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Assessing access to drinking water at UBC Cheng, Andrea Apr 30, 2013

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UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report       Assessing Access to Drinking Water at UBC Andrea Cheng  University of British Columbia APBI 497B April 1, 2013           Disclaimer: “UBC SEEDS provides students with the opportunity to share the findings of their studies, as well as their opinions, conclusions and recommendations with the UBC community. The reader should bear in mind that this is a student project/report and is not an official document of UBC. Furthermore readers should bear in mind that these reports may not reflect the current status of activities at UBC. We urge you to contact the research persons mentioned in a report or the SEEDS Coordinator about the current status of the subject matter of a project/report”.  !Assessing!Access!to!Drinking!Water!at!UBC!Andrea!Cheng!April&2013&&!! 2!Table&of&Contents&Executive&Summary…………………………………………………………………………………………………………&4&&Introduction…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….7&&Background&Information………………………………………………………………………………………………..&&8&About!the!Author!..............................................................................................................................................................!8!Project!Stakeholders!and!Staff!....................................................................................................................................!8!SEEDS!Program!...............................................................................................................................................................................!8!AMS!Sustainability!.........................................................................................................................................................................!8!UBC!Student!Housing!and!Hospitality!Services!(SHHS)!................................................................................................!9!UBC’s!Waste!Action!Plan!.............................................................................................................................................................!9!UBC!Building!Operations!............................................................................................................................................................!9!Supervising!Professor!..................................................................................................................................................................!9!Research!on!UBC’s!Drinking!Water!Access!..........................................................................................................!10!UBC’s!Water!Landscape!...............................................................................................................................................!12!UBC’s!Water!and!Safety!................................................................................................................................................!13!UBC’s!Technical!Guidelines!Regarding!Drinking!Fountains!and!Stations!..............................................!14!UBC’s!Tap!That!Campaign!...........................................................................................................................................!15!Rationale!for!This!Project!and!its!Scope!...............................................................................................................!15!!Methods…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………17&Literature!Review!of!Best!Practices!........................................................................................................................!17!Water!Outlet!Inventory!and!Evaluations!..............................................................................................................!17!Analysis!of!Water!Electrical!Conductivity!and!Temperature!......................................................................!19!Analysis!of!Water!Flow!Rate!......................................................................................................................................!19!!Literature&Review&of&Best&Practices……………………………………………………………………………….21&&Findings&and&Discussion………………………………………………………………………………………………...25&Qualitative!Analysis!.......................................................................................................................................................!25!Ease!of!access!................................................................................................................................................................................!25!Proximity!to!a!washroom!........................................................................................................................................................!28!Type!and!composition!of!water!outlets!.............................................................................................................................!29!Visual!appeal!of!water!outlet!..................................................................................................................................................!31!Water!outlet!pressure!...............................................................................................................................................................!33!Compatibility!with!reusable!water!bottles!......................................................................................................................!35!Water!colour,!odour!and!taste!...............................................................................................................................................!37!!! 3!Other!Observations!from!Evaluations!...................................................................................................................!41!Quantitative!Analysis!....................................................................................................................................................!43!Water!flow!rate!............................................................................................................................................................................!43!Electrical!conductivity!and!water!temperature!.............................................................................................................!45!&Recommendations…………………………………………………………………………………………………….......50&Conclusion……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..55&Acknowledgements………………………………………………………………………………………………………..56&References……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..57&Appendix&A:&Vancouver's&Water&Fountains………...………………………………………………………….59&Appendix&B:&Water&Outlet&Inventory&and&Evaluation……………………………………………………..61&Appendix&C:&Water&Outlets&and&Signage&From&Other&Institutions…………..……………….……..72&Appendix&D:&Interactive&UBC&Water&Outlet&Map…………………………………………………………….74&Appendix&E:&Types&of&Water&Outlets&at&UBC……………………………………………………………….…..75&Appendix&F:&Modified&Decision&Flow&Chart…………………………………………………………………….78&!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 4!Executive)Summary!As!the!world!faces!multiple!sustainability!challenges!such!as!a!growing!global!population,!climate!uncertainty,!rising!fossil!fuel!prices,!and!a!shifting!economic!landscape,!water!security!is!yet!another!dilemma!that!must!be!addressed.!The!distribution!and!popularity!of!single\use!bottled!water!have!been!under!much!scrutiny!as!it!poses!many!negative!environmental!affects.!In!addition!to!the!waste!it!generates,!the!energy!needed!to!produce!and!transport!disposable!polyethylene!terephthalate!(PET)!plastic!bottles!is!considerably!higher!than!the!energy!needed!to!produce!reusable!water!bottles!and!provide!tap!water.!!!Like!the!rest!of!Vancouver,!the!University!of!British!Columbia’s!(UBC)!Vancouver!campus!is!striving!to!increase!public!access!to!drinking!water!and!reduce!the!use!of!bottled!water.!A!recent!research!project!has!determined!public!perceptions!of!the!university’s!tap!water!and!found!that!there!is!campus!support!to!become!a!bottled\water\free!campus.!More!recent!projects!have!evaluated!the!environmental!and!economic!viability!of!UBC’s!drinking!water!options.!Based!on!the!results!and!information!gaps!highlighted!in!these!studies,!this!project!will!determine!the!baseline!availability!of!drinking!water!options!on!campus!and!identify!any!deficiencies!that!are!present.!This!project!has!the!following!objectives:!!• To!conduct!a!literature!review!of!best!practices!regarding!how!other!notable!campuses!manage!drinking!water!provision!!• To!conduct!a!drinking!water!outlet!inventory!and!evaluation!to!determine!accessibility!of!tap!water!both!within!and!outside!of!buildings.!This!involves!a!water!fountain!audit!that!completes!the!following!tasks:!o Identifies!accessibility!of!water!outlets,!the!condition!of!drinking!water!outlets,!water!pressure,!water!aesthetics!(colour,!smell,!taste),!type!of!outlet,!proximity!to!washrooms,!and!whether!the!outlets!can!fill!reusable!water!bottles!!!o Maps!the!locations!of!water!fountains,!water!filling!stations,!and!kitchenette!sinks!accessible!to!students!o Compares!the!water!electrical!conductivity!and!temperature!of!water!between!top!and!bottom!floors!of!buildings!and!between!15\second!flushes.!!• To!analyze!collected!data!and!identify:!o Whether!deficiencies!exist!in!current!drinking!water!access!and!develop!associated!recommendations!o Whether!other!water!delivery!methods!are!needed!to!improve!water!provision!on!campus!!In!addition!to!the!stated!objectives,!this!report!provides!information!on:!• Recent!research!on!UBC’s!drinking!water!access!• UBC’s!water!landscape!• UBC’s!water!and!safety!• UBC’s!technical!guidelines!regarding!drinking!water!infrastructure!! 5!• UBC’s!Tap!That!campaign!!Literature&review&of&best&practices&! This!section!clearly!outlines!the!procedures!four!Canadian!post\secondary!institutions!have!followed!throughout!their!bottled!water!ban!processes.!It!also!identifies!drinking!water!infrastructure!and!signage!that!other!campuses!use!to!provide!free!water!to!their!populations.!Effective!informative!tools!such!as!webpages!can!clearly!communicate!institutional!intentions!and!bottled\water!policies,!increase!awareness!of!bottled!water!reductions,!and!address!immediate!inquiries!from!students!and!staff.!Maps!are!extremely!useful!in!informing!the!public!of!where!drinking!outlets!are!located!on!campus.!!Drinking&Water&Outlet&Assessment&!The!Drinking!Water!Outlet!Assessment!is!the!main!component!of!this!project,!and!encompasses!an!inventory!and!evaluation!process!of!197!drinking!outlets!from!59!buildings!on!campus.!It!provides!a!baseline!representation!of!the!availability,!accessibility,!functionality!and!appeal!of!UBC’s!drinking!water!sources.!The!inventory!and!evaluation!yields!the!following!results:!! • Two!thirds!of!the!drinking!water!outlets!evaluated!are!not!visible!from!the!main!entrances!of!their!respective!buildings!• The!majority!of!drinking!water!outlets!evaluated!are!visible!to!passing!traffic!within!their!respective!buildings!• 38%!of!drinking!water!outlets!evaluated!are!situated!within!5!meters!of!a!washroom.!• 56%!of!water!outlets!are!very!clean!and!appear!well\maintained!• 7%!of!drinking!outlets!are!either!dirty!or!have!a!substantial!amount!of!residues!on!them.!• 2%!of!water!outlets!do!not!work!• 14%!of!water!outlets!have!insufficient!water!pressure!to!avoid!mouth!contact!with!spigots!• 62%!of!water!outlets!have!sufficient!pressure!to!create!an!arch!where!drinking!occurs!mid\stream!and!easily!allows!for!bottle!filling!• Reusable!bottles!can!be!filled!at!82%!of!the!evaluated!water!outlets!• 42%!of!the!171!water!fountains!evaluated!have!goosenecks!for!bottles!• Water!from!81%!of!the!water!outlets!was!colourless!and!free!of!air!bubbles!(initial!flush)!• Water!from!14%!of!the!water!outlets!had!colour!or!air!bubbles!in!the!initial!flush!that!was!absent!in!the!second!flush!15!seconds!after.!Air!bubbles!dissipate!after!30\40!seconds.!• Water!from!81%!of!evaluated!water!outlets!had!no!unpleasant!tastes!upon!initial!flush!• Mean!1\Litre!fill!times!decrease!as!water!pressure!increases!• Mean!1\Litre!fill!times!of!goosenecks!are!shorter!than!the!fill!times!of!spigots!!In!response!to!these!results,!the!following!goals!are!recommended!to!increase!free!drinking!water!accessibility!on!UBC’s!Vancouver!campus:!!Goal&1:&Improve&the&infrastructure&and&maintenance&as&well&as&increase&convenience&of&tap&water&usage&available&on&campus&! 6!Goal&2:&Increase&awareness&and&promotion&of&tap&water&available&on&campus&!Goal&3:&Continue&research&on&and&monitoring&of&drinking&water&access&on&campus&! Although!drinking!water!infrastructure!is!highly!available!on!campus,!there!are!deficiencies!in!outlet!maintenance!and!public!awareness!of!free!drinking!water!options.!If!the!appropriate!signage!and!informative!tools!are!applied,!the!university’s!population!will!be!empowered!to!make!more!ecologically!responsible!drinking!water!choices.!Though!the!campus!has!made!significant!progress!in!adopting!sustainable!water!consumption!practices,!there!are!still!more!milestones!to!be!conquered!on!this!journey!to!becoming!a!bottled\water\free!community.!The!success!of!this!vision!will!require!the!cooperation!and!open\mindedness!of!students!and!staff!as!well!as!the!awareness!that!all!members!of!the!university’s!population!have!an!important!role!to!play!in!ensuring!this!vision!is!achieved.!!!! !! 7!Introduction!The!University!of!British!Columbia!(UBC)!is!located!on!the!west!coast!of!Vancouver.!As!with!other!cities!around!the!world,!Vancouver!faces!multiple!sustainability!challenges!such!as!a!growing!population,!climate!uncertainty,!rising!fossil!fuel!prices,!and!a!shifting!economic!landscape.!In!2009,!the!city!launched!its!Greenest!City!2020!Action!Plan!to!engage!citizens!in!building!a!strong!local!economy,!vibrant!and!inclusive!neighbourhoods,!and!a!city!on!the!leading!edge!of!urban!sustainability.!The!plan!encompasses!10!goals!that!aim!to!minimize!residents’!ecological!footprints!and!address!other!environmental!dilemmas.!The!eighth!goal!is!‘Vancouver!will!have!the!best!drinking!water!of!any!city!in!the!world’.!To!achieve!this!goal,!the!city!has!highlighted!expanding!public!access!to!drinking!water!and!reducing!the!use!of!bottled!water!as!one!of!its!highest!priority!actions.!Vancouver!aims!to!deploy!more!portable!fountains,!as!well!as!install!more!permanent!freeze!resistant!fountains!and!water!bottle!filling!stations!(City!of!Vancouver,!2012).!Vancouver’s!drinking!fountains!are!located!in!parks,!community!centers,!public!libraries,!and!along!bicycle!routes!(Please!refer!to!examples!in!Appendix!A).!!Like!the!rest!of!the!city,!UBC’s!Vancouver!campus!is!also!striving!to!increase!public!access!to!drinking!water!and!reduce!the!use!of!bottled!water.!A!recent!research!project!has!determined!public!perceptions!of!the!university’s!tap!water!and!found!that!there!is!campus!support!to!become!a!bottled\water\free!campus.!More!recent!projects!have!evaluated!the!environmental!and!economic!viability!of!UBC’s!drinking!water!options.!Based!on!the!results!and!information!gaps!highlighted!in!these!studies,!this!project!will!determine!the!baseline!availability!of!drinking!water!options!on!campus!and!identify!any!deficiencies!that!are!present.!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 8!Background+Information! !About&the&Author&! Andrea!Cheng!is!in!her!fourth!year!of!the!Applied!Biology!program!within!Land!and!Food!Systems!at!UBC.!Her!specialization!is!in!Food!and!the!Environment,!which!has!allowed!her!to!complete!a!wide!variety!of!courses!including!Climatology,!Agroecology,!Oceanography,!Geographical!Information!Systems,!Sustainability!by!Design,!Environmental!Geography,!Research!Methods!in!Applied!Animal!Biology,!and!Environmental!Impact!Assessment.!She!has!also!been!actively!involved!with!Sprouts,!a!volunteer\run!non\profit!organization!that!makes!local,!healthy,!organic!food!accessible!and!affordable!to!the!UBC!campus!on!a!daily!basis.!She!is!completing!this!project!through!the!UBC!SEEDS!Program!to!fulfill!a!directed!studies!requirement!within!her!degree.!Project&Stakeholders&and&Staff&SEEDS&Program&! The!SEEDS!