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An investigation into sustainable transport options for the University of British Columbia farm Huang, Gary; Mui, Leslie; Law, David; Park, Jae Hyun Nov 22, 2012

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UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report       An Investigation into sustainable transport options for the University of British Columbia Farm Gary Huang, Leslie Mui, David Law, Jae Hyun Park  University of British Columbia APSC 261 November 22, 2012           Disclaimer: ?UBC SEEDS provides students with the opportunity to share the findings of their studies, as well as their opinions, conclusions and recommendations with the UBC community. The reader should bear in mind that this is a student project/report and is not an official document of UBC. Furthermore readers should bear in mind that these reports may not reflect the current status of activities at UBC. We urge you to contact the research persons mentioned in a report or the SEEDS Coordinator about the current status of the subject matter of a project/report?.  An Investigation into sustainable transport options forthe University of British Columbia FarmSubmitted toUBC SEEDS Program Coordinator,V?ronik CampbellCare of: Dr. Carla PatersonAPSC 261:Impact of Technology on SocietySubmitted by:Gary HuangLeslie MuiDavid LawJae Hyun ParkFaculty of Applied ScienceUniversity of British ColumbiaNovember 22, 2012iiABSTRACTThe truck on the UBC farm is nearing the end of its life. It has reached the point wherecontinued maintenance is more costly than the purchase of a replacement. A replacement vehiclethat is either a ten passenger van or a small pickup truck is required. Three options wereconsidered to meet this requirement: joining a car co-op and sharing a vehicle over a longerperiod of time, purchasing a used vehicle that meets the requirements and purchasing a useddiesel vehicle that is converted to run on fuel consisting of 20% biodiesel or more. Economicallyand environmentally, joining a car co-op is worse than buying a used vehicle and there is little ifany social benefit. The overall costs were found to be greater than using an used vehicle and theavailability of vehicles was poor. Buying a used gasoline vehicle is much cheaper initially than adiesel vehicle, but does not allow for any future conversion to a more environmentally fuelsource. Buying a used diesel vehicle and using it without modification allows for the use of B5biodiesel from plant ops. Conversion to biodiesel allows for the use of higher blends but thebenefit of any blend above 20% is overshadowed by the cost and lack of biodiesel sourcesaround campus. A blend of 20% is only provided by UBC?s CHBE Sustainability Club, and is anewly emerging source of biodiesel; however, the biodiesel has not yet reached the market. Therecommendation therefore, is to purchase a used diesel vehicle and to use it without modification.If at a future point in time higher blends of biodiesel become economically viable and readilyavailable, the option to modify the vehicle is still open.iiiTable of ContentsABSTRACT iiLIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS ivGLOSSARY vLIST OFABBREVIATIONS vi1.0 INTRODUCTION 12.0 INDICATORS 22.1 Economic 22.2 Environmental 22.3 Social 23.0 JOININGA CAR CO-OP 33.1 Economic Impact 33.2 Environmental Impact 43.3 Social Impact 44.0 BUYINGA USED VEHICLE 54.1 Economic Impact 54.1.1 Performance and Availability 54.1.2 Overall Costs Over 3 Years 64.2 Environmental Impact 94.2.1 Carbon Dioxide Emissions 94.2.2 Nitrogen Oxides Emissions 104.2.3 Concerns over Biodiesel 104.3 Social Impact 115.0 CONCLUSIONAND RECOMMENDATIONS 126.0 REFERENCES 13APPENDIX A ? VEHICLE COST CALCULATIONS 15APPENDIX B - EMISSION CALCULATIONS 17APPENDIX C ? REFERENCED E-MAILS 18ivLIST OF ILLUSTRATIONSLIST OF FIGURESFigure 1 : Effect of Biodiesel on Emissions 10LIST OFTABLESTable 1: Annual costs of Diesel and Gasoline 7Table 2: Cost comparison between Gasoline, B5/B20 and B100 8Table 3: Carbon Emission Rates of Diesel and Gasoline 9vGLOSSARYBiodiesel - Diesel fuel based on renewable sources such as vegetable oils and animal fats.Carbon dioxide - A chemical compound of carbon and oxygen. One of the leading contributorsto greenhouse gases.Modo - A Vancouver car sharing co-operativeNitrogen oxides - A chemical compound of nitrogen and oxygen atoms. One of the majorcomponents found in smog.viLIST OFABBREVIATIONSB5 - Biodiesel blends of 5% biodiesel and 95% petroleum dieselB20 - Biodiesel blends of 20% biodiesel and 80% petroleum diesel fuelB100 - Biodiesel blends of 100% biodieselCHBE - Chemical and Biological EngineeringNREL - National Renewable Energy LaboratoryUBC - The University of British Columbia11.0 INTRODUCTIONSustainability is at the forefront of any new endeavours at UBC, resulting in UBC?s statusas one of the most environmentally friendly