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Lunchmates : a campus lunch co-op Leon, Tania 2013-05-16

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UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report       Lunchmates: a campus lunch co-op Tania Leon  University of British Columbia GRS 397A/497B May 16, 2013           Disclaimer: “UBC SEEDS provides students with the opportunity to share the findings of their studies, as well as their opinions, conclusions and recommendations with the UBC community. The reader should bear in mind that this is a student project/report and is not an official document of UBC. Furthermore readers should bear in mind that these reports may not reflect the current status of activities at UBC. We urge you to contact the research persons mentioned in a report or the SEEDS Coordinator about the current status of the subject matter of a project/report”.  UBC$SEEDS$Project$|$Directed$Studies$Tania$Leon$Global$Resource$Systems$Program,$Faculty$of$Land$and$Food$Systems$tania.leon@alumni.ubc.ca$$First$Submitted:$April$30,$2013$Updated:$May$16,$2013$$Submitted$to:$$Liska$Richer,$Program$Coordinator,$UBC$SEEDS$|$Campus$Sustainability$$Brent$Skura,$Professor,$Faculty$of$Land$and$Food$Systems$$Kelly$White,$Wellness$Centre$Coordinator,$Health$Services$$$ $Lunchmates:$a$campus$lunch$coSop$$$ 2$Abstract($$ There$ is$a$constantly$growing$need$ for$enjoyable,$nutritious,$and$affordable$ lunch$options$on$campus.$Students$and$staff$members$are$becoming$more$pressed$for$time$and$decisions$about$food,$ sustainability,$ and$ the$ community$ seem$ to$ be$ growing$ in$ complexity.$ At$ the$ Vancouver$Campus$of$the$University$of$British$Columbia$(UBC),$we$are$attempting$to$establish$the$feasibility$of$a$campus$based$lunch$coSop$program$to$make$it$easier$for$students,$and$potentially$staff$members,$to$simply$connect$with$others$through$the$simple$act$of$sharing$food$with$others$and$eating$lunch$together.$$$ The$Lunchmates$campus$lunch$coSop$aims$to$reduce$the$amount$of$time,$energy,$and$waste$students$generate$when$cooking$a$typical$individual$meal.$The$Lunchmates$each$take$turns$cooking$a$homemade$lunch$for$the$entire$group$one$day$per$week.$$$ To$determine$the$feasibility$of$a$lunch$coSop$on$campus,$we$conducted$a$sixSweek$trial$run$that$ identified$ the$ issues$ and$ challenges$ related$ to$ purchasing$ ingredients,$ food$ safety$ concerns,$and$nutritional$requirements.$We$also$ looked$ into$appropriate$dining$ locations$on$campus,$waste$and$energy$reduction,$and$how$the$coSop$project$can$contribute$to$community$building$at$UBC.$$$$$ The$ Lunchmates$ project$ aims$ to$ include$ students$ and$ staff$ from$ all$ departments$ and$faculties$across$campus.$There$are$potential$collaborations$between$the$lunch$coSop$project$and$the$UBC$Wellness$Centre$Nutrition$Team$and$also$the$UBC$Vancouver$Collegia$program.$$$ There$are$three$key$recommendations$for$the$subsequent$stages$of$the$lunch$coSop$project.$Additional$research$opportunities$and$funding$can$be$considered$to$ensure$the$project’s$successful$continuation.$$$ 3$Table(of(Contents$Literature(Review(...................................................................................................................(6!StudentSBased$Initiatives$...............................................................................................................................................$6$Organizations$.......................................................................................................................................................................$8$Trial(Run(.................................................................................................................................(9!Sourcing$Ingredients$........................................................................................................................................................$9$Food$Safety:$Container$Choices$................................................................................................................................$11$Food$Safety:$Transportation$and$Food$Temperatures$...................................................................................$12$Nutritional$Considerations$.........................................................................................................................................$14$Dining$Locations$..............................................................................................................................................................$15$Waste$and$Energy$Reduction$.....................................................................................................................................$18$Community$Building$......................................................................................................................................................$19$Summary$of$Results$.......................................................................................................................................................$20$Future(Directions(..................................................................................................................(22!Recommendations(................................................................................................................(23!Acknowledgements(..............................................................................................................(25!Literature(Cited(.....................................................................................................................(25!Appendix(A:(Trial(Run(Observations(and(Notes(.....................................................................(28!Appendix(B:(Recipe(Collection(...............................................................................................(31! $ 4$Introduction($ Due$to$demanding$schedules,$many$students$and$staff$members$often$struggle$to$plan$and$prepare$nutritious$and$affordable$packed$lunches$on$a$regular$basis.$Although$purchasing$lunch$on$campus$can$be$fairly$convenient,$it$is$not$necessarily$budgetSfriendly$or$nutritious.$There$are$a$few$food$outlets$at$ the$University$of$British$Columbia$(UBC)$Vancouver$campus$that$strive$to$provide$nutritious$and$budget$friendly$options$but$these$options$may$become$repetitive.$$$ With$growing$concerns$about$global$food$security,$many$people$are$beginning$to$recognize$the$ level$of$ food$ insecurity$at$our$ local$ level.$Davis$and$Tarasuk$(as$cited$ in$Health$Canada$2012)$define$food$insecurity$as$“the$inability$to$acquire$or$consume$an$adequate$diet$quality$or$sufficient$quantity$ of$ food$ in$ socially$ acceptable$ ways,$ or$ the$ uncertainty$ that$ one$ will$ be$ able$ to$ do$ so.”$$With$ the$ ongoing$ Food$Movement$ in$ Vancouver,$ people$ are$ demanding$more$ local,$ organic,$ and$socially$responsible$foods.$While$there$is$growing$support$from$local$residents$in$communitySbased$food$system$projects$and$activities,$Statistics$Canada$revealed$that$5%$of$individuals$in$Vancouver$reportedly$ experience$household$ food$ insecurity$ (as$ cited$ in$City$of$Vancouver$2013).$While$ this$may$ seem$ like$ a$ small$ number,$ the$ actual$ number$ of$ individuals$ that$ are$ food$ insecure$may$ be$higher$and$there$are$also$many$vulnerable$individuals$and$households$within$the$city.$The$high$cost$of$ living$ in$ Vancouver,$ coupled$ with$ educational$ expenses$ can$ contribute$ to$ the$ feeling$ of$ food$insecurity$among$students$at$UBC.$This$highlights$the$need$for$a$better$functioning$and$sustainable$food$system$in$Vancouver$and$at$UBC.$$ By$creating$a$campus$ lunch$coSop,$we$can$provide$an$opportunity$ for$students$ to$connect$and$share$meals$together.$There$are$also$opportunities$to$learn$from$each$other$by$sharing$recipes,$tips$on$improving$cooking$skills,$knowledge$about$food$safety$and$nutrition,$and$also$stories$about$daily$life$and$culture.$Participating$in$these$collective$meals$also$provide$the$benefit$of$saving$time$$ 5$and$other$resources$ that$would$normally$be$used$ to$prepare$ individual$ lunches.$The$Lunchmates$campus$ lunch$ coSop$brings$ individuals$ together$ that$ form$ small$ groups$ of$ three$ to$ four$ students$Each$student$ takes$ their$ turn$cooking$a$homemade$ lunch$ for$ the$entire$group$one$day$per$week.