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An investigation into creating vibrant social spaces through games and activities in the new Student… de Wet, Ingemar; Brar, Javinder; Qazi, Omar; Dmitrenko, Vitali Nov 22, 2012

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UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report       An Investigation into Creating Vibrant Social Spaces Through Games and Activities in the New Student Union Building Ingemar de Wet, Javinder Brar, Omar Qazi, Vitali Dmitrenko  University of British Columbia APSC 261 November 22, 2012           Disclaimer: “UBC SEEDS provides students with the opportunity to share the findings of their studies, as well as their opinions, conclusions and recommendations with the UBC community. The reader should bear in mind that this is a student project/report and is not an official document of UBC. Furthermore readers should bear in mind that these reports may not reflect the current status of activities at UBC. We urge you to contact the research persons mentioned in a report or the SEEDS Coordinator about the current status of the subject matter of a project/report”.     An Investigation into Creating Vibrant Social Spaces Through Games and Activities in the New Student Union Building       November 22, 2012,  P repared B y:  Ingemar de Wet, Javinder Brar, Omar Qazi, Vitali Dmitrenko  APS C 261: Technolog y and Societ y         For: Dr. Paul Winkelman  Facult y of Applied Scien ces  Universit y of Briti sh Columbi a    i i   ABSTRACT   The Universit y of Britis h Col umbi a feels that ther e is a need for  student interacti on on campus , the absenc e of which can lead to deterior ati ng me ntal and emot ional healt h . To combat thi s, the Alma Mater Societ y (A MS ) have desi gnated a vibrant social spac e to be const ructed in the new Student Union Buil ding. The objecti ve of this rep ort is to give re comm end ati ons on  how to creat e thi s vibrant social space. Usin g ex ampl es of vibrant social spac es implemented in other universit ies, we dete rmined that thi s social space needs to be d ynami c so it can serv e mul ti ple purposes, whil e mainl y s erving as a game room. Research d emons trated that a DLP projector is the most suitable for a mult im edia projector, whic h will mainl y be used fo r watchin g sports but can also be us ed to conve rt the social spac e int o a lecture hall or a movi e the atre. Our anal ysis of lighti ng demons trated t ha t LED li ghti ng is much s uperior to its alternati ves in all three aspe cts of the triple bottom line assessment, and certain colours can also be used as “mood lighting”. All of thi s ties int o our main objecti ve, which we have achieved b y recomm endin g a var iet y of games for students that encour a ge int e racti on and can also be a good sourc e of str ess reli ef. Th e use of the tripl e bott om line assessment has allowed us t o creat e a soci al space which is sociall y, economi call y, and enviro nmentall y feasibl e. The re comm endati ons made in thi s report ensure that the social spac e will be a d ynami c environme nt where students can fee l welcome and wh ere new relations hips can be fostered.    i ii   TABLE OF CONTENTS ABS TRAC T......................................................... .......................................................................... .ii  LIS T OF ILLUSTR AT IONS ....................................................................................................... . .iv  GLOSS ARY..................................................................................................................... .............. .v  1.0     INTRODUCT IO N. .............................................................................................. ............... ....1  2.0     MULT IMED IA PR OJ ECTOR........................................................................................... ....2      2.1     SOC IA L ASS ESS MENT................................................................................... .... ............2      2.2     ECONOM IC ASS ESS MENT ............................................................................... .............4      2.3     ENVIR ONMEN TA L ASS ESS MENT................................................................... ........... .5      2.4     RECOMMENDAT IONS ......................... .............................................................. ............5  3.0     ILLU M INAT ING THE SOC IA L SPACE......................................................................... .....6          3 .0.1 LEDs.............. ................................................................................................. ................6          3.0.2 CFLs............... ..................................................................................... ............ ................7      3.1 SOC IA L ASS ESS MENT.............................................................................................. ........8          3.1.1 CORR E LATE D CO LO UR TEMP ERATUR E ............................................ ......... .........8      3.2     ENVIR ONMEN TA L ASS ESS MENT.................................................................... .........10      3.3     ECONOM IC ASS ESS MENT ................................................................................. .........11  4.0     INTER ACT IVE ACT IV IT IES.... ................. ........................................ ................................12      4.1 ECONOM IC ASS ESS MENT........................................................................................ ......14      4.2 ENV IR ONMENT A L ASS ESS MENT.......................................................................... ......15      4.3 SOC IA L ASS ESS MENT............................................................................................... .....15  5.0     CONC LUS IO N AND RECO MMENDAT IONS ............................................................... .16  REFERENCES ................................................................................................. .............................18    i v   LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS  F IGUR ES   Figu re 1: DLP technolo gy  Figu re 2: LCD Projector  Figu re 3: Components of an LED  Figu re 4: Components of a CFL  Figu re 5: Contrast of li gh ti ng colours with the asso ciated kelvi n colour temp eratur es  Figu re 6: The ener g y con sumed during the lif e c yc les of var ious lighti n g te c hnologies  Figu re 7: Life - S iz ed J enga  Figu re 8:  Buddha Board             TABLES   Table 1: Comparison of LED bulb vs. CF L bulb  Table 2: Game prices         v   GLOSSARY   Blackbod y  An ideali z ed ph ysic al bod y that abso rbs all elect r omagn eti c radiation.   In candes cent  A bulb with a tungsten fi lament that glows bri ghtl y as curr ent passes through it.   Kelvi n  The Kelvi n is a unit of temperature based on absol ute zero. 273.15 Kelvi n is equal to 0 degre es Celsi us.   Lumi nesc enc e  Li ght emis sion which i s not a result of heat.   P hosphor  A substance that ex hibi ts lumi nescence   P lacemakin g  A dyn ami c appro ach to creati n g a publi c envi ron ment that is buil t around local resour ces, commun it y inspi rati on and potent ial.   S emi conducti ng  A substance that ex hibi ts t he propert y of a semico nductor.     1 1.0 INTRODUCTION  Our group was tasked with designing a vibrant social space in the new student union building through the use of games and activities. This challenge involved looking at many different aspects of an interior space and choosing between a large number of options with which to promote a social environment for students. We looked at existing examples of social spaces across North America and Europe to determine which elements maximized social interaction. Using the concept placemaking to visualise the social space, we will focus on three key elements; a video projection system, vibrant lighting and games/activities.   We feel that the video projection system is key because its multiple uses contribute to the dynamic nature of the room. It could be used for presentations or guest speakers, and also as a media tool for viewing movies and sporting events. To analyse this element, we will conduct a triple bottom line assessment of two popular projection technologies, and make recommendations accordingly.  To focus on the vibrant directive of the project, we will investigate two leading technologies in environmentally sustainable lighting. The triple bottom line assessment of these technologies will include the social impact of coloured lighting, a life cycle assessment and an economic comparison for two common applications of the lighting.   Finally, the element which we feel is most important for the space is the games and activities we hope to see realized. As this subject is incredibly diverse and open to our interpretation, we choose to make our recommendations based on aspects which we feet the games should share.      