universities in Canada. Projects large and small areundertaken with not only the economic impact in mind, but the social and environmental effectsas well. and the UBC Farm is no exception. The UBC farm currently utilizes an old vehicle totransport goods. However, it is in poor condition, requiring extensive maintenance for continuedoperation. Thus, the UBC Farm has been investigating sustainable transportation options in orderto replace the old vehicle. The replacement vehicle should fulfill the requirements of being a 10passenger van or pickup with a 2? ball hitch.The investigation focuses on comparing three plans of action: joining a sustainabilityconscious car co-op, buying a used vehicle and using it without modification, and buying a usedvehicle and converting it to run on UBC?s biodiesel supply. This report aims to explore eachoption by outlining the potential benefits and drawbacks in order to provide a recommendationbased upon the research as to which course of action to follow.22.0 INDICATORS2.1 Economic IndicatorsThere are two economic indicators that are used to compare the three possible options.The first economic indicator includes total initial costs. A large sum of investment must be paidat the initial stage to acquire a vehicle or to join a co-op program. This also includes anyapplicable taxes and other fees that may be incurred. The other indicator is the cost over threeyears, the minimum amount of time that the transportation replacement should be usable for.This consists of such costs as fuel, maintenance and repairs. The costs are estimates based onaverages from aggregators, and as such, may vary based on usage.2.2 Environmental IndicatorsAs all three options involve using a vehicle, the primary focus will be on the environmentalimpact of the fuel choices and resulting emissions as well as any driving habit changes that mayoccur as a result of a choice. The factors that determine emissions are the amount of gasesreleased into the atmosphere, the fuel economy of the vehicle, and the distance travelled.2.3 Social IndicatorsRaising social awareness of sustainable transportation options is a side-effect of choosingenvironmentally friendly options. As a largely subjective indicator due to the limited impact onanyone not directly associated with the vehicle, impacts are estimated and some benefits may notbe realized as they?re hypothetical and will differ based on affected persons? reactions to a choice.33.0 JOINING MODO CAR CO-OP13.1 Economic ImpactJoining Modo has the lowest initial cost of any option with a $20 registration fee and$500 refundable shares purchase per additional driver. Once purchased, the shares must be heldfor a minimum of 180 days before they can be refunded. Every person that will use the truckmust register as a member in order to use the truck. Over time, the cost is $3 per hour and $0.42per kilometer (varies slightly with fuel prices). Any other costs such as insurance, maintenanceand fuel are covered by the hourly and per km charges. The nearest truck to the UBC farm isapproximately 7 kilometres away with a total fixed travel distance of at least 14 km which isapproximately 15 minutes of time. If the nearest truck is unavailable, additional trucks areavailable further away. Minivans are available closer to the farm, however, they are smaller thandesired with only seven and eight passenger vans available. In addition, the need to keep theinterior clean as a requirement to use Modo vehicles may be difficult to follow.The estimated current truck usage is a minimum of two days a week for errands andoff-site meetings, going up to three days a week during summer and autumn months with a totaluse of approximately 130 days per year. The stakeholder has stated that the maximum traveldistance in a day is 30 km and is generally shorter. With an estimated five hours of use persession travelling 20 km, every trip costs approximately $34.70 with a total yearly cost of $4500.Over three years, the cost of using Modo will be around $13,500 with an additional investmentof $500 per driver that uses the vehicle.All trucks that Modo offer have a receiver that can accept a 2? ball hitch but a hitch willneed to be purchased, attached and detached every time the truck is used as the truck is availableto non-farm users. There will also most likely be additional costs to manpower as additionallabour is required to attach/detach the hitch every time it is used and ensure that the truck isreasonably clean before returning it to the assigned location.1All information gathered from Modo website43.2 Environmental ImpactSharing a car is innately positive for the environment, as fewer cars need to be manufacturedfor the same number of people. However, by using Modo, drivers need to travel a greaterdistance in order to retrieve and return the vehicle, in addition to the transportation of the driverto and from the vehicle location. The