$Meals$ are$prepared$at$home$and$brought$ to$ campus,$where$ the$ group$meets$ to$ eat$ together$ and$have$a$chance$to$take$a$break$from$school$and$casually$interact.$$$ The$ concept$ is$ based$ on$ the$ idea$ that$ it$ is$more$ efficient$ and$ cost$ effective$ to$ cook$ for$ a$group$ of$ people$ compared$ to$ an$ individual$meal.$ Purchasing$ groceries$ is$more$ economical$ since$fresh$ingredients$are$more$likely$to$be$consumed$in$a$timely$manner$instead$of$going$to$waste$or$perishing.$Initial$and$informal$discussions$with$students$have$revealed$that$they$would$often$forgo$purchasing$fresh$and$perishable$foods$because$they$feel$that$it$is$a$waste$of$money.$When$cooking$multiple$servings,$buying$produce$and$purchasing$larger$quantities$can$often$present$opportunity$for$ discounts$ as$ well.$ The$ collective$ effort$ also$ means$ that$ participants$ will$ save$ time$ since$ a$different$member$will$ cook$ for$others$once$every$weekly$ rotation.$ $Group$members$ can$begin$ to$build$a$community$network$through$common$interests$and$by$sharing$recipes,$cooking$skills,$and$other$ ideas$ that$ help$ improve$ student$ life$ and$ promote$ actions$ towards$ a$ sustainable$ campus$lifestyle.$There$are$three$main$objectives$for$the$current$campus$lunch$coSop$project:$1. To$ determine$ the$ feasibility$ of$ creating$ a$ lunch$ coSop$ at$ UBC$ and$ criteria$ for$ organizing$lunch$groups$2. To$develop$a$set$of$meal$guidelines$and$policies$that$address$food$safety$concerns$and$food$appropriateness$for$participants$3. To$develop$an$online$system$for$UBC$students$to$connect$and$register$for$lunch$groups,$post$recipes,$and$find$information$about$nutrition$and$food$safety$$ 6$$ $First,$ the$project$aims$to$determine$the$ feasibility$of$creating$a$ lunch$coSop$on$campus$at$UBC$Vancouver.$Criteria$for$organizing$lunch$groups$will$be$explored$and$defined.$This$will$involve$considerations$ that$will$help$students$ form$lunch$groups,$ including$the$ ideal$size$of$ lunch$groups$and$ length$of$ each$ cooking$ rotation$within$ each$group.$Next,$ the$ goal$ is$ to$develop$a$ set$ of$meal$guidelines$and$policies$that$address$food$safety$concerns$and$also$appropriate$food$for$participants.$This$step$will$examine$the$food$safety$conditions$of$packed,$homemade$lunches.$Proper$steps$will$be$outlined$to$ensure$that$students$are$aware$of$how$to$keep$their$lunches$food$safe$by$adhering$to$food$safety$guidelines.$We$also$aim$to$develop$an$online$system$for$UBC$students$ to$connect$and$register$ for$ lunch$groups.$This$webpage$will$also$act$as$a$resource$centre,$offering$studentStested$recipes$and$information$regarding$topics$on$nutrition$and$food$safety.$$ This$ report$ discusses$ the$ first$ objective$ in$ detail$ and$ provides$ recommendations$ for$addressing$the$last$two$objectives,$as$the$project$progresses.$Literature(Review($ Four$campuses$in$North$America$were$sampled$to$explore$similar$studentSrun$food$initiatives$and$clubs:$The$University$of$California,$Berkeley$(UC$Berkeley);$McGill$University;$Harvard$University;$and$The$University$of$Washington.$As$well,$a$number$of$individuals$and$organizations$have$written$blogs$that$share$how$similar$lunch$coSop$ideas$have$been$implemented$on$a$smaller$scale.$$Student9Based(Initiatives($ At$UC$Berkeley,$there$are$several$food$and$sustainabilitySrelated$initiatives$organized$through$student$clubs.$The$campus$has$a$strong$focus$on$providing$food$for$those$in$need$but$there$are$also$clubs$that$raise$awareness$for$nutritious,$culturallySspecific,$and$sustainable$foods$(University$of$California,$Berkeley$Division$of$Student$Affairs$2012).$The$$ 7$Berkeley$Student$Food$Collective$is$a$studentSrun$organization$that$connects$students$and$the$community$to$the$local$food$system$while$emphasizing$the$importance$of$healthy,$environmentally$and$socially$sustainable$foods.$The$collective$operates$a$cooperative$grocery$store$similar$to$Sprouts$at$UBC,$but$also$offers$other$products$including$natural$cleaning$products$and$other$packaged$goods$(Berkeley$Student$Food$Collective$n.d.,$UBC$Sprouts$2013).$$UC$Berkeley$students$also$run$the$ASUC$Sustainability$Team$(STeam),$which$concentrates$on$increasing$campus$sustainability$by$providing$training$and$tools$to$implement$sustainabilitySrelated$initiatives$and$projects.$$$$ McGill$University’s$Office$of$Sustainability$supports$a$number$of$student$and$communitySbased$initiatives$that$target$environmental$stewardship$and$issues$regarding$sustainable$food$systems.$The$McGill$Food$Systems$Project$is$a$collaborative$effort$between$students,$the$McGill$Office$of$Sustainability$and$the$Food$and$Dining$Services$that$aims$to$improve$campus$food$systems$sustainability$at$McGill$(2012).$McGill$University$students$also$launched$the$McGill$Students’$Culinary$Society$(n.d.)$that$offers$workshops,$potlucks,$and$restaurant$dining$experiences.$Their$goal$is$to$provide$students$an$opportunity$to$learn$new$cooking$skills$and$to$try$a$variety$of$cuisines.$$$ At$Harvard$University,$Dining$Services$plays$a$central$role$in$educating$students$on$food$preparation,$nutrition,$and$sustainable$food$sources.$The$Food$Literacy$Project$(FLP)$approaches$food$systems$education$by$supporting$many$projects$and$special$events.$The$group$also$operates$two$farmers’$markets$and$also$a$variety$of$cooking$classes$on$campus$(Harvard$University$Dining$Services$n.d.).$$$ The$University$of$Washington$Student$Food$Cooperative$(UWSFC$n.d.)$is$a$student$owned$and$operated$organization$that$aims$to$improve$food$systems$impacts$from$many$different$disciplines.$The$group$runs$two$main$projects:$the$UWSFC$Bulk$Buying$Club$and$a$$ 8$café$catered$towards$serving$local,$sustainable$and$ethical$food$and$beverages.$The$university$also$has$a$number$of$environmentally$focused$student$groups$and$green$teams,$such$as$the$UW$Tower$Green$Team,$which$has$sponsored$“locavore”$lunches$and$gardening$events$(University$of$Washington$Environmental$Stewardship$&$Sustainability$n.d.).$$$ Although$the$universities$sampled$did$not$have$campusSbased$lunch$coSops$established,$many$of$the$food$and$sustainability$initiatives$have$similar$aspects$to$the$lunch$coSop$concept.$Their$experiences$were$documented$online,$often$through$blog$sites$and$other$social$media$platforms$linked$from$the$university$website.$Organizations($ Village$Vancouver$(2013)$supports$grassroots,$communitySbased$food$and$sustainability$activities$in$neighbourhoods$across$the$city.$The$Kitsilano$Village$network$of$Village$Vancouver$arranges$dropSin$spaghetti$nights$that$bring$together$neighbours$while$sharing$a$meal$cooked$over$one$stove.$This$activity$aims$to$reduce$transportation$and$energy$consumption$while$connecting$the$community$(Village$Vancouver$2013).$$ Staff$members$from$Slow$Food$USA$(2011)$organized$a$workplace$lunch$coSop$where$one$person$would$cook$for$the$other$group$members$once$during$their$eightSday$rotation.$The$coSop$aimed$to$incorporate$as$many$organic$and$local$ingredients$as$possible$for$less$than$$5$per$person.$The$group$also$outlined$a$few$dietary$considerations,$such$as$vegetarian$meals$and$taste$preferences.$The$lunch$coSop$scheduled$each$rotation$by$sharing$a$Google$Docs$calendar$and$sent$menus$out$for$feedback$and$to$build$up$excitement$and$anticipation.$While$the$group$initially$experienced$issues$with$cleaning$responsibilities$and$intervals$of$low$creativity,$the$Slow$Food$USA$(2011)$lunch$coSop$successfully$continued$for$nine$months$by$the$date$of$the$blog$posting$and$their$members$agreed$that$the$experiment$$ 9$was$a$successful$learning$experience$that$cut$the$cost$of$food$and$allowed$coworkers$to$connect$on$a$daily$basis.$$$ Another$workplace$lunch$coSop$was$discovered$on$the$blog$Eat$Here$2$(2011).$This$group$followed$a$similar$process$to$the$Slow$Food$USA$lunch$coSop$by$also$setting$a$number$of$ground$rules$at$the$planning$stage.$This$included$food$intolerances$and$preferences$and$also$a$maximum$meal$cost$of$$5$per$person.$$Trial(Run($ The$purpose$of$the$trial$run$was$to$assist$in$determining$the$potential$challenges$of$implementing$a$lunch$coSop$and$also$to$documenting$the$experience$and$feasibility$of$the$program.$$The$trial$run$originally$began$with$two$people$but$after$the$second$week,$three$individuals$participated.$The$entire$trial$run$continued$successfully$from$February$25th$to$April$4th,$2013$–$six$weeks$leading$up$to$the$last$day$of$classes.$During$this$trial$period,$general$observations$were$recorded$to$track$the$cost$of$meals,$challenges,$and$lessons$learned$(Appendix$A).