2    2.0 MULTIMEDIA PROJECTOR   One of the most important dimensions of a vibrant social space is the ability to present and demonstrate a wide variety of media and information. The most effective way to accomplish this is with the use of a video projection system, which allows this social space to become very dynamic. This projector could be used to transform the room from a video game room, to a lecture hall with a change of the input hardware. However, as this projector would be used for such a wide variety of purposes, it is very imperative to look at the many different technologies using the TBL assessment. For this report, we will be discussing the 3 dominant projector types (LCD, DLP) and then giving a specific projector recommendation.    2.1 SOCIAL ASSESSMENT The video projector installed in the vibrant social space will be the hub of the room, often times with most of the attention focused towards its screen.  The main uses for this projection screen will for viewing sports events or movies, for playing video games, and for presenting lecture slides and PowerPoint presentations. Keeping the main uses in mind, we can decide which of the three technologies is best suited towards serving the social spaces needs.   Digital Light Processing (or DLP) technology is quickly becoming the most implemented in video projectors. This technology uses small mirrors displayed on a semiconductor chip, where each mirror represents a pixel that is displayed on the screen. These projectors are very dominant in the film industry, as they provide a much smoother video due to its higher contrast. These pictures also do not have visible pixels on the screen, which is highly recommended for viewing sporting events. However, this technology does not provide sharp reds and yellows at higher brightness. Another setbacN of this technolog\ is the “rainboZ effect”, Zhere the speed at Zhich colours are displayed and changed may cause viewers to see the colours blended together, often causing headaches (Powell, 2002). 3     Figure 1: DLP technology  Source: http://img.tfd.com/cde/DLP1.GIF   The Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) projectors use a lamp that is split into three beams which then pass through an LCD panel. The projector determines which of the pixels in the LCD panel the light should pass through, thus creating a picture on the screen. This technology relies on having a larger number of pixels to deliver a higher resolution picture, with the lower end models lacking in pixel quantity. Due to the bulb being in more direct use, the LCD projector produces a much brighter and vivid picture than its competitors with a bulb of the same brightness. The main issue with LCD projectors is that you can distinguish the pixels from one another, providing a less fluid video quality (Powell, 2002). 4      Figure 2: LCD Projector Source: http://www.ustudy.in/imagebrowser/view/image/4908/_original   This projector will see most of its use with students watching movies, sports or playing video games. The DLP projector would prove to be the better option under the social aspect of the TBL assessment, as it is the better choice for movies and sports events, as compared to the LCD projector being favoured for presentations and use in dimly lit environments.   2.2 ECONOMIC ASSESSMENT Economic sustainability is a very important aspect in the purchase of the video projector. This assessment is not only based on the initial purchase, but which projector will be more economically viable over continued use. The DLP projectors are available in two different models, with both a three-chip and a one-chip model. However, since the three-chip DLP projectors start at a price range of over $20,000, we will only be considering the one-chip projector in our assessment.   The one-chip DLP projectors start at approximately $1,000 and cost up to $10,000. The bulbs in these projectors need to be replaced every 2000 hours, with the replacement bulb costing more than $300. An average DLP projector consumes approximately 265 W of electricity while operating, while consuming 10W while in standby mode ("Best buy: home," 2012). 5      Comparatively, the LCD projectors start at $300 and can cost up to $5000, depending on the resolution. The LCD projectors have the same bulb life, but are slightly cheaper in bulb replacement. They also typically use between 220-240 W while in use, with a 10W usage during standby ("Best buy: home," 2012). Due to the simplicity of LCD technology relative to the newer DLP technology, it is also cheaper to repair. Due to having a much lower initial cost and cheaper upkeep, the LCD model is much more economically viable and thus the recommended model for purchase under the economic assessment.   