trucks that Modo has available for use are similar in fuelefficiency to the used vehicles used in the other options. This means that by using Modo,approximately 60% extra fuel is required to do the same tasks due to the need to always retrieveand return the vehicle from an off-campus location which in turn increases emissions by a similaramount. This may be lower in cases where the only purpose is to get to and from a location usingany vehicle as smaller cars are available on campus, some within walking distance of the farm.3.3 Social ImpactJoining Modo entails changing the habits of everyone that currently uses the truck as it willno longer be readily available on the farm. Some of the changes including booking the truck inadvance, modifying transit routes to allow time for retrieval and return of the truck and allocatingextra time in order to do so. It is also necessary to attach and detach the hitch as required as thetruck is shared. A requirement of the co-op is that the truck should be reasonably clean afterevery use. This may entail the use of a tarp to cover the truckbed before use or cleaning thetruckbed with other means prior to returning it. Joining Modo would serve to raise awareness asto the availability of the co-op to people who interact with the truck, but in the context of use atthe farm, it may prove to be detrimental to perception of Modo due to perceived and realinefficiencies associated with joining. It may have additional positive effects if Modo memberschoose to use Modo outside of their work on the farm as an alternative to purchasing personalvehicles.54.0 BUYING AN USED VEHICLE4.1 Economic ImpactBuying an old vehicle that uses diesel is a lucrative option because it allows for the use ofdiesel or biodiesel. Standard diesel engines can use biodiesel blends B20 or less withoutmodification. To use blends higher than B20, the diesel engine requires slight ?modifications toseals, gaskets, and other parts (National Renewable Energy Laboratory [NREL], 2009).? Thecost and time to modify the vehicle to use higher is low in comparison to the purchase price ofthe truck biodiesel blends. The other option is to purchase a gasoline powered vehicle. Choosingto purchase a gasoline powered vehicle nets the benefit of a lower purchase price compared todiesel and a larger variety of vehicles to choose from.4.1.1 Performance and AvailabilityAccording to Adam McCluskey, the UBC Plant Operations fleet manager, their fleet ispowered only by B5 biodiesel from Chevron at a price of $1.19/liter. There is no source of purediesel on campus. Adam McCluskey stated the UBC Plant Operations would be able to fuel theUBC Farm Truck with B5 biodiesel (personal communication, Nov 2012). The US Departmentof Energy claims that B5 and biodiesel have no discernable differences, aside from changes inemissions (2005). The pricing of commercial diesel and B5 biodiesel from the UBC PlantOperations are very similar. Therefore, it makes no economic sense to pick diesel, a source that isfurther away off campus. B5 will be considered for use over diesel if a diesel vehicle ispurchased.The other on-campus source of biodiesel is B20 biodiesel from the CHBE SustainabilityClub?s latest biodiesel project. However, their biodiesel project is still in its infancy. September21st, 2012 was the first time the club has put a significant amount of biodiesel into a vehicle. Theability of the club to produce high quality diesel consistently from batch to batch has not beenproven. They are currently not seeking to commercially sell the biodiesel and it is unclear whencommercial viability will arrive (Jwbutler, 2012). In the past, the UBC Plant Operations vehicleshave tried using B20 biodiesel. McCluskey stated that the B20 biodiesel ?wrecked havoc? ontheir fleet vehicles, hence, the switch to B5 biodiesel (personal communication, Nov 2012).Higher blends of biodiesel are known to be less stable, so it is prudent to assume that biodieselblends B20 and higher are not reliable fuel sources in the long term until proven otherwise.Gasoline is the standard and most used fuel source, with gas stations littered acrossVancouver. One downside of gasoline engines is that they are weaker than their dieselcounterpart. However, for the UBC Farm truck?s tasks a V4 or V6 cylinder engine would suffice(Richer 2012). Most gasoline engines are V4 or V6, so the engine is adequate in terms of powerrequirements. Another downside is that diesel engines have better gas mileage and enginelifespan. Diesel engines can last up to twice as long as gasoline engines. According to Hino, a6Toyota truck subdivision, diesel can be expected to last up to 480,000 km without major repairs,while gasoline are only expected to last up 200,000 km (Hino Trucks, n.d). Lastly, gasolineprices have a continuing trend of increase over the past years.4.1.2 Overall Cost Over 3 YearsTo calculate some of the annual costs for diesel