Open Collections

UBC Undergraduate Research

An investigation into the application of vertical garden at the new SUB atrium Shiah, Kevin; Kim, JeongWoo 2011

Your browser doesn't seem to have a PDF viewer, please download the PDF to view this item.

Item Metadata

Download

Media
18861-Shiah_K_et_al_SEEDS_2011.pdf [ 1.39MB ]
Metadata
JSON: 18861-1.0108430.json
JSON-LD: 18861-1.0108430-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 18861-1.0108430-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: 18861-1.0108430-rdf.json
Turtle: 18861-1.0108430-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 18861-1.0108430-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 18861-1.0108430-source.json
Full Text
18861-1.0108430-fulltext.txt
Citation
18861-1.0108430.ris

Full Text

UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report  An Investigation into the Application of Vertical Garden at the New SUB Atrium Kevin Shiah JeongWoo Kim  University of British Columbia APSC 261 November 24, 2011  Disclaimer: “UBC SEEDS provides students with the opportunity to share the findings of their studies, as well as their opinions, conclusions and recommendations with the UBC community. The reader should bear in mind that this is a student project/report and is not an official document of UBC. Furthermore readers should bear in mind that these reports may not reflect the current status of activities at UBC. We urge you to contact the research persons mentioned in a report or the SEEDS Coordinator about the current status of the subject matter of a project/report”.  An Investigation into the Application of Vertical Garden at the New SUB Atrium The University of British Columbia  Kevin Shiah JeongWoo Kim  Nov 24, 2011  APSC 261  2  Dr. Steve Oldridge ABSTRACT "A triple-bottom-line assessment on installing a vertical garden on the new Student Union Building and its inspirational impact" By Kevin Shiah, JeongWoo Kim In 21 Century, one of the biggest challenges is to bring the nature into urban areas and perhaps, the most effective and spectacular resolution is the vertical garden. In response to AMS Design Committee's goal of inspiring students and visitors, this report investigates the potential feasibility and inspirational factors of installing vertical gardens on the new Student Union Building (SUB) at the University of British Columbia. A vertical garden, also known as a green wall, is basically an interior or exterior wall that is completely or partially planted with vegetations. A triple bottom line assessment is performed to examine the environmental, social, and economic influences of installing the vertical garden. After collaborative research and analysis, it is concluded that installing the vertical garden will not only improve the new Student Union Building aesthetically but also provide a good role model to the city of Vancouver on how future buildings can be constructed with vertical gardens installed. Most importantly, it will raise the public awareness in green features of the vertical garden to the building users and visitors. Nowadays, the concepts of environmentally friendliness and sustainability earn more attention from the world. Being one of the leading institutions that advocate this sustainability concept, it is recommended to install the vertical garden on the new Student Union Building.  3  TABLE OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT………………………………………………………………………………………….…………………………..2 LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS………………………………………………………………………………………………….5 GLOSSARY………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………6 LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS…………………………………………………………………………………………………7 1.0 INTRODUCTION ..……………………………………………………………………………………………………..8 2.0 SOCIAL ASSESSMENT………………………………………………………………………………………………10 2.1 Psychological Impact …………………………………………………………………………………….10 2.2 Aesthetic Impact…………………………………………………………………………………………11 2.3 Health Impact………………………………………………………………………………………..……11 2.4 Job Opportunities ………………………………………………………………………………………...12 3.0 ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT……………………………………………………………………………..13 3.1 Locations……………………………………………………………………………………………….……13 3.2 System Choice and Plant Choice …………………………………………………………………14 3.3 Direct Environmental Impacts…………………………………………………………………....15 3.3.1 Reduction of Urban Heat Island Effect…………………………………….……16 3.3.2 Improvement of Air Quality………………………………………………………….16 3.3.3 Improvement of Energy Efficiency………………………………………..……...16 3.3.4 Noise Reduction ………………………………………………………………….……….17 4.0 ECONOMIC ASSESSMENT…………………………….