2.3 ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT There are two main factors to consider when completing an environmental assessment on video projectors, the first being disposal and the second energy consumption. Despite having very different technologies, both DLP and LCD projectors are disposed the same way and both cause very little environmental damage. The main difference between DLP and LCD projectors is the power consumption that is discussed above, which is also very insignificant. Therefore, both DLP and LCD video projectors are both equally viable options for the social space from an environmental standpoint.   2.4 RECOMMENDATION After conducting the TBL assessment on both DLP and LCD video projectors, we have decided that the DLP video projector is the more suitable choice for the vibrant social space in the new Student Union Building. This is mainly because the DLP projector provides a much clearer and more fluid picture, while still being economically viable.        6    3.0 ILLUMINATING THE SOCIAL SPACE   One of the key elements which we hope to see incorporated into our social space is a source of vibrant, energy efficient lighting. We are also investigating the possibility of making our social space more distinct from the other rooms in the new SUB building through the use of coloured lighting. Two promising new technologies have revolutionized energy efficient lighting far beyond traditional incandescent bulbs: Light Emitting Diodes and Compact Florescent Lights.  3.0.1 LEDs  LEDs are solid and composed of a semiconducting substance. A diode is an electrical component with two terminals which conduct the electricity only in one direction. Connecting a diode to an electrical current excites the electrons within the diode, making them release photons, which we see as light. The die is a small cube of semiconducting material. The composition of the die determines the colour of the light given off. The distance from the die to the domed end of the lens determines how tightly focused is the resulting beam of light. Some LEDs have flat, opaque, or even concave ends to help disperse the light into a wide beam (Holzer).   Figure 3: Components of an LED Source: http://www.elightspot.com/images/diagrams/LED-light-bulb-components.jpg  7    3.0.2 CFLs CFLs are simply miniature versions of full-sized fluorescents. Electricity is used to excite mercury vapour. The excited mercury atoms produce short-wave ultraviolet light that then causes a substance known as a phosphor to exhibit the phenomenon of luminescence , producing visible light (Harris, 2001). They screw into standard lamp sockets, and give off light that looks similar to the common incandescent bulbs.   Figure 4: Components of a CFL Source: http://stoppingatthegreenlight.files.wordpress.com/2010/01/parts_of_cfl_large1.jpg  In this section of our report we will compare the two technologies in terms of their social, environmental, and economic impacts, and make a recommendation of which energy efficient light source we believe is best suited for our purpose.  8    3.1 SOCIAL ASSESSMENT  One aspect that we will consider when choosing the lighting for our space is whether or not it is possible to improve the mood and comfort of the room through the use of colour. Before we are able to compare the benefits of different colours of LEDs and CFLs, it is necessary to have an understanding of what 'coloured light' really means. As it turns out, to describe the colour of a particular light source is actually more complicated than describing its perceived colour or even its wavelength on the visible spectrum of light.  3.1.1 Correlated Colour Temperature The colour of a light source is specified using the term Correlated Colour Temperature (CCTs), which is the temperature of a blackbody, in Kelvin, that has a colour closest to the colour of the source. A candle, for example, has a CCT of about 1800K. A small incandescent desk lamp has a CCT of about 2800K. The sun has a CCT of about 5800K, and a clear blue sky has a CCT of about 6500K (Lowel). This will be important information when comparing our two options for light sources. Also, it is worthwhile to note that as the Correlated Colour Temperature increases, the colour of the light source moves from reddish to bluish.  Most LEDs haYe a Yer\ high &&7s, often aboYe ., producing “cold” bluish light. +oZeYer, warm white LEDs (2600K to 3500K) have improved significantly and are currently available for commercial use. Similarly, CFLs are made with CCTs ranging from 2700K (like an incandescent lamp) to 6000K, bluer than the sun. While the CCT can be the same as that of the sun, they do not recreate the benefits of natural sunlight. For the purpose of our space, both lighting technologies would be able to deliver a warm yellow light which is well suited to areas that need low light intensity, like a lounge for example. The lower scale of the CCT scale is described as friendly, warm, inviting, intimate and relaxing. In addition to