contractor. 3.4.2 Social	The implementa?on of such a drainage design will portray the role of civil engineering in a community by being able to help tend to the poten?al problems at hand with technical knowledge of the geological and geographical condi?ons in the area. Should the design operate as planned and as foreseen, it would not only be a good opportunity for educa?on in hydrology, but also a perfect precedent study for stormwater drainage design and its poten?al in stormwater collec?on. With the implementa?on of the stormwater drainage system, UBC Botanical Garden will have taken an incremental step towards becoming a more sustainable party under UBC’s name. With proper nego?a?on, UBC Botanical Garden may be able to receive funding towards the research, development and implementa?on of future acts of sustainability similar to that of this stormwater drainage system. This will help UBC as an en?re community by providing both educa?on and job opportuni?es whilst achieving a more sustainable future financially and environmentally. 3.4.3 Economic	The major economic benefit of installing a stormwater drainage system is that the money spent on potable water will be decreased due to stormwater being available and ready for use (should the stormwater deten?on op?on be implemented). Although the capital cost of the system may be high depending on the RE-ENVISIONING THE UBC BOTANICAL GARDEN  UBC CIVL 445 GROUP #15    PAGE 17 OF 35 intended size of the drainage area, this long-term investment will be able to help the UBC Botanical Garden save substan?al amounts of money on potable water. Opera?on costs would be negligible, containing only maintenance costs due to the en?re system being able to operate with gravity alone. The specific cons?tuent areas that make up the capital costs would be the materials required for this system, and the work hours put into the project by contractors. This drainage system would definitely help alleviate a good percentage of the money spent by UBC on water consump?on every year onwards, making the implementa?on a feasible method of saving money. 3.5 Greenhouse-Café	Bistro	and	Lounge	3.5.1 Ecological	The carbon and land disturbance footprint of the proposed café will be minimized to the extent possible, and the building as whole will be designed in accordance with the highest standards of green building prac?ce as per UBC’s sustainability ra?ng system for construc?on. It is not expected that construc?on of the building will require clear-cu?ng of trees in the area or excessive land disturbance, as the design goal is for the en?re facility to fit in the exis?ng clearing at the north entrance of the South Garden area. By exemplifying green building concepts in a manner similar to the CIRS building on the main UBC campus, the café will also serve as an iconic display of innova?on in sustainability with posi?ve effects on a?tudes of engineering and science student visitors who will soon enter the workforce. The business itself will be able to employ low-waste and low-carbon food service prac?ces to further serve as a subtle example to visitors of innova?on in sustainability. Such prac?ces could include the u?liza?on of reusable and biodegradable dishware and cutlery, as well as energy-saving food heaters which could use lost heat from the building itself. On-site sewage could also be u?lized to further lower the environmental impacts of running the business. Many possibili?es are available for sustainable opera?on of the building, and the extent to which green technologies are integrated into the building would depend on the budget which is ul?mately available for the project. If a large sum of money is commi?ed, significant design inspira?on could be drawn from other innova?ve green buildings at UBC such as the CIRS and C. K. Choi buildings, or new techniques developed at the university. 3.5.2 Social	The presence of the café could serve as a major inroad for the UBC Botanical Garden to the UBC campus community by providing a gathering place for people to flock to or a place where individuals can go to seek an atmosphere of comfort. Providing a pragma?c reason for people to come to the garden area significantly mi?gates against the garden’s major limita?on in its isola?on and would increase its renown so that many people on campus actually know of its existence, which is the first step to further revenues down the road. Over ?me, the garden could gain a significant place in the lives of UBC students and become a memory-filled, irreplaceable component of the university landscape. Becoming be?er known and valued around the campus also stands to have socio-poli?cal effects on the garden