$The$key$considerations$and$challenges$with$respect$to$the$trial$run$are$discussed$in$further$detail$below.$Sourcing(Ingredients($ There$were$distinct$contrasts$between$the$availability$of$supermarkets$and$grocers,$the$price$of$groceries,$and$the$types$of$food$products$offered$based$on$different$areas$in$Vancouver.$The$test$run$participants$lived$in$the$communities$of$Riley$Park$–$Little$Mountain,$Oakridge,$and$Marpole;$and$acquired$distinct$experiences$within$these$contrasting$neighbourhooods.$We$followed$the$$5$per$person$per$meal$guideline$indicated$in$the$previous$literature$reviews$because$we$felt$that$it$was$approximately$the$cost$of$a$typical$lunch$purchased$at$a$UBC$food$outlet.$$ 10$$ Within$the$Riley$Park$–$Little$Mountain$neighbourhood,$there$are$few$large$supermarkets$but$a$number$of$smallSscale$grocers$that$offer$a$variety$of$organic$goods$and$culturally$specific$ingredients.$There$is$also$a$Winter$Farmers$Market$every$Saturday$at$the$Nat$Bailey$Stadium,$which$provides$fresh$local$produce$and$a$number$of$artisanal$food$products$at$fair$prices$(Vancouver$Farmers$Market$2013).$Despite$the$community’s$strong$interest$in$food$and$sustainability,$there$are$very$few$community$gardens$(City$of$Vancouver$2013).$$$ The$Oakridge$neighbourhood$offers$a$large$Safeway$supermarket,$and$a$number$of$small$specialty$grocers.$As$of$2012,$the$area$contained$two$community$gardens$(City$of$Vancouver$2013).$Still,$the$participant$from$Oakridge$decided$to$purchase$groceries$from$lowScost$stores$such$as$No$Frills.$$$ Marpole$is$considered$a$food$desert.$Although$the$neighbourhood$is$considered$to$have$relatively$high$income$levels,$access$to$large$grocery$stores$or$fresh$produce$markets$are$fairly$minimal.$While$there$are$two$community$gardens$present$in$this$neighbourhood,$there$are$a$limited$number$of$smaller$markets$available$to$purchase$regular$grocery$store$items$as$well.$As$a$result,$the$participant$from$the$Marpole$area$chose$to$shop$outside$of$this$neighbourhood$for$the$majority$of$their$ingredients.$$$ We$sought$ingredients$from$outside$of$our$respective$neighbourhoods.$This$can$be$attributed$to$the$difference$in$price,$transit$convenience,$and$also$the$quality$and$availability$of$ingredients.$We$did$not$take$advantage$of$existing$community$gardens,$nor$did$we$produce$our$own$ingredients.$However,$we$began$to$share$bulk$ingredients$between$us,$such$as$rice$and$wholeSwheat$dinner$rolls,$at$no$cost.$This$allowed$our$group$to$expand$our$cooking$options$when$we$had$limited$time$and$money$to$purchase$such$ingredients.$Our$group$also$incorporated$many$seasonal$vegetables$and$food$available$yearSround$to$$ 11$enhance$our$knowledge$of$locally$produced$ingredients.$In$Southwest$British$Columbia,$produce$such$as$kale$and$mushrooms$are$grown$throughout$the$year.$However,$there$are$a$many$produce$items$that$are$stored$locally$throughout$the$winter$months$(Farm$Folk$City$Folk$2012).$$Food(Safety:(Container(Choices($ After$recent$health$concerns$surrounding$Bisphenol$A$(BPA)$found$in$certain$plastics,$the$general$public$has$generally$become$more$wary$about$using$specific$types$of$food$containers.$During$our$test$run,$we$used$two$types$of$food$containers.$We$selected$reusable$glass$Mason$jars$with$metal$lids$for$cold$salads$and$hot$lunches$that$required$reheating$with$microwaves.$Plastic$containers$were$used$for$meals$such$as$sandwiches$and$wraps$that$did$not$require$reheating.$$ Glass$Mason$jars$were$selected$for$two$main$reasons.$First,$we$chose$to$avoid$microwavable$plastic$containers$due$to$general$concerns$from$the$group.$Secondly,$we$aimed$to$reduce$waste$by$reusing$Mason$jars$repurposed$from$pasta$sauces.$We$also$used$plastic$containers$solely$for$the$purpose$of$transporting$cold$food.$These$containers$were$made$of$polypropylene$(PP)$and$are$acceptable$for$use$in$food$packaging$(Health$Canada$2009).$$$ Plastic$food$containers$have$raised$concerns$because$several$contain$phthalates,$BPA,$and$styrene;$which$are$potentially$endocrine$disrupting$chemicals$(Bang$et$al.$2012).$However,$FankhauserSNoti$and$Grob$(2006)$indicate$that$plasticizers$applied$to$the$metal$lids$of$glass$jars$could$potentially$migrate$into$foods,$given$direct$contact$or$heat.$The$study$also$showed$that$oily$foods$had$higher$levels$of$plasticizer$migration.$We$mitigated$these$concerns$by$leaving$space$between$the$top$of$the$jars$and$the$food,$and$also$keeping$the$jars$$ 12$upright$during$transportation.$We$also$removed$the$metal$lids$before$microwaving$to$ensure$safe$reheating.$$$$$$$$$$ There$was$a$challenge$between$choosing$glass$or$plastic$containers.$Glass$containers$were$generally$heavier$than$plastic$containers;$however,$we$felt$safer$and$more$ecoSfriendly$when$microwaving$our$meals$in$glass$rather$than$plastic.$We$agreed$that$the$weight$of$glass$containers$was$manageable$up$to$four$containers$and$that$three$to$four$Mason$jars$fit$perfectly$upright$in$our$backpacks.$Food(Safety:(Transportation(and(Food(Temperatures($ Another$food$safety$aspect$we$examined$was$the$temperature$change$of$our$meals$during$transportation.$As$we$did$not$have$proper$access$to$a$refrigerator,$we$were$concerned$that$the$food$would$reach$and$remain$at$the$“danger$zone”$for$an$extended$period$of$time.$Health$Canada$(2010a)$indicates$that$food$must$be$kept$out$of$the$“danger$zone”$of$4°C$to$60°C,$or$40°F$to$140°F,$to$prevent$the$growth$of$harmful$bacteria.$Health$Canada$(2010b)$also$recommends$heating$leftovers$to$an$internal$temperature$of$74°C$or$165°F.$$$ We$initially$tested$the$temperature$for$one$meal$that$consisted$of$solid$foods$and$was$contained$in$a$glass$Mason$jar.$Since$we$only$had$access$to$a$meat$thermometer,$we$could$only$test$how$hot$our$food$was$microwaved.$We$estimated$a$typical$microwave$time$of$2$minutes,$and$the$food$measured$just$over$60°C.$This$meant$that$we$had$to$stir$the$food$and$microwave$the$jars$for$a$second$time$to$reach$the$74°C$minimum$level$for$leftover$meals.$$$$ In$a$more$structured$test,$I$set$up$two$Mason$jars$to$determine$the$temperature$change$for$a$typical$solid$and$liquid$meal$at$room$temperature.$Vegetable$soup$was$used$as$$ 13$the$liquid$meal$and$leftover$roasted$vegetables$were$used$for$the$solid$meal.$A$Traceable®$Digital$Thermometer$with$a$range$of$–50°C$to$150°C,$or$–58°F$to$302°F$and$accuracy$of$±1°C$was$used$to$measure$room$temperature$and$the$two$types$of$meals$at$each$time$interval.$Room$temperature$was$recorded$at$21.1°C.$To$determine$what$time$intervals$to$use,$I$estimated$that$the$minimum$time$that$a$student$would$need$to$retrieve$the$meals$from$their$fridge$and$the$moment$the$moment$the$lunch$group$meets$is$approximately$one$hour.$The$results$indicated$that$already$within$one$hour$at$room$temperature,$both$solid$and$liquid$meals$were$in$the$“danger$zone”$(Table$1).$However,$this$test$may$not$represent$accurate$outcomes$since$these$test$jars$were$exposed$to$room$temperature$on$a$countertop$rather$than$realistically$in$a$backpack.$Storing$these$containers$in$a$backpack$or$lunch$bag$may$yield$a$difference$in$the$rate$of$change$in$temperatures$due$to$the$insulating$abilities$of$certain$fabrics.$We$predict$that$the$change$in$temperature$would$be$less$rapid$than$shown$in$this$single$test.$Table$1.$Change$in$temperature$of$solid$and$liquid$food$stored$in$two$separate$glass$Mason$jars$exposed$to$room$temperature$at$21.1°C.$$Temperature!Measured! Solid!Meal!!(Roasted!Vegetables)! Liquid!Meal!(Vegetable!Soup)!0$hours$at$room$temperature$(immediately$from$refrigerator)$ 3.6°C$$ 3.1°C$1$hour$at$room$temperature$ 7.9°C$ 8.2°C$1$hour$30$minutes$at$room$temperature$ 10.7°C$ 10.1°C$2$hours$at$room$temperature$ 14.1°C$ 13.7°C$$$ As$a$result,$we$were$able$to$follow$the$Health$Canada$guidelines$for$microwaving$leftovers,$but$we$were$generally$unsuccessful$with$keeping$our$food$outside$of$the$“danger$zone”.$Although$our$meals$were$within$this$temperature$range,$we$did$not$experience$sickness$or$any$foodborne$illness.$Although$perishable$food$can$still$be$generally$considered$$ 14$safe$if$exposed$to$the$“danger$zone”$for$up$to$four$hours,$it$is$important$to$encourage$behaviour$that$is$food$safe$(B.$Skura,$personal$communication,$May$13,$2013).$To$be$cautious,$meals$will$need$to$be$stored$in$cooler$bags$or$access$to$refrigerators$need$to$be$established$to$ensure$that$the$“danger$zone”$is$avoided$in$the$future.