these benefits, yellow light is also best for accentuating skin tones and the colour of wooden objects (MyLEDLightingGuide). While this does not provide a way to clearly distinguish between the lights, it is valuable when choosing a specific lighting element, whether it be LED or CFL.  9     Figure 5: Contrast of lighting colours with the associated kelvin colour temperatures Source: http://www.seesmartled.com/kb/choosing_color_temperature.php   10    3.2 ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT  When considering the environmental impact of these two lights, namely CFLs and LEDs, we examined the life cycle assessments of these competing technologies (Navigant Consulting Inc, 2012). The life cycle assessment considered three major phases of the life cycles of these two technologies when examining energy used; manufacturing, transportation and use. The results of these assessments were as follows:  1 The average life-cycle energy of LED lamps and CFLs are similar, about  one quarter of incandescent lamp energy consumption.    2 7he “use” phase of these lighting technologies represented the most energ\ intensiYe life-cycle phase, i.e. accounting for 90 percent of the total energy use.   These findings are visually represented in the graph below.   Figure 6: The energy consumed during the life cycles of various lighting technologies. Source: http://apps1.eere.energy.gov/buildings/publications/pdfs/ssl/2012_LED_Lifecycle_Report.pdf  The result of the life cycle assessment shows that LEDs and CFLs have roughly the same energy consumption throughout their life cycles. However, one advantage that LEDs have over CFLs is that they do not contain mercury and other heavy metals which are classified as hazardous 11    material by the US Environmental Protection Agency. (Johnson et al., 2008). Also, LEDs are more durable than CFLs and their components less environmentally toxic. This makes LED lighting environmentally preferable for the space (BC Hydro, 2012).  3.3 ECONOMIC ASSESSMENT  For this comparison, we reviewed the data on both a CFL and an LED lamp that fit into a standard home light-socket at home to decide which is the most efficient, and thus will be more economical in terms of power consumption (Precision-Paragon [P2], 2011). The initial cost of the lamps will also be taken into consideration. The two lamps whose data was reviewed are: the Philips Ambient LED 12.5W A19 indoor and the GE Energy Smart 13 Watt bulb, which is a compact fluorescent light bulb.   Table 1: Comparison of LED bulb vs. CFL bulb    LED  CFL  Watts  12.5  13  Delivered Lumens  800  825  Lumens Per Watt  64  63.5  Bulb Cost  $45  $0.86  Expected Lifespan  25,000 hours  8,000 hours  Source: http://www.p-2.com/helpful-information/blog/370-is-led-the-most-efficient-lighting-technology/  As can be seen in the table above, both lamps operate at nearly identical efficiency; within half a lumen per watt. However, it is clear that an equivalent LED lamp is much more expensive than its CFL counterpart. This difference in price is worthwhile if the fixture you're mounting the bulb in is in a location where it's difficult to change, i.e. ceiling lighting. In this case the expense might be worth not having to deal with maintenance for the expected 25 plus year lifespan of an LED (BC Hydro, 2012)  12    4.0 INTERACTIVE ACTIVITIES  In order to make the room entertaining and vibrant, we suggest for the room to contain board games, life-sized games and drawing boards. By adding these games and activities, the room will contain a culture and personality as well as lots of open space. These games are easy to maintain, install and move. Therefore, it will guarantee that the room can be used for other social events like movie nights, game nights or any UBC club social events. There are many great board games and the board games inventory is something that can grow bigger with time. The following board games are very social and entertaining: Taboo, Settlers of Catan, Cranium, Uno, Scattegories and Apples to Apples. These games are a great way to begin a board collection and we suggest that they are purchased for the room entertainment. Real size games are the games that require participants to be standing and engaged. We recommend that few life-size jengas )igure  are built from [¶s. -enga Zill be about  feet tall and 12x12 inches on the floor, Zhich means it doesn¶t reTuire a lot of room and can easil\ be obserYed b\ spectators in the room. This will help to build an environment that promotes social interaction within the vibrant space.  