and biodiesel, the data from the 20014-cylinder Ford Ranger is used. The reasons for choosing this vehicle is its popularity and highgas mileage which was determined by the US Department of Energy website?s vehicle searchengine (2012a). It is also readily available to purchase locally through local classified ad sitessuch as vancouver.en.craigslist.ca and autotrader.ca. The 2001 model is ideal for gasolinebecause of the balance between cost and reliability. The average asking price through these sitesis approximately $4000. Other data used to calculate the annual costs are listed below on Table 1.Finding exact information based on vehicle model, year, and fuel source has proven difficult, sodata from a assortment of similar vehicles is used. An additional cost for gasoline is the need togo off campus to refuel. Using Google maps, the closest gas station found near UBC is Shell on4314 W 10th Ave. The gas station is located 4 km from the UBC farm, adding an extra 8 km perrefueling trip. Considering the vehicle will travel approximately 2600 km per year, has a tanksize of 62L, and a gas mileage of 9.78 km/L (US Department of Energy [USDE], 2012a), thetruck should only need to fully refill the tank roughly five times a year.For diesel, the same method is used to find a suitable vehicle. The 1995 ChevroletSilverado is used to help calculate the annual purchase cost (vehicle purchase cost / 3 years).Although the Chevrolet is older than the 2001 Ford Ranger, the performance of the Chevroletshould still be adequate as a result of the longevity of diesel engines. The demand for old dieselvehicles is reflected through the price of the 1995 Chevrolet Silverado, which is on average$5000 on the sites. The mileage of the Ford Ranger is still used to calculate the cost of fuelconsumption because the goal is to calculate the cost of each fuel, not the gas mileage of eachvehicle. The Chevrolet Silverado has a lower gas mileage (USDE, 2012b), but the vehicle UBCends up purchasing could be less or more fuel efficient. Due to greater thermal efficiency, dieselengines have a 20-40% lower fuel consumption than gasoline (Isuzu, n.d). In order tocompensate for this fact, the average of 30% is taken off from the Ford?s mileage to calculate thefuel costs of diesel. Another complication is the cost of maintenance. Diesel engine repairs costmore than gasoline, but as mentioned previously, diesel engines require less maintenance in thelong run. Assuming the maintenance costs do not vary significantly, the average cost ofmaintenance for gasoline vehicles is used to estimate diesel calculations.According to the average pricing of biodiesel in the USA for July 2012, the pricedifference between diesel and B20 is negligible with a 1-2 cent difference per litre (USDE,2012c). The price difference is assumed to be the same in BC. Following the pricing of theclosest local B100 supplier, B100 is 40 cents higher at $1.68 per litre (Vancouver Diesel, 2012).In addition, both B20 and B100 have higher fuel consumption than normal diesel. From aprevious UBC study, MECH students Christensen, Hearle, Norrgard, and Schwartz performeda 10 hour test on biodiesel fuels and concluded that B100 has a 25% increase in fuelconsumption and B20 has a 6.8% increase (2005).7Table 1: Annual Costs for Gasoline and DieselAverage Insurance Cost for BC in 20091$11132011 Vancouver Average for Gasoline2$1.31 /liter2012 National Average for Vehicle Maintenance3$0.0255 /km2012 National Average forTires and Repairs3$0.0253 /kmAverage 2001 Ford Ranger Mileage for Highway andCity4(Gasoline)9.78 km/liter2001 Ford Ranger Tank size462 litresCost of B5 Biodiesel from UBC Plant Operations $1.19/literCost of B20 Approximated to be sameas B5Cost of B100 $1.68/literAverage Annual Distance (excluding refueling) 2600 kmSources:1The Province ( 2011). Study reveals B.C. has second-highest auto insurance rates in the country.Retrieved fromhttp://www.canada.com/business/Study+reveals+second+highest+auto+insurance+rates+country/5493740/story.html#ixzz2CwnIRmIO2Natural Resources Canada (2011). Fuel Focus, 2011 Review. Retrieved fromhttp://www.nrcan.gc.ca/energy/sources/petroleum-crude-prices/gazoline-reports/2012-01-13/20803Canadian Automobile Association (2012). Driving Costs. Retrieved fromhttp://caa.ca/docs/eng/CAA_Driving_Costs_English.pdf4US Department of Energy (2012a). Retrieved November 21, 2012fromhttp://www.fueleconomy.gov/feg/Find.do?action=sbs&id=169638Using the data from Table 1, the annual costs are summarized below (see appendix A forcalculations).Table 2: Cost Comparison between Gasoline, B5/B20 and B100Fuel Source Annual Cost ofFuelAnnual OverallCostTotal 3-YearFuel CostsTotal 3-Year CostsGasoline $399 $2980 $1197 $8940B5/B20 $273 $3184 $819 $9552B100 $481 $3392 $1443 $10176Retrieved from appendix A. Source data calculated into equivalent CAN dollarThe results show gasoline is the most economical in terms