(Social!Ecological!Economic!Development!Studies)!Program!is!the!first!academic!program!in!Western!Canada!to!integrate!students’!energy!and!enthusiasm!for!sustainability!with!faculty!members’!research!experience!and!staff!members’!expertise!to!increase!campus!capacity!to!function!as!a!sustainable!institution.!UBC’s!SEEDS!Program!allows!students!to!earn!course\based!credit!working!on!sustainability!projects,!while!receiving!mentorship!from!faculty!and!staff.!Students!collaborate!with!faculty!and!staff!to!develop!solutions!for!sustainability!challenges!on!campus.!To!date,!over!800!projects!covering!issues!that!involve!materials,!water,!energy,!transportation,!land,!food,!climate,!community!and!finance!have!been!completed.!The!SEEDS!Program!Library!allows!the!public!to!access!all!completed!project!reports!and!provides!a!historical!record!of!sustainability!at!UBC!(UBC!Sustainability,!2013a).!!!Acting!staff!member:!!Liska!Richer,!UBC!SEEDS!Program!Coordinator!!AMS&Sustainability&! AMS!Sustainability!is!the!sustainability!office!of!UBC’s!Alma!Mater!Society.!It!has!five!employees!and!runs!the!$100,000!per!year!AMS!Sustainability!Fund!as!well!as!multiple!ecological!footprint!reduction!programs.!These!are!achieved!through!their!Lighter!Footprint!Strategy,!which!is!informed!through!the!UBC!SEEDS!Program.!!Acting!staff!member:!!Justin!Ritchie,!AMS!Sustainability!Coordinator!! 9!UBC&Student&Housing&and&Hospitality&Services&(SHHS)&&! UBC!Student!Housing!and!Hospitality!Services!(SHHS)!provides!accommodation!for!students,!faculty!and!staff!in!eight!residential!complexes!throughout!campus.!SHHS!also!encompasses!the!UBC!Food!Services!Department,!which!is!the!primary!food!provider!to!the!campus!(UBC!Student!Housing!and!Hospitality!Services,!2013).!The!AMS!and!SHHS!have!formed!a!memorandum!of!understanding!(MOU),!through!which!both!parties!have!agreed!to!collaborate!on!the!installation!of!12!WaterFillz!stations!across!campus!(personal!communication!with!Victoria!Wakefield,!Apr.!4,!2013)!!Acting!staff!member:!!Victoria!Wakefield,!Purchasing!Manager!!!UBC’s&Waste&Action&Plan&! UBC!is!developing!a!Waste!Action!Plan!outlining!waste!reduction!targets!and!the!actions!required!to!achieve!those!goals.!UBC!currently!diverts!about!44%!of!its!operational!waste!from!local!landfills,!a!target!that!has!been!met!partially!through!a!range!of!successful!waste!reduction!programs!executed!throughout!the!past!decade!and!it!is!committed!to!further!waste!reductions!in!the!future!(UBC!Sustainability,!2013b).!!Acting!staff!member:!!Bud!Fraser,!UBC’s!Water!and!Zero!Waste!Engineer!!UBC&Building&Operations&! UBC!Building!Operations!is!responsible!for!managing!the!university’s!built!environment!in!a!safe!and!sustainable!way.!It!is!dedicated!to!providing!facilities!maintenance,!operations!and!renovation!services!to!UBC’s!lands!and!various!buildings!as!required!(UBC!Building!Operations,!2013).!UBC!Building!Operations!provided!information!on!water!fountain!locations!for!this!project.!!Acting!staff!member:!Greig!Samodien,!Facilities!Manager!!Supervising&Professor&! Dr.!Mark!Johnson!conducts!research!through!the!Institute!for!Resources,!Environment!and!Sustainability,!and!the!Department!of!Earth!and!Ocean!Sciences!at!UBC.!He!has!research!expertise!in!ecohydrology!and!watershed!biogeochemistry!as!well!as!academic!and!professional!experience!in!temperate,!tropical!and!boreal!climates,!and!in!forested,!agricultural,!and!mixed!land!use!environments.!The!overarching!goal!of!his!research!group!is!towards!the!development!of!more!sustainable!land!use!practices!and!urban!systems!(Ecohydro!Lab,!2013).!! 10!Research&on&UBC’s&Drinking&Water&Access&! Throughout!the!last!three!years,!UBC!students!have!conducted!several!studies!to!enhance!sustainable!water!consumption!and!provision!on!campus.!In!2010,!two!students!(Sadowski!and!Willock)!from!the!Global!Resource!Systems!program!in!Land!and!Food!Systems!developed!a!social!marketing!plan!to!decrease!bottled!water!consumption!and!increase!access!to!free!drinking!water!over!the!next!four!years.!They!conducted!a!survey!to!assess!students’!attitudes!and!perceptions!towards!water!fountains!and!drinking!tap!water.!The!survey!was!completed!by!534!people!and!yielded!the!following!trends.!Students!do!not!think!water!fountains!are!widely!available!on!campus!and!want!more!that!are!easy!to!use!and!well\maintained.!Hygiene!is!a!major!barrier!for!students!who!do!not!drink!from!water!fountains,!where!most!students!prefer!the!WaterFillz!stations!that!have!been!installed!in!the!Student!Union!Building.!WaterFillz!stations!are!roughly!the!same!size!as!vending!machines!and!dispense!cold,!filtered!water!into!bottles!or!cups!upon!the!press!of!a!button!(please!refer!to!Appendix!E:!Types!of!water!outlets!at!UBC).!These!machines!also!count!and!display!how!many!water!bottles!have!been!filled.!While!many!students!trust!the!quality!of!campus!tap!water,!there!are!still!many!who!do!not!understand!where!the!water!comes!from!and!whether!it!is!safe!to!drink.!Most!students!are!supportive!of!banning!the!sales!of!bottled!water!and!use!a!personal!water!bottle.!Students!prefer!to!drink!cold,!fresh\tasting!water.!From!these!major!trends,!Sadowski!and!Willock!concluded!that!there!is!student!support!for!sustainable!drinking!water!options!on!campus.!In!order!to!facilitate!the!shift!to!sustainable!drinking!water!consumption,!Sadowski!and!Willock!also!suggested!that!effective!awareness!programs!would!need!to!be!developed!in!addition!to!improvement!of!drinking!water!infrastructure!(Sadowski!&!Willock,!2010).!!! Two!research!projects!(An#Investigation#into#Sustainable#Water#Consumption!and!Assessment#of#Drinking#Water#at#UBC:#A#consideration#of#water#quality,#energy#and#economic#costs,#with#practical#recommendations)!have!evaluated!the!environmental!and!economic!implications!of!bottled!water!use!and!UBC’s!chosen!alternative!drinking!water!solutions.!The!energy!needed!to!produce!and!transport!disposable!polyethylene!terephthalate!(PET)!plastic!bottles!is!considerably!higher!than!the!energy!needed!to!produce!reusable!water!bottles!and!provide!tap!water!from!fountains!or!WaterFillz!stations.!Energy!is!also!consumed!when!bottled!water!is!processed,!bottled,!refrigerated,!collected!by!waste!management!services!and!processed!for!recycling.!Energy!costs!attributed!to!the!use!of!reusable!bottles!stems!mainly!from!bottle!washing.!Although!the!WaterFillz!stations!require!a!lot!of!energy!to!produce!and!cost!about!$10,000!each,!the!cost!of!production!per!unit!of!water!decreases!as!more!water!is!drawn!into!students’!reusable!bottles!after!installation!(Kanda!et!al.,!2010;!Tran!et!al.,!2012).!Improved!water!outlets!such!as!Brita!Hydration!Stations!and!Elkay!EZH2O!fountains!have!lower!initial!costs!ranging!from!about!$1,200!to!$4,000!(Kanda!et!al.,!2010).!On!a!longer\term!basis!of!five!years!after!installation,!the!WaterFillz!stations!have!been!found!to!be!the!most!economical!because!their!filters!do!not!need!to!be!replaced!as!often!as!other!drinking!water!outlets!(Tran!et!al.,!2012).!WaterFillz!filters!need!to!be!changed!every!6!to!12!months!depending!on!usage!and!other!water!conditions!(Kanda!et!al.,!2010).!! Tran!et!al.!(2012)!performed!a!water!quality!analysis!on!water!samples!from!eleven!buildings!along!with!samples!from!Dasani!bottled!water!and!a!WaterFillz!station.!They!reported!! 11!higher!concentrations!of!copper!and!zinc!in!Totem!Residence,!and!the!Earth!and!Ocean!Science!(EOSC)!Main.!There!were!moderate!concentrations!of!copper!and!zinc!detected!in!Fred!Kaiser,!Geography,!Buchanan!A,!and!Scarfe.!An!elevated!concentration!of!lead!was!found!in!EOSC!Main.!None!of!the!results!exceeded!Canada’s!Drinking!Water!Guidelines.!Tran!et!al.!indicated!that!concentrations!of!trace!heavy!metals!decreased!as!the!week!progressed!and!more!water!flushed!through!the!pipes.!Tran!et!al.!also!recommended!potential!locations!where!WaterFillz!stations!should!be!installed!in!the!future.!These!recommendations!were!made!based!on!water!quality,!building!traffic!and!water!fountain!availability.!Woodward!and!the!Buchanan!Lecture!Halls!had!the!highest!building!traffic!and!low!levels!of!copper,!zinc!and!lead.!Geography,!Scarfe,!Totem!Residence,!and!EOSC!Main!were!suggested!because!of!the!moderate!to!high!levels!of!trace!metals!found!in!their!respective!water!samples.!Henry!Angus!was!suggested!as!a!candidate!because!of!the!high!level!of!traffic!within!the!building.!The!following!buildings!were!recommended!because!they!had!0\1!water!fountains!and!high!levels!of!traffic:!the!Forest!Sciences!Building,!the!West!Mall!Swing!Space!Building,!the!Civil!and!Mechanical!Engineering!Building,!the!Mathematics!Building,!the!Hugh!Dempster!Pavillion,!and!the!H.R.!Macmillan!Building!(Tran!et!al.,!2012).!! In!June!2012,!Justin!Ritchie!from!Alma!Mater!Society!(AMS)!Sustainability!and!Victoria!Wakefield!from!Student!Housing!and!Hospitality!Services!(SHHS)!conducted!an!inventory!of!15!major!academic!buildings!throughout!the!campus!to!gauge!the!availability!of!drinking!water.!These!buildings!were!selected!based!on!the!recommendations!that!Tran!et!al.!(2012)!gave!in!their!report.!Drinking!water!outlets!were!counted!and!the!buildings!were!either!identified!as!having!sufficient!access!to!water!or!insufficient!access!to!water.!The!West!Mall!Swing!Space!Building,!Henry!Angus!Building,!Geography!Building!and!Mathematics!Building!had!insufficient!access!to!water.!Ritchie!and!Wakefield!also!made!recommendations!to!upgrade!or!retrofit!fountains,!and!add!signage!to!inform!the!public!of!where!water!outlets!could!be!found.!The!AMS!and!SHHS!have!formed!a!memorandum!of!understanding!(MOU),!through!which!both!parties!have!agreed!to!collaborate!on!the!installation!of!12!WaterFillz!stations!across!campus!(personal!communication!with!Victoria!Wakefield,!Apr.!4,!2013).!!A!Commerce!468!project!has!also!been!completed!in!conjunction!with!this!SEEDS!project!to!develop!a!comprehensive!marketing!plan!that!promotes!access!to!UBC’s!tap!water.!The!marketing!plan’s!main!objectives!were!to!analyze!current!customer!awareness!and!support!of!UBC’s!sustainable!drinking!water!sources.!The!project!analyzed!current!customer!attitudes!towards!sustainable!water!consumption!and!identified!barriers!that!prevented!the!public!from!drinking!tap!water.!A!major!component!the!project!was!the!development!of!strategies!to!increase!awareness!of!and!participation!in!sustainable!water!consumption!initiatives!among!non\tap\water!users.!It!identified!signage!that!was!recognizable!across!language!and!cultural!barriers,!which!would!enable!the!UBC!community!to!easily!access!drinking!water!locations!on!campus!(personal!communication!with!Liska!Richer,!April!19th,!2013).!!!!! 12!UBC’s&Water&Landscape&! UBC!has!a!broad!selection!of!water!sources!including!water!fountains,!WaterFillz!stations,!kitchenette!sinks!in!academic!buildings!and!student!residences,!and!other!commercial!filtration!units.!There!are!currently!no!functional!drinking!water!outlets!or!water!fountains!outside!of!buildings.!Within!the!AMS,!the!Student!Union!Building!(SUB)!has!two!WaterFillz!stations!and!six!water!fountains.!!Tap!water!is!quite!accessible!within!UBC’s!SHHS!as!well.!Every!residence!has!taps!and!main!common!lounges!are!equipped!with!water!fountains.!Some!of!the!more!recently!built!UBC!Food!Services!outlets!have!water!filling!stations!(personal!communication!with!Victoria!Wakefield,!March!8,!2013).!! Bottled!water!is!available!to!the!public!in!vending!machines!and!food!outlets!maintained!by!the!AMS!and!UBC!Food!Services!(SHHS)!as!well!as!through!catering!services.!Last!year,!the!AMS!made!approximately!$60,000!in!revenue!through!bottled!water!sales!from!its!11!venues!and!catering!services!(personal!communication!with!Justin!Ritchie,!March!12,!2013).!AMS!Food!Services!sells!Pepsi’s!Aquafina!and!Nestlé!Pure!Life!Water!(Sadowski!&!Willock,!2010).!UBC!Food!Services!currently!has!28!food!venues!and!three!mini!marts!at!the!Walter!Gage,!Vanier!and!Totem!residences.!Coca\Cola’s!Dasani!bottled!water!can!be!bought!at!all!these!venues!except!at!Starbucks!locations,!where!Starbucks’!Ethos!bottled!water!is!sold!(UBC!Food!Services,!2013;!Sadowski!&!Willock,!2010).!Between!September!2010!and!August!2011,!UBC!SHHS!made!approximately!$255,000!in!revenue!through!bottled!water!sales!from!food!service!venues!and!vending!machines!(personal!communication!with!Victoria!Wakefield,!April!26th,!2013).!Both!the!AMS!and!UBC!Food!Services!have!non\exclusivity!contracts!with!their!respective!bottled!water!suppliers!(Nestlé,!Pepsi!and!Coca\Cola)!and!UBC!Athletics!sells!bottled!water!through!their!non\exclusive!contract!with!Coca\Cola!(Sadowski!&!Willock,!2010).!Bottled!water!is!also!available!through!other!locations!on!campus!like!the!UBC!Hospital,!Shopper’s!Drugmart,!UBC!Village!and!Wesbrook!Village.!!Many!faculties!and!departments!have!contracts!with!companies!like!Canadian!Springs,!who!supply!large!water!jugs!and!dispensers.!There!are!more!than!260!different!departments!at!UBC!that!rely!on!commercial!bottled!water!sources.!In!2012,!260!departments!had!a!total!consumption!of!1176!11\Litre!jugs,!23570!18\Litre!jugs,!102!sets!of!case!goods,!and!520!point\of\use!water!coolers.!One!case!good!includes!24!500\mL!water!bottles!and!point\of\use!water!coolers!are!filtered!dispensers!that!are!connected!to!UBC’s!water!line.!Canadian!Springs!supplies!the!campus!with!the!largest!fraction!of!commercial!large\volume!bottle!water!(personal!communication!with!Liska!Richer,!April!18th,!2013).!!! The!ability!to!access!tap!water!on!campus!largely!depends!on!whether!students!and!staff!own!reusable!water!bottles.!Reusable!water!bottles!that!vary!in!brand,!size,!material,!design,!lid!type!and!price!are!currently!sold!at!the!Student!Recreation!Centre,!the!UBC!Bookstore,!Shoppers!Drugmart,!Save\On\Foods,!the!Village,!Starbucks,!the!Outpost!within!the!AMS,!and!at!the!various!food!outlets!maintained!by!UBC!Food!Services!(Sadowski!&!Willock,!2010;!personal!communication!with!Victoria!Wakefield,!March!8,!2013).!Another!factor!that!contributes!to!tap!water!consumption!is!the!availability!of!water!outlets!on!campus.!The!AMS!and!SHHS!have!installed!two!WaterFillz!stations!in!the!SUB,!one!at!the!West!Mall!Swing!Space!and!one!in!the!! 13!H.R.!Macmillan!Building!to!increase!water!availability!on!campus!and!encourage!sustainable!water!consumption.!UBC’s&Water&and&Safety&! UBC’s!Vancouver!Point!Grey!campus!receives!drinking!water!from!Metro!Vancouver’s!water!system,!which!distributes!its!water!from!five!hundred!and!eighty!five!square!kilometers!of!mountainous!land!restricted!to!public!access.!The!three!reservoirs!(Capilano,!Seymour!and!Coquitlam)!within!this!region!collect!water!from!rainfall,!snowmelt,!creeks!and!streams.!Metro!Vancouver!tests!water!quality!at!the!source,!at!treatment!facilities!and!at!various!distribution!points!(UBC!Risk!Management!Services,!2013).!In!2010,!Metro!Vancouver!started!the!construction!of!the!Seymour\Capilano!Filtration!Plant,!which!treats!water!from!the!Seymour!and!Capilano!watersheds.!The!project,!scheduled!to!be!completed!this!year,!will!ensure!that!Metro!Vancouver’s!population!is!provided!with!high!quality!filtered!drinking!water!by!successfully!addressing!the!following!water!quality!concerns:!!!(Metro!Vancouver,!2013)!!! 14!Drinking!water!is!tested!weekly!at!UBC’s!Point!Grey!campus.!Water!quality!must!be!tested!at!the!tap!and/or!drinking!water!fountains!a!minimum!of!two!times!per!year!within!buildings!throughout!the!campus!(UBC!Risk!Management!Services,!2013).!The!12\16!sampling!locations!vary!to!ensure!that!different!areas!of!the!campus!are!adequately!represented,!and!are!determined!based!on!land!use!and!system!configuration.!Locations!include!residential!areas,!high\density!areas,!institutional!areas,!and!the!water!source.!Water!samples!from!these!locations!are!collected!and!are!analyzed!by!laboratories!approved!through!the!Canadian!Association!of!Environmental!Analytical!Laboratories.!Each!sample!is!analyzed!for!microbiological!parameters!(total!coliforms,!E.#coli,!turbidity),!chemicals!(lead,!copper,!arsenic,!zinc,!iron,!vinyl!chloride,!aluminum,!etc.)!and!physical!parameters!(pH,!odour,!taste,!temperature)!(personal!communication!with!Greig!Samodien,!January!31,!2013).!To!mitigate!the!effects!of!piping!on!water!quality,!UBC!Risk!Management!Services!suggests!that!tap!water!be!flushed!for!a!minimum!of!60!seconds,!especially!during!summer!months!(UBC!Risk!Management!Services,!2013).!UBC’s&Technical&Guidelines&Regarding&Drinking&Fountains&and&Stations&! All!buildings!on!campus!must!adhere!to!the!British!Columbia!Building!Code,!but!it!doesn’t!have!any!specifications!regarding!water!fountains!and!their!location!within!buildings.!The!Technical!Services!Department!within!UBC’s!Building!Operations!is!responsible!for!the!following!Technical!Guidelines!and!applying!them!to!new!construction,!building!renewals!and!renovations.!The!UBC!Technical!Guidelines!were!first!written!in!2002.!They!have!been!revised!since!then!and!will!continue!to!be!altered!as!needed.!These!Technical!Guidelines!are!strongly!encouraged!by!the!Technical!Services!Department,!but!it!is!not!mandatory!that!they!are!followed!