Figure 7: Life-Sized Jenga Source: http://i3.squidoocdn.com/resize/squidoo_images/-1/lens19993472_1353031203a-a.jpg   13    Lastly, for the drawing boards, we suggest using multiple Buddha Boards (Figure 8). They simply require water in order to create a drawing and the paint fades between 5 to 10 minutes, which means it can be used by someone else. In order to ensure longevity of Buddha Board, it needs to be daily maintenance.  Figure 8:  Buddha Board            Source: http://images1.vat19.com/buddha-board/buddha-board-cutout.jpg                                                            The rest of this section will cover triple bottom line assessment of the interactive activities that were recommended above.             14    4.1 ECONOMIC ASSESSMENT The price break down of individual games is seen in Table 2. All the pricing can be found on the www.amazon.com website, with the exception of life-sized jenga. The price quoted is an approximation to purchasing the material and labour to create a single life-size jenga. From that 7able , it¶s an accurate estimate that haYing a total budget betZeen -$750 will be sufficient to contain enough games in the entertainment room. Since the board games require certain level of supervision, there should be a person working in the room. One of the ways to tackle the problem is to have a small snack bar in the room. This way the board games can be rented out with a UBC card and the environment of the room can also be supervised. Ideally, profits from the snack bar will be able to pay the staff member to work there full time, which will make the room financially self-sustaining.   Table 2: Game prices  Name of the game Price per game($) Total ($) Buddha Board 35   Taboo 35   Settlers of Catan 34   Uno 7   Cranium 27   Scattegories 24   Apples to Apples 22   Life-sized Jenga 50       234  Source: www.amazon.com  15    4.2 ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT The life-sized Jenga can easily be made by someone in the forestry department, which means it can be used from recycled wood or from a tree that was re-planted. Buddha Board is a local company who advertises their merchandise as enYironmentall\ friendl\ because it¶s made out of Zoodpaper material and doesn¶t contain an\ chemicals or to[ins.  Overall, the ecological footprint from purchasing board games is very low because it requires simple materials to be created and doesn¶t consume any energy once it has been made.  4.3 SOCIAL ASSESSMENT There are many social benefits to having the chosen games and activities. Unlike watching TV or playing computer games, board games promote interaction between participants. This leads to bonding and competition between friends. Board games introduce certain level of challenges. First one is the challenge of playing the game and winning. Second challenge is the social interaction between the participants to overcome difficult game situations. The skills that are learnt playing board games can also be used during in real life circumstances, which is ultimately a social benefit. During the time that the participants are playing the board game, their mind is heavily concentrating on the challenges, which creates a mental break away from studying and school grades. Due to the entertainment level and human interaction, the board games will create a stress free environment for student.   The life-si]e games liNe Menga don¶t reTuire a lot of room and the\ are great games for people to observe, which will further add to the social and vibrant environment of the room. The Buddha %oard Zill giYe the students an outlet to be creatiYe. ,t¶s a great actiYit\ to do if \ou don¶t haYe a lot of time to spare. Also, it will give the students a reason to drop into the room and sketch something really quickly. We believe that Buddha Board will add to the social environment by creating student traffic and possible conversations that could spark due to temporary art on the wall.    16    5.0 CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION  We believe that in order to make the room vibrant and entertaining, it has to be dynamic and many factors need to be considered. The room has to be easily modifiable for variety of different events throughout the day. In the afternoon it can be a games room with board games and other interactive activities. In the evening, it should be able to host movie nights, presentations, talks, or any UBC club events. We suggest that the furniture in the room is something that can be easily moved. The lighting is environmentally friendly and efficient as well as adaptable, meaning it can change depending on the event. Instead of purchasing flat screen televisions, we suggest buying a projector. It will be able to satisfy all the entertaining needs, save money and space in the room. In order to create social vibrant space in the SUB, we recommend using board games, life-sized games, drawing boards similar to Buddha Board and a snack bar. We believe that these four things will create a stress free environment in which students can socialize and have fun.   