$Nutritional(Considerations($ Canada’s$Food$Guide$recommends$that$adults$between$the$ages$of$19$and$50$should$eat$7$to$8$servings$of$vegetables$and$fruits,$6$to$7$servings$of$grain$products,$3$to$4$milk$and$alternatives,$and$2$to$3$meat$and$alternatives$(Health$Canada$2011).$In$order$to$meet$the$recommended$number$of$servings$proposed,$we$attempted$to$balance$our$meals$by$incorporating$ingredients$from$at$least$three$of$the$four$different$food$groups$during$each$meal.$For$instance,$a$quinoa$salad$consisted$of$one$type$of$grain$product,$several$vegetables,$and$also$a$portion$of$lean$meat.$We$chose$a$number$of$dark$leafy$vegetables$such$as$spinach$and$kale$as$well$bright$orange$vegetables,$including$squash$and$carrots.$We$focused$on$meals$that$were$low$in$sugar$and$sodium,$and$selected$predominantly$lean$meats.$$ Our$group$also$brought$together$a$mix$of$different$cultures,$cooking$skills,$and$family$upbringings.$Therefore,$we$had$the$opportunity$to$sample$a$variety$of$different$cuisines$that$provided$a$unique$combination$of$nutrients$and$other$potential$health$benefits$beyond$our$normal$diet.$$ We$explored$a$variety$of$diets,$including$vegetarian$and$lowScarbohydrate$meals.$This$allowed$each$group$member$to$expand$their$food$options$at$home$by$trying$alternative$food$products.$Our$initial$ground$rules$also$established$specific$considerations$for$different$taste$preferences$and$food$intolerances.$Our$ground$rules$made$sure$that$meals$would$be$suitable$for$all$members$and$that$no$one$would$be$left$without$a$meal$due$to$errors$in$$ 15$communication$or$misunderstanding.$We$sought$recipes$and$ideas$from$each$other$and$utilized$online$resources$when$we$were$unsure$of$what$to$make.$Dining(Locations($ During$our$trial$run,$we$selected$five$dining$locations$on$campus$to$meet$and$share$our$meals.$These$locations$were$in$the$School$of$Population$and$Public$Health$(SPPH)$building,$H.R.$MacMillan,$The$Global$Lounge,$the$Fred$Kaiser$Building,$and$also$an$outdoor$seating$area$(Figure$1).$We$chose$these$locations$due$to$the$distance$between$our$classes,$awareness$of$available$seating$areas$within$these$buildings,$and$general$access$to$kitchen$facilities.$It$was$important$for$our$group$to$have$reliable$access$to$a$microwave$and$compost$bins.$$$$ Since$we$often$had$oneShour$windows$each$day$to$meet$and$have$lunch$together,$we$sought$out$convenient$locations$that$were$not$exceedingly$busy.$Through$our$past$experiences$on$campus,$we$noticed$that$some$of$the$busiest$dining$areas$on$campus$such$as$the$Student$Union$Building$(SUB)$were$generally$less$enjoyable$places$to$eat.$These$locations$seemed$less$clean,$required$longer$wait$times$to$use$the$microwaves,$and$presented$unnecessary$stress$during$our$lunch$breaks.$We$intended$to$have$a$relaxing$time$between$classes$to$eat$and$have$casual$conversations$and$discussions$about$the$meals$we$brought$for$each$other.$$$$$ 16$$Figure$1.$Map$of$dining$locations$used$in$trial$run.$(Modified$from:$UBC$Campus$&$Community$Planning$2011)$$$$ The$lunchroom$on$the$second$floor$of$the$School$of$Population$and$Public$Health$building$offered$ample$seating$in$a$quiet$environment.$The$facility$also$included$composting$and$recycling$bins,$a$full$sink,$microwaves,$toaster$ovens,$a$refrigerator,$and$a$dishwasher.$Although$this$space$felt$semiSprivate$and$catered$to$students$and$staff$members$of$the$SPPH,$we$generally$felt$welcome,$as$we$were$respectful$of$the$space$and$mindful$of$others.$However,$we$did$not$feel$comfortable$using$the$lunchroom$refrigerator$and$dishwasher.$$ 17$$ The$Agora$dining$area$in$the$basement$of$the$H.R.$MacMillan$building$is$open$to$all$students$and$has$provided$our$group$with$plenty$of$seating$options$and$a$casual$environment$to$interact.$Microwaves$were$available$but$often$in$use$during$the$peak$lunchtime,$and$compost$bins$were$accessible$outside.$However,$there$were$fewer$amenities$compared$to$the$lunchroom$at$the$SPPH$building.$$$ The$Global$Lounge$is$also$open$to$all$students$on$campus.$Although$this$building$is$slightly$further$from$the$central$part$of$campus,$it$offered$our$group$an$opportunity$to$explore$another$part$of$the$campus$and$also$avoid$overcrowded$spaces.$A$sink,$kettle,$dishes,$dishwasher,$refrigerator,$and$a$compost$bin$were$available$for$both$staff$and$students.$The$lounge$space$was$a$comfortable$area$for$dining$and$is$relatively$quiet,$compared$to$other$dining$locations$on$campus.$It$was$also$a$great$place$to$learn$more$about$events$relating$to$sustainability$and$different$cultures.$Again,$we$refrained$from$using$the$refrigerator$since$we$did$not$feel$that$we$had$proper$permission$to$store$our$food$prior$to$our$visit.$$ The$Fred$Kaiser$building$is$an$open$and$multipurpose$seating$area$for$dining$and$studying.$Seating$was$easy$to$find$but$there$were$no$appliances$available$at$this$location.$We$tried$this$dining$location$on$a$day$where$we$had$cold$food$that$did$not$need$to$be$reheated.$Since$a$Starbucks$café$was$located$across$from$the$dining$and$seating$area,$we$noticed$that$the$space$was$open$to$students$outside$of$the$Faculty$of$Engineering.$Thus,$we$felt$comfortable$eating$in$a$space$that$we$knew$we$were$permitted$to$use.$$ As$the$end$of$the$term$approached,$the$weather$improved$enough$for$us$to$attempt$eating$outdoors.$Outdoor$spaces,$such$as$the$new$fountain,$were$excellent$places$to$have$lunch$while$getting$some$fresh$air.$Here,$we$chose$to$pack$a$cold$lunch$that$did$not$require$$ 18$the$use$of$a$microwave.$Although$there$are$a$limited$number$days$for$which$UBC$students$can$take$advantage$of$eating$outside,$it$was$an$enjoyable$change$of$scenery.$$ Through$our$trial$run,$we$discovered$a$number$of$challenges$with$finding$appropriate$dining$facilities.$First,$it$is$difficult$to$identify$whether$some$dining$spaces$are$faculty$or$department$specific$lunchrooms.$There$is$currently$no$complete$listing$or$guideline$that$outlines$which$campus$locations$are$suitable$for$public$eating.$$It$was$a$bit$difficult$to$feel$comfortable$in$a$place$that$we$were$unsure$of$whether$we$were$allowed$to$use.$Informal$searches$through$a$number$of$different$UBC$undergraduate$society$blogs$as$well$as$faculty$and$department$websites$have$indicated$that$access$to$eating$locations$vary$by$building$and$department.$This$is$a$concern$because$some$students$may$not$feel$comfortable$in$an$unfamiliar$location$and$students$may$fear$the$uncertain$risk$of$being$asked$to$leave$a$dining$area.$Waste(and(Energy(Reduction($ We$considered$that$the$amount$of$energy$spent$on$cooking$one$large$meal$is$far$less$than$the$energy$used$to$cook$several$small$meals.$Since$our$trial$run$consisted$of$three$members,$we$often$prepared$meals$that$generated$four$to$five$servings.$This$allowed$us$to$save$the$additional$servings$for$dinner$or$to$place$in$the$freezer$as$leftovers$for$another$night.$Storing$leftover$meals$in$the$freezer$meant$that$we$had$lastSminute$meals$readily$available$when$our$schedules$became$hectic,$but$it$did$not$sacrifice$our$nutrition,$unlike$many$other$instant$meals.$Reheating$food$also$saves$time$and$energy,$since$it$uses$less$energy$to$reheat$leftovers$than$to$cook$a$meal$(BC$Hydro$2013).$$$ Cooking$larger$meals$also$had$benefits$when$many$fresh$ingredients$are$quickly$perishable$within$one$week$of$purchase.$Since$many$supermarkets$and$grocery$stores$did$$ 19$not$sell$significantly$smaller$produce$items,$such$as$prewashed$boxed$salads$and$carrots$in$bunches,$it$was$difficult$for$an$individual$to$finish$these$ingredients$before$they$wilted$or$passed$the$expiry$date.$This$reduced$food$waste$and$encouraged$us$to$purchase$a$variety$of$fresh$ingredients$that$we$normally$would$not$try.$$ On$campus,$we$benefited$from$the$abundance$of$composting$facilities.$Although$most$of$our$food$items$were$prepared$at$home,$we$did$have$certain$items$such$as$orange$peels$that$needed$to$be$disposed$of$responsibly.$We$also$reduced$waste$generated$by$the$use$of$paper$towel$by$bringing$our$own$tea$towels$to$wipe$and$clean$our$containers$and$cutlery.$$Community(Building($ One$major$challenge$university$students$typically$face$is$finding$opportunities$to$connect$with$other$students$but$more$importantly,$build$strong$and$lasting$friendships$with$the$people$they$meet.$During$this$test$run,$our$group$had$a$chance$to$catch$up$with$each$other$almost$everyday$and$make$meaningful$connections$with$each$other.$We$provided$support,$not$only$for$foodSrelated$concerns$but$for$school$and$daily$life$as$well.