in its rela?onship with UBC leadership. The occurrence of increased traffic at the garden due to the presence of the café and more garden visitors could be used in the future as leverage in bargaining for RE-ENVISIONING THE UBC BOTANICAL GARDEN  UBC CIVL 445 GROUP #15    PAGE 18 OF 35 more ideal transit and parking arrangements, or more funds for addi?onal infrastructure and novel developments in the UBC Botanical Garden to further refine the experience. With a higher demand for road use and parking, Translink may need to increase the size or frequency of the shu?les, which presently run every 20 minutes and have a capacity of only 24 passengers (Translink, 2013), which will improve accessibility to the area. If there is evidence which proves that the garden is important to people, the university will more readily comply with funding requests or proposals for new development. 3.5.3 Economic	Despite the large upfront investment cost for the café, coffee and food sales will provide a constant and substan?al stream of revenue to the UBC Botanical Garden provided the venue is marketed correctly to locals. If many of the café visitors are students, it is likely that these individuals will stay for extended periods of ?me, steadily buying drinks and snacks while they study in the same way that they occupy the many coffee shops on the UBC campus. The facility’s isola?on can also play a role in augmen?ng food sales revenues, as people staying in the lounge who desire refreshments and food will have to obtain these from the café they are staying in due to the lack of other choices nearby. In the future, the café may produce an economic ripple effect through the a?rac?on of more guests and traffic to the garden area on campus, poten?ally providing economic incen?ve for food franchises to establish loca?ons in the vicinity for which UBC Botanical Garden can charge occupa?onal fees to further increase its passive revenues. The presence of more people nearby also increases the chance that individuals in the area will decide to visit the garden interior, as it is conveniently located right next to the café. 3.6 Elevated	Pedestrian	Walkway	3.6.1 Ecological	The ecological impacts of construc?ng a new elevated pedestrian walkway can be substan?al. Considera?ons need to be made for land use, flora and fauna habitats, as well as soil and water disrup?ons. Land will have to be cleared to accommodate the new bridge on either side of SW Marine Drive. This impacts the local plant and animal habitats, as well as a por?on of the UBC Botanical Garden’s collec?on. However, by using the pre-exis?ng eleva?on of the hill on the east abutment of the elevated pedestrian walkway, the amount of cut and fill is greatly reduced. In addi?on, on the west side of the bridge, a sweeping ramp will be used to bring the eleva?on down to the ground, thus bypassing the requirement to bring up the ground eleva?on. The only impact on the subgrade is the piles installed under the bridge. Since the elevated walkway is being erected in the vicinity of the UBC Botanical Garden, the soil and water quality will need to be monitored during construc?on to ensure no contaminants or pollutants enter the ground. This can be easily managed by ensuring construc?on materials are stored properly, and runoff is collected or redirected and drained properly. Once in service, water runoff from the bridge will be collected on either one, or both sides of the walkway, and redirected into the stormwater drainage system. This runoff is not expected to have a significant impact on the stormwater drainage system since a por?on of the runoff will be used to water the planters along the walkway of the bridge. RE-ENVISIONING THE UBC BOTANICAL GARDEN  UBC CIVL 445 GROUP #15    PAGE 19 OF 35 By choosing a steel truss and wooden walkway design, it is more environmentally friendly than using concrete as a building material, since the produc?on of concrete is a major source of greenhouse gases. These materials are lighter and create an aesthe?cally pleasing bridge, thus making it more sustainable than alterna?ves designs. The planters along the ‘green walkway’ on the bridge also provide a place to grow plants or vines in order to improve the ecology of the area. 3.6.2 Social	Construc?ng a new elevated pedestrian walkway near the UBC campus has many social impacts. Firstly, a new bridge will greatly impact the local residents such as the nearby student residences, and Hawthorn Place homeowners. It may a?ract more pedestrian traffic to a quiet corner of the UBC campus, as well as changing the visual landscape of the area. A large scale project will dras?cally change the landscape of the UBC campus. However, the social benefits of a new elevated pedestrian walkway are substan?al. The bridge will create a visual landmark for the UBC campus and ins?ll a sense of pride in the community. It will establish the loca?on of the UBC Botanical Garden on the campus. It also benefits the society by improving safety for crossing SW Marine Drive. The elevated pedestrian walkway will create a path for fitness and recrea?on, such as walking, jogging, or cycling. 