of the monetary cost over 3years. The main factor is the price of a gasoline truck is significantly cheaper than a dieselvehicle using B5. Also, the distance travelled annually is low; therefore the cost of gasoline isless significant in the overall costs. It would take a total of 8 years to recover the $1000 lost frompurchasing a diesel vehicle, using B5 over a gasoline. (See appendix A). The cost of B100 overgasoline is significant at a difference of $1236, making it an expensive choice.94.2 Environmental ImpactThe effect on the environment from one vehicle is very insignificant, regardless of thefuel type chosen. In order to assess the environmental impact, data on how the different fueltypes have affected North America are compared.Greenhouse gases are accelerating the problems related to global climate change.Emissions from vehicles are one of the major contributors to greenhouse gases. Hence, reducingemissions is vital to a cleaner and better world. The main culprits of greenhouse gases are carbondioxide, methane, nitrous oxides, and ozone, and water vapor. Next to water vapor, Carbonemissions are the greatest contributor to greenhouse gases. Nitrogen oxides are one of the largestcomponents of smog (Koo, Tham, & Yew, 2012) In our assessment only carbon dioxide andnitrogen oxides are considered. The environmental benefits of diesel and biodiesel are primarilyin the reduction of carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide. Each option is assessed to compare theirimpact on the environment. Gasoline is the standard fuel source used today, so it is consideredenvironmentally neutral in this report. By using gasoline, no changes are being made toemissions.4.2.1 Carbon Dioxide EmissionsThe carbon emissions rates of diesel and gasoline are listed belowTable 3: Carbon Emission Rate of Diesel and GasolineDiesel 2.67 kg/LGasoline 2.32 kg/LPercent Difference forDiesel/Gasoline15%source: United States Environmental Protection Agency (2005). Emission Facts. Retrieved fromhttp://www.etieco.com/content-files/EPA%20emissions%20calc%20420f05001.pdfThe results show that each litre of diesel releases more carbon than gasoline, but this doesnot take into account that diesel is more fuel efficient than gasoline. If the average 30% fuelefficiency of diesel versus gasoline is considered, then diesel has a 19% reduction in carbonemissions compared to gasoline (see appendix B). B5 is also the fuel the vehicle will use, so theemissions will be reduced further. The decrease in emissions is approximately linear in biodieselblends. The US Department of Energy lists B5 as being 3.8% more efficient than diesel andB100 as 78% (2005). In total, this makes the emission of B5 23% lower than gasoline, B20 32%,and B100 82%. Gasoline requires to go out of campus to refuel, but that only translates to 40 kma year. The additional emission released from this distance travelled is ignored.104.2.2 Nitrogen Oxides EmissionsThe California Environmental Protection Agency?s Office of Environmental Health Hazard states30% of all nitrogen oxide emissions in the US are caused by diesel fuels and only 2% of vehiclesare diesel (The California Environmental Protection Agency?s Office of Environmental HealthHazard Assessment, n.d.). Gasoline vehicles make up the majority of vehicles, therefore it can beassumed diesel vehicles emit higher amounts of nitrogen oxides when compared with gasoline,making diesel a large contributor to smog problems. However, better fuel additives are beingdeveloped to reduce the nitrogen oxide emissions. The increase in nitrogen oxide emissions forB5 from regular diesel is negligible. B20 and B100 have a 2-4% and 10% increase, respectively(USDE 2005). Our research was unable to find exact data on nitrogen oxide emissions for dieselcompared to gasoline. Therefore, it is not possible for us to make a direct comparison betweenthe two fuel sources.Figure 1 - Effect of Biodiesel on Emissions-http://www.nrel.gov/vehiclesandfuels/npbf/pdfs/37136.pdf4.2.3 Concerns over BiodieselOne of the major critiques of biodiesel is the use of resources to grow the crops necessaryfor biodiesel. Biodiesel generally comes from oils such as soybean oil, canola oil, and animal fats,meaning the resources normally used to grow food must be diverted to producing biodiesel. Inorder to compensate for higher demands of biodiesel, either more land must be used or cropsnormally used for human consumption must be converted into biodiesel. Reducing the foodsupply would increase the price of food. Using more land requires the clearing of forests. Forestsare the greatest sources for reducing greenhouse emissions, hence there may be no benefits interms of emissions for biodiesel.The Canadian Renewable Fuels Association counters those claims, arguing there is noconflict between food and crops used for biodiesel. Canadian farms have idle farmlandthroughout the year. For example, the USA