$$$ Often,$students$make$friends$with$classmates$but$many$of$these$friendships$do$not$necessary$continue$after$the$class$is$over.$Students$make$many$short$friendships,$unless$these$friends$take$multiple$classes$together$throughout$their$years$in$university.$One$group$member$even$expressed$that$we$would$never$see$each$other$anymore$if$we$didn’t$have$these$lunches$together.$$$ Providing$a$reason$to$meet$and$share$food$and$stories$on$a$regular$basis$allows$lunch$coSop$members$to$bond$with$others,$have$a$sense$of$belonging,$and$a$feeling$as$though$they$are$a$part$of$a$group$and$community.$We$were$able$to$learn$cooking$skills$from$$ 20$each$other$and$share$common$resources$as$well.$Our$friendships$now$extend$beyond$meeting$for$coSop$lunches,$as$we$continue$to$share$experiences$and$conversations$with$each$other$offScampus$as$well.$$ The$lunch$coSop$has$also$allowed$us$to$discover$more$about$the$UBC$community$and$also$what$the$campus$has$to$offer$its$students.$Together,$we$have$discovered$many$different$facilities$and$events$together$and$have$been$able$to$share$our$own$experiences$with$campus$life.$$Summary(of(Results($ The$trial$run$yielded$many$positive$results.$Through$informal$discussions,$we$determined$that$a$lunch$coSop$program$was$definitely$feasible$at$the$Vancouver$campus$of$UBC$and$that$a$set$of$guidelines$would$be$helpful$for$students$wishing$to$join$the$coSop.$$ Although$we$tested$the$lunch$coSop$with$two$and$three$members$in$one$group,$$we$expect$that$the$ideal$number$of$participants$is$3S4$individuals$per$group.$This$estimate$considers$the$typical$cooking$capacity$of$student$rental$apartment$or$basement$suites$and$also$the$reasonable$weight$for$packed$lunches$during$the$transportation$process.$This$also$allows$members$one$or$two$days$of$flexibility$in$case$there$is$a$need$for$scheduling$changes$or$holiday$considerations.$$$ Though$we$often$purchased$ingredients$from$a$number$of$different$locations,$we$did$not$sense$that$it$was$a$constraint$to$cooking$our$lunches$in$a$timely$and$efficient$manner.$We$were$familiar$with$our$local$grocery$stores$and$did$not$have$issues$finding$the$ingredients$we$required$to$prepare$our$meals.$$$ Our$group$determined$that$we$felt$safer$using$glass$containers$for$hot$food$and$plastic$containers$for$cold$foods.$This$helped$us$avoid$the$current$uncertainty$and$health$$ 21$concerns$surrounding$microwavable$plastic$food$containers.$The$trial$run$exposed$many$challenges$with$meeting$food$safety$guidelines$since$our$meals$often$entered$the$“danger$zone”.$We$did$not$have$the$proper$access$to$refrigerators$or$coolers$to$keep$our$lunch$items$below$the$designated$“danger$zone”.$$$ In$terms$of$nutrition,$we$had$very$well$balanced$meals$by$alternating$many$types$of$cuisines$on$a$daily$basis.$This$included$rotating$between$vegetarian$options,$lean$meats$and$meat$alternatives.$We$incorporated$many$fresh$vegetables$in$our$meals$and$ensured$that$our$serving$sizes$were$reasonable.$During$the$trial$run,$we$also$created$a$collection$of$recipes$that$reflected$different$dietary$considerations$and$cultural$culinary$backgrounds$(Appendix$B).$We$hoped$that$this$recipe$collection$will$be$expanded$in$the$future$and$will$assist$students$that$may$need$some$meal$ideas.$$ We$realized$that$dining$locations$were$generally$sufficient$and$we$did$not$have$trouble$finding$places$to$sit$but$we$were$unaware$of$the$protocols$pertaining$to$certain$places$and$whether$some$locations$were$considered$public$spaces$or$faculty$and$departmentSspecific$lunchrooms$only.$As$a$result,$we$tried$a$few$new$dining$locations$but$we$did$not$expand$our$dining$area$options$extensively.$$ Ensuring$minimal$food$and$packaging$waste$was$important$to$our$commitment$to$sustainable$actions.$We$shared$and$reused$all$of$our$food$containers$and$tea$towels$to$avoid$waste.$Since$we$were$often$able$to$cook$large$batches$of$food,$we$saved$energy$by$minimizing$the$number$of$meals$we$needed$to$cook$from$scratch.$$ The$Lunchmates$test$run$experience$helped$solidify$friendships$between$the$members$and$began$the$process$of$building$a$community$around$food$and$campus$life$in$general.$The$opportunity$to$meet$on$a$regular$basis$meant$that$we$were$able$to$share$a$$ 22$number$of$interests$and$also$ideas$to$reach$the$common$goal$of$having$fun,$nutritious,$and$affordable$school$lunches$together.$$Future(Directions($ The$Lunchmates$campus$lunch$coSop$has$the$potential$to$develop$into$many$areas$throughout$UBC.$The$vision$is$to$expand$this$project$to$include$all$students$in$the$Vancouver$campus$and$also$UBC$staff$members$as$well.$$$ The$Lunchmates$coSop$is$planning$to$partner$with$the$Nutrition$Team$from$the$UBC$Wellness$Centre$to$gather$and$share$information$about$how$to$achieve$proper$nutrition$and$deliver$creative$food$options$catered$to$students’$abilities.$We$aim$to$incorporate$other$information$to$spread$the$general$knowledge$about$sustainable$food$systems$and$how$we$can$contribute$to$more$social,$ethical,$and$environmental$awareness$on$campus.$This$information$will$be$offered$online,$potentially$through$a$webpage$linked$to$the$Wellness$Centre$website.$We$hope$to$expand$our$recipe$collection,$so$that$students$can$also$submit$their$own$personal$favourite$recipes$to$the$webpage$to$share$with$other$members.$The$Nutrition$Team$can$provide$online$tools$to$help$analyze$the$nutritional$content$of$these$recipes.$We$will$need$to$establish$clear$rules$on$copyrighted$recipes$and$images$to$ensure$that$students$are$conscious$of$this$concern$before$posting$their$recipes.$We$also$anticipate$setting$up$a$system$to$connect$students$wishing$to$join$the$lunch$coSop.$This$system$will$match$students$with$similar$lunch$schedules$and$food$preferences.$Students$that$have$already$organized$their$own$groups$can$also$register$their$groups$through$this$system$and$have$access$to$the$resources$provided$by$the$coSop$and$the$Wellness$Centre.$$ In$January$2014,$we$anticipate$gaining$a$prospective$partnership$with$the$UBC$Vancouver$Collegia$program$to$promote$the$Lunchmates$coSop$program$to$their$members$as$well.$The$Collegia$is$expected$to$launch$in$September$2013$and$will$be$a$part$of$the$Ponderosa$Commons$(UBC$$ 23$Campus$+$Community$Planning$2012).$This$will$target$commuter$students$within$the$Metro$Vancouver$area$and$hopefully$provide$them$with$a$sense$of$connection$to$the$UBC$community.$Each$Collegium$can$provide$registered$students$with$dedicated$cooking$facilities$where$they$can$store$their$Lunchmate$meals$and$also$comfortable$lounging$spaces$to$gather$and$share$food.$$ Potential$collaborations$can$be$created$between$the$awaited$UBC$Community$Kitchen$and$the$Lunchmates$coSop,$which$will$allow$students$to$learn$additional$cooking$skills$with$other$community$members.$This$can$be$presented$as$a$potential$small$project$with$the$communitySbased$experiential$learning$course,$LFS$450.$$$ There$has$been$interest$in$expanding$the$lunch$coSop$to$UBC$staff$members$as$well.$Staff$members$have$equally$as$many$priorities$and$responsibilities$to$juggle$and$may$benefit$from$having$others$cook$for$them$several$times$per$week.$Since$many$departments$have$their$own$staff$lunchrooms$and$kitchens,$it$may$be$a$great$way$for$coworkers$to$take$a$break$from$work$and$enjoy$homeScooked$meals$together.$Learning$new$cooking$skills$is$continually$an$ongoing$life$experience,$and$many$staff$members$can$benefit$from$the$opportunity$to$discover$different$cultural$foods$and$generally,$what$others$are$eating.$Recommendations($ While$this$report$is$a$preliminary$study$on$the$feasibility$of$a$campus$lunch$coSop$at$UBC,$there$are$three$main$recommendations$to$expand$and$ensure$the$continuity$of$this$project.$$$ First,$more$research$is$needed$to$assess$the$nutritional$value$of$typical$homemade$student$lunches.$While$some$students$may$be$more$inclined$to$make$healthy$lunches,$others$may$have$a$habit$of$cooking$less$healthy$alternatives.$Dietetics$students$involved$with$the$Nutrition$Team$at$the$UBC$Wellness$Centre$can$potentially$undertake$a$comparative$analysis$between$the$nutritional$value$of$a$standard$lunch$purchased$at$a$UBC$food$outlet$and$a$typical$lunch$coSop$meal.$$$ 24$$ Another$aspect$that$requires$further$examination$is$the$reduction$of$waste$and$energy$through$forming$lunch$coSops.$During$the$trial$run,$we$measured$waste$reduction$in$two$forms:$the$absence$of$packaging$waste$and$diverted$food$waste$through$composting.