3.6.3 Economic	A brand new elevated pedestrian walkway comes at a huge cost and carries a large upfront investment. However, a large scale project will also create many jobs for the community, from design consul?ng to construc?on, and s?mulate the local economy. Materials for the construc?on of the bridge can be sourced from local suppliers and fabricators, to keep costs low and put money back into the local economy. The design could be done by local engineering firms with local contractors for erec?on. Another economic benefit to the university, is the pedestrian walkway could be implemented into student curriculums, such as those in Civil Engineering. Students could be required to complete thorough site analysis and structural design of the components. It would promote student involvement real engineering projects and bring more students into the program. The project, and pedestrian walkway will create visitor awareness of the botanical garden, and poten?ally a?ract more visitors to the garden. A large structure such as an elevated pedestrian walkway will need to be maintained, and maintenance costs will need to be considered by the university and worked into the UBC Plant Opera?on’s budget. With poten?al issues such as vandalism, this will be a significant considera?on in the feasibility of the bridge.  	RE-ENVISIONING THE UBC BOTANICAL GARDEN  UBC CIVL 445 GROUP #15    PAGE 20 OF 35 4 IMPLEMENTATION	PLAN	This proposal follows a 20 year plan before the final outcome is realized. Simple addi?ons will be implemented with progressively increasing scope and complexity of components over ?me un?l the en?re renewal of the botanical garden is completed. This sec?on will outline the intended ?meline for the renewal. Advancement is ambi?ous, but plausible if funding is achieved and work is efficient. Work on the garden’s signage can commence immediately. This simple upgrade will require a rela?vely small budget, yet will greatly enhance the visitors’ experience. Visitors will be able to be?er navigate the paths and learn about the plant species with these upgrades. This will bring more traffic to the garden as the word is spread on the new intui?ve experience the garden has to offer. In the third year, upgrades to the tunnel can be undertaken. This project also has a small scope that does not require any significant engineering design. The current tunnel can be seen as a sore point in the garden and this upgrade will see to the overall beau?fica?on of the garden. The improvement of the garden signage and Moon Tunnel is intended to increase annual number of visitors to the garden; which is a significant priority. Once this has been achieved, work on improving the garden’s opera?on can be undertaken. This is intended to start by year five. The water collec?on and distribu?on system upgrades can be completed simultaneously with the improvement to the surface and sub-surface drainage. The two improvements will see to increase the overall sustainability and research capacity of the garden while reducing overall opera?ng costs. By year ten, it is intended that both the visitor experience and garden opera?ons are improved. However, at this point, the garden visitors have not seen a significant change in years and annual a?endance may begin to stagnate. This is when the proposed café is suggested to be built and put into opera?on. As discussed, this will achieve repeat trips of visitors to the garden. A?endance to the garden will flourish and profits will be seen. Due to the larger scale of this upgrade, significant funding will be required. This can be achieved through dona?ons, grants or possible sponsorship from a private corpora?on. The benefits will outweigh the costs and this element will prove crucial to the garden’s long term success. A?er about seventeen years, the garden will now be seen as a significant des?na?on for UBC students and residents of Vancouver. At this point, the final and most noteworthy por?on of the plan will be implemented. The elevated pedestrian walkway will prove to significantly increase the safety of the garden’s access for visitors crossing SW Marine Dr. Furthermore, this structure will become a landmark not only for the botanical garden, but for UBC as a whole. As with the café, this por?on will also considerably depend on the availability of funding. However, UBC will be a stakeholder in this phase of the proposal because of the benefits the en?re endowment lands will see. At the beginning of the twen?eth year, every aspect of this proposal will be completed. Visitor a?endance will be at an all-?me high, opera?on will be produc?ve and research will be able to flourish for years to come.  	