In our economic analysis, we found that LCD projectors are cheaper than DLP projectors which cause us to recommend purchasing LCD projector. Also, we found that CFL light bulbs are much cheaper than LED light bulbs but the trade-off is in the lifespan of the bulb. If light bulbs will be costly to change, then it will be a better investment to purchase LED light bulbs as oppose to CFL light bulbs. The cost breakdown of board games, life-sized game and the painting board showed that it will be a very cost effective solution to creating entertaining and vibrant social space.  In our environmental analysis, we found no significant difference between LCD and DLP proMectors, so the proMector recommendations Zon¶t be based on enYironmental analysis. After the research that was done on light bulbs, we concluded that LED light bulbs are more environmentally friendly than the CFL light bulbs. Therefore from environmental standpoint, we recommend LED light bulbs. Lastly, we noted that interactive activities we are recommending will not leave any significant ecological footprint, which further supports the implementation of the recommended games.   17    In our social analysis, we found DLP projector to be more viable due to the improved image quality in movies and sporting event. The light bulb research told us that both LED and CFL light bulbs are viable solutions to create warm environment in the social vibrant space. Due to the benefits like social interaction, stress free environment and easily movable, the recommended interaction activities has a lot of potential in creating a unique social vibrant space.      18    REFERENCES  BC Hydro (2012, July 17). BC Hydro - LED Lighting. BC Hydro - Regeneration. Retrieved November 21, 2012, from http://www.bchydro.com/guides_tips/green-your-home/lighting_guide/LED_lighting.html  Best Buy(2012, November 19). Best Buy: home theatre projectors.Retrieved  November 19, 2012 from http://www.bestbuy.ca/en-CA/category/home-theatre-projectors/23252.aspx?path=f1c9427887dbd2f035e0b7d78ed335c7en01\  Harris, T. (2001, December 7). HowStuffWorks "How Fluorescent Lamps Work". HowStuffWorks "Home and Garden". Retrieved November 21, 2012, from http://home.howstuffworks.com/fluorescent-lamp.htm  Holzer, D. (n.d.). What Does LED Stand For and How Does it Work? | National Geographic. Green Living | National Geographic. Retrieved November 21, 2012, from http://greenliving.nationalgeographic.com/led-stand-work-2682.html  Johnson, N. C., Manchester, S., Sarin, L., Gao, Y., Kulaots, I., & Hurt, R. H. (2008). Mercury vapor release from broken compact fluorescent lamps and in situ capture by new nanomaterial sorbents. Environmental science & technology, 42(15), 5772-5778.  Lowel (n.d.). Color Temperature & Color Rendering Index DeMystified. Lowel · DV Lighting, Video Lighting, Photo Lighting, DV Lights, Video Lights, Photo Lights, Location Lights, HD Lighting, Green Screen, Fluorescent,LED, Lighting Kit. Retrieved November 21, 2012, from http://www.lowel.com/edu/color_temperature_and_rendering_demystified.html  My LED Lighting Guide (n.d.). Guide to buying the right lamp ± Understanding Light Color Temperature. LED Lights - Commercial LED Lighting, Flood Light & Tube, Retros, DLC LED. Retrieved November 21, 2012, from http://www.myledlightingguide.com/Article.aspx?ArticleID=37  Navigant Consulting Inc. (2012, August 31). Life-Cycle Assessment of Energy and Environmental Impacts of LED Lighting Products. U.S. DOE Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Home Page. Retrieved November 21, 2012, from http://apps1.eere.energy.gov/buildings/publications/pdfs/ssl/2012_LED_Lifecycle_Report.pdf  Powell, E. (2002, October 23). The great technology war: Lcd vs. dlp. Retrieved November 20, 2012 from http://www.projectorcentral.com/lcd_dlp.htm  Precision-Paragon [P2] (2011, August 30). Is LED The Most Efficient Lighting Technology? Lighting retrofit, energy efficient retrofits | Precision-Paragon [P2]. Retrieved November 21, 2012, from http://www.p-2.com/helpful-information/blog/370-is-led-the-most-efficient-lighting-technology/ vi   LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS  D LP  Digit al Li ght Processi n g -  a brand of proje ctor tec hnolog y   C F L  Compact Fluoresc ent La mp   LC A  Lif e C ycl e Assessm ent   LCD  Liqui d Cr ystal Displ a y   LED  Li ght Emit ti ng Diode   TBL    Tripl e Bott om Lin e               

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