(personal!communication!with!Greig!Samodien,!Apr.!8,!2013).!The!most!current!version!stipulates!that:!!Drinking!water!Fountains!and!Stations.!1. All!buildings!over!600!gross!square!metres!shall!have!at!least!one!accessible!drinking!water!fountain,!located!in!a!public!area.!The!drinking!fountain!should!include!an!appropriate!fixture!for!filling!water!bottles.!An!example!of!this!might!be!the!Elkay!Drinking!Fountain!and!Bottle!Filling!Station:!http://www.elkayusa.com/cps/rde/xchg/elkay/hs.xsl/elkay\com\101698.aspx!2. All!new!buildings!shall!have!drinking!water!fountains!installed!on!the!shortest!dead!leg!possible!off!of!a!line!that!is!flowing!regularly.!This!line!would!preferably!be!serving!a!washroom.!3. The!drinking!water!fountain!shall!NOT!be!cooled.!4. Drinking!water!fountains!shall!NOT!have!filters!and!hence!no!backflow!preventers!will!be!required.!5. Drinking!water!fountains!shall!only!be!located!inside!buildings!at!level\1!entrance!lobbies!and!should!be!visible!from!the!exterior.!6. Filtered!water!drinking!stations!for!office\type!areas!are!acceptable!provided!that!a!UBC!Plumbing!Permit!is!obtained.!An!approved!backflow!prevention!device!must!be!installed!as!per!Section!15401!Backflow!/!Cross!Connection!Control!to!prevent!water!from!being!drawn!! 15!out!of!the!filter!system!back!into!the!water!supply!line.!A!regular!filter!maintenance!program!must!also!be!in!place!as!part!of!the!service!agreement!with!the!filtration!system!vendor.!7. When!retrofitting!existing!buildings,!installation!costs!plus!recurring!filter!changes!are!to!be!funded!by!the!relevant!Academic!Department.! (UBC!Technical!Services!Department,!2012)!UBC’s&Tap&That&Campaign&! Common!Energy!is!a!student\run!organization!that!aims!to!incorporate!sustainability!into!all!aspects!of!the!UBC!community.!Its!Tangible!Solutions!action!team!launched!the!Tap!That:!Bottled!Water!Free!UBC!campaign!on!January!28th,!2013.!This!campaign!has!increased!awareness!of!the!impacts!of!bottled!water!consumption!and!the!benefits!of!drinking!tap!water!from!reusable!bottles!through!its!website,!promotional!videos,!movie!screenings,!as!well!as!through!its!Facebook!and!Twitter!webpages.!The!main!goal!of!the!campaign!is!to!gain!public!support!for!a!petition!that!will!encourage!UBC!President!Stephen!J.!Toope!to!set!a!date!by!which!the!campus!will!become!bottled!water!free.!To!date,!the!campaign!has!endorsements!from!eight!campus!organizations!including!the!AMS,!Sprouts!and!the!UBC!Bookstore,!as!well!as!from!four!undergraduate!societies!(Tap!That!UBC,!2013).!The!Tap!That!community!on!Facebook!has!613!Likes.!As!of!March!27th,!2013,!UBC!is!officially!committed!to:!! • The!creation!of!a!committee!(modeled!after!the!Waste!Free!UBC!Committee)!which!will!conduct!research!to!determine!the!economic!transition!and!phase\out!plan!for!bottled!water,!and!ultimately!set!the!date!by!which!the!University!will!become!bottled\water!free.!!! • Following!immediate!next!steps,!which!will!ideally!occur!before!September!2013:!o Create!a!H2O!page!on!the!UBC!Mobile!App,!which!will!map!all!safe!drinking!water!locations!(including!WaterFillz!stations,!taps,!gooseneck!taps,!and!fountains).!o Incorporate!a!"safe!water!brand"!into!the!new!UBC!Sustainability!branding!initiative!to!ensure!that!all!WaterFillz!stations,!taps,!gooseneck!taps!and!fountains!are!easily!identifiable!and!give!consistent!messaging.!! (personal!communication!with!Common!Energy,!Apr.!2,!2013)!Rationale&for&This&Project&and&its&Scope&! This!push!to!adopt!more!sustainable!drinking!water!habits!is!separate!from,!but!complimentary!to,!the!campus’!broader!effort!to!conserve!water!and!decrease!the!quantity!of!water!consumed!through!process!cooling!and!research,!washroom!facilities,!irrigation!and!showers.!The!UBC!Sustainability!initiative!is!currently!developing!a!Water!Action!Plan!to!help!the!campus!achieve!its!goal!of!becoming!a!campus\wide!closed!loop!water!system.!A!Waste!Action!Plan!is!also!being!developed,!which!will!outline!UBC’s!waste!reduction!targets!and!the!actions!required!to!attain!those!targets!(UBC!Sustainability,!2013b).!The!life!cycle!of!single\! 16!serve!bottled!water!generates!a!considerable!amount!of!greenhouse!gases!that!contribute!to!climate!change,!and!waste!that!is!often!discarded!through!garbage!disposal!or!down\cycled!into!other!disposable!products!(Sadowski!&!Willock,!2010).!Therefore,!cutting!down!campus!bottled!water!consumption!is!a!prudent!step!in!meeting!waste!reduction!goals.!!!This!project!is!a!continuation!of!research!that!has!already!been!completed!on!UBC’s!drinking!water!access.!The!results!from!Sadowski!and!Willock’s!survey!indicated!that!56%!of!505!respondents!believed!water!fountains!were!either!unavailable!or!difficult!to!access!on!campus.!21%!out!of!282!respondents!claimed!that!water!fountains!were!hard!to!find!or!that!more!needed!to!be!installed!on!campus.!!The!survey!also!showed!that!83%!of!517!respondents!owned!and!used!a!personal!reusable!water!bottle,!and!79%!of!268!respondents!were!supportive!of!a!ban!on!the!sales!of!bottled!water!provided!that!there!would!be!adequate!availability!of!alternative!sources!to!clean,!safe!water!on!campus.!Some!people!criticized!water!fountains!for!being!unsanitary!or!for!unsatisfactory!water!pressure.!Most!comments!mentioned!low!pressure,!where!a!few!cited!excessive!pressure!at!certain!water!fountains.!Tran!et!al.!(2012)!indicated!that!the!functionality!and!overall!condition!of!every!water!fountain!on!campus!is!unknown.!It!is!also!uncertain!whether!data!provided!by!UBC!Building!Operations!for!this!study!was!up\to\date.!In!response!to!these!statistics!and!information!gaps,!this!project!has!the!following!objectives:!!• To!conduct!a!literature!review!of!best!practices!regarding!how!other!notable!campuses!manage!drinking!water!provision!!• To!conduct!a!drinking!water!outlet!inventory!and!evaluation!to!determine!accessibility!of!tap!water!both!within!and!outside!of!buildings.!This!involves!a!water!fountain!audit!that!completes!the!following!tasks:!o Identifies!accessibility!of!water!outlets,!the!condition!of!drinking!water!outlets,!water!pressure,!water!aesthetics!(colour,!smell,!taste),!type!of!outlet,!proximity!to!washrooms,!and!whether!the!outlets!can!fill!reusable!water!bottles!!!o Maps!the!locations!of!water!fountains,!water!filling!stations,!and!kitchenette!sinks!accessible!to!students!o Compares!the!water!electrical!conductivity!and!temperature!of!water!between!top!and!bottom!floors!of!buildings!and!between!15\second!flushes.!!• To!analyze!collected!data!and!identify:!o Whether!deficiencies!exist!in!current!drinking!water!access!and!develop!associated!recommendations!o Whether!other!water!delivery!methods!are!needed!to!improve!water!provision!on!campus!!!!!!!!! 17!Methods!Literature&Review&of&Best&Practices&! To!determine!drinking!water!provision!practices!at!other!institutions,!a!considerable!amount!of!online!research!was!performed.!The!relevance!of!findings!was!based!on!whether!these!institutions’!population!sizes!were!similar!to!UBC’s!population!or!whether!they!offered!valuable!insight!about!bottled!water!cutbacks.!Particularly!important!information!describes!how!institutions!provide!drinking!water!to!their!students,!how!they!promote!the!use!of!drinking!water!outlets!and!how!they!successfully!stopped!selling!bottled!water!at!their!campuses.!Suggested!practices!that!UBC!should!adopt!will!be!included!in!the!Discussion!and!Recommendations!sections.!Water&Outlet&Inventory&and&Evaluations&!! Considering!the!trends!noted!in!Sadowski!and!Willock’s!(2010)!survey!and!the!information!gaps!identified!by!Tran!et!al.!(2012),!a!series!of!questions!were!chosen!to!represent!how!an!individual!would!decided!to!regularly!use!a!given!drinking!water!outlet.!The!questions!all!assume!that!the!individual!owns!a!reusable!water!bottle!and!he!or!she!will!either!choose!to!use!the!water!outlet!or!purchase!bottled!water!(or!another!commercial!beverage)!based!on!the!responses!to!the!questions.!The!following!questions!are!meant!to!represent!some!of!the!key!factors!that!encourage!individuals!to!use!or!discourage!individuals!from!using!the!drinking!water!outlets!on!campus.!! 1. Can!I!find!the!drinking!outlet!or!is!it!accessible?!2. Do!I!know!that!the!water!from!this!outlet!is!safe!to!drink?!3. Is!the!outlet!visually!appealing?!4. Does!the!outlet!work?!5. Can!I!conveniently!fill!my!water!bottle!at!this!outlet?!6. Is!the!pressure!or!fill!time!adequate?!7. Is!the!water!appealing!(colour,!smell,!taste,!temperature)?!! These!questions!were!used!to!construct!a!flow!chart!that!either!ended!with!the!purchase!of!bottled!water!or!another!commercial!beverage,!or!the!regular!use!of!the!water!outlet!(please!refer!to!the!Diagram!1!in!Appendix!B).!The!questions!were!subsequently!used!to!write!a!survey!used!to!evaluate!individual!water!outlets.!The!survey!included!the!following!components:!! • The!person!conducting!the!survey!• Date!and!time!of!the!survey!• The!building!in!which!the!outlet!was!found!• The!outlet’s!location!(nearest!room!number!or!landmark)!and!floor!number!• Whether!the!outlet!was!visible!from!a!main!entrance!! 18!• Whether!the!outlet!was!visible!to!passing!traffic!• The!outlet’s!proximity!to!a!washroom!• The!visual!appeal!of!the!outlet!• Whether!a!reusable!water!bottle!could!be!filled!at!the!water!outlet!• The!faucet!type!• The!water’s!colour!• The!water’s!odour!• The!water’s!taste!• The!water!outlet’s!pressure!! The!visual!appeal,!water!colour,!water!taste,!and!water!pressure!were!evaluated!on!a!Very!poor,!Poor,!Good,!and!Very!Good!scale.!This!scale!was!chosen,!because!it!included!an!equal!number!of!negative!options!and!positive!options,!without!providing!too!many!options.!The!complete!Drinking!Water!Outlet!Assessment!is!included!in!Appendix!B.!Water!taste,!odour!and!colour!involved!an!initial!flush!and!collecting!a!second!sample!if!the!initial!flush!was!not!classified!as!Very!good.!The!15\second!flush!period!was!determined!in!collaboration!with!project!staff.!Although!it!is!commonly!suggested!to!flush!water!for!about!a!minute!to!obtain!the!best!quality!of!water,!it!was!anticipated!that!most!students!and!staff!either!do!not!flush!water!fountains!before!using!them!or!flush!them!for!a!much!shorter!period.!The!survey!was!performed!under!these!assumed!circumstances.!!!! The!buildings!included!in!the!evaluation!were!determined!in!collaboration!with!UBC!Building!Operations!and!based!on!the!high!traffic!locations!Tran!et!al.!(2012)!identified.!UBC!SHHS!also!requested!the!evaluation!of!common!blocks!within!seven!residences!(included!as!the!List!of!Buildings!with!Zones!in!Appendix!B).!Other!factors!that!were!considered!included:!whether!students!commonly!visited!the!buildings,!whether!the!buildings!were!located!on!major!campus!corridors,!and!whether!most!areas!of!the!main!campus!were!represented.!!Since!roughly!one!month!was!allotted!to!data!collection!and!collection!capacity!was!limited,!the!scope!of!the!evaluations!was!set!at!approximately!60!buildings.!!The!list!of!buildings!was!modified!throughout!the!data!collection!process!for!various!reasons.!The!Music!Building!was!initially!not!included,!but!was!added!when!a!drinking!water!outlet!was!identified!there.!The!Aquatic!Centre,!initially!on!the!list,!was!not!evaluated!because!of!time!constraints!and!decreased!accessibility!within!the!building.!The!West!and!South!wings!of!the!Biological!Sciences!Building!were!also!removed!from!the!list,!as!students!do!not!commonly!use!them.!Buildings!were!separated!into!six!zones!based!on!geography.!This!facilitated!data!collection!and!ensured!efficiency!and!thoroughness!(Map!1!in!Appendix!B).!! The!scope!of!the!outlet!inventory!and!evaluations!was!also!set!to!include!all!water!fountains,!kitchenette!sinks!in!common!areas,!WaterFillz!stations,!fixed!dispensers!at!cafés,!and!point\of\use!coolers!within!areas!commonly!used!by!students.!The!inventory!excluded!all!laboratory!sinks!and!the!majority!of!washroom!sinks!with!the!exception!of!a!few!buildings!where!fountain!spigots!and!bottle\filling!goosenecks!are!found!in!washrooms.!Sadowski!and!Willock!(2010)!identified!that!some!of!the!people!surveyed!would!not!drink!water!from!a!sink!tap,!because!they!assumed!“sink!tap”!referred!to!public!washroom!sinks.!Public!washrooms!are!typically!perceived!as!unhygienic!areas!and!were!therefore!not!included!in!the!inventory.!Time!! 19!constraints!and!data!collection!capacity!were!also!considered!when!determining!the!scope!of!the!inventory.!! The!data!collection!process!was!further!facilitated!through!the!recruitment!of!volunteers!from!Common!Energy.!Four!volunteers!helped!conduct!surveys!and!were!shown!the!full!Drinking!Water!Outlet!Assessment!beforehand.!A!few!outlet!evaluations!were!performed!in!groups!to!standardize!survey!responses.!Once!group!surveys!were!consistent,!pairs!of!volunteers!were!assigned!one!of!the!six!building!zones.!Surveys!were!conducted!on!Mondays!and!Tuesdays!to!ensure!that!water!conditions!were!similar!throughout!the!entire!process.!Pictures!were!taken!of!all!surveyed!water!outlets!and!organized!into!computer!files!that!corresponded!to!each!of!the!six!zones.!!All!the!survey!responses!were!analyzed!using!Excel.!Analysis&of&Water&Electrical&Conductivity&and&Temperature&! Once!the!water!outlet!inventory!was!completed,!a!separate!list!of!water!fountains!was!compiled!to!analyze!water!electrical!conductivity!and!temperature.!One!factor!that!affects!whether!or!not!individuals!use!a!drinking!outlet!is!the!temperature!of!the!water.!The!purpose!of!this!analysis!was!to!determine!whether!water!collected!on!the!top!and!the!bottom!floors!of!buildings!exhibits!temperature!variations.!Therefore,!only!buildings!with!water!fountains!on!two!or!more!floors!were!included!(please!refer!to!Electrical!Conductivity!and!Temperature!Data!Table!in!Appendix!B).!A!WaterFillz!station,!two!commercial!point\of\use!water!dispensers,!a!Brita!Hydration!Station,!and!a!Dasani!water!bottle!were!also!analyzed!for!reference.!Electrical!conductivity!is!the!measurement!of!all!ions!present!in!the!water,!such!as!different!salts,!nitrates!and!nitrites,!phosphates!and!other!minerals.!!These!measurements!do!not!indicate!specifically!which!ions!are!in!the!water,!but!may!help!determine!whether!building!pipes!are!affecting!water!quality.!Electrical!conductivity!was!measured!in!59!buildings!and!temperature!was!measured!in!57!buildings.!Measurements!were!all!done!on!Tuesdays,!using!a!Thermo!Orion!electrical!conductivity!meter!(please!refer!to!equipment!section!in!Appendix!B).!Initial!flushes!and!second!samples!were!assessed!after!15!seconds!of!flushing.!!! The!data!collection!process!was!facilitated!by!volunteers!who!helped!collect!water!samples!from!outlets.!The!results!were!entered!into!a!spreadsheet!and!analyzed!to!produce!bar!graphs.!Separate!graphs!were!produced!to!compare!minimum,!maximum!and!mean!values!with!results!from!a!WaterFillz!station!and!a!Brita!Hydration!Station.!!Analysis&of&Water&Flow&Rate&! The!water!flow!rate!was!measured!from!outlets!classified!in!each!of!the!pressure!levels!(Very!poor,!Poor,!Good,!and!Very!good).!The!time!required!to!fill!a!water!bottle!is!another!factor!that!affects!whether!or!not!a!drinking!outlet!is!used.!The!purpose!of!these!measurements!was!to!determine!whether!pressure!affected!flow!rate,!and!the!difference!between!gooseneck!and!spigot!flow!rates.!A!list!of!100!water!outlets!represented!a!wide!range!of!buildings!from!the!inventory!list!(please!refer!to!Flow!Rate!Data!Table!in!Appendix!B).!To!measure!flow!rate,!a!water!bottle!and!graduated!cylinder!were!used!to!measure!the!volume!of!water!dispensed!in!! 20!5.2!seconds!(±!0.2!seconds).!If!a!water!fountain!had!a!gooseneck!or!bottle!filler,!the!flow!rates!for!both!the!drinking!spigot!and!the!gooseneck!or!bottle!filler!were!measured.!Data!collection!occurred!on!Thursdays,!and!was!facilitated!with!the!aid!of!one!volunteer!who!helped!collect!water!samples!and!measure!water!volumes.!Once!the!data!was!entered!into!a!spreadsheet,!the!mL/s!flow!rates!and!1\Litre!fill!times!were!calculated!for!all!the!water!sources.!!The!1\Litre!fill!time!represents!the!time!needed!to!fill!a!1\Litre!bottle!at!a!given!water!source.!The!mean!1\Litre!fill!times!for!spigots!and!goosenecks!at!each!pressure!level!are!shown!in!the!Water!Flow!Rate!subsection!of!Findings!and!Discussion.!! !! 