RE-ENVISIONING THE UBC BOTANICAL GARDEN  UBC CIVL 445 GROUP #15    PAGE 21 OF 35 5 IMPLEMENTATION	COST	The several components of this re-envisioning plan will vary in costs significantly. From almost negligible costs of upgrading the signage in the garden to immense costs of designing and construc?ng an elevated pedestrian walkway, a reasonable plan must be in place in order for the goals to be achieved. The costs of upgrading the signage in the garden will be minimal and can be worked into the current opera?onal budget of the garden. A possible op?on to eliminate the cost of hiring a marke?ng firm to design the signage is to recruit a marke?ng class at UBC to complete the designs. Then staff at the botanical garden can use their exper?se to complete the plant descrip?ons. The cost of the tunnel will be minutely larger than the cost of enhancing the garden signage. This will require a few years budge?ng in order to reach the small sum required for the improvement. The upgrade is intended to be economical and simple while s?ll improving the tunnel’s ambiance. The upgrades to the water systems will require some planning and minor material costs. In the long term, the efforts will result in lower water bills, less maintenance and less damage during a catastrophic storm event. Therefore, the budget to complete the work can be seen as an investment. If the ini?al capital is not available and no other funding is possible, a loan at a low interest rate may s?ll be a feasible op?on. A detailed cost analysis at the ?me of installa?on should be conducted to ensure that the savings overcome any interest rates. The café and addi?onal greenhouse will come at a high price ini?ally, but as discussed, profits will begin to develop over ?me. The budget for the project can come from a variety of sources. A large por?on could be backed by a private organiza?on if they are given rights to name the café or exclusively sell their product. Addi?onally, the greenhouses that are built into the café’s design will create substan?al opportunity for new research. Therefore, research grants can be obtained to assist in the financial burden required to build the structure. Finally, philanthropic individuals may desire to donate sums of money in return for an area dedicated to their loved one. The large space created by the structure will also make this a viable op?on.  Finally, the pedestrian walkway will require great financial backing from a variety of sources. Funds raised from sales in the café can be saved and used towards this endeavor. Also, because UBC is intended to benefit considerably from its construc?on, it is foreseen that UBC will invest sufficient funds into the project. As discussed, the project will improve the overall look of the campus by providing a landmark and a grand entrance to visitors entering from SW Marine Drive. In addi?on, private individuals may also want to be a part of the project. By allowing plaques to be placed on parts of the bridge`s handrails, wealthy individuals can commemorate the lives of their loved ones. It is intended that this bridge will a?ract many individuals to want to be a part of it and willing to do so by providing funds to make its construc?on possible. The plans to re-envision the UBC Botanical Garden is intended to be extravagant yet possible. The financial requirements of the projects will be aggressive to meet, however, with the proper planning, will be feasible. 	RE-ENVISIONING THE UBC BOTANICAL GARDEN  UBC CIVL 445 GROUP #15    PAGE 22 OF 35 6 CONCLUSIONSS	&	RECOMMENDATIONS	A number of changes to the UBC Botanical Garden have been proposed as a means to meet the mission of this re-envisioning plan: To redevelop the UBC Botanical Garden to enhance the community’s experience and educa?on, promote sustainable research and conserva?on, and establish its presence on the campus. The recommenda?ons were made keeping in mind the limited budget available to the UBC Botanical Garden. Projects were chosen using a cost-benefit analysis, no?ng that while implementa?on cost may be significant, the increase in visita?on by paying entrants would produce a feasible outcome in the long term. Ini?al upgrades to the garden’s signage will