and India, countries with population magnitudeshigher than Canada, have approximately ? of their farmland unused each year. These idlefarmlands can be used before it is necessary to clear more land or use crops meant for food. Also,conventional extraction methods for other fuel sources already strip lands, so biodiesel shouldnot be singled out. In addition, supporting current biodiesel increases funding for developingnew biodiesel technology independent of crops (Canadian Renewable Fuels Association, 2010).114.3 Social ImpactUsing a gasoline vehicle, there is no social benefit as the truck becomes much the same asany other passenger vehicle. Choosing to purchase a used gasoline vehicle and use it unmodifiedis neutral socially as it does not change the status quo. Using a diesel vehicle, fueling up at theplant-ops fueling station requires an RFID chip which is unavailable to the general public(McCluskey, personal communication, Nov 2012). Knowledge of the fueling stations onlybenefits UBC Farm truck, as it limits the distance the truck has to travel to refuel. There may beminor positive social impacts from increasing users? awareness of the availability of biodiesel.In the short term, it is possible to use B20 with an unmodified vehicle in order to supportthe CHBE Sustainability Club?s biodiesel project however; a modified vehicle is required forlong term use of B20 without problems. The biodiesel project is in its infancy and is not activelylooking for any partners beyond UBC?s Housing and Hospitality Services so it is unclear when itwill be possible to purchase B20 from the club. Supporting sustainability initiatives at UBC, aparticularly student initiative is important to foster awareness of sustainability issues for thefuture and moving UBC towards its sustainability goals.125.0 CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONSBased on the information gathered, from an economic perspective, purchasing a usedvehicle is superior to joining a car co-op over the course of three years. The initial costs ofjoining a co-op are lower while the long term costs are significantly higher. Using an unmodifiedvehicle is cheaper than a modified vehicle in the short and long run as the fuel costs are lower.The higher initial price of a diesel vehicle using B5 or B20 compared to a gasoline one is offsetafter eight years by the difference in fuel costs. From an economic perspective, a gasoline vehicleis better over the minimum timespan of use, however, a diesel vehicle is better over a longerperiod of time. However, there is no reliable source of B20 yet and B20 has caused problems inthe past for the UBC Plant Operations.From an environmental perspective, joining Modo is worse than the other two options due toa large amount of wasted fuel and excess emissions as a result of unnecessary travel. Gasolineproduces more CO2but fewer nitrous oxides. Using higher biodiesel content fuel offers minimalbenefits compared to low biodiesel content fuels when taken in context of their associatedenvironmental problems and costs. Socially, the option that has the most potential is utilizingB20 fuel, by supporting student sustainability initiatives. The other available options are close tosocially neutral or even negative.Considering all factors, it is beneficial to leave the option open for a high biodieselcontent capable vehicle; however, it is not prudent to immediately modify the vehicle to run onbiodiesel. Biodiesel could improve in the future and the CHBE Sustainability Club?s biodieselproject shows promise. Therefore, the recommended course is to purchase a used diesel vehicleusing B5 fuel from the UBC Plant operations. Then re-evaluate the possibility of using higherbiodiesel blends at a future date.136.0 REFERENCESCampbell. V?ronik (Oct & Nov 2012). Email (See Appendix C).The California Environmental Protection Agency?s Office of Environmental Health HazardAssessment (n.d.). Fuels and Your Health. Retrieved fromhttp://oehha.ca.gov/public_info/facts/pdf/fuels4-02.pdfCanadian Automobile Association (2012). Driving Costs. Retrieved fromhttp://caa.ca/docs/eng/CAA_Driving_Costs_English.pdfCanadian Renewable Fuels Association (2010). Biodiesel. Retrieved fromhttp://www.greenfuels.org/uploads/documents/biodiesel-fact-sheets.pdfChristensen, M.C., Hearle, S.H., Norrgard, L.N., & Schwartz, D.S. (2005) Biodiesel EngineTesting. Retrieved fromhttp://sustain.ubc.ca/sites/sustain.ubc.ca/files/seedslibrary/Biodiesel%20Engine%20Testing.pdfHino Trucks (n.d). Gas versus Diesel. Retrieved fromhttp://www.hino.com/download/84/file/Hino_Gas_vs_Diesel.pdfIsuzu (n.d). Diesel and Gasoline Engines. Retrieved fromhttp://www.isuzu.co.jp/world/technology/clean/diesel_gasoline02.htmlKoo, T.J., Tham, W.H.T., & Yew, K.S.Y. (2012). An investigation into the comparativeperformance of biodiesel against petroleumderived diesel by analyzing their environmental,economic and social impacts. Retrieved