21!Literature(Review(of(Best(Practices!In!the!last!five!years,!the!movement!to!support!safe!and!reliable!public!water!infrastructure!and!decrease!consumption!of!single\serve!bottled!water!has!grown!across!North!America.!Between!the!years!2009!and!2011,!15!university!campuses!across!Canada!publicly!announced!a!commitment!to!phase\out!the!sale!and!provision!of!bottled!water!(The!Council!of!Canadians,!2011).!On!March!15th,!2012,!the!Council!of!Canadians!announced!that!23!university!campuses!in!the!country!were!officially!pro\tap!(The!Council!of!Canadians,!2012).!In!November!2011,!the!Portland!State!University!Sustainable!Drinking!Water!Task!Force!(PSUSDWTF)!identified!35!Take!Back!the!Tap!(TBTT)!campaigns!across!North!America,!47!Think!Outside!the!Bottle!(TOTB)!campaigns,!and!30!additional!campaigns!not!affiliated!with!TBTT!or!TOTB.!!The!PSUSDWTF!also!compiled!a!list!of!43!post\secondary!schools!with!campus\wide!water!bottle!bans,!11!post\secondary!schools!with!department!or!area\specific!bans,!and!79!post\secondary!schools!with!awareness!or!reduction!campaigns!(PSU’s!SDWTF,!2012).!!!In!Best#Practices#Guide#on#University#Campus#Sustainability,!Ashley!Rensler!(2012)!compiled!and!documented!best!practices!from!other!university!campuses!across!Canada!involving!healthy!food!policies!and!practices,!Styrofoam!containers!and!water!bottle!bans!for!York!University’s!President’s!Sustainability!Council.!This!guide!clearly!outlines!the!procedures!four!Canadian!post\secondary!institutions!followed!throughout!their!bottled!water!ban!processes.!UBC!could!definitely!learn!from!each!of!these!cases!as!it!gains!momentum!from!Common!Energy’s!successful!Tap!That!campaign.!!! The!University!of!Winnipeg’s!bottled!water!ban!process!lasted!from!January!2008!to!March!2009.!Throughout!this!period,!the!University!of!Winnipeg!Student!Association!(UWSA)!opened!a!water!bottle!free!café!and!launched!Polaris!Institute’s!“Bottled!Water!Free!Zones”!Campaign.!Polaris!Institute!is!an!organization!that!helps!enable!citizen!movements!and!social!change!(Polaris!Institute,!2013).!Coalition!meetings!with!local!environmental!groups!were!held!to!build!a!city\wide!bottled!water!free!action!plan!and!the!University!of!Winnipeg!formed!a!Bottled!Water!Working!Group.!The!working!group!met!with!University!Administration!and!Administration!agreed!to!principles!of!banning!bottled!water!sales.!The!Canada!Research!Chairs!and!an!expert!on!water!toxicity!performed!a!water!safety!audit!on!campus.!During!USWA!elections,!the!following!referendum!question!was!asked:!“Would!you!be!willing!to!support!an!initiative!led!by!the!University!of!Winnipeg!and!USWA!to!gradually!eliminate!sales!of!bottled!water!on!campus!with!increased!access!to!clean!and!free!drinking!water?”!Three!quarters!of!respondents!were!in!favour!of!the!ban.!The!Canadian!Federation!of!Students!and!the!UWSA!worked!with!campus!administration!to!ensure!that!regardless!of!their!existing!pouring!contract!with!Pepsi!Co.,!the!University!would!have!the!ultimate!say!in!what!products!were!purchased!and!sold!on!campus!(Rensler,!2012).!!! Queen’s!University’s!bottled!water!ban!process!ran!from!June!2010!to!September!2012.!Throughout!this!period,!a!drinking!fountain!inventory!and!audit!was!conducted!to!ensure!the!campus!had!access!to!bottled!water!alternatives.!Policies!were!also!developed!to!establish!the!scope,!inclusions,!exclusions!and!provisions!of!the!anticipated!bottled!water!ban.!There!was!an!initial!termination!of!bottled!water!sold!in!large!volumes!(591!mL!or!more)!and!free!filtered!tap!! 22!water!was!advertised.!The!Queen’s!Sustainability!Office!and!the!Queen’s!Water!Access!Group!increased!general!awareness!and!provided!information!about!issues!associated!with!bottled!water!and!the!ban.!Drinking!water!fountains!were!enhanced!through!the!additions!of!goosenecks!to!encourage!more!use!of!reusable!bottles,!and!water!fountains!were!installed!in!locations!that!previously!lacked!them.!!The!distribution!of!bottled!water!within!vending!machines!and!retail!food!location!also!changed!significantly.!Vending!machines!that!solely!sold!bottled!water!were!removed!throughout!the!campus.!Bottled!water!in!alternative!vending!machines!were!restocked!and!all!advertising!for!bottled!water!was!ceased!throughout!the!campus.!Queen’s!University!also!launched!an!awareness!campaign!that!explained!the!reasons!behind!the!bottled!water!ban!and!advertised!newly!enhanced!access!to!public!drinking!stations!through!maps,!lists!and!signage.!Queen’s!University’s!pouring!contract!with!Cola\Cola!expired!in!August!2012!and!at!that!time,!regardless!of!whether!a!new!contract!was!negotiated,!the!water!bottle!ban!would!still!be!in!effect!(Rensler,!2012).!!! The!University!of!Toronto’s!bottled!water!ban!process!started!in!September!2011!and!is!anticipated!to!end!in!September!2013.!The!ban!began!on!the!St.!George!Campus!and!is!destined!to!spread!to!the!Mississauga!and!Scarborough!campuses!this!year.!Bottled!water!was!eliminated!from!a!wide!range!of!locations!on!the!St.!George!Campus!including!all!vending!machines!on!main!contract,!all!Second!Cup!locations!and!all!Starbucks!locations.!In!contrast!to!the!previous!two!campuses!discussed,!the!University!of!Toronto!received!negative!feedback!to!the!bottled!water!ban!referred!to!as!“Ban!the!Bottle!Backlash”.!Some!students!argued!that!there!was!no!adequate!transition!period!that!allowed!them!to!adjust!to!the!absence!of!bottled!water!on!campus.!Students!claimed!that!there!were!not!enough!water!fountains!and!refilling!stations!to!compensate!for!the!lack!of!bottled!water.!!A!Facebook!group!named!“Back!Bottled!Water!and!U!of!T”!was!created!in!an!attempt!to!petition!to!bring!back!students’!right!to!choose!bottled!water.!The!group!only!received!28!Likes!and!5!posts.!The!arguments!made!by!the!group’s!administrators!were!not!representative!of!the!whole!campus’!stance!on!the!ban!(Rensler,!2012).!!!! Ryerson!University’s!bottled!water!ban!process!began!in!November!2009!and!is!expected!to!end!sometime!this!year.!It!was!initiated!through!the!“Boycott!the!Bottle,!Try!the!Tap”!campaign!in!partnership!with!the!Polaris!Institute!and!Corporate!Accountability!International.!Corporate!Accountability!International!is!a!non\governmental!organization!that!implements!campaigns!that!challenge!corporate!control!of!water!and!food,!as!well!as!the!use!of!tobacco!(Corporate!Accountability!International,!2013).!There!was!a!collection!of!over!200!signatures!in!support!of!Ryerson!going!bottled!water!free!and!interaction!with!the!student!body!through!events!on!and!off!campus.!A!vote!was!taken!at!the!Ryerson!Student!Union!Semi\Annual!General!Meeting!and!overwhelming!support!for!a!bottled!water!ban!was!shown.!A!meeting!with!Ryerson!University!President!was!organized!to!discuss!the!bottled!water!ban!and!other!steps!were!taken!towards!campaign!building.!On!the!First!National!Bottled!Water!Free!Day,!the!President!of!Ryerson!University!and!the!President!of!Ryerson’s!Student!Union!signed!Ryerson’s!Water!Pledge!committing!to!building!a!bottled!water!free!campus!by!2013.!In!2012,!Ryerson!University’s!pouring!contract!with!Coca\Cola!continued!the!sale!of!bottled!water!in!vending!machines.!The!campus!made!a!goal!to!eliminate!bottled!water!in!vending!machines!by!2013!and!Coca\Cola!communicated!support!of!“sustainable!campus!initiatives”.!The!elimination!was!! 23!supported!because!other!Coca\Cola!products!would!replace!bottled!water!in!vending!machines!(Rensler,!2012).!!!! Ryerson!University!received!mixed!reviews!from!students!regarding!the!bottled!water!ban.!Comments!both!in!support!and!against!the!ban!were!made!and!there!was!no!indication!of!which!side!was!more!prevalent.!Arguments!against!the!ban!included:!! • “Making#water#a#human#right#doesn’t#solve#the#problem#of#equal#access;#bans#limit#consumer#choice”!• “Justification#in#free#access#to#tap#water#is#insufficient#–#additional#factors#should#be#regarded#(e.g.#convenience)”!• “A#ban#takes#away#students’#ability#to#choose”! (Rensler,!2012)!!In!addition!to!Rensler’s!Best#Practices#Guide#on#University#Campus#Sustainability,!other!communication!and!promotion!tools!from!universities!were!identified!during!online!research.!The!University!of!Toronto!and!Queen’s!University!are!both!considered!Major!Canadian!Universities!similar!to!UBC!with!populations!of!over!20,000!students.!York!University!is!classified!as!a!mid\sized!school!(Universities!in!Canada,!2013).!The!University!of!Toronto,!Queen’s!University!and!York!University!all!provide!printable!and!online!maps!that!indicate!where!students!can!find!water!fountains!and!bottle\filling!stations.!Queen’s!University!and!the!University!of!Toronto!both!have!campus\wide!water!source!signs!that!either!show!a!man!filling!a!bottle!or!a!man!drinking!from!a!fountain.!York!University’s!map!includes!a!list!of!the!buildings!with!directions!on!where!to!find!the!water!outlets!within!the!buildings.!These!are!all!useful!in!helping!students!and!staff!find!water!sources!on!their!campuses.!The!University!of!Toronto!also!has!an!interactive!Google!Map!that!includes!different!overlays!corresponding!to!different!types!of!water!outlets.!The!map’s!users!can!choose!to!locate!any!or!all!of!the!following!outlet!categories:!bottle!filling!stations,!drinking!fountains!and!food!outlet!taps.!A!second!interactive!Google!Map!shows!the!locations!of!wheelchair!accessibility!areas,!bicycle!racks,!food!outlets,!parking!lots,!safety!locations,!student!services,!student!spaces,!washrooms!and!areas!with!wireless!internet.!Most!of!these!layers!also!include!sub!layers!that!allow!users!to!choose!exactly!what!they!want!to!locate.!! All!three!of!the!previously!mentioned!universities!have!webpages!dedicated!to!promoting!the!use!of!free!drinking!water!outlets!and!provide!direct!links!to!their!water!maps.!The!University!of!Toronto’s!webpage!is!extensively!informative.!It!provides!information!on!its!bottled!water!free!policies!and!the!steps!the!campus!has!taken!to!end!the!distribution!of!bottled!water.!The!University!of!Toronto!has!defined!“bottled!water!free”!as!having!no!sale!or!distribution!of!bottled!water,!except!at!special!events!where!bottled!water!is!the!only!possible!source!of!hydration!(University!of!Toronto!Food!&!Beverage!Services,!2013a).!The!webpage!also!provides!a!Media!section!with!links!to!news!coverage!on!the!bottled!water!phase\out!and!a!FAQ!section!that!answers!the!following!questions:!!! • Why!did!you!ban!bottled!water!at!the!University?!!• Now!that!I!can’t!buy!bottled!water,!what!should!I!drink?!• Who!should!I!contact!to!request!a!water!station!in!my!building?!! 24!• Do!the!water!fountains!on!campus!dispense!filtered!water?!• Where!can!I!get!more!information!about!Toronto!tap!water?!• What!are!bottle!filling!stations?!(University!of!Toronto!Food!&!Beverage!Services,!2013b)!!These!extra!features!are!effective!ways!to!clearly!communicate!the!institution’s!intentions!and!policies,!increase!awareness!of!the!bottled!water!ban,!and!address!immediate!inquiries!from!students!and!staff.!Pictures!of!water!fountain!infrastructure!and!signage!at!other!post\secondary!institutions!can!be!found!in!Appendix!C.!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 25!Findings'and'Discussion!Through!the!qualitative!analysis,!197!drinking!water!outlets!were!identified!in!59!buildings!on!campus.!All!197!outlets!were!mapped!using!Google!Maps!chosen!for!its!interactive!aspects.!Users!can!specifically!select!which!buildings!they!frequently!visit!and!the!map!will!indicate!where!to!find!the!water!outlets!in!selected!buildings.!When!a!building!placemark!is!selected,!a!pop\up!information!box!provides!users!with!pictures!of!the!water!outlets!and!the!nearest!room!numbers!or!landmarks.!These!details!help!users!find!outlets!within!buildings,!showing!users!what!to!expect!and!what!they!need!to!look!for.!Each!placemark!is!colour\coded!based!on!the!type!of!water!outlet!it!represents.!The!legend!found!in!the!left!side!bar!also!facilitates!building!selection,!especially!if!users!are!not!sure!where!buildings!are!specifically!found.!!The!building!list!has!been!arranged!in!alphabetical!order!using!building!code!names!(please!refer!to!Appendix!D!for!a!screenshot).!!Map!link:!http://goo.gl/maps/ng5W4!!!The!following!series!of!pages!are!structured!to!present!the!findings!of!the!water!outlet!inventory!and!evaluations.!Each!section!corresponds!to!one!or!two!components!of!the!qualitative!survey,!or!a!component!of!the!quantitative!analysis!(flow!rate,!electrical!conductivity!and!water!temperature).!Each!section!includes!a!brief!introduction!explaining!the!reason!the!component!was!included!in!the!evaluations,!diagrams!that!represent!the!evaluation!results,!a!summary!of!those!results,!and!discussion!of!the!results.!!!!!!!Qualitative&Analysis&Ease&of&access&!Visibility!from!building!main!entrances!and!to!passing!traffic!was!included!in!the!evaluation!to!assess!how!easily!an!individual!who!was!unfamiliar!with!each!building!could!find!the!water!outlets.!Since!the!Technical!Guidelines!indicate!that!water!fountains!should!ideally!be!located!in!lobbies!and!be!visible!from!main!entrances,!this!data!was!collected!to!gain!a!baseline!understanding!of!how!many!buildings!adhere!to!this!guideline!and!where!additional!signage!is!needed.!!!! 26!Is&outlet&visible&from&a&main&entrance?&!Subset!of!90!outlets!! Is&outlet&visible&to&passing&traffic?&!Sample!size:!197!drinking!water!outlets!!!!33%#1%#66%#Yes#from#building#main#entrance#Yes#from#library#entrance#No#92%#8%#Yes#No#! 27!Summary:!• Two!thirds!of!the!drinking!water!outlets!evaluated!are!not!visible!from!the!main!entrances!of!their!respective!buildings!• 1%!of!water!fountains!are!visible!from!library!entrances!within!buildings!• The!majority!of!drinking!water!outlets!evaluated!are!visible!to!passing!traffic!within!their!respective!buildings!!Discussion:!! The!subset!of!90!water!outlets!assessed!for!visibility!from!main!entrances!reflects!all!first!or!main!floor!outlets!and!buildings!that!only!have!an!outlet!on!an!upper!level.!For!example,!the!Music!Building!only!has!a!WA\2!dispenser!on!the!third!floor!and!the!Buchanan!Tower’s!first!water!fountain!is!found!on!the!second!floor.!Two!thirds!of!the!outlets!that!are!visible!from!the!main!entrances!of!their!respective!buildings!are!found!in!buildings!that!have!been!built!within!the!last!23!years.!As!the!first!draft!of!the!UBC!Technical!Guidelines!was!written!in!2002!after!the!majority!of!the!buildings!on!campus!were!built!(1930s!to!1980s),!it!is!no!surprise!that!they!do!not!adhere!to!the!most!current!guidelines.!It!is!also!worthy!to!note!that,!though!it!does!not!appear!that!water!fountains!have!ever!been!mandatory!in!buildings,!the!majority!of!the!buildings!do!possess!some!form!of!water!fountain.!However,!it!is!unclear!of!whether!the!fountains!were!installed!when!buildings!were!constructed!or!if!they!were!added!at!later!dates!(personal!communication!with!Greig!Samodien,!Mar.!21,!2013).!!! Since!the!majority!of!drinking!water!outlets!from!the!subset!are!not!visible!from!the!main!entrances!of!their!respective!buildings,!the!university’s!population!needs!to!search!for!them!once!they!enter!the!buildings.!This!is!probably!why!there!is!the!perception!that!water!fountains!are!not!adequately!available!on!campus.!Searching!for!water!outlets!in!unfamiliar!buildings!probably!deters!people!from!fully!committing!to!regular!use.!If!informative!tools!and!appropriate!signage!are!available,!the!majority!of!the!outlets!could!easily!be!found,!as!they!are!visible!to!passing!traffic!in!major!hallways.!Signage!is!especially!needed!in!buildings!where!water!outlets!are!located!in!more!secluded!hallways!and!in!corners.!For!example,!in!the!Walter!C.!Koerner!Library!the!water!fountains!on!the!fourth!and!fifth!floors!are!in!a!corner!near!the!Men’s!washroom.!Although!there!is!signage!that!indicates!the!general!direction!in!which!the!water!fountains!are!located,!they!are!not!evidently!visible!and!somewhat!misleading.!Signage!would!be!useful!in!libraries!as!bookshelves!tend!to!block!longer\range!visibility.!In!other!cases,!water!fountains!are!only!visible!to!hallway!traffic!going!in!one!direction!because!it!is!off!to!the!side!or!around!a!corner.!!!!!!!!!!!! 28!Proximity&to&a&washroom&!Proximity!to!washrooms!was!evaluated!because!water!outlets!near!washrooms!are!commonly!perceived!as!being!unhygienic.!This!data!was!collected!to!gain!a!baseline!idea!of!how!that!perception!may!pertain!to!certain!water!outlets!on!campus!and!where!additional!information!tools!are!needed.!!!Sample!size:!197!drinking!water!outlets!!Summary:!!• 3%!of!drinking!water!outlets!evaluated!are!situated!inside!a!washroom.!• 38%!of!drinking!water!outlets!evaluated!are!situated!within!5!meters!of!a!washroom.!