$Energy$reduction$is$assumed$to$include$the$savings$of$cooking$one$meal$instead$of$three$or$four.$However,$a$general$analysis$is$needed$to$determine$whether$there$is$a$difference$between$energy$consumption$when$preparing$one$large$meal$per$week$rather$than$several$smaller$meals.$This$can$be$achieved$through$several$calculations.$The$average$time$spent$on$cooking$four$small$meals$in$comparison$to$one$large$meal$can$be$considered,$as$well$as$determining$the$typical$wattage$used$in$preparing$the$food$in$both$scenarios.$If$there$is$a$substantial$difference,$how$much$energy$in$kWh$can$students$potentially$cut$from$their$electricity$usage$over$the$course$of$one$term?$$$ Despite$being$well$aware$of$food$safety$concerns$and$how$to$prevent$foodborne$illnesses,$we$were$not$able$to$keep$our$food$cold$enough$while$on$campus$and$during$transportation.$Since$most$existing$refrigerators$on$campus$are$not$open$to$all$students,$it$may$not$be$feasible$for$students$to$rely$on$daily$access$to$refrigerators.$Therefore,$I$recommend$seeking$funding$from$UBC$initiatives,$such$as$the$AMS$Sustainability$Fund,$to$purchase$cooler$bags$for$coSop$group$members.$Depending$on$the$size$of$the$funding,$these$cooler$bags$can$be$offered$at$no$cost,$or$at$a$very$low$cost,$to$the$coSop$members.$Not$only$will$this$ensure$that$food$safety$concerns$are$taken$seriously,$members$will$have$easy$access$to$a$cooler$bag$and$avoid$neglecting$the$issue$of$food$safety.$The$bags$can$also$act$as$a$branding$tool$to$gain$attention$for$the$campus$lunch$coSop$while$encouraging$others$to$learn$more$about$the$initiative$and$potentially$join$the$Lunchmates$Lunch$CoSop.$$( ($ 25$Acknowledgements(This$project$was$made$possible$through$the$invaluable$guidance$and$support$of$Liska$Richer,$$Brent$Skura,$Roxana$Quinde,$Louise$Ng,$Chrissy$Smith,$Patty$Hambler,$Kelly$White,$Woo$Kim,$and$Jamie$Macdonald.$As$well,$I$would$like$to$thank$fellow$classmates$from$the$Global$Resource$Systems$(GRS)$program$that$encouraged$me$to$launch$this$project.$$$$Literature(Cited(ASUC$Sustainability$Team$(STeam).$2013.$About$STeam!$Available$from$http://calsteam.wordpress.com/about/$(Accessed$April$20,$2013)$Bang,$D.Y.,$M.$Kyung,$M.J$Kim,$B.Y.$Jung,$M.C.$Cho,$S.M.$Choi,$Y.W.$Kim,$S.K.$Lim,$D.S.$Lim,$A.J.$Won,$S.J.$Kwack,$Y.$Lee,$H.S.$Kim,$B.M.$Lee.$2012.$Human$risk$assessment$of$EndocrineSDisrupting$chemicals$derived$from$plastic$food$containers.$Comprehensive$Reviews$in$Food$Science$and$Food$Safety$11(5):$453S470.$BC$Hydro.$2013.$Trim$your$cooking$energy$use.$Available$from$http://www.bchydro.com/powersmart/residential/guides_tips/greenSyourShome/appliances_guide/cooking.html$(Accessed$April$25,$2013)$Berkeley$Student$Food$Collective.$$n.d.$Available$from$http://berkeleystudentfoodcollective.org$(Accessed$April$20,$2013)$City$of$Vancouver.$2013.$What$feeds$us:$Vancouver$Food$Strategy$January,$2013.$Available$from$http://vancouver.ca/files/cov/vancouverSfoodSstrategySfinal.pdf$(Accessed$April$23,$2013)$Eat$Here$2.$2011.$Lunch$coSop.$Available$from$http://eathere2.blogspot.ca/2011/01/lunchScoSop.html$(Accessed$January$19,$2013)$Farm$Folk$City$Folk.$2012.$Seasonal$Charts.$Available$from$http://www.farmfolkcityfolk.ca/resources/knowledgeSpantry/seasonal/$(Accessed$April$28,$2013)$$ 26$FankhauserSNoti,$A.$and$K.$Grob.$2006.$Migration$of$plasticizers$from$PVC$gaskets$of$lids$for$glass$jars$into$oily$foods:$amount$of$gasket$material$in$food$contact,$proportion$of$plasticizer$migration$into$food$and$compliance$testing$by$simulation.$Trends$in$Food$Science$&$Technology$17(3):$105S112.$Harvard$University$Dining$Services.$n.d.$The$Food$Literacy$Project.$Available$from$http://www.dining.harvard.edu/flp/about.html#$(Accessed$April$20,$2013)$Health$Canada.$2009.$List$of$acceptable$polymers$for$use$in$food$packaging$applications.$Available$from$http://www.hcSsc.gc.ca/fnSan/legislation/guideSld/polymers_tcSpolymere_tmSeng.php$(Accessed$April$12,$2013)$Health$Canada.$2010a.$Food$safety$tips$for$leftovers.$Available$from$http://www.hcSsc.gc.ca/fnSan/securit/kitchenScuisine/leftoversSrestesSeng.php$(Accessed$March$25,$2013)$Health$Canada.$2010b.$Microwave$ovens$and$food$safety.$Available$from$http://www.hcSsc.gc.ca/hlSvs/iyhSvsv/prod/microSfSaSeng.php$(Accessed$March$25,$2013)$Health$Canada.$2011.$Eating$well$with$Canada’s$Food$Guide.$Available$from$http://www.hcSsc.gc.ca/fnSan/alt_formats/hpfbSdgpsa/pdf/foodSguideSaliment/print_eatwell_bienmangSeng.pdf$(Accessed$April$23,$2013)$Health$Canada.$2012.$Household$food$insecurity$in$Canada:$overview.$Available$from$http://www.hcSsc.gc.ca/fnSan/surveill/nutrition/commun/insecurit/indexSeng.php$(Accessed$April$23,$2013)$McGill$Office$of$Sustainability.$2012.$Student$groups.$Available$from$http://www.mcgill.ca/sustainability/getSinvolved/studentSgroups$(Accessed$April$20,$2013)$McGill$Students’$Culinary$Society.$n.d.$About$us.$Available$from$http://www.mcgillculinarysociety.com/$(Accessed$April$20,$2013)$Slow$Food$USA.$2011.$Lunch$coSop$makes$lunch$awesome$for$less$than$$5.$Available$from$http://www.slowfoodusa.org/index.php/slow_food/blog_post/lunch_coSop$(Accessed$January$19,$2013)$$UBC$Sprouts.$2013.$Initiatives.$Available$from$http://www.ubcsprouts.ca$(Accessed$April$20,$2013)$$ 27$UBC$Campus$+$Community$Planning.$2012.$A$new$kind$of$campus$centre.$Available$from$http://www.planning.ubc.ca/vancouver_home/news_and_events/enewsletter/november_2012/articles679.php$(Accessed$May$16,$2013)$University$of$California,$Berkeley$Division$of$Student$Affairs.$2012.$Student$organizations.$Available$from$http://students.berkeley.edu/osl/studentgroups/public/index.asp?todo=searchgroups&keyword=food$(Accessed$April$20,$2013)$University$of$Washington$Environmental$Stewardship$&$Sustainability.$n.d.$UW$Green$Teams.$Available$from$http://f2.washington.edu/ess/uwSgreenSteams$(Accessed$April$20,$2013)$UWSFC.$n.d.$About.$Available$from$http://uwsfc.com/$(Accessed$April$20,$2013)$Vancouver$Farmers$Market.$2013.$Markets.$Available$from$http://www.eatlocal.org/markets.html$(Accessed$April$23,$2013)$Village$Vancouver.$2013.$Kits$Transition$Village$spaghetti$nights.$Available$from$http://www.villagevancouver.com$(Accessed$February$23,$2013)$$ 28$((((((( Appendix(A:(Trial(Run(Observations(and(Notes(((((((((week day cook where meal rough/cost/of/groceries cost/per/person notes online/sources1 Feb925 tania SPPH butternut/squash/soup 2/packs/frozen/butternut/squash 6.00$////////// tania/+/louise nesters/was/out/of/fresh/butternut/squash,/so/had/to/buy/frozen/(would/have/been/cheaper/if/fresh/@1.29/lb)+/toast 1/onion/+/couple/cloves/garlic 0.50$////////// recipe/modified/from/Nigella/Lawson/community/website/9/spicy/butternut/squash/soup/9/SO/GOOD/9/we/both/loved/it www.nigella.com/recipes/view/spicy9butternut9squash9soup93089milk 0.10$////////// used/glass/mason/jars/to/transport,/spillproof,/also/brought/bowls/and/spoons/(bowls,/may/have/been/overdoing/it/9/rookie/mistake)spices 0.05$////////// brought/a/tea/towel/which/was/helpful/after/rinsing/our/emptiesbread 0.30$////////// all/containers/are/reusable,/no/food/packaging/waste/at/school,/prep/at/home/9/composted/onion/garlic/skins/endstotal 6.95$////////// 3.48$////////////////////////////////1 Feb926 louise MCML stirfried/noodles/with zucchini 1.00$////////// tania/+/louise used/mason/jars/again/+/chopsticks,/worked/wellveg/+/chicken taiwanese/cabbage 1.00$////////// microwavable/with/the/metal/lid/taken/offonion 0.50$////////// SO/GOOD,/will/get/the/recipe/from/Louisegarlic 0.10$////////// all/fresh/produce/9/louise/was/able/to/keep/2/meals/for/herself/after/cooking/oursred/and/orange/pepper 1.50$////////// no/food/packaging/wasted/at/school/(but/need/better/way/to/cleanly/greenly/transport/cutlery)mushroom/(handful) 0.60$//////////chicken/breast/(1/2) 2.00$//////////noodles/+/oil 1.30$//////////total 8.00$////////// 4.00$////////////////////////////////1 Feb927 tania SPPH orzo/risotto/with/spinach orzo/pasta 2.00$////////// tania/+/louise cost/reflects/lunchmate/meals,/but/also/had/some/for/dinner/for/twobutter 0.75$////////// parmesan/was/slightly/more/expensive/because/I/went/to/choices/(was/in/the/neighbourhood)/instead/of/more/inexpensive/grocersonion 0.50$////////// used/mason/jars/again/+/spoons/(though/jars/seemed/a/little/big/for/such/a/rich/dense/meal)parmesan 2.50$////////// brought/fruit/for/the/first/time,/with/a/small/paring/knife/that/had/a/cover/(kuhn/rikon)/9/worked/really/wellchicken/stock 