fromhttp://sustain.ubc.ca/sites/sustain.ubc.ca/files/seedslibrary/APSC262_4_Dawn_BioDiesel%20at%20UBC_Team01_FINAL.pdfMcCluskey. Adam (Nov 2012). Email (See Appendix C).Modo. (2011). Retrieved November 20, 2012 fromhttp://www.modo.coop/14National Renewable Energy Laboratory (2009). Biodiesel Handling and Use Guide (4th ed.).Retrieved fromhttp://www.nrel.gov/vehiclesandfuels/npbf/pdfs/43672.pdfNatural Resources Canada (2011). Fuel Focus, 2011 Review. Retrieved fromhttp://www.nrcan.gc.ca/energy/sources/petroleum-crude-prices/gazoline-reports/2012-01-13/2080The Province ( 2011). Study reveals B.C. has second-highest auto insurance rates in the country.Retrieved fromhttp://www.canada.com/business/Study+reveals+second+highest+auto+insurance+rates+country/5493740/story.html#ixzz2CwnIRmIOUBC CHBE Sustainability Club, (2012). CHBE Biodiesel on the Road. Retreived Nov. 18 fromhttp://blogs.ubc.ca/sustainabilityclub/2012/11/05/chbe-biodiesel-on-the-road/United States Environmental Protection Agency(2005). Emission Facts. Retrieved fromhttp://www.etieco.com/content-files/EPA%20emissions%20calc%20420f05001.pdfUS Department of Energy (2005). Clean Cities. Retrieved fromhttp://www.nrel.gov/vehiclesandfuels/npbf/pdfs/37136.pdfUS Department of Energy (2012a). Retrieved November 21, 2012 fromhttp://www.fueleconomy.gov/feg/Find.do?action=sbs&id=16963US Department of Energy (2012b). Retrieved November 21, 2012 fromhttp://www.fueleconomy.gov/feg/Find.do?action=sbs&id=15268US Department of Energy (2012c). Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report.Retrieved fromhttp://www.afdc.energy.gov/uploads/publication/afpr_jul_12.pdfVancouver Diesel (2012). Retrieved November 21, 2012 fromhttps://vancouverbiodiesel.org/15APPENDIX A ? VEHICLE COST CALCULATIONS1617APPENDIX B - EMISSION CALCULATIONS18APPENDIX C ? REFERENCED E-MAILSB1 Email With V?ronik Campbell (veronik.campbell@ubc.ca)B1.1 Email Conversation #1Received Oct 10, 2012Hello everyone,See below for the answers to the questions discussed yesterday. Please make sure to distribute toyour team members.V?ronik--V?ronik CampbellAcademic Coordinator | Centre for Sustainable Food Systems at UBC FarmFaculty of Land and Food Systems | The University of British Columbia3461 Ross Drive (Location) | 2357 Main Mall (mailing)Vancouver, BC Canada | V6T 1Z4Phone 604 822 5092 | Fax 604 822 6839veronik.campbell@ubc.ca | www.ubcfarm.ubc.caSustainable Transport Options1. What is the budget?? As low as possible. A donation from Plant Ops would be ideal, especially if theycould do it as a sponsorship for a biodiesel vehicle project.2. What fuel will be used?? All options are open: diesel, biodiesel, veggie fuel, normal fuel, electric, etc.3. What will the vehicle be used for?? One day a week from June to October for carrying produces to the on-campusfarmer's market. One day a week all year long to run errands, which generallymean carrying equipment which sometimes can be large and heavy. One day aweek all year long for off-site meetings4. How often will the vehicle be used?? See question #3.5. What will be the costs for maintenance and spare parts?? Will try to get you an answer as soon as possible, but this is the kind of statisticsyou could probably find elsewhere (i.e. average maintenance and insurance costfor small truck/10 passenger minivan).6. Is the main role of this project to perform a triple bottom line assessment of thevehicles (diesel, bio-diesel and car co-op) or are we also trying to find you a vehicle, thatperforms the best in the triple bottom line assessment?? Triple bottom line assessment not finding us a vehicle.7. What is the expected life cycle of the farm truck?? At least three years.198. How would you define the social aspect of the farm truck (is the interaction with thepublic of importance)?? Yes. The Farm has many community engagement programs and relies on marketsales for financial sustainability.9. What have previous teams come up with?? Donations from Plant op.10. Are there any experts in relevant fields that we could talk to?? I don?t know them all, but for biodiesel, you can talk to the Biodiesel Club in theengineering department. As for car co-ops, chatting with a representative of thecoops, telling them you are doing a research around sustainable transport options,would make you learn lots.11. Would we be able to arrange any special business deals with Modo?? I don?t know, but I look forward to you telling me.12. Has UBC had any experience with Modo??I don?t know, but I look forward to you telling me.13. If we buy a used car, is there any interest or possibility of UBC mechanical engineeringstudents working on it?? I don?t know, but I look forward to you telling me.14. What was the old UBC farm vehicle (diesel, gasoline?)