• 37%!of!drinking!water!outlets!evaluated!are!situated!where!no!washroom!is!visible.!• 22%!of!drinking!water!outlets!evaluated!are!situated!within!10\20!meters!of!a!washroom.!!Discussion:!! Interestingly,!the!percentages!of!water!outlets!within!5!meters!of!a!washroom!and!with!no!washroom!visible!are!almost!the!same.!The!three!outlets!that!are!located!inside!washrooms!either!have!a!spigot!or!gooseneck!attached!to!a!washroom!sink.!These!are!located!in!the!Forest!Sciences!Building,!Frederic!Lasserre!Building,!and!the!Earth!and!Ocean!Sciences!Main!Building.!While!outlets!further!away!from!washrooms!may!initially!seem!cleaner,!they!could!be!harder!to!find!without!appropriate!signage.!If!custodians!cannot!find!drinking!outlets,!they!will!be!cleaned!less!frequently.!Outlets!that!are!in!or!near!washrooms!may!have!a!better!chance!of!3%#38%#16%#6%#37%#Inside#washroom#Within#5#meters#Within#10#meters#Within#20#meters#No#washroom#visible#! 29!being!cleaned!whenever!the!washrooms!are!cleaned.!Water!outlets!near!washrooms!also!have!fresher!water,!because!of!the!amount!of!flushing!that!occurs!in!the!pipes.!Unless!a!water!fountain!located!farther!away!from!a!washroom!is!used!frequently,!the!water!tends!to!sit!in!the!pipes!longer!and!become!stale.!!! It!would!be!beneficial!to!assess!public!perceptions!of!water!outlets!near!washrooms!and!whether!the!public!prefers!water!from!outlets!further!away!from!washrooms.!Once!that!data!is!collected,!the!full!implications!of!this!investigation’s!data!will!be!clear.!If!the!majority!of!the!public!perceives!water!outlets!near!washrooms!as!being!unhygienic!and!will!not!drink!from!them,!signage!and!other!informative!tools!will!be!needed!to!ensure!the!safety!and!quality!of!water!from!41%!of!the!water!outlets!evaluated!in!this!study.!!!!!!Type&and&composition&of&water&outlets&!The!type!and!composition!of!water!outlets!were!evaluated!in!the!survey!to!gain!a!baseline!idea!of!how!many!different!kinds!of!water!outlets!are!available!to!students!and!staff!on!campus.!!Type&of&water&outlet&!Sample!size:!197!drinking!water!outlets!!!!!89%#7%#1%# 3%#Wall#mounted#StandEalone#Café#outlet#KitcheneIe#sink#! 30!Composition&of&water&outlet&!Sample!size:!197!drinking!water!outlets!!Summary:!• 89%!of!the!evaluated!water!outlets!are!wall\mounted.!• 7%!are!free!standing!outlets!with!piping!that!connects!to!the!building’s!water!supply.!• 3%!are!kitchenette!sinks!accessible!to!students!• 1%!are!café!outlets!• 78%!of!the!evaluated!water!outlets!are!either!completely!metal!or!mostly!metal!• 18%!of!the!evaluated!outlets!are!porcelain!• 4%!of!the!outlets!are!plastic!!Discussion:!! The!majority!of!the!evaluated!water!outlets!on!campus!are!metal!wall\mounted!water!fountains.!A!unique!water!outlet!that!is!also!wall\mounted!is!the!Brita!Hydration!Station!in!the!Walter!Gage!Residence!lobby.!This!outlet!is!solely!for!bottle!filling!and!appears!quite!space\efficient.!Free\standing!outlets!with!piping!encompass!the!new!WaterFillz!stations!as!well!as!any!point\of\use!coolers!from!private!suppliers!like!Canadian!Springs,!WA\2!and!Source!H2O!by!Van!Houtte!(Please!refer!to!Appendix!E!for!pictures!of!the!different!types!of!water!outlets!at!UBC).!Specific!faculties!finance!these!privately\owned!dispensers!and!the!suppliers!service!them!whenever!the!filters!need!to!be!changed.!Only!kitchenette!sinks!that!are!accessible!to!students!were!evaluated.!Other!kitchenette!sinks!primarily!accessible!to!staff!and!research!personnel!were!also!seen,!but!they!were!beyond!the!scope!of!this!investigation!due!to!time!constraint!and!limited!data!collection!capacity.!!18%#78%#4%#Porcelain#Metal#PlasNc#! 31!! Further!research!should!examine!how!many!of!these!outlets!are!used!on!a!regular!basis!and!which!ones!the!public!prefers.!There!were!at!least!10!different!types!of!water!fountains!seen!on!campus!and!further!research!would!help!determine!which!ones!need!to!be!upgraded!in!order!to!be!used!more!frequently.!It!would!also!be!beneficial!to!examine!the!life!cycles!of!each!of!the!evaluated!outlet!types!to!determine!which!ones!are!most!cost!effective!and!energy!efficient!in!the!long!run.!!!!!Visual&appeal&of&water&outlet&!Visual!appeal!was!evaluated!in!the!survey!because!it!is!one!of!the!key!factors!that!determine!whether!a!water!outlet!is!used.!This!data!provides!a!baseline!representation!of!which!water!outlets!are!clean!and!which!ones!need!better!maintenance.!!!Very&Poor& Poor& Good& Very&Good&Dirty!outlet!that!has!filth!or!residues! Moderately!clean!outlet!that!has!filth!or!residues! Clean!outlet!that!has!minimal!residues!(only!on!a!small!portion!of!the!outlet)!or!does!not!have!filth/residues!Very!clean!outlet!that!does!not!have!filth!or!residues.!Looks!very!well\maintained!Sample!size:!197!drinking!water!outlets!7%#13%#24%#56%#Very#poor#Poor#Good#Very#Good#! 32!Summary:!• 7%!of!the!drinking!water!outlets!evaluated!are!either!dirty!or!have!a!substantial!amount!of!residues!on!them.!!• 13%!of!the!water!outlets!are!moderately!clean!and!have!residues!on!them!• 24%!of!the!water!outlets!are!clean!and!either!have!minimal!residues!on!them!or!do!not!have!residues.!!• Just!over!half!the!drinking!water!outlets!evaluated!are!very!clean!and!appear!very!well\maintained!!Discussion:!! A!key!factor!that!determines!whether!or!not!an!individual!uses!a!water!outlet!is!whether!it!appears!clean!and!well!maintained.!Regardless!of!whether!the!outlet!is!fully!functional,!if!the!individual!does!not!know!or!think!that!the!water!from!an!outlet!is!clean,!they!may!not!use!it.!UBC!Building!Operations!have!indicated!that!water!fountains!get!serviced!on!a!daily!basis!through!the!Building!Operations!custodial!department,!by!scrubbing!them!with!a!neutral!disinfectant.!These!results!suggest!that!this!is!not!the!case!for!all!water!fountains!on!campus!and!there!needs!to!be!better!maintenance!on!about!44%!of!the!drinking!outlets!evaluated.!If!these!water!outlets!are!to!be!used!by!more!people,!they!need!to!be!kept!clean!on!a!daily!basis.!! Similar!to!the!data!regarding!proximity!to!washrooms,!the!full!implications!of!this!data!will!be!evident!once!public!perceptions!of!outlets!identified!as!Very!poor,!Poor,!Good!and!Very!good!are!assessed.!This!follow\up!investigation!would!compensate!for!the!most!significant!limitation!of!this!component!from!the!survey.!Although!the!definitions!of!Very!poor,!Poor,!Good!and!Very!good!were!established!before!the!surveys!were!conducted,!personal!interpretations!of!outlet!cleanliness!could!have!varied!slightly!between!the!people!conducting!the!surveys.!Due!to!time!constraints!and!limited!data!collection!capacity,!one!or!two!people!assessed!the!majority!of!the!water!outlets!at!a!given!time.!Having!outlets!classified!by!more!people!with!the!same!parameters!would!have!made!this!data!more!precise.!In!addition,!standards!of!cleanliness!vary!from!person!to!person.!It!is!possible!that!a!fraction!of!people!on!campus!still!would!not!drink!from!water!outlets!this!investigation!has!classified!as!‘Good’!or!‘Very!good’.!Since!the!main!objective!of!this!data!collection!process!was!to!gain!a!baseline!idea!of!UBC’s!drinking!water!landscape,!it!was!beyond!its!scope!to!assess!public!perceptions!of!its!findings.!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 33!Water&outlet&pressure&!Water!pressure!was!evaluated!because!it!is!another!key!factor!that!determines!whether!a!water!outlet!is!used.!This!data!provides!a!baseline!representation!of!which!water!outlets!have!adequate!water!pressure!and!which!ones!need!to!be!adjusted!or!fixed.!!!Very&Poor& Poor& Good& Very&Good&Insufficient!water!pressure!to!avoid!mouth!contact!with!fountain!!Water!pressure!creates!a!sufficient!arch,!then!decreases!to!an!insufficient!degree!after!a!few!seconds!(~1!cm!arch)!!Sufficient!water!pressure!to!avoid!mouth!contact!with!fountain;!placing!mouth!close!to!spigot!may!be!required!(~2!cm!arch)!Water!pressure!creates!a!sufficient!arch!to!easily!place!mouth!in!mid\stream!and!would!allow!easy!filling!of!reusable!water!bottles!Sample!size:!197!drinking!water!outlets!!Summary:!• 2%!of!the!water!outlets!do!not!work!!• 14%!of!water!outlets!(all!water!fountains)!have!insufficient!water!pressure!to!avoid!mouth!contact!with!spigots.!• 3%!of!water!outlets!have!insufficient!pressure!to!maintain!a!water!arch!higher!than!approximately!1!cm.!• 19%!of!water!outlets!have!sufficient!pressure!to!avoid!mouth!contact!with!spigot.!2%#14%#3%#19%#62%#N/A#Very#poor#Poor#Good#Very#Good#! 34!• 62%!of!water!outlets!have!sufficient!pressure!to!create!an!arch!where!drinking!occurs!mid\stream!and!easily!allows!for!bottle!filling.!!Discussion:!! Another!major!determinant!of!water!outlet!usage!is!the!outlet’s!pressure.!If!the!pressure!is!not!sufficient!for!an!individual!to!avoid!mouth!contact!with!the!fountain,!it!will!likely!be!used!less.!Lower!pressure!also!inhibits!bottle!filling!from!spigots!and!lengthens!the!bottle!fill\time.!This!was!further!investigated!in!the!water!flow!rate!analysis.!Some!fountains!had!excessive!pressure!levels!when!their!mechanisms!were!activated!at!full!capacity,!but!it!was!generally!easy!to!control!the!pressure!after!the!initial!spurt.!These!fountains!generally!splashed!a!lot!or!the!water!streams!overshot!the!fountains!themselves.!Water!pressure!was!slightly!uneven!at!several!water!fountains!and!made!it!difficult!to!drink!from!them.!Other!water!fountains’!mechanisms!had!delayed!responses!and!remained!on!a!few!seconds!after!they!stopped!being!activated.!!! Ideally!for!optimal!hygiene,!drinking!should!occur!midstream!at!least!three!or!four!centimeters!away!from!the!spigot.!Further!research!could!be!done!to!gauge!at!which!pressure!most!people!start!being!deterred.!Similar!to!visual!appeal,!different!people!most!likely!have!varied!standards!for!“adequate!pressure”.!It!is!possible!that!some!people!on!campus!still!would!not!drink!from!water!outlets!this!investigation!has!classified!as!having!‘Good’!pressure,!because!they!consider!it!inadequate.!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 35!Compatibility&with&reusable&water&bottles&!The!ability!to!fill!reusable!water!bottles!and!the!presence!of!a!gooseneck!fixture!were!evaluated!in!the!survey!to!assess!how!compatible!the!water!outlets!on!campus!are!with!reusable!water!bottles.!This!data!was!collected!to!gain!a!baseline!idea!of!how!many!outlets!are!available!and!useful!to!students!who!own!reusable!bottles.!!Can&you&conveniently&fill&your&bottle&at&this&water&outlet?&!Sample!size:!197!drinking!water!outlets!82%#16%#2%#Yes#No#N/A#! 36!Does&the&water&fountain&have&a&gooseneck&for&water&bottles?&!Subset!of!171!water!fountains!!Summary:!• Reusable!bottles!can!be!filled!at!82%!of!the!evaluated!water!outlets!• 42%!of!the!171!water!fountains!evaluated!have!goosenecks!for!bottles!• 2%!of!evaluated!water!outlets!do!not!work!• 1!water!fountain!was!missing!a!gooseneck!(in!Hennings!near!room!206)!!Discussion:!! In!Sadowski!and!Willock’s!(2010)!survey,!83%!of!517!respondents!owned!reusable!water!bottles.!Assuming!most!students!have!reusable!water!bottles,!they!need!to!be!able!to!fill!them!up!when!necessary.!The!public!would!be!able!to!fill!up!reusable!bottles!at!the!majority!of!the!water!outlets!evaluated!regardless!of!whether!they!have!goosenecks!or!not.!Just!under!half!of!the!water!fountains!evaluated!have!goosenecks,!but!that!doesn’t!necessarily!mean!bottles!cannot!be!filled!at!fountains!without!them.!All!197!water!outlets!were!assessed!using!taller!water!bottles!with!heights!of!either!20.5!cm!or!21!cm,!and!any!bottles!equal!to!or!shorter!than!those!heights!should!be!fillable.!Water!outlets!that!merited!a!“No”!for!bottle!filling!either!did!not!work!or!had!low!pressure.!For!some!outlets,!lower!pressure!only!allowed!the!test!bottles!to!be!filled!halfway!before!the!water!started!flowing!out!into!the!fountain.!In!these!cases,!the!outlets!also!merited!a!“No”!because!the!bottles!could!not!be!filled!completely.!!!Observations!on!convenience!and!ergonomics!were!also!collected.!Though!drinking!from!the!spigot!is!possible!at!some!older!water!fountains,!bottle!filling!is!not!ergonomically!favourable.!In!these!cases,!the!mechanism!usually!needs!to!be!activated!with!the!same!hand!42%#57%#1%#Yes#No#Missing#! 37!that!would!hold!a!water!bottle.!Other!fountains!that!are!embedded!in!the!wall!offer!a!very!narrow!space!for!bottle!filling.!Water!outlets!such!as!the!WaterFillz!stations,!the!Brita!Hydration!Station,!café!outlets,!point\of\use!water!dispensers!and!goosenecks!are!quite!easy!to!use.!Further!research!could!investigate!which!types!of!outlets!the!public!prefers.!!!!!Water&colour,&odour&and&taste&!Water!colour,!odour!and!taste!were!evaluated!because!they!are!also!factors!that!determine!whether!people!drink!water!from!campus!outlets.!!!Water&colour&!Very&Poor& Poor& Good& Very&Good&Colour!does!not!dissipate!after!2!samples!are!assessed.!Air!bubbles!do!not!dissipate!after!5!minutes!Colour!is!present!in!first!sample!and!is!faint!in!second!sample.!Air!bubbles!dissipate!after!2!minutes!!Colour/air!bubbles!are!present!in!first!sample!and!are!absent!in!second!sample.!Air!bubbles!dissipate!after!30\40!seconds.!First!sample!is!colourless!and!free!of!air!bubbles!Sample!size:!197!drinking!water!outlets!!!5%#14%#81%#N/A#Good#Very#Good#! 38!!Summary:!• Water!from!81%!of!the!water!outlets!was!colourless!and!free!of!air!bubbles!(initial!flush)!• Water!from!14%!of!the!water!outlets!had!colour!or!air!bubbles!in!the!initial!flush!that!was!absent!in!the!second!flush!15!seconds!after.!Air!bubbles!dissipate!after!30\40!seconds.!• 5%!of!the!water!outlets!could!not!yield!an!adequate!sample!or!did!not!work!!!Discussion:!!! Overall,!water!from!the!197!evaluated!water!outlets!was!either!classified!as!‘Good’!or!‘Very!Good’.!The!outlets!that!yielded!‘Good’!water!either!had!some!visible!impurities!or!a!lot!of!air!bubbles!in!the!initial!flushes.!The!only!case!where!impurities!were!seen!was!on!the!third!floor!of!the!D.H.!Copp!Building,!which!most!likely!has!older!pipes!that!are!not!used!very!often.!Other!water!fountains!yielded!cloudy!water!with!a!large!quantity!of!air!bubbles!that!dissipated!within!30\40!seconds!after!the!samples!were!drawn.!This!typically!happens!to!cold!water!that!sits!in!pipes!for!a!while!and!warms!up,!because!colder!water!holds!more!air!than!warm!water.!Air!that!is!no!longer!soluble!at!the!warmer!temperature!comes!out!of!solution.!Water!pressure!also!contributes!to!adding!air!to!the!water.!The!water!is!pressurized!in!the!pipes!to!transport!it!to!buildings!and!out!the!water!outlets.!Water!under!pressure!holds!more!air!than!water!that!is!not!pressurized.!Once!the!water!leaves!a!tap,!spigot!or!gooseneck,!the!water!is!no!longer!under!pressure,!and!the!air!comes!out!of!solution!in!the!form!of!tiny!bubbles!(USGS,!2013).!!!! As!this!could!pose!issues!from!an!aesthetic!perspective,!it!is!crucial!that!the!public!is!aware!that!these!occurrences!are!not!harmful!in!any!way.!The!campus!needs!to!clearly!communicate!why!people!may!see!water!bubbles!in!their!water.!It!is!suggested!that!people!wait!for!20\40!seconds!until!the!bubbles!disappear!(USGS,!2013).!Sometimes!flushing!the!water!for!15!seconds!to!one!minute!will!ensure!that!colder!water!with!more!dissolved!air!is!running!through!the!pipes.!If!the!bubbles!do!not!clear!up!after!three!to!five!minutes,!the!public!should!be!provided!with!contact!information!for!UBC!Building!Operations,!so!that!they!can!be!notified.!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 39!Water&odour&!Sample!size:!197!drinking!water!outlets!!Summary:!• Water!from!2%!of!evaluated!water!outlets!had!a!slightly!stale!scent!!• Water!from!93%!of!evaluated!water!outlets!did!not!yield!any!odours!• 5%!of!the!water!outlets!could!not!yield!an!adequate!sample!or!did!not!work!!!Discussion:!! Generally,!the!tap!water!provided!on!campus!does!not!have!any!strong!odours.!The!2%!that!did!have!a!stale!scent!was!in!the!same!building!(D.H.!Copp!Building)!and!the!scent!dissipated!after!flushing!the!water.!These!outlets!had!not!been!used!in!a!very!long!time!and!water!left!in!the!pipes!grew!stale.!If!the!usage!of!all!the!water!outlets!on!campus!was!increased!and!more!flushing!occurred,!water!odours!would!be!rare.!Due!to!time!constraints!and!limited!data!collection!capacity,!one!or!two!people!assessed!the!majority!of!the!water!outlets!at!a!given!time.!Further!research!could!examine!whether!several!people!can!detect!odours!from!certain!outlets.!Different!people!most!likely!have!varied!degrees!of!scent!and!some!people!may!be!more!sensitive!than!others.!It!is!possible!that!some!people!on!campus!can!smell!water!odours!that!others!cannot!detect.!!2%#93%#5%#Yes#No#N/A#! 