1.00$////////// brought/tea/towel/again,/which/was/useful/(didn't/waste/any/paper/towels)spinach/+/cilantro 0.60$////////// spph/dining/area/had/compost/bin/to/dispose/of/orange/peelsorange 0.20$////////// pretty/filling/meal!total 7.55$////////// 3.78$////////////////////////////////1 Feb928 louise Global/Lounge quinoa/salad/with veggies/(same/as/stirfry/above) 1.20$////////// tania/+/louise cheapest/meal/yet/but/filling/and/nutritious!veg/+/chicken quinoa 1.60$////////// used/mason/jars/again/+/spoonschicken 1.20$////////// jars/seem/to/stay/cold/for/quite/a/while,/didn't/need/to/microwave/anything/this/time/(1st/cold/meal)staples/(s+p,/balsamic,/spices) 0.40$////////// on/top/of/that,/louise/was/able/to/make/5/servings/out/of/the/recipetotal 4.40$////////// 2.20$////////////////////////////////2 Mar904 tania SPPH bacon9wrapped/chicken chicken 2.75$////////// tania/+/louise really/inexpensive/considering/we/had/2/types/of/meat/9/fair/enough/since/we/have/been/semi9vegetarian/so/fartenders/+/kale/salad bacon 0.80$////////// used/mason/jars/for/salad/and/an/extra/rectangular/glass/container/for/the/chicken,/forks/and/knives,/tea/towelbay/leaves/and/olive/oil 0.10$////////// first/time/trying/this/recipe,/but/turned/out/great!kale 1.50$////////// 2nd/week/in,/getting/more/creative/with/our/meals/9/we/are/definitely/starting/to/expand/our/cooking/skills!!dried/cranberries,/sliced/almonds 0.30$//////////parmesan,/olive/oil,/balsamic,/honey 0.50$//////////total 5.95$////////// 2.98$////////////////////////////////2 Mar905 louise MCML chinese/tomato,/egg, rice 0.30$////////// tania/+/louise Louise/was/able/to/make/3/meals/out/of/this/recipebok/choy/+/rice 4/tomatoes 2.00$////////// Now/the/cheapest/meal/we've/made!egg 1.25$////////// Quick/to/make/and/nutritiousbok/choy/+/onion 2.25$////////// Culturally,/considered/a/typical/traditional/chinese/meal/we/have/both/had/growing/uptotal 5.80$////////// 1.93$////////////////////////////////2 Mar906 tania SPPH pasta/+/bolognese/sauce pasta 1.50$////////// tania/+/louise recipe/made/6/servings,/a/massive/pot/of/sauce!canned/diced/tomatoes 1.00$////////// ground/beef/was/pretty/expensive/but/made/a/lot/of/saucecanned/tomato/sauce 3.00$////////// very/filling/meal/thoughzucchini,/onion,/garlic,/spices,/herbs 1.00$////////// jars/have/continued/to/work/as/our/container/of/choiceground/beef 7.00$////////// oranges/are/extremely/inexpensive/9/bought/a/4lb/bag/(approx/14/oranges)/for/about/$3oranges 0.40$////////// spph/lunch/room/has/been/great/since/they/compost,/we/had/a/place/to/put/our/orange/peelstotal 13.90$//////// 2.32$////////////////////////////////2 Mar907 louise MCML korean/japchae sweet/potato/noodles 2.00$////////// tania/+/louise cheapest/meal/again!!/Louise/made/5/meals/out/of/this/recipe,/sipmle/and/plenty/of/leftoverscarrot,/zucchini,/onion,/cabbage 3.50$////////// we/noticed/that/dishes/that/originate/from/asia/south/america/are/much/more/affordable/than/typical/western/mealssesame/oil,/soy/sauce 0.50$////////// Jars/and/forks,/Louise/has/picked/up/my/habit/of/bringing/a/small/tea/towel/to/wrap/the/cutlery/in!/No/paper/towels/wasted!total 6.00$////////// 1.20$////////////////////////////////3 Mar911 tania SPPH california/rolls/+/edamame nori/(seaweed) 1.50$////////// tania/+/louise/+/chrissy 1st/time/with/3/people,/Chrissy/loved/the/experience!/She/also/learned/about/the/great/lunch/room/facility/at/spphrice 0.50$////////// used/a/rectangular/glass/container/for/sushi/and/a/mason/jar/for/the/edamameimitation/crab 2.00$////////// very/inexpensive!/California/rolls/are/usually/about/$3/per/roll,/but/this/made/over/1.5/rolls/for/each/person/+/edamame/for/less!avocado 1.25$////////// brought/low/sodium/soy/sauce/in/a/small/hotel/jam/jar/which/worked/out/great,/and/was/spillproofedamame 1.00$//////////total 6.25$////////// 2.08$////////////////////////////////3 Mar913 louise SPPH spaghetti/squash/goulash zucchini 1.00$////////// tania/+/louise/+/chrissy one/pot/meal/was/awesome/and/made/4/servingsmushrooms 0.70$////////// carb9free/meal/yet/fillingonions 0.70$////////// mason/jars/+/forks,/we/realized/that/3/jars/fit/very/well/upright/and/side9by9side/in/our/backpackstomatoes 1.40$//////////spaghetti/squash 2.50$//////////chicken 3.70$//////////total 10.00$//////// 2.50$////////////////////////////////week day cook where meal rough/cost/of/groceries cost/per/person notes online/sources3 Mar914 chrissy MCML tofu/bean/salad 3/kinds/of/organic/beans 3.00$////////// tania/+/louise/+/chrissy took/30min/to/make,/yielded/6/servings!1/package/tofu 2.50$////////// extremely/inexpensivecucumbers,/tomato,/grated/onion 4.00$////////// vegetarian/but/full/protein,/tasted/fantastic/salad/greens 0.75$////////// used/mason/jars/and/forksolive/oil,/salt,/balsamic/vinegar 0.25$////////// **Brent/suggested/bringing/a/thermometer/next/week/to/check/temperature/food/safety/just/to/be/sure**total 10.50$//////// 1.75$////////////////////////////////4 Mar918 tania SPPH ham/turkey/sandwiches whole/wheat/bread 1.00$////////// tania/+/louise/+/chrissy used/plastic/sandwich/tupperware/containers/since/no/heating/involved,/tania/came/straight/from/home+/oranges ham/and/turkey/deli/meats 4.50$////////// we/showed/eachother/how/we/peeled/our/oranges/9/3/different/ways!baby/arugula 0.75$////////// composted/orange/peels/in/spph/lunch/roommustard,/salt/and/pepper,/butter 0.25$//////////oranges 0.50$//////////total 7.00$////////// 2.33$////////////////////////////////4 Mar920 louise SPPH turkey/wrap/+/cucumbers tortilla/wraps 1.00$////////// tania/+/louise/+/chrissy used/one/large/plastic/container/since/no/heating/involved,/louise/came/straight/from/homespinach 0.50$////////// very/tasty,/all/ingredients/we/likedavocado 1.25$////////// a/friend/of/mine/asked/if/I/could/send/him/our/recipe/collection/when/my/project/is/complete!turkey/breasts 3.60$//////////red/onion,/mustard,/black/pepper 0.50$//////////cucumbers 1.25$//////////total 8.10$////////// 2.704 Mar921 chrissy MCML penne/with/beans/and zucchini 1.00$////////// tania/+/louise/+/chrissy chrissy/made/5/servings/from/this/recipezucchini box/of/penne 2.50$////////// extremely/inexpensive,/yet/filling/and/nutritious/vegetariansmall/onion 0.25$////////// ingredients/purchased/from/superstoreharicot/beans 1.00$////////// seems/to/be/some/relationship/b/w/the/number/of/servings/prepared/and/the/cost/per/person/lemon,/olive/oil,/garlic/powder,/parsley 0.50$////////// Chrissy/brought/Louise/and/I/each/a/bag/of/whole/wheat/buns!//Now/we're/sharing/lunch/AND/bulk/ingredients!/=)/total 5.25$////////// 1.05$////////////////////////////////5 Mar925 tania SPPH chicken/satay/with/rice chicken/breasts 3.00$////////// tania/+/louise/+/chrissy marinated/5/servings/from/this/recipe+/cucumbers peanut/butter,/soy/sauce,/honey 0.75$////////// extremely/inexpensive,/considering/the/use/of/chicken/breastslime,/garlic,/curry/powder 0.50$////////// food/was/cooked/immediately/before/commuting/to/campus/(30min/bus)coconut/milk 0.50$////////// tested/temperature/after/microwaving/meals/once,/measured/just/over/60/°C/(140/°F),/so/needed/to/be/reheated/morerice 0.25$////////// Health/Canada/recommends/that/leftovers/should/be/heated/to/74/°C/(165/°F) www.hc9sc.gc.ca/hl9vs/iyh9vsv/prod/micro9f9a9eng.phpcucumber 1.00$////////// ingredients/purchased/from/no/frillstotal 6.00$////////// 1.20$////////////////////////////////5 Mar927 chrissy outdoors! kale/salad/with/tofu kale,/avocado,/feta 3.50$////////// tania/+/louise/+/chrissy first/time/eating/outside/at/the/new/water/feature,/made/us/so/happy,/relaxed,/attracted/the/attention/of/many/people/walking/byseeds,/honey/balsamic/dressing 1.50$////////// filling/salad,/yet/completely/vegetariantofu 1.00$////////// I/was/able/to/learn/how/Chrissy/prepares/tofu/9/it/was/deliciously/easy!total 6.00$////////// 2.00$////////////////////////////////5 Mar928 louise MCML tofu,/beef,/and/peas/on/rice rice/(free,/from/Tania) 9$//////////// tania/+/louise/+/chrissy Louise/was/able/to/make/a/rice/dish/after/I/gave/her/a/small/bag/of/rice/from/my/large/bag/at/home!