? How was its performance?? Nissan. Sorry, I said Toyota during the workshop, but it is an old Nissan.15. Is there any need to get a vehicle with more payload capacity than the current vehicle?? No. Smaller truck is ideal.16. If a larger vehicle was chosen, would that enhance the efficiency of operations on thefarm? Conversely, if a smaller vehicle was chosen, would that harm the ability to workefficiently??No. Smaller vehicle is ok.17. Will UBC have a feasible biodiesel source?? Maybe. Look into biodiesel AMS funded projects at UBC.18. Can the truck be manual? (Can people who will use the truck be able to drive manual?)? Yes. But remember, whether the vehicle is manual or automatic doesn?t havemuch impact on its economic, ecological, or social impacts.19. Is there someone employed by the farm or nearby mechanic that can maintain the truck??No to employed at the Farm and yes to nearby mechanic, but $.20. What is the approximate cost to convert the truck to run on biodiesel fuels at UBC?? I don?t know, but I look forward to you telling me.21. How far , or what is the distance it needs to travel in daily basis ? What is the terrainlike ?? I would say within 30k in a Vancouver like terrain.22. Would convenience or luxury be necessary over durability and cost ?? Durability and cost is prime.B1.2 Email Conversation #2Sent By Gary Huang Nov 13, 2012Hello V?ronik,20I was wondering if you could answer a few more questions about the UBC Farm truck.1) Are the days on which the truck used fixed? For example, it is only used on Monday,Wednesday, Thursday every week from 1pm to 5pm.2) How was the truck refueled? Did it regularly go to a gas station to refuel or was/is there a wayto store diesel for the truck to prevent trips to the city?Thanks for any help.Received Nov 13, 2012Hi Gary,Here you go. I hope these answers will be helpful.1) Some of the days are fixed, such as the Wednesday when we hold our farmer?s marketon campus. The other days are at random, depending on meetings, repairs needed, etc.2) The truck is refueled on campus, at the UBC Plant/Building Operations building. Andour current truck is not diesel, but normal fuel. This being said, the diesel at the pump is partlynormal diesel, partly biodiesel.Hope the report is coming along well. I look forward to reading it.B2 Email With Adam McCluskey (adam.mccluskey@ubc.ca)B2.1 Email Conversation #1Sent Nov 13, 2012Hello Paul,I am UBC student doing a investigation on transport options for the UBC Farm'sTruck. I was informed UBC plant operations vehicles used biodiesel from chevron. I waswondering if you could answer a few questions about that. I apologize in advance if this is yournot your area of work.1) Does UBC plant operations have any plans on moving to local biodiesel sources from UBCfacilities rather than chevron?2) Is the biodiesel source solely for plant operations vehicles, or would the UBC Farm's Truck beable to use the biodiesel source as well? What would the costs be?3) Have there been any problems with the vehicles using biodiesel?Thank you for any help.Received Nov 14, 2012Gary,21Answers are below in red:1) Does UBC plant operations have any plans on moving to local biodiesel sources fromUBC facilities rather than chevron?Not at present, though we?re not opposed to the idea. Our relationship with Chevron is one ofconvenience as we need a high volume, consistent supply of Biodiesel that meets ASTM D6751.We?re currently using B5 which arrives pre-mixed.2) Is the biodiesel source solely for plant operations vehicles, or would the UBC Farm'sTruck be able to use the biodiesel source as well? What would the costs /be? ?Our fuel dispensing site is used by most vehicles across campus and several external units aswell. The UBC Farm truck would be able to use our site, we would need to set you up in oursystem and install a RFID on the vehicle.3) Have there been any problems with the vehicles using biodiesel?Not at the current B5. We did had B20 in the past and it was causing havoc with our olderdieselvehicles?specifically in the winter.Sent by Gary Huang Nov 14, 2012Thanks for the answers Adam.For the problems with B20, were there still issues in warmer weather?Received Nov 15, 2012Gary,Yes, but whether they were related to the older diesel engines or the fuel mix, I couldn'taccurately say. If we were to up our B5 to a higher mix, we wouldn't shoot up to B20. B10 wouldprobably be a more prudent choice...but no plans at present.B2.2 Email Conversation #2Sent by Gary Huang Nov 18, 2012I apologize for all the questions. How much does UBC building plant operations pay per litre forthe biodiesel and diesel? If the costs are confidential, is it possible to state which one costs more?Thank youReceived Nov 19, 2012Gary,We?re a public institution and as such we have no secrets. The price sheet from Chevron says1.1899 per unit which is Litre.I meant to add, that we currently don?t look at purchasing conventional Diesel. I believe thereis a minimum bio-blend set by the municipality which is currently at B5.

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