40!Water&taste&!Very&Poor& Poor& Good& Very&Good&Stale,!metallic!and!other!off\tastes!that!do!not!dissipate!after!2!samples!are!assessed!Stale,!metallic!and!other!off\tastes!detected!in!first!sample!and!dissipate!in!second!sample!Stale!taste!in!first!sample!that!disappears!in!second!sample!No!unpleasant!taste!is!detected!in!first!sample!Sample!size:!197!drinking!water!outlets!#Summary:!• Water!from!3%!of!evaluated!water!outlets!tasted!stale!or!slightly!metallic!upon!initial!flush!and!after!15!seconds!of!flushing!• Water!from!2%!of!evaluated!water!outlets!tasted!stale!or!slightly!metallic!upon!initial!flush!and!disappeared!after!15!seconds!of!flushing!• Water!from!10%!of!evaluated!water!outlets!tasted!stale!upon!initial!flush!and!disappeared!after!15!seconds!of!flushing!• Water!from!81%!of!evaluated!water!outlets!had!no!unpleasant!tastes!upon!initial!flush!• 4%!of!the!water!outlets!could!not!yield!an!adequate!sample!or!did!not!work!!!Discussion:!! The!water!from!the!majority!of!the!water!outlets!throughout!campus!tastes!Very!Good!upon!the!initial!flushes.!Very!Poor!or!Poor!tasting!water!mainly!came!from!water!fountains!that!had!not!been!used!for!a!while.!As!a!result,!the!water!was!left!stagnant!in!the!pipes!and!grew!stale.!Similarly!to!water!odour,!increased!usage!of!water!outlets!and!flushing!will!improve!the!taste!of!the!water!because!it!doesn’t!sit!in!the!building!pipes!for!very!long.!In!most!cases,!flushing!the!water!for!a!full!minute!is!not!necessary!to!get!water!that!tastes!Very!Good.!This!investigation!shows!that!flushing!the!water!for!15!seconds!is!adequate.!Since!this!study!was!3%#2%#10%#81%#4%#Very#poor#Poor#Good#Very#Good#N/A#! 41!done!in!the!winter!and!spring,!temperatures!were!generally!cooler!than!in!the!summer!time.!It!is!expected!that!stale!water!could!be!encountered!more!frequently!in!the!summer!months!because!less!people!are!on!campus!to!use!the!outlets!and!less!flushing!will!occur.!Flushing!is!further!discussed!in!the!electrical!conductivity!and!temperature!section.!! As!has!been!previously!stated!in!other!data!sections,!the!time!constraints!and!limited!data!collection!capacity!only!permitted!outlet!evaluations!to!be!completed!by!one!or!two!people.!A!follow\up!investigation!could!involve!a!multi\disciplinary!group!that!tastes!the!water!from!a!set!number!of!outlets!on!campus.!The!multi\disciplinary!aspect!would!help!ensure!that!data!is!less!biased.!Everyone!who!helped!with!data!collection!for!this!study!was!most!likely!accustomed!to!tap!water!already!and!therefore!would!have!had!different!standards!for!taste!than!an!individual!used!to!drinking!bottled!water.!More!taste!tests!would!increase!the!validity!of!this!investigation’s!data.!Other&Observations&from&Evaluations&!• Objects!like!recycling!bins,!garbage!cans,!vending!machines!and!desks!were!seen!in!front!or!beside!some!water!fountains.!This!obstructs!the!water!fountains!and!makes!it!inconvenient!to!use!these!outlets.!!!• It!is!apparent!that!some!people!like!to!use!water!fountains!to!clean!their!cups.!When!the!water!fountains!in!Woodward!Library!were!evaluated,!tealeaves!had!been!left!in!two!of!the!water!fountains.!This!affects!overall!perception!of!a!fountain’s!cleanliness.!A!sign!next!to!the!water!fountain!on!the!second!floor!of!the!Scarfe!Office!Block!reads:!"Please!do!not!empty!coffee!cups!into!fountain!!!!!”!On!another!floor!of!the!same!building!block,!a!staff!member!was!seen!emptying!his!coffee!mug!into!the!water!fountain!and!rinsing!it!out.!!• Other!water!outlets!were!situated!in!dim!or!dark!areas!of!buildings,!which!may!deter!some!people!from!using!them.!A!well\lit!water!outlet!is!more!inviting!and!provides!good!visibility!of!the!outlet’s!cleanliness.!!• In!addition!to!the!197!evaluated!outlets,!an!outdoor!water!fountain!was!found!in!the!space!between!Brock!Hall!and!the!Student!Union!Building.!Although!time!constraints!did!not!permit!a!full!evaluation!of!this!water!fountain,!it!was!noted!that!it!does!not!work!and!does!not!appear!to!have!been!used!in!a!while.!!• Some!water!fountains!drained!extremely!slowly!or!their!drains!seemed!slightly!clogged.!This!could!affect!overall!perception!of!sanitation!of!these!water!fountains,!because!some!people!may!be!concerned!about!hygiene.!!• In!addition!to!privately!owned!point\of\use!coolers!that!are!connected!to!UBC’s!water!line,!water!dispensers!with!11\Litre!and!18\Litre!jugs!were!also!seen!throughout!campus.!These!are!financed!through!specific!departments!and!offices.!!! 42!• At!the!WA\2!water!dispenser!in!Milano!(Henry!Angus!Building),!wax!cups!are!available,!where!7\8!cups!were!used!and!disposed!during!the!10\minute!evaluation.!It!would!be!better!to!offer!the!corn\based!plastic!cups!instead!of!wax\coated!cups!and!even!more!ideal!to!eliminate!waste!at!these!dispensers.!Students!should!be!encouraged!to!use!their!own!cups!and!reusable!bottles!through!limited!access!to!wasteful!options.!This!water!station!also!has!an!advertising!card!that!suggests!that!Metro!Vancouver!water!is!not!safe!to!drink.!It!states:!“Drinking!water!in!Metro!Vancouver!often!has!taste!and!odour!issues,!contains!chlorine!and!may!harbour!harmful!contaminants”.!It!prompts!the!public!to!be!concerned!about!Metro!Vancouver’s!water!quality!and!to!drink!filtered!water.!Having!advertisements!for!bottled!water!and!commercially!filtered!water!causes!the!public!to!question!the!quality!of!tap!water!available!on!campus.!!!• Glass!water!pitchers!and!tumblers!are!available!in!the!Geography!Lounge.!Students!and!staff!can!freely!borrow!them!for!meetings!and!study!sessions.!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 43!Quantitative&Analysis&Water&flow&rate&!Water!flow!rate!was!assessed!to!determine!convenience!implications!of!the!water!pressure!results.!This!data!indicates!the!times!needed!to!fill!a!1\Litre!bottle!at!a!given!water!source.!Mean&1aLitre&fill&times&at&water&outlets&!Subsets!of:!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!14!!!!!!!9!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!5!!!!!!!!!!4!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!22!!!!!!11!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!59!!!!!!23!!Summary:!• The!mean!1\Litre!fill!times!decrease!as!water!pressure!increases!• The!mean!1\Litre!fill!times!of!goosenecks!are!shorter!than!the!fill!times!of!spigots!!Discussion:!! !! This!water!flow!rate!analysis!emphasizes!how!water!pressure!affects!water!outlet!usage.!At!outlets!with!‘Very!poor’!pressure,!it!takes!an!average!of!100!seconds!to!fill!up!a!1\Litre!bottle.!In!contrast,!it!takes!an!average!of!31!seconds!to!fill!up!the!same!volume!at!outlets!with!‘Very!good’!pressure.!Goosenecks!further!decrease!those!fill!times!to!58!seconds!and!18!seconds!respectively.!Depending!on!how!long!people!are!willing!to!wait!while!their!bottles!are!filled,!some!outlets!may!not!meet!their!expectations.!Assuming!an!individual!owns!a!1\Litre!bottle!and!they!prefer!to!wait!about!30\40!seconds!at!any!given!outlet,!they!will!tend!to!avoid!outlets!with!‘Very!poor’!pressure,!and!spigots!with!‘Poor’!and!‘Good’!pressure.!This!accounts!for!about!one!0#20#40#60#80#100#120#140#Very#poor# Poor# Good# Very#good#Fill$Time$(s)$Pressure$Spigot#Gooseneck#! 44!third!of!the!initial!197!outlets!evaluated!depending!on!whether!the!outlets!have!goosenecks.!The!goosenecks!have!proven!to!be!significant!time!savers!and!there!is!potential!for!more!to!be!installed!in!compensation!for!lower!pressure!spigots.!Often!fountains!whose!spigots!have!lower!pressures!also!have!goosenecks!with!lower!pressures.!However,!this!is!not!always!the!case.!In!Allard!Hall,!a!water!fountain’s!spigot!had!a!1\Litre!fill!time!of!226!seconds!and!its!gooseneck!had!a!fill!time!of!11!seconds.!Further!research!could!investigate!which!1\Litre!fill!times!people!prefer!and!at!what!fill!times!people!start!being!deterred.!! Since!there!could!be!slight!variations!in!how!water!pressure!was!initially!interpreted,!!1\Litre!fill!times!could!have!been!quite!similar!between!categories.!This!is!seen!between!outlets!with!‘Poor’!pressure!and!‘Good’!pressure.!Their!mean!1\Litre!fill!times!differ!by!about!7!seconds!and!the!standard!error!bars!overlap!for!both!spigots!and!goosenecks.!Due!to!time!constraints!and!unequal!availability!of!outlets!with!different!pressures,!different!subset!sizes!were!assessed.!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 45!Electrical&conductivity&and&water&temperature&!Electrical!conductivity!and!water!temperature!were!measured!to!assess!whether!building!piping!altered!water!quality.!Most!people!prefer!to!drink!colder!water!and!this!data!provides!a!baseline!representation!of!the!mean!water!temperature!from!outlets!on!campus.!Mean!changes!in!water!conductivity!and!temperature!between!initial!and!15\second!flushes!as!well!as!between!top!and!bottom!floors!are!compared.!This!data!summarizes!the!benefits!of!flushing!and!how!much!building!piping!changes!water!conductivity!and!temperature.!Three!of!the!newest!water!outlet!models!(WaterFillz!units,!Brita!Hydration!Stations!and!Elkay!EZH2O!fountain)!were!also!compared!to!the!water!temperature!minimums,!maximums!and!means.!Mean&conductivity&values&from&water&outlets&at&UBC&!!Subset!of!59!outlets!!!!!!!!!!!!200#220#240#260#280#300#320#340#360#380#400#IniNal#Flush# AUer#15#seconds/second#flush#Conduc3vity$(μS)$! 46!Mean&changes&in&conductivity&values&!Subset!of!59!outlets!Mean&temperatures&from&water&outlets&at&UBC&!Subset!of!57!outlets!!E20#E15#E10#E5#0#5#10#15#Between#flushes# Between#top#and#boIom#floors#Conduc3vity$(μS)$0#2#4#6#8#10#12#14#16#18#20#IniNal#Flush# AUer#15#seconds/second#flush#Temperature$(°C)$! 47!Mean&changes&in&water&temperatures&from&water&outlets&at&UBC&!!Subset!of!57!outlets!Selected&temperatures&from&water&outlets&at&UBC&!!Subset!of!57!outlets!E3#E2#E1#0#1#2#3#Between#flushes# Between#top#and#boIom#floors#Temperature$(°C)$0#5#10#15#20#25#30#IniNal#Flush# AUer#15#seconds/second#flush#Temperature$(°C$)$Mean#Maximum#Minimum#Waterfillz#(MCML)#Brita#(GAGE)#Elkay#EZH2O#(ANGU_247)#! 48!Summary:!• The!mean!electrical!conductivity!at!selected!water!outlets!was!349!μS!upon!initial!flushes!• The!mean!electrical!conductivity!dropped!to!337!μS!after!15!seconds!of!flushing!• The!mean!change!in!conductivity!between!flushes!was!\12!μS!• The!mean!change!in!conductivity!between!top!and!bottom!floors!was!8!μS!!• The!mean!water!temperature!from!outlets!was!17°C!upon!initial!flush!• The!mean!water!temperature!dropped!to!15°C!after!15!seconds!of!flushing!• The!mean!change!in!water!temperature!between!flushes!was!\2°C!• The!mean!change!in!water!temperature!between!top!and!bottom!floors!was!2°C!!• The!water!temperature!of!the!WaterFillz!unit!in!MacMillan!was!16.2°C!upon!initial!flush!and!13.2°C!after!15!seconds!of!flushing!• The!water!temperature!of!the!Brita!Hydration!Station!in!Gage!Residence!was!15.8°C!upon!initial!flush!and!14°C!after!15!seconds!of!flushing!• The!water!temperature!of!the!Elkay!EZH2O!fountain!near!room!247!in!Henry!Angus!was!15.8°C!upon!initial!flush!and!13.9°C!after!15!seconds!of!flushing!!Discussion:!!The!electrical!conductivity!of!water!is!a!widely!used!measurement!of!total!dissolved!solids!that!separate!into!ions.!These!solids!are!different!types!of!salts,!nitrates,!nitrites,!phosphates!and!minerals.!Electrical!conductivity!is!a!general!measurement!of!all!the!charged!chemical!species!in!the!water!and!specific!ions!are!not!identified.!Tap!water!conductivity!values!typically!range!from!50!and!800!microsiemens!(μS)!and!overall,!the!conductivity!readings!from!campus!were!within!that!range!(California!State!Water!Resources!Control!Board,!2004).!Electrical!conductivity!values!from!UBC’s!drinking!water!outlets!ranged!from!315!μS!to!438!μS.!The!water!from!a!Dasani!water!bottle!was!also!tested!and!it!yielded!a!measurement!of!593!μS.!This!is!most!likely!because!the!company!adds!minerals!to!its!water!as!extra!nutrients!and!to!adjust!taste!properties.!!On!average,!electrical!conductivity!decreased!by!12!μS!after!flushing!the!water!for!15!seconds.!It!also!increased!by!an!average!of!8!μS!when!water!from!top!floors!was!tested!and!compared!to!water!from!bottom!floors.!These!results!indicate!that,!as!water!travels!to!higher!floors,!the!conductivity!minimally!increases.!Conductivity!is!affected!by!temperature!and!increases!at!higher!temperatures.!The!results!are!reasonable!because!water!usually!warms!up!as!it!travels!through!building!pipes.!During!this!investigation,!water!temperature!rose!by!an!average!of!2°C!when!water!from!top!floors!was!measured!and!compared!to!water!from!bottom!floors.!!!Water!temperatures!started!out!at!an!average!of!17°C!upon!initial!flushes!and!dropped!to!a!mean!value!of!15°C!after!flushing!the!water!for!15!seconds.!!The!average!change!in!water!temperature!between!15\second!flushes!was!\2°C.!According!to!Health!Canada’s!Guidelines!for!Drinking!Water!the!aesthetic!objective!for!water!temperature!should!be!15°C!or!less.!! 49!Temperature!indirectly!affects!health!and!aesthetics!through!impacts!on!disinfection,!corrosion!control!and!formation!of!biofilms!in!the!distribution!system!(Health!Canada,!2012).!!When!water!temperatures!from!three!newer!types!of!outlets!on!campus!(WaterFillz!units,!Brita!Hydration!Station!and!the!Elkay!EZH2O!fountain)!were!compared,!all!of!them!yielded!temperatures!that!were!cooler!than!the!overall!means!from!the!original!data!set!of!57!outlets.!Further!research!could!investigate!which!one!of!these!water!outlet!models!are!most!cost!effective!and!energy!efficient.!Water!temperatures!from!older!water!fountain!models!fluctuate!more!because!some!of!them!aren’t!used!as!often.!More!flushing!keeps!cooler!water!moving!through!the!pipes.!In!some!cases!flushing!for!more!than!15!seconds!may!be!required!for!cooler!water.!!At!the!water!fountain!in!Chemistry!Block!B!near!room!160,!the!water!temperature!started!out!at!19.5!°C!and!rose!to!24°C!after!a!15\second!flush.!Water!from!the!fountain!on!the!fourth!floor!of!the!D.H.!Copp!Building!started!out!at!22.7°C!and!rose!to!25°C!after!15!seconds!of!flushing.!A!few!weeks!later,!a!fountain!on!the!third!floor!was!revisited!and!water!temperature!decreased!substantially!after!flushing!the!water!for!about!one!minute.!Sadowski!and!Willock’s!survey!indicated!that!most!people!prefer!to!drink!water!at!a!cold!temperature.!Further!research!could!also!specifically!establish!the!public’s!standards!of!‘cold’!and!correspond!temperatures!to!them.!! It!is!crucial!that!the!public!is!informed!of!the!benefits!of!flushing!the!water!at!outlets.!Flushing!may!initially!be!perceived!as!an!inconvenience!since!the!one\minute!flush!is!commonly!suggested.!However,!encouraging!flushing!for!shorter!periods!like!15!seconds!may!be!more!appealing.!In!summary,!flushing!ensures!that!colder!water!is!dispensed,!it!may!decrease!the!amount!of!air!bubbles,!and!it!disposes!of!stale!water!left!in!piping.!!Further!research!could!investigate!how!long!people!are!willing!to!flush!water!at!water!outlets!and!environmental!impacts!associated!with!wasting!water.!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 50!Recommendations!In!response!to!the!findings!from!the!water!outlet!inventory!and!evaluation!as!well!as!the!immediate!follow\up!steps!to!the!Tap!That!campaign,!the!following!goals!and!actions!are!recommended!to!increase!free!drinking!water!accessibility!on!UBC’s!Vancouver!campus.!!Goal&1:&Improve&the&infrastructure&and&increase&convenience&of&tap&water&usage&available&on&campus&& As!the!results!from!the!water!outlet!evaluations!show,!some!outlets!require!enhanced!maintenance!from!the!UBC!Building!Operations!custodial!services.!It!is!recommended!that!water!outlet!cleaning!procedures!(mentioned!under!Visual!appeal!of!water!outlets!in!the!Findings!&!Discussion!section)!are!reviewed!and!revised!to!ensure!that!outlets!are!kept!clean!on!a!daily!basis.!The!water!pressure!of!at!least!33!water!fountains!needs!to!be!adjusted!and!eight!water!fountains!that!do!not!work!need!to!be!repaired.!Various!upgrades!would!also!increase!accessibility!and!reusable!water!bottle!compatibility.!Goosenecks!or!bottle!fillers!could!be!added!to!the!water!outlets!in!the!following!locations!to!increase!convenience!and!decrease!fill!times.!The!list!is!arranged!by!priority!according!to!level!of!traffic!attributed!to!the!buildings.!!• Hennings!near!room!206!(needs!to!be!replaced)!–!High!student!traffic!• Irving!K.!Barber!Learning!Centre!and!Library!–!High!student!traffic!• Walter!C.!Koerner!Library!(Levels!1\3)!–!High!student!traffic!• Hugh!Dempster!Pavillion!–!High!student!traffic!• Continuing!Studies!–!Lower!student!traffic!• Institute!for!Computing,!Information!and!Cognitive!Systems/Computer!Science!!–!Lower!student!traffic!