…………………………………………………………18 4.1 HVAC Systems………………………………………………………………………………………………18 4.2 Stormwater Management………………………………………………………………………..…19  4  4.3 Biofilteration of Initial Air Quality……………………………………………………………….19 4.4 Others Economic Impacts ………………………………………………………………………….20 5.0 CONCERNS AND BARRIERS…………………………………………………………………………………....21 5.1 Barriers for Wide Adoption…………………………………………………………………………21 5.2 Concerns…………………………………………………………………………………………………….22 6.0 CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION…………………………………………………………..……23 LIST OF REFERENCES……………………………………………………………………………………………….…..24 APPENDIX…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….27  5  LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS Figure 1: Example of an outdoor vertical garden……………………………………………………………8 Figure 2: Locations of the Vertical Garden……………………………………………………………………13 Figure 3: Living Wall Example…………………………………………………………………..…………………..14 Figure 4: Green Façade Vertical Garden of Ivy Growing on Supporting Frames……...…….15 Table 1 Average Energy Consumption of a Five-Level Building with and without Vertical Garden…………………………………………………………..……………….17 Figure 5: Urban Heat Island Effect…………………………………………………………………..……………18 Figure 6: Perception on cost of vertical garden…………………………………………………………….22  6  GLOSSARY Absenteeism:  Frequent absence from work or study without a reason.  Biofiltration:  The process of removing and oxidizing organic from polluted air using biofilter medium such as soil.  Cardiovascular Disease:  Heart disease.  Chlorofluorocarbons:  A chemical compound that contains that carbon, chlorine, and fluorine, which damages the ozone layer when released into the atmosphere.  Noise Reduction Coefficient  Also known as noise reduction coefficient. It is a scalar presentation of the amount of sound energy absorbed after reflecting from a certain surface.  7  LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS AMS  Alma Matter Society  HVAC  Heating, Ventilation, and Air Condition  IAQ  Indoor Air Quality  NRC  Noise Reduction Coefficient  SBS  Sick Building Syndrome  SUB  the Student Union Building  UHI  Urban Heat Island  UBC  the University of British Columbia  VOC  Volatile Organic Compounds  8  1.0 INTRODUCTION A vertical garden is planted vegetations spread over a surface of a terrain bordered vertically (Figure 1). The concept of the vertical garden was first used in 600 BC with the Hanging Gardens of Babylon. The first vertical garden in Canada was introduced at the Canada Life Centre - Environmental Room in downtown Toronto in 1994. Today, with the rapid growth of industrial cities, where fifty percent of the world`s population dwell, plants can provide better air quality, in the mean time sustaining the well being of the environments, human health and the psychological aspect. As urban areas become more crowded than ever, many city centres today are finding areas for plants in order to transform the CO2 produced by cars and building heating into oxygen and carbon hydrates (Lambertini, A., & Ciampi, M., 2007). However, in an urban context, the solutions often require a large area of unoccupied land. The concept of vertical garden provides the best solution.  Figure 1. Examples of Vertical Garden 1 Source: www.yourkloset.com/lifestyle/green-berets/the-wall-of-the-living/  9  This report investigates the feasibility and the impacts of the installation of the vertical garden on an exterior wall of the new Student Union Building at the University of British Columbia, which is expected to be completed by September 2014. This report includes a triple-bottom-line assessment which researches and analyzes the social impacts, environmental impacts, and economic impacts. Moreover, this report also analyzes the further concerns and barriers that the AMS Design Committee can use as a reference.  10  2.0 SOCIAL ASSESSMENTS Social assessment involves everything from psychological impact to aesthetic impact to health impact. Basically, any human behaviors and activities associated with the vertical garden is discussed and evaluated in this section. By and large, vertical garden seems to provide much more positive impacts than negative impacts. 