/ground/beef 2.50$////////// simple/meal/that/her/parents/used/to/cook/for/her/as/a/childtofu,/frozen/peas 1.50$////////// food/was/microwaved/to/meet/5D/reduction/for/food/safety/9/Chrissy/and/Louise/taught/me/after/learning/about/it/in/microbiology/after/our/lunch,/we/went/for/a/long/walk/across/campus/to/soak/up/the/sunshine/and/grabbed/some/frozen/yogurt,/so/therapeutictotal 4.00$////////// 1.33$////////////////////////////////6 Apr902 tania MCML fried/rice rice 0.50$////////// tania/+/louise/+/chrissy fried/rice/that/my/mom/came/over/and/helped/me/prepare+/leftover/pie/(aphrodites) mixed/veg 1.50$////////// fried/rice/is/another/easy/way/to/use/up/a/variety/of/veggies/and/homemade/fried/rice/is/much/healthier/and/less/oily/eggs 1.00$////////// leftover/strawberry/rhubarb/pie/to/share/a/belated/birthday/celebration/=)bbq/pork 1.50$//////////total 4.50$////////// 1.50$////////////////////////////////6 Apr903 louise SPPH roasted/veg/and bread 1.50$////////// tania/+/louise/+/chrissy delicious/new/way/to/make/sandwiches/eggwhite/sandwiches egg/whites/in/carton 1.00$////////// discovered/egg/whites/in/carton/as/an/alternative/to/whole/eggszucchini,/pepper,/yam 2.50$////////// also/discovered/yam/in/sandwiches/is/really/tastytotal 5.00$////////// 1.67$////////////////////////////////6 Apr904 chrissy Fred/Kaiser ham,/lettuce/avocado whole/wheat/buns 1.50$////////// tania/+/louise/+/chrissy Chrissy/did/a/vote/yesterday/for/our/preferred/deli/meat,/so/apparently/we/all/like/ham!sandwiches lettuce,/avocado 1.50$////////// last/official/meal/for/our/test/run,/but/we/still/plan/to/meet/in/the/summertime/for/picnics/and/cooking/together/at/my/new/place!ham 2.00$////////// “I/would/never/see/you/anymore/if/we/didn’t/have/these/lunches/together"this/was/an/amazing/experience/for/all/of/us,/we/became/much/closer/friendswe/learned/from/each/other/and/shared/not/only/food,/but/memories/and/mutual/support/through/school/and/life/in/general!total 5.00$////////// 1.67$////////////////////////////////food/considerations/allergies: average&cost&per&person&over&six&weeks& 2.18$&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&avoid/fennel/seeds,/mangoes,/beansprouts,/raw/apples$ 31$(((((((( Appendix(B:(Recipe(Collection(! 31!! lunchmates!recipe!collection!UBC!Campus!Lunch!Co6op!!!!!!!Recipes!and!Pictures!by!Tania!Leon,!Louise!Ng!  ! 32!Spicy Butternut Squash Soup  Serves 4 (adapted from Nigella Lawson Community Recipes – Posted by KaffaCakes)  Ingredients 1 large (or 2 medium) butternut squash 1.5 pints (3 cups) vegetable stock (or low sodium chicken stock) 1 medium onion 2 cloves garlic olive oil 1 oz (2 tbsp) butter 1 teaspoon cumin (just sprinkle all over) 2 teaspoons dried chili flakes ½ cut milk (gradually add) teaspoon sea salt teaspoon black pepper 2 teaspoons garam masala (a good sprinkling all over)  Method 1 Pre-heat the oven to a medium-high temperature (450 degrees) 2 Cut the squash lengthways into quarters, arrange in a baking tray and drizzle with olive oil. Sprinkle the oil-glossed squash with the chili flakes and cumin, and season with salt and pepper, then roast in the oven for around 40 minutes. 3 Once the squash is cooked through, leave to one side to cool before peeling off the skin 4 In a medium pan/pot, heat the butter on a medium heat, then gently sweat the garlic and onions until translucent and soft. Pour in the stock and allow to simmer gently before adding the chunks of cooked squash. Add a generous amount of garam masala and stir. 5 Simmer gently for around 5 minutes, then blitz with a hand blender or food processor until smooth. Adding a little splash of milk, blend a few seconds more until you reach the right consistency and taste you like, and return each batch to the pan/pot. Serve with your favourite bread nicely toasted!    Stir Fry Noodles with Chicken and Vegetables  Serves 4  Ingredients  1/2 cabbage 1 pack shanghai noodles 1 zucchini  1 red pepper 1 orange pepper 1/2 red onion put whatever veg you think will work! 1 chicken breast garlic  Method 1 Chicken: marinate with soy sauce, garlic powder, a bit a salt, bit of sugar, and cornstarch to seal in juices 2 Stir fry the vegetables first: add oil and garlic and then salt and pepper to the vegetables 3 Stir fry noodles separately: add dark soy sauce, regular soy sauce, garlic powder (a lot...), a bit of sugar 4 Fry the chicken separately: with oil and garlic 5 Put it all together! TADA... put in amounts accordingly and tasting along the way :) ! 33!Quinoa Salad Serves 5 – depends on how much quinoa you add  Ingredients once again, put whatever you like 1/4 red onion 1 chicken breast 1/2 zucchini ~ 2 cups of quinoa 2 small red peppers handful of spinach 1 carrot  Method 1 Bake the chicken breast: adding Montréal chicken spice and pepper 2 Cook quinoa in a pot. 3 Warm the vegetables and wilt spinach 4 Put it all together and add pepper, dill, a bit of lemon juice, balsamic vinegar and salt 5 taste and see what works best! Quinoa salad is unique every time!   Orzo Risotto with Spinach and Parmesan Serves 4 – 6 (adapted from Mark Bittman’s How to Cook Everything)  Ingredients 2 tablespoons butter or olive oil 1 onion, minced 3 cups chicken or vegetable stock 1 ½ cups orzo pasta handful of baby spinach salt and freshly ground black pepper to taste ½ cup freshly grated Parmesan cheese ¼ cup minced fresh parsley or cilantro  Method 1 Place the butter in a 3- or 4-quart saucepan and turn the heat to medium, when the foam subsides, add the onion and cook, stirring until it becomes translucent. Meanwhile, heat the stock in a separate pan. 2 Add the orzo to the onion and stir once or twice, season with salt and pepper and add the stock all at once. Cover and reduce heat to medium-low. 3 Cook, stirring every few minutes to prevent sticking, until the liquid is absorbed and the pasta is tender, about 15 minutes. Taste and adjust seasoning if necessary. In the unlikely even that the pasta is underdone, add ½ cup more hot water or stock and cook another 5 minutes or so until it is absorbed and the pasta is done. Stir in the parmesan, parsley, and spinach. You can garnish with any remaining parsley and/or parmesan. Serve.       ! 34! Bacon-Wrapped Chicken Tenders Serves 2 (adapted from Martha Stewart Everyday Food)  Ingredients 4 fresh sage leaves (or 2 bay leaves torn in half) 4 chicken tenders (I used 1 large chicken breast cut lengthwise into 4) 4 slices of bacon (I used maple bacon, and the leanest I could find) ½ teaspoon extra-virgin olive oil  Method 1 Place a sage leaf on each chicken tender, then wrap each with a slice of bacon. 2 In a large skillet, heat oil over medium-high. Add tenders, sage down, and cook until fat is rendered and bacon is browned, about 6 minutes. Flip and cook until tenders are cooked through, 6 more minutes. 3 With tongs, transfer to a wire rack or paper towel to drain.  Serve with salad!    Simple Kale Salad Serves 2  Ingredients 2 tablespoons dried cranberries 3 tablespoons extra-virgin olive oil 2 tablespoons balsamic vinegar 1 tablespoon honey sea salt and freshly ground pepper to taste ½ bunch of kale (I used curly kale), stems removed, leaves ripped into bit-sized pieces 2 tablespoons sliced almonds 2 tablespoons finely grated parmesan cheese   Method 1 Wash and prep kale, shake to dry and toss into a large salad bowl. 2 In a small bowl, add olive oil, balsamic vinegar, honey and whisk until even. 3 Pour all over kale, mixing and making sure it’s fully coated. Add salt and pepper to taste. 4 Throw in the dried cranberries and sliced almonds. Toss lightly. 5 When ready to serve, sprinkle with parmesan.         ! 35!Chicken Satay Serves 3 (adapted from Nigella Lawson Community Recipes – Posted by Princesska)  Ingredients 3 tablespoons peanut butter 2 tablespoons soy sauce 3 tablespoons lime juice 2 chicken breasts 2 cloves garlic 3 tablespoons liquid honey 1 ½ tablespoons curry powder 6 tablespoons coconut milk  Method 1 cut meat into strips, squeeze lime juice, crush garlic, and combine in a bowl with the soy sauce, peanut butter and honey (mix more on the side if you like a lot of sauce) 2 marinate the meat in a bowl in the fridge for at least 3 hours (overnight to really get the flavour in!) 3 place meat on skewers and grill for 3-4 min on each side (you can use an oven set to broil, and watch to make sure they do not burn, 3-4 min on each side is still good – use a meat thermometer if unsure) 4 for the sauce: put the remaining marinade in a pan, bring to boil, add coconut milk, cook for at least a minute and serve skewers on a bed of rice and drizzled sauce. Enjoy!   

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