• Wayne!and!William!White!Engineering!Design!Centre!–!Lower!student!traffic!• Jack!Bell!Building!for!the!School!of!Social!Work!–!Lower!student!traffic!• Woodward!Instructional!Resource!Centre!(Levels!3!and!4)!–!Office!space!! (Tran!et!al.,!2012)!!Outlet!model!upgrades!in!the!following!buildings!would!improve!visual!appeal!and!increase!convenience.!The!list!is!arranged!by!priority!based!on!the!traffic!levels.!!Visual!appeal!! • Chemistry!Building!–!These!fountains!are!quite!old!and!need!to!be!cleaned.!Upgrading!them!to!more!current!models!would!most!likely!increase!usage.!The!Chemistry!building!has!been!identified!as!a!building!with!high!student!traffic.!!! • Macleod!Building!–!The!majority!of!the!water!fountains!in!these!buildings!are!porcelain.!Some!of!them!need!to!be!cleaned!and!are!not!visually!appealing.!These!upgrades!are!not!highly!urgent!because!each!of!these!buildings!has!at!least!one!newer!water!fountain!with!! 51!goosenecks.!The!Macleod!Building!has!been!identified!as!buildings!with!high!student!traffic.!!! • Robert!F.!Osborne!Centre!(Unit!1)!–!The!porcelain!water!fountains!in!Osborne!Unit!1!are!quite!old!and!not!very!attractive.!Similar!to!the!Chemistry!Building!situation,!upgrading!these!fountains!to!more!current!models!would!probably!increase!usage.!Since!Osborne!Centre!is!used!for!recreation,!it!is!recommended!that!these!water!fountains!be!upgraded!in!the!shorter!term.!! • D.!H.!Copp!Building!–!These!older!porcelain!water!fountains!are!not!very!appealing!and!have!not!been!used!for!a!very!long!time.!They!are!not!ergonomically!compatible!with!reusable!water!bottles.!Replacing!them!with!more!modern!models!would!improve!visual!appeal!and!increase!usage.!Similar!to!Buchanan!Tower,!upgrading!may!not!be!possible!unless!the!building!gets!renewed.!The!urgency!of!these!upgrades!is!also!up!for!discussion,!because!water!outlets!are!accessible!within!the!Woodward!Instructional!Resource!Centre!and!a!WaterFillz!unit!will!be!added!to!Woodward!IRC!soon.!This!may!be!adequate!in!the!short!term,!but!longer\term!upgrades!should!be!discussed!to!increase!convenience!within!the!D.H.!Copp!Building!itself.!!!Convenience!!• Frederic!Lasserre!and!Forest!Science!buildings!–!additional!water!outlets!aside!from!these!washroom!outlets!would!increase!free!drinking!water!accessibility!within!their!respective!buildings.!The!Forest!Sciences!building!has!been!identified!as!a!building!with!high!student!traffic.!!• War!Memorial!Gym!–!Only!one!water!fountain!was!identified!in!this!building,!but!it!is!not!in!a!very!obvious!location.!It!is!recommended!that!a!second!water!outlet!be!installed!in!the!lobby!area,!since!it!is!a!recreational!building.!! • Robert!F.!Osborne!Centre!(Unit!2)!–!The!metal!fountains!in!Osborne!Unit!2!are!aesthetically!reasonable,!but!they!are!not!ergonomically!compatible!with!reusable!water!bottles.!Since!Osborne!Centre!is!used!for!recreation,!it!is!recommended!that!these!water!fountains!be!upgraded!in!the!shorter!term.!! • Buchanan!Tower!–!These!water!fountains!need!to!be!cleaned!and!are!not!ergonomically!compatible!with!reusable!water!bottles.!Upgrading!may!not!be!possible!unless!the!building!gets!renewed.!The!urgency!of!these!upgrades!is!up!for!discussion,!because!water!outlets!are!accessible!within!the!Buchanan!classroom!blocks!and!Stir!It!Up!café.!However,!this!is!not!a!viable!long\term!solution!as!convenience!will!be!an!issue!for!the!staff!who!work!in!the!tower’s!offices.!! • Food!Nutrition!and!Health!(FNH)!Building!–!These!water!fountains!are!embedded!into!the!wall!and!are!not!very!compatible!with!reusable!water!bottles.!Just!like!the!Buchanan!Tower!and!D.!H.!Copp!Building!cases,!upgrading!may!not!be!possible!unless!the!building!gets!renewed.!The!urgency!of!this!upgrade!may!be!higher!because!the!building!is!further!! 52!away!from!other!buildings!with!more!modern!water!outlets.!The!closest!outlet!would!be!the!water!fountain!in!Wesbrook!Building,!since!the!kitchenette!sink!in!the!FNH!Building!is!only!accessible!to!staff!and!graduate!students.!!• Marine!Drive!Residence!(Commons!Block)\!This!building!did!not!have!a!drinking!water!outlet!and!installing!one!would!increase!water!accessibility.!However,!the!urgency!of!this!upgrade!is!up!for!discussion!as!most!of!the!resident!units!have!their!own!kitchenette!sinks.!!! • Hebb!Building!near!room!9L!–!Upgrading!this!water!fountain!is!not!urgent,!because!newer!outlets!with!goosenecks!are!available!on!subsequent!floors.! (Tran!et!al.,!2012)!! The!locations!the!proposed!for!WaterFillz!unit!installations!are!not!confirmed!and!negotiations!with!Building!Operations!are!still!in!progress.!Aside!from!the!one!to!be!installed!in!Woodward!IRC,!another!one!has!been!put!in!the!Fred!Kaiser!Building!(personal!communication!with!Justin!Ritchie!and!Greig!Samodien,!April!4,!2013).!When!considering!the!installation!of!WaterFillz!units!or!Brita!Hydration!Stations,!it!is!important!to!consider!whether!there!are!other!drinking!water!options!within!the!targeted!building.!The!majority!of!the!following!buildings!that!were!shortlisted!for!WaterFillz!units!have!other!types!of!water!outlets!available,!and!require!upgrades!and/or!appropriate!signage!and!informative!tools.!!! Buchanan!A!&!D!Irving!K.!Barber!Learning!Centre!Henry!Angus!Building!Neville!Scarfe!Building!ICICS/!Computer!Sciences!Hugh!Dempster!Pavillion!Life!Sciences!Building!Geography!Building!Mathematics!Building!! The!Earth!and!Ocean!Science!Main!Building!has!limited!access!to!drinking!water!because!its!outlets!are!located!in!washrooms.!However,!water!is!accessible!in!the!newly!constructed!Earth!Sciences!Building!through!its!water!fountain!and!Magma’s!café!outlet.!A!water!outlet!upgrade!or!WaterFillz!unit!would!increase!free!drinking!water!accessibility!in!the!Forest!Sciences!building.!It!is!recommended!that!a!WaterFillz!station!be!put!in!the!Forest!Sciences!Building,!because!all!its!water!outlets!are!in!washrooms!and!it!has!been!highlighted!as!a!building!with!high!student!traffic.!Since!the!H.!R.!Macmillan!Building!already!has!a!WaterFillz!unit,!the!upgrade!is!not!extremely!urgent.!Other!neighbouring!buildings!across!Agronomy!Road!(ICICS!and!Hugh!Dempster!Pavillion)!also!have!water!fountains!that!are!accessible.!In!the!short!term,!the!interactive!water!outlet!map!and!informative!tools!would!help!inform!students!of!tap!water!safety!and!alternative!water!access!solutions.!However,!longer\term!water!access!solutions!for!the!Earth!and!Ocean!Science!Main!Building!and!the!Forest!Sciences!building!should!be!discussed,!as!convenience!will!be!an!issue!for!the!students!and!staff!within!these!buildings.!! It!is!also!recommended!that!more!extensive!policies!for!drinking!water!outlets!be!developed!in!addition!to!the!Technical!Guidelines.!The!Technical!Guidelines!cover!the!planning!and!construction!of!new!buildings,!renewals!and!renovations.!Additional!policies!! 53!could!address!issues!like!obstruction!from!desks!and!garbage!cans,!hygiene,!cup!rinsing,!proximity!to!vending!machines,!drainage,!visibility!and!lighting.!Specific!student\to\water\outlet!ratios!need!to!be!established!as!well!as!whether!it!is!better!to!have!several!water!fountains!within!a!building!on!multiple!floors,!or!one!more!advanced!filtration!unit!(WaterFillz!or!Brita!Hydration!Station)!on!the!main!floor!of!the!building.!Sadowski!and!Willock!(2010)!identified!convenience!as!both!a!barrier!to!and!a!reason!for!using!personal!water!bottles.!Having!water!fountains!on!multiple!floors!of!buildings!would!increase!accessibility!and!convenience,!because!people!wouldn’t!need!to!travel!between!floors.!!Goal&2:&Increase&awareness&and&promotion&of&tap&water&available&on&campus&!! As!discussed!in!the!literature!review!and!discussion!sections,!communication!about!where!drinking!outlets!are!located!and!other!informative!tools!on!water!safety!are!necessary.!They!provide!a!metaphorical!safety!net!that!empowers!the!public!to!use!the!free!drinking!water!outlets!on!campus!and!prevents!the!public!from!buying!commercial!bottled!water!every!time!they!need!drinking!water!(Please!refer!to!the!diagram!in!Appendix!F).!In!addition!to!the!intended!H2O!page!on!the!UBC!Mobile!App!and!safer!water!brand,!there!are!other!ways!in!which!UBC!could!increase!awareness!of!free!drinking!water!access.!As!a!follow\up!project!to!the!interactive!Google!Map!component!of!this!project,!UBC!could!develop!a!campus\wide!interactive!map!similar!to!the!one!that!the!University!of!Toronto!provides.!This!map!could!be!accessible!from!the!UBC!Sustainability!website!under!the!Water!Initiatives!section.!The!scope!of!the!map!could!also!be!expanded!to!include!kitchenette!sinks!in!research!buildings,!the!Aquatic!Centre,!and!the!Doug!Mitchell!Sports!Centre.!This!campus\wide!map!could!be!a!collaborative!effort!between!campus!management!and!future!research!projects!from!the!SEEDS!Program.!!! A!complete!webpage!could!also!be!accessible!from!the!UBC!Sustainability!Water!Initiatives!section!as!well.!This!webpage!would!include!a!link!to!the!campus\wide!map!and!provide!information!about!campus!bottled!water!policies!as!well!as!campus!water!quality.!Additionally,!a!FAQ!section!modeled!after!U!of!T’s!FAQ!page!could!be!written!to!address!immediate!inquiries!from!students!and!staff.!A!drinking!water!guide!could!also!be!developed!through!another!SEEDS!project!to!provide!the!campus!with!drinking!water!tips,!to!highlight!the!benefits!of!flushing!and!to!raise!awareness!about!air!bubbles.!A!drinking!water!map!could!also!be!included!in!this!guide!and!be!found!in!brochures!as!well!as!the!AMS!student!planner.!!Another!web!feature,!accessible!from!either!of!the!UBC!Sustainability!Water!Initiatives!or!UBC!Food!Services!websites,!could!offer!a!similar!service!that!Urbanspoon!provides.!Urbanspoon!is!a!website!where!the!public!can!rate!and!review!restaurants,!and!others!can!refer!to!this!information.!For!example,!if!the!public!can!see!that!a!given!water!outlet!has!already!been!used!by!100!people!and!95%!of!those!people!indicate!that!they!like!it,!then!other!people!will!most!likely!be!willing!to!try!that!same!water!outlet.!Users!can!indicate!what!they!like!or!do!not!like!about!specific!water!outlets!through!comments,!and!UBC!Building!Operations!could!further!use!this!information!to!gauge!where!maintenance!and!upgrades!are!needed.!The!website!would!facilitate!the!outlet!monitoring!process!and!would!also!communicate!which!outlets!are!used!more!frequently.!This!idea!could!also!be!expanded!to!include!food!outlets!on!campus!and!used!as!a!means!to!monitor!general!food!preference!trends.!! 54!! Promotional!videos!made!by!student!groups!like!Common!Energy!or!through!SEEDS!projects!could!feature!specific!outlets!on!campus!and!provide!drinking!water!tips.!These!videos!could!be!viewed!from!the!UBC!Sustainability!webpage!and!cover!the!following!topics:!!!• Feature!certain!water!bottles!and!why!students!choose!to!use!them!• Challenge!current!negative!perceptions!of!water!outlets!on!campus!• Encourage!life\cycle!thinking!when!drinking!water!options!are!considered!! Campus!events!on!Imagine!days,!World!Water!Days!and!National!Bottled!Water!Free!Days!could!also!be!organized!and!sustainable!drinking!habits!should!be!promoted!to!and!by!staff.!However,!the!details!of!these!two!recommendations!are!beyond!the!scope!of!this!project.!!Goal&3:&Continue&research&on&and&monitoring&of&drinking&water&access&on&campus&!! In!response!to!this!project,!the!public!perceptions!of!these!results!need!to!be!assessed.!As!previously!mentioned!in!the!discussion!sections,!the!full!implications!of!these!results!will!be!determined!once!public!norms!and!attitudes!are!evaluated.!Another!SEEDS!project!could!take!the!pictures!taken!during!data!collection!and!develop!a!visual!survey.!This!survey!would!be!offered!online!and!by!students!completing!the!project.!If!only!one!person!is!completing!the!project,!volunteers!from!Common!Energy!could!also!be!recruited.!The!survey!could!feature!a!range!of!results!from!this!project!and!ask!questions!such!as:!Would!you!drink!from!this!outlet!(show!a!picture!of!an!outlet)?!Would!you!drink!this!water!(show!a!picture!of!cloudy!bubbly!water)?!Which!water!outlet!do!you!prefer!(show!pictures!of!two!or!more!types!of!outlets!and!ask!people!to!rank!them)?!What!do!you!think!of!outlets!within!5!meters!of!washrooms?!This!survey!should!be!administered!to!students!from!a!broad!spectrum!of!faculties!and!in!multiple!locations!on!campus!to!ensure!accuracy.!!! Since!there!are!multiple!types!of!water!outlets!available,!further!research!could!be!done!on!the!life!cycles!of!each!water!outlet!and!which!ones!are!most!cost!effective,!energy!efficient!and!durable.!Brita!Hydration!Stations!and!Elkay!EZH2O!fountains!have!lower!initial!costs!ranging!from!$1200!to!$4000!(Kanda!et!al.,!2010).!However,!on!a!longer!term!basis!of!five!years!after!installation,!the!WaterFillz!stations!have!been!found!to!be!the!most!economical!because!their!filters!do!not!need!to!be!replaced!as!often!as!other!drinking!water!outlets!(Tran!et!al.,!2012).!WaterFillz!filters!need!to!be!changed!every!6!to!12!months!depending!on!usage!and!other!water!conditions!(Kanda!et!al.,!2010).!These!investigations!could!further!be!compared!with!other!water!outlets!like!the!free\standing!water!coolers!(with!piping!and!with!jugs)!and!café!outlets.!!! As!has!been!mentioned!in!previous!sections,!additional!collaborative!research!projects!could!be!done!to!develop!a!campus\wide!interactive!map!like!U!of!T’s!and!a!Sustainable!Drinking!Water!Guide!for!brochures!and!the!AMS!student!planner.!! !! 55!Conclusion!UBC!has!exhibited!promising!signs!in!its!ability!to!mirror!Vancouver’s!goal!of!expanding!public!access!to!drinking!water!and!reducing!the!use!of!bottled!water.!Common!Energy’s!successful!Tap!That!campaign!is!undeniably!a!pivotal!step!in!helping!the!university!achieve!this!component!of!its!waste!reduction!targets.!In!support!of!this!campus!movement,!this!project!has!successfully!determined!the!current!availability!of!free!drinking!water!on!campus!and!outlined!how!the!institution!can!further!improve!accessibility.!It!provides!staff!and!future!research!projects!with!baseline!data!on!the!distribution,!functionality!and!appeal!of!197!water!outlets!in!59!of!the!institution’s!major!academic!buildings.!Although!drinking!water!infrastructure!is!highly!available!on!campus,!there!are!deficiencies!in!outlet!maintenance!and!public!awareness!of!free!drinking!water!options.!If!the!appropriate!signage!and!informative!tools!are!applied,!the!university’s!population!will!be!empowered!to!make!more!ecologically!responsible!drinking!water!choices.!Though!the!campus!has!made!significant!progress!in!adopting!sustainable!water!consumption!practices,!there!are!still!more!milestones!to!be!conquered!on!this!journey!to!becoming!a!bottled\water\free!community.!The!success!of!this!vision!will!require!the!cooperation!and!open\mindedness!of!students!and!staff!as!well!as!the!awareness!that!all!members!of!the!university’s!population!have!an!important!role!to!play!in!ensuring!this!vision!is!achieved.!!! !! 56!Acknowledgements!I!would!like!to!thank!the!following!staff!and!stakeholders!for!their!support!and!mentorship!throughout!this!project:!Victoria!Wakefield!from!Student!Housing!and!Hospitality!Services,!Justin!Ritchie!from!AMS!Sustainability!and!Bud!Fraser!from!Campus!Sustainability.!I!thank!Greig!Samodien!from!UBC!Building!Operations!for!providing!all!the!necessary!documents!and!information!to!conduct!the!water!outlet!inventory!and!evaluations.!I!want!to!thank!Liska!Richer,!the!SEEDS!Program!Coordinator,!for!managing!logistics!and!providing!support!throughout!the!project.!!I!also!thank!my!supervising!professor,!Dr.!Mark!Johnson,!and!PhD!student!Ashlee!Jollymore!for!their!keen!guidance!during!project!planning!and!data!analysis.!!This!project’s!results!would!not!have!been!attainable!without!the!help!and!enthusiasm!from!the!following!volunteers:!Jenny!Liu,!Jason!Farra,!Umaima!Baig!and!Laura!Gauthier!from!Common!Energy!as!well!as!Aaron!Chan!and!Kimberly!Ho.!!! !! 57!References!California!State!Water!Resources!Control!Board.!(2004).!Electrical#Conductivity/Salinity#Fact#Sheet.!Retrieved!from!http://www.waterboards.ca.gov/water_issues/programs/swamp/docs/cwt/guidance/3130en.pdf!City!of!Vancouver.!(2012).!Greenest#City#2020#Action#Plan.!Retrieved!from!http://vancouver.ca/files/cov/Greenest\city\action\plan.pdf!Corporate!Accountability!International.!(2013).!What#we#do.!Retrieved!from!!http://www.stopcorporateabuse.org/what\we\do!Ecohydro!Lab.!(2013).!Mark#Johnson.!Retrieved!from!http://ecohydro.ires.ubc.ca/johnson!Health!Canada.!