immediately result in an intui?ve experience to visitors while increasing educa?onal value. The Moon Tunnel upgrades will enhance safety and accessibility in the garden. A con?nuity between the north and south garden will be created to allow for a con?nuous posi?ve feel along the garden’s walking route. The roo?op rainwater collec?on and distribu?on system eases the water consump?on requirements, and at the same ?me reduces the amount of surface water runoff. The subgrade drainage system effec?vely conveys water at a shallow depth, allowing pools and floods to be prevented or dissipated quickly. As a result, educa?onal value on the conserva?on of resources is gained by visitors. Addi?onally, the goals of maintaining the garden’s sustainability and improving conserva?on for the future are met. A glass domed café near the garden entrance will lure in visitors. The quiet atmosphere contrasted with the fresh greenhouses allow for a peaceful loca?on for studying while permi?ng par?al climate control to allow for the research of foreign plant species. This creates a communal loca?on within the garden as well as enhanced abili?es to research and conserve plant species. To increase safety to pedestrians, the elevated pedestrian walkway crosses over SW Marine Drive. The bridge serves not only as a safety measure, but as an architectural masterpiece, welcoming guests to the UBC Botanical Garden. The presence of the garden is solidified among UBC and visita?on will be a regular occurrence among students and faculty. Over a ?meline of 20 years, projects will be installed to fulfill the mission of this re-envisioning plan. Dras?c improvement will be seen in the sustainability, accessibility, conserva?on, educa?on and community feel of the UBC Botanical Garden.   RE-ENVISIONING THE UBC BOTANICAL GARDEN  UBC CIVL 445 GROUP #15    PAGE 23 OF 35 7 REFERENCES	[1] Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada. (2013). Plant Hardiness Zones of Canada. Retrieved November 20, 2013, from Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada: h?p://atlas.agr.gc.ca/agmaf/index_eng.html [2] Centers for Disease Control and Preven?on. (2013). West Nile Virus. Retrieved November 20, 2013, from Centers for Disease Control and Preven?on: h?p://www.cdc.gov/westnile/index.html [3] The University of Bri?sh Columbia. (2011). Water Ac?on Plan. Retrieved November 20, 2013, from UBC Sustainability: h?p://sustain.ubc.ca/sites/sustain.ubc.ca/files/uploads/CampusSustainability/CS_PDFs/Water/WaterAc?onPlan_DiscussionPaper.pdf [4] Translink. (2013). Transit Schedules (C20 Marine Drive via Totem Park/UBC Loop via Marine Drive). Retrieved November 25, 2013, from Translink: h?p://infomaps.translink.ca/Public_Timetables/92/?C20.pdf [5] UBC Botanical Garden and Centre for Plant Research. (2013a). History of UBC Botanical Garden. Retrieved November 20, 2013, from UBC Botanical Garden: h?p://www.botanicalgarden.ubc.ca/history-of-ubc-botanical-garden [6] UBC Botanical Garden and Centre for Plant Research. (2013b). Plant Collec?ons. Retrieved November 14, 2013, from UBC Botanical Garden: h?p://www.botanicalgarden.ubc.ca/plant-collec?ons    RE-ENVISIONING THE UBC BOTANICAL GARDEN  UBC CIVL 445 GROUP #15    PAGE A-1 OF 35 APPENDIX	A: CONCEPTUAL	DESIGN	SKETCHES	 Figure 1: Conceptual sketch of scien?fic cataloguing signage.  Figure 2: Conceptual sketch of Moon tunnel interior upgrades. RE-ENVISIONING THE UBC BOTANICAL GARDEN  UBC CIVL 445 GROUP #15    PAGE A-2 OF 35  Figure 3: Conceptual sketch of rainwater collec?on and distribu?on system #1.  Figure 4: Conceptual sketch of rainwater collec?on and distribu?on system #2. RE-ENVISIONING THE UBC BOTANICAL GARDEN  UBC CIVL 445 GROUP #15    PAGE A-3 OF 35  Figure 5: Conceptual sketch of stormwater drainage system #1.  Figure 6: Conceptual sketch of stormwater drainage system #2. RE-ENVISIONING THE UBC BOTANICAL GARDEN  UBC CIVL 445 GROUP #15    PAGE A-4 OF 35  Figure 7: Conceptual sketch of greenhouse-café bistro and lounge.  Figure 8: Conceptual sketch of elevated pedestrian walkway #1. RE-ENVISIONING THE UBC BOTANICAL GARDEN  UBC CIVL 445 GROUP #15    PAGE A-5 OF 35  Figure 9: Conceptual sketch of elevated pedestrian walkway #2.  Figure 10: Conceptual sketch of elevated pedestrian walkway #2.   RE-ENVISIONING THE UBC BOTANICAL GARDEN  UBC CIVL 445 GROUP #15    PAGE B-1 OF 35 APPENDIX	B: MAP	OF	THE	UBC	BOTANICAL	GARDEN	 Figure 11: Map of the UBC Botanical Garden.   RE-ENVISIONING THE UBC BOTANICAL GARDEN  UBC CIVL 445 GROUP #15    PAGE C-1 OF 35 APPENDIX	C: PLANT	HARDINESS	ZONES	 Figure 12: Plant hardiness zones in southwestern Bri?sh Columbia.  


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