2.1 Psychological Impact Psychological impact is often very hard to quantify and based on subjective responses. However, when a number of studies show certain benefits to be present in its participants, it is safe to say that those benefits are true and objective. Biophilia, meaning affection to nature, is natural to humans as humans have lived with nature dating back to stone ages. (Butkovich et al, 2008) It is not uncommon to see people pack their bags and leave for outdoors, where nature is predominant with green plants. They do not leave because they are bored with city life. Rather, living in urban environment limits interaction with nature and increases depression and anxiety. (Darlington et al, 2001) In fact, there is a field of horticulture therapy that promotes plant-human relationships to induce relaxation and to reduce stress, fear, anger, and blood pressure and muscle tension. (Brown et al, 2004) In addition, vertical gardens have demonstrated that restorative effect of natural scenery holds the viewer’s attention, diverts their awareness from themselves and from worrisome thoughts and elicits a meditation-like state. (Peck et al, 1999) The retired elders who are in their 60s and 70s are easily the most affectionate and emotional to their garden. The benefits of garden can be discovered in workplace settings. Professor Fjeld’s study shows that an inclusion of green plants in offices and work environment has resulted in 5-15% reduction in absenteeism. Another study by Professor Lohr has demonstrated that plants inside classrooms reduce the stress level and 12% increase in productivity of students. (Butkovich et al, 2008) Given above benefits, it comes as no surprise that people in general prefer natural scene dominated by vegetation more than urban scene lacking  11  vegetation. Also, having plants in buildings can increase social skills by contributing to more supportive patterns of interrelations among its residents. (Almusaed, 2011) 2.2 Aesthetic Impact A vast number of buildings in urban setting is covered with cements and bricks, scoring little to zero artistic appeal. Often times, the sculptures are carved and patterns are embedded to give little more life to a building. Having vertical garden at the wall eliminates those gray, dull decorations and provides a fresh and vigorous life to the buildings. Vertical garden offers plants and smaller animals suitable habitats, improving biodiversity in the built environment. (Ottele, 2010) Increased green amenity space means that the bad designs can be disguised and become unnoticed. (Peck et al, 1999) Aesthetic impact of vertical garden is evident inside the building as well. Buildings with interior planting are view as more expensive-looking, more welcoming to its residents. (Smith et al, 2010) 2.3 Health Impact Arguably, health impact of vertical garden is what most of people can experience and be relevant to their time spending around it. (Butkovich et al, 2008) Each year Sick Building Syndrome (SBS) is costing American economy 15 to 40 billion dollars. SBS is a collection of non-specific symptoms such as eye, nose, skin and throat irritations, headache, fatigue, and skin rashes. The nature of disease makes it impossible to find a perfect cure for its patients. Having vertical garden can reduce indoor volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and other compounds linked to SBS. (Butkovich et al, 2008) VOCs and other particulate matters are also found to decrease lung functions, increase respiratory problems as well as cardiovascular diseases. (Ottele, 2010) From physiological point, vertical gardens can elicit a wakeful and relaxed state characterized by a decreased heart rate and a quicker stress recovery time. (Peck et al, 1999) The symptoms such headache are reduced by at least 20% or more, depending on the  12  nature of symptoms. (Bringslimark et al, 2009) Humidity Level is also an important factor in a working environment. The humidity between, 45-65% is range for the comfortable environment. (Cooney et al, 2004) Noise is another indoor environmental factor that affects occupants’ comfort. It has been well established that noisy environments are stressful, frustrating, and prevent people from working at their best capacity. (Huang, 2011) Installation of vertical garden can act as another layer to absorb noise from outside as well as inside the building. Moreover, the white noise produced by wind moving through the branches and leaves of vertical garden can play a positive role in occupants’ well-being. (Peck et al, 1999) 2.4 Job Opportunities Vertical garden for some reason is not as popular in Vancouver as it should be. Given the biodiversity and its abundance of resources, there are only a handful of vertical gardens including the one in Vancouver Aquarium. If this vertical garden technology presents a new business opportunity, the market will grow exponentially. Aside from a plenty of resources, buildings in Vancouver seriously lack any aesthetic appeal. On top of aesthetic appeal, economic benefit will entice residents to implement to their homes and