(2012).!Guidelines#for#Canadian#Drinking#Water#Quality#Summary#Table.!Retrieved!from!http://www.hc\sc.gc.ca/ewh\semt/alt_formats/pdf/pubs/water\eau/2012\sum_guide\res_recom/2012\sum_guide\res_recom\eng.pdf!Kanda,!K.,!Brar,!T.,!Ho,!R.,!&!Yeh,!N.!(2010).!An#Investigation#into#Sustainable#Water#Consumption.!Retrieved!from!UBC’s!cIRcle!Library!website:!https://circle.ubc.ca/bitstream/handle/2429/34070/APSC261_SustainableWaterConsumption_Group03_clean.pdf?sequence=1!Metro!Vancouver.!(2013).!Seymour#–#Capilano#Filtration#Project.!Retrieved!from!Metro!Vancouver’s!Publications!website:!http://www.metrovancouver.org/about/publications/Publications/SCFiltrPlant2010.pdf!Penn!State!Campus!Sustainability!Office.!(2012).!Water#Bottle#Filling#Stations#at#Penn#State#University.!Retrieved!from!http://www.green.psu.edu/psuDoing/CSO/HydrationStatBusinessPlanFinal.pdf!Polaris!Institute.!(2013).!About#Us.!Retrieved!from!!http://www.polarisinstitute.org/aboutus!PSU’s!SDWTF.!(2012).!Report#of#the#PSU#Sustainable#Drinking#Water#Task#Force.!Retrieved!from!http://www.pdx.edu/planning\sustainability/sites/www.pdx.edu.planning\sustainability/files/SDW%20Task%20Force%20Report%20\%201.24.12.pdf!Queen’s!University!Hospitality!Services.!(2013).!Queen’s#University#is#a#bottledVwater#free#campus.!Retrieved!from!http://dining.housing.queensu.ca/sustainable\u/bottle\free\campus/!Rensler,!A.!(2012).!Best#Practices#Guide#On#University#Campus#Sustainability.!Retrieved!from!http://www.yorku.ca/susweb/resources/documents/BestPracticesFinalGuidePDFDoc.pdf!Sadowski,!R.,!&!Willock,!A.!(2010).!Shifting#to#Sustainable#Drinking#Water#Consumption#at#UBC:#A#Social#Marketing#Plan.!Retrieved!from!UBC!Sustainability’s!SEEDS!Program!Library!website:!http://sustain.ubc.ca/sites/sustain.ubc.ca/files/seedslibrary/GRS_497E_ShiftingtoSust! 58!ainableDrinkingWater_CLEAN_0.pdf!Tap!That!UBC.!(2013).!Endorsements.!Retrieved!from!!http://tapthatubc.com/endorsements/!The!Council!of!Canadians.!(2011).!Jurisdictions#that#ban#bottled#water.!Retrieved!from!http://canadians.org/water/issues/Unbottle_It/jurisdictions.html!The!Council!of!Canadians.!(2012).!Backing!the!Tap:!Campuses!lead!the!way!for!Bottled!Water!Free!Day!2012.!Retrieved!from!http://canadians.org/media/water/2012/15\Mar\12\2.html!Tran,!A.,!Li,!B.,!McNicholl,!D.,!Noble,!J.,!Dijk,!K.V.,!&!Lee,!N.!(2012).!Assessment#of#Drinking#Water#at#UBC:#A#consideration#of#water#quality,#energy#and#economic#costs,#with#practical#recommendations.!Retrieved!from!UBC’s!cIRcle!Library!website:!https://circle.ubc.ca/bitstream/handle/2429/42338/Assessment_Drinking_Water_UBC.ENVR400_Report.pdf?sequence=1!UBC!Building!Operations.!(2013).!UBC#Building#Operations.!Retrieved!from!http://www.lbs.ubc.ca!UBC!Food!Services.!(2013).!Locations#&#Hours.!Retrieved!from!http://www.food.ubc.ca/locations\and\hours!UBC!Risk!Management!Services.!(2013).!Water#Quality.!Retrieved!from!http://riskmanagement.ubc.ca/environment/water\quality!UBC!Student!Housing!and!Hospitality!Services.!(2013).!Student#Housing.!Retrieved!from!http://www.housing.ubc.ca/vancouver!UBC!Sustainability.!(2013a).!SEEDS#Program.!Retrieved!from!http://www.sustain.ubc.ca/courses\teaching/seeds!UBC!Sustainability.!(2013b).!Waste#Action#Plan.!Retrieved!from!http://www.sustain.ubc.ca/campus\initiatives/recycling\waste/waste\action\plan!UBC!Technical!Services!Department.!(2012).!UBC#Technical#Guidelines#2012#Edition.!Retrieved!from!http://www.technicalguidelines.ubc.ca/div_15_files/Division_15/2012_Division_15_Tech_Guidelines_Launch.pdf!Universities!in!Canada.!(2013).!Major#Canadian#Universities#and#MidVsized#Canadian#Universities.!Retrieved!from!http://www.university\canada.net!University!of!Toronto!Food!&!Beverage!Services.!(2013a).!On#Tap#–#Bottled#Water#Free.!Retrieved!from!http://www.food\beverage.utoronto.ca/policies/on\tap!University!of!Toronto!Food!&!Beverage!Services.!(2013b).!On#Tap#FAQs.!Retrieved!from!http://www.food\beverage.utoronto.ca/policies/on\tap/on\tap\faqs!USGS.!(2013).!Water#Questions#&#Answers:#Why#does#my#drinking#water#look#cloudy#sometimes?.!Retrieved!from!The!USGS!Water!Science!School!website!http://ga.water.usgs.gov/edu/qa\chemical\cloudy.html!!! 59!Appendix(A:(Vancouver’s(Water(Fountains!!!Left:!An!outdoor!water!fountain!near!the!Bloedel!Floral!Conservatory!at!Queen!Elizabeth!Park!Right:!Water!fountains!and!signage!at!Vancouver!Central!Library!!! 60!!Water!fountains!at!the!Hillcrest!Community!Centre!!!Outdoor!water!fountain!at!the!intersection!of!Elliot!Street!and!Ashburn!Street!near!the!North!Arm!Trail!Bikeway!! 61!Appendix(B:(Water!Outlet!Inventory(and(Evaluation!!Diagram!1.!This!diagram!portrays!how!each!of!the!components!from!the!water!outlet!evaluation!plays!a!role!in!the!decision!process!to!regularly!use!a!water!outlet.!It!assumes!that!an!individual!owns!a!reusable!water!bottle!and!they!will!either!choose!to!use!the!water!outlet!or!purchase!bottled!water!(or!another!commercial!beverage)!based!on!the!responses!to!the!questions.!!! 62!Drinking'Water'Outlet'Assessment'Scope!of!assessment:!!• Will!include!all!water!fountains,!kitchenette!sinks!in!common!areas,!WaterFillz!stations,!and!fixed!dispensers!at!cafes!in!major!buildings!where!students!are!mostly!found'• Will!exclude!laboratory!sinks!'• Will!exclude!the!majority!of!washroom!sinks!with!the!exception!of!a!few!predetermined!of!buildings!where!fountain!spigots!and!bottleJfilling!faucets!are!solely!found!in!the!washrooms'' ' Very'Poor' Poor' Good' Very'Good''Visual'Appeal' Dirty!outlet!that!has!filth!or!residues! Moderately!clean!outlet!that!has!filth!or!residues! Clean!outlet!that!has!minimal!residues!(only!on!a!small!portion!of!the!outlet)!or!does!not!have!filth/residues!Very!clean!outlet!that!does!not!have!filth!or!residues.!Looks!very!wellJmaintained!Colour'To!assess!colour,!collect!a!sample!in!the!cup!provided!and!hold!against!a!white!piece!of!paper.!If!a!distinct!color!observed,!run!water!for!15!seconds!minute!and!observe!again.'Colour!does!not!dissipate!after!2!samples!are!assessed.!Air!bubbles!do!not!dissipate!after!5!minutes!Colour!is!present!in!first!sample!and!is!faint!in!second!sample.!Air!bubbles!dissipate!after!2!minutes!!Colour/air!bubbles!are!present!in!first!sample!and!absent!in!second!sample.!Air!bubbles!dissipate!after!30J40!seconds.!!First!sample!is!colourless!and!free!of!air!bubbles!Taste'To!assess!taste,!collect!a!sample!in!a!cup!and!taste!it.!If!it!tastes!stale,!metallic!or!unusual,!run!water!for!15!seconds!and!repeat.!Stale,!metallic!and!other!offJtastes!that!do!not!dissipate!after!2!samples!are!assessed!Stale,!metallic!and!other!offJtastes!detected!in!first!sample!and!dissipate!in!second!sample!Stale!taste!in!first!sample!that!disappears!in!second!sample! No!unpleasant!taste!is!detected!in!first!sample!Pressure'To!assess!pressure,!turn!on!fountain!and!observe!stream!of!water! Insufficient!water!pressure!to!avoid!mouth!contact!with!fountain!!Water!pressure!creates!a!sufficient!arch,!then!decreases!to!an!insufficient!degree!after!a!few!seconds!(~1!cm!arch)!Sufficient!water!pressure!to!avoid!mouth!contact!with!fountain;!placing!mouth!close!to!spigot!may!be!required!(~2!cm!arch)!Water!pressure!creates!a!sufficient!arch!to!easily!place!mouth!in!midJstream!and!would!allow!easy!filling!of!reusable!water!bottles!! 63!Building:!____________________________!!! !!!!!!!Your!name(s):!__________________________________!!Date!(YYYY8MM8DD)___________________! ! ! ! !!!!!!!!!Time:!____________________!!Location(Floor:( Location((Nearest(room(number/landmark):(Is(outlet(visible(to(passing(traffic?( Yes!!  No!Is(outlet(visible(from(a(main(entrance?( Yes!! No Proximity(to(a(washroom:!!Within!5!meters!!!Within!10!meters!!No!washroom!visible Visual(appeal(of(outlet(((((Very!poor!!!!!!!!!Poor!!!!!!Good!!!!!!Very!Good!!!!!!Comments/Notes:!! Can(you(conveniently(fill(your(water(bottle(at(this(water(outlet?( Yes! No!!!!!!Height!of!bottle!_______________!Faucet(type(((((Wall8mounted!!!!!Stand8alone!!!!Porcelain((((((Metal!!!!!!!Plastic(((Comments/Notes!(indicate!if!it!is!a!WaterFillz!unit,!kitchenette!sink,!or!other!source):(!Water(colour((((((((((((((((Very!poor!!!!!!!!!Poor!!!!!!Good!!!!!!Very!Good!!!!!(Comments/Notes:!!Water(odour(((((((((((((( Musty,!mouldy!or!other!off8odours!detected!!!!!! No!odour!detected(Comments/Notes:!!!Water(taste(((((((((((((((((((((Very!poor!!!!!!!!!Poor!!!!!!Good!!!!!!Very!Good!!!!!(Comments/Notes:!!!Water(pressure(((((((((((((Very!poor!!!!!!!!!Poor!!!!!!Good!!!!!!Very!Good!!!!!(Comments/Notes:!(Other(comments/observations:(  ! 64!(List(of(Buildings(with(Zones(((Zone(1(• Chan!Centre!• Buchanan!Tower!!• Buchanan!A,B,C,D,E!!!!• Irving!K.!Barber!Learning!Centre!• Frederic!Lasserre!Building!!!!• C.K.!Choi!Building!for!The!Institute!of!Asian!Research!• Music!Building!!Zone(2(• Allard!Hall!!between!!• Brock!Hall!• Gage!Residence!• Student!Union!Building!• Student!Recreation!Centre!• War!Memorial!Gym!• Wesbrook!Building!• D.H.!Copp!Building!• Woodward!Library!• Woodward!Instructional!Resources!Centre!!Zone(3(• Place!Vanier!Residence!(common!place)!• First!Nations!Longhouse!!!!!• Geography!Building!• Mathematics!Building!• Mathematics!Annex!• Walter!C.!Koerner!Library!• L.S.!Klinck!Building!!!!!• David!Lam!!!!!• Henry!Angus!!!!!• Jack!Bell!Building!for!the!School!of!Social!Work!• Chemistry!A,!B,!C,!D!!!!• Hennings!Building!• Hebb!Building!!!!!!!!!!!!Zone(4(• Marine!Drive!Residence!(common!place)!• Continuing!Studies!Building!• Swing!Space!Building!• CIRS!Building!• Horticulture!Building!• Earth!and!Ocean!Sciences!–!Main!• Earth!Sciences!Building!• Neville!Scarfe!Classroom!Block!• Neville!Scarfe!Library!• Neville!Scarfe!Office!Block!• Biological!Sciences!(North)!!!• Food!Nutrition!and!Health!Building!!!!!!!!Zone(5(• Ritsumeikan!UBC!House!(common!place)!• H.!R.!Macmillan!• Fred!Kaiser!Building!• Civil!and!Mechanical!Engineering!!• Wayne!and!William!White!Engineering!Design!Centre!!!!!• Brimacombe!Building!!!!• Chemical!and!Biological!Engineering!Building!!!!• Life!Sciences!Centre!!!!!!• Hugh!Dempster!Pavillion!• Institute!for!Computing,!Information!and!Cognitive!Systems/Computer!Science!!!!!• Macleod!!!!!Zone(6(• Totem!Park!Residence!(common!place)!• Thunderbird!Residence!(common!place)!• Forest!Sciences!Centre!• Robert!F.!Osborne!Centre!(Units!1!&!2)!• UBC!Tennis!Centre!• Pharmaceutical!Sciences!&!Centre!for!Drug!Research!and!Development!• Acadia!Park/Fairview!Crescent!Residences!(common!place)! (! 65!!!Map!1.!The!campus!was!divided!up!into!six!zones!to!facilitate!data!collection!and!ensure!that!it!was!performed!efficiently!and!thoroughly.!!!!!!!! 66!Electrical(Conductivity(and(Temperature(Data(Table(! Fountain( EC((μS)( Temp((°C)( ( After(15(Secs( EC((μS)( Temp((°C)(BUCHA_A103! ! ! ! ! ! !BUCHA_212! ! ! ! ! ! !BUTO_297! ! ! ! ! ! !BUTO_1297! ! ! ! ! ! !IBLC_156! ! ! ! ! ! !IBLC_455! ! ! ! ! ! !! ! ! ! ! ! !ALRD_B111! ! ! ! ! ! !ALRD_472/473! ! ! ! ! ! !COPP_1203/1205! ! ! ! ! ! !COPP_3203/3205! ! ! ! ! ! !COPP_4203/4205! ! ! ! ! ! !Gage_Brita! ! ! ! ! ! !IRC_Basement! ! ! ! ! ! !IRC_Ground!Level! ! ! ! ! ! !IRC_4th!floor! ! ! ! ! ! !SRC_Main! ! ! ! ! ! !SRC_Elevator! ! ! ! ! ! !SUB_Lobby!North! ! ! ! ! ! !SUB_200!North! ! ! ! ! ! !WOOD_Basement! ! ! ! ! ! !WOOD_3!Elevator! ! ! ! ! ! !! ! ! ! ! ! !ANGU_247! ! ! ! ! ! !ANGU_457! ! ! ! ! ! !CHEM!B_160! ! ! ! ! ! !CHEM!B_362! ! ! ! ! ! !GEOG_148! ! ! ! ! ! !GEOG_246! ! ! ! ! ! !HEBB_9L! ! ! ! ! ! !HEBB_55A! ! ! ! ! ! !HENN_206! ! ! ! ! ! !HENN_310! ! ! ! ! ! !MATX_1110! ! ! ! ! ! !MATX_1212! ! ! ! ! ! !WCKL_Level!1! ! ! ! ! ! !WCKL_Level!5! ! ! ! ! ! !! ! ! ! ! ! !BIOL!North_0512! ! ! ! ! ! !BIOL!North_3514! ! ! ! ! ! !CIRS_2321! ! ! ! ! ! !CIRS_4321! ! ! ! ! ! !! ! ! ! ! ! !! 67!! !Fountain( EC((μS)( Temp((°C)( ( After(15(Secs( EC((μS)( Temp((°C)(CONT!ST_B210G( ( ( ( ( ( (ESB_Magma( ( ( ( ( ( (FNH_130! ! ! ! ! ! !FNH_Basement! ! ! ! ! ! !SCRF!Class_1013! ! ! ! ! ! !SCRF!Class_1320! ! ! ! ! ! !SCRF!Office_1! ! ! ! ! ! !SCRF!Office_6! ! ! ! ! ! !! ! ! ! ! ! !BRIM_115! ! ! ! ! ! !BRIM_412! ! ! ! ! ! !CEME_1214! ! ! ! ! ! !CEME_2208! ! ! ! ! ! !CHBE_106! ! ! ! ! ! !CHBE_304! ! ! ! ! ! !MCLD_148! ! ! ! ! ! !MCLD_448! ! ! ! ! ! !MCML_WaterFillz! ! ! ! ! ! !! 68!!!!This!Thermo!Orion!electrical!conductivity!meter!was!used!to!measure!water!electrical!conductivity!and!temperature.!In!this!picture,!the!apparatus!reads!272!μS!and!16.0°C.!!Equipment((!!!!The!graduated!cylinder!and!a!water!bottle!were!used!to!measure!water!flow!rates.!!The!beaker!was!used!to!examine!water!colour!!The!plastic!tumbler!water!used!to!measure!water!electrical!conductivity!and!temperature!!! 69!Flow(Rate(Data(Table((Fountain/Outlet( Volume((mL)( Time((s)( ( Gooseneck?( Volume((mL)( Time((s)(BUCHA_1WR! ! ! ! ! ! !BUCHA_Stir!it!up! ! ! ! ! ! !BUCHA_212! ! ! ! ! ! !BUCHB_303! ! ! ! ! ! !BUTO_697! ! ! ! ! ! !BUTO_1297! ! ! ! ! ! !CHAN_SE! ! ! ! ! ! !CHAN_NW! ! ! ! ! ! !CKCHOI_Entrance! ! ! ! ! ! !IBLC_255! ! ! ! ! ! !IBLC_455! ! ! ! ! ! !Irving!CTLT_214! ! ! ! ! ! !Irving!Lib_4! ! ! ! ! ! !! ! ! ! ! ! !ALRD!Lib_2! ! ! ! ! ! !ALRD!Lib_4! ! ! ! ! ! !ALRD_107! ! ! ! ! ! !ALRD_372/373! ! ! ! ! ! !ALRD_B111! ! ! ! ! ! !BROCK_2!(either)! ! ! ! ! ! !COPP_3203/3205! ! ! ! ! ! !COPP_4608! ! ! ! ! ! !Gage_Lobby! ! ! ! ! ! !IRC_Basement! ! ! ! ! ! !IRC_Ground!level! ! ! ! ! ! !IRC_334! ! ! ! ! ! !IRC_4008414! ! ! ! ! ! !SRC_2!Elevator! ! ! ! ! ! !SRC_2!Ladies!WR! ! ! ! ! ! !SRC_Main! ! ! ! ! ! !SUB_200!North! ! ! ! ! ! !SUB_200!South! ! ! ! ! ! !SUB_215! ! ! ! ! ! !War!Mem_303! ! ! ! ! ! !WESB_1! ! ! ! ! ! !WOOD_2!NE!Stair! ! ! ! ! ! !WOOD_3!Elevator! ! ! ! ! ! !! ! ! ! ! ! !ANGU_247! ! ! ! ! ! !ANGU_457! ! ! ! ! ! !CHEM!B_160! ! ! ! ! ! !! ! ! ! ! ! !! 70!Fountain/Outlet! Volume((mL)! Time((s)! ! Gooseneck?! Volume((mL)! Time((s)!CHEM!B_362! ! ! ! ! ! !DLAM_1246! ! ! ! ! ! !DLAM_246! ! ! ! ! ! !GEOG_148! ! ! ! ! ! !GEOG_246! ! ! ! ! ! !GEOG_Lounge! ! ! ! ! ! !HEBB_9L! ! ! ! ! ! !HEBB_15F! ! ! ! ! ! !HEBB_45A! ! ! ! ! ! !HENN_206! ! ! ! ! ! !HENN_310! ! ! ! ! ! !LONG! ! ! ! ! ! !LSK_100! ! ! ! ! ! !MATH_122! ! ! ! ! ! !MATH_Men’s!WR! ! ! ! ! ! !MATX_1110! ! ! ! ! ! !Vanier_Caf! ! ! ! ! ! !WCKL_Level!2! ! ! ! ! ! !WCKL_Level!5! ! ! ! ! ! !! ! ! ! ! ! !BIOL!North_3514! ! ! ! ! ! !CIRS_3321! ! ! ! ! ! !CIRS_Loop! ! ! ! ! ! !CONT!ST_B210G! ! ! ! ! ! !ESB_1016/1018! ! ! ! ! ! !ESB_Magma! ! ! ! ! ! !FNH_130! ! ! ! ! ! !FNH_Kitchen! ! ! ! ! ! !HORT_101! ! ! ! ! ! !SCRF!Class_1013! ! ! ! ! ! !SCRF!Class_1123! ! ! ! ! ! !SCRF!Lecture_2! ! ! ! ! ! !SCRF!Lecture_9B! ! ! ! ! ! !SCRF!Lect_205A! ! ! ! ! ! !SCRF!Lect_300A! ! ! ! ! ! !SCRF!Lect_310! ! ! ! ! ! !SCRF!Office_1! ! ! ! ! ! !SCRF!Office_6! ! ! ! ! ! !SCRF!Lib_1! ! ! ! ! ! !SWNG_WaterFillz! ! ! ! ! ! !! ! ! ! ! ! !BRIM_115! ! ! ! ! ! !BRIM_215! ! ! ! ! ! !CEME_1005! ! ! ! ! ! !! 71!Fountain/Outlet! Volume((mL)! Time((s)! ! Gooseneck?! Volume((mL)! Time((s)!CEME_1214! ! ! ! ! ! !CEME_2027! ! ! ! ! ! !CHBE_140! ! ! ! ! ! !CHBE_312! ! ! ! ! ! !DMP!108! ! ! ! ! ! !LSC_1.416! ! ! ! ! ! !MCLD_112! ! ! ! ! ! !MCLD_214! ! ! ! ! ! !MCLD_254! ! ! ! ! ! !MCML_Agora! ! ! ! ! ! !MCML_WaterFillz! ! ! ! ! ! !! ! ! ! ! ! !Osborne!Unit!1!! ! ! ! ! ! !Osborne!Unit!2! ! ! ! ! ! !PHARM_1104! ! ! ! ! ! !Tennis!Centre! ! ! ! ! ! !! ! ! ! ! ! !!! 72!Appendix(C:(Water(Outlets&and!Signage'From'Other'Institutions!! !(Penn!State!Campus!Sustainability!Office,!2012)!!!!! 73!An!Elkay!EZH2O!water!fountain!currently!at!Pennsylvania!State!University!and!corresponding!signage!  (Queen’s!University!Hospitality!Services,!2013)!!(PSU’s!SDWTF,!2012)!!Top!left!and!right:!A!water!filling!station!at!Queen’s!University!and!corresponding!signage/imagery!!Bottom!left:!A!Brita!Hydration!Station!currently!installed!at!Portland!State!University!! 74!Appendix(D:(Interactive(UBC(Water(Outlet(Map!!Screenshot!of!Interactive!UBC!Water!Outlet!Map!made!on!Google!Maps!!!!! 75!Appendix(E:(Types(of(Water(Outlets(at(UBC!!!! !!! !!Left:!Water!fountain!and!gooseneck!at!Allard!Hall!Library!Middle:!Café!outlet!at!Magma!in!the!Earth!Sciences!Building!Right:!Kitchenette!sink!in!the!Centre!for!Interactive!Research!on!Sustainability!!!!!!! 76!!!Left:!WaterFillz!station!at!the!H.!R.!Macmillan!Building!Right:!Brita!Hydration!Station!in!the!lobby!of!the!Walter!Gage!Residence!! 77!!!Left:!WA^2!Station!in!the!Music!Building!Right:!Van!Houtte’s!Source!H2O!ion!dispenser!in!the!Continuing!Studies!Building!! 78!Appendix(F:"Modified"Decision"Flow"Chart!!This!diagram,!modified!from!the!diagram!in!Appendix!B,!shows!how!a!water!outlet!map!and!other!informative!tools!serve!as!a!metaphorical!safety!net!that!empowers!the!public!to!use!the!free!drinking!water!outlets!on!campus!and!prevents!the!public!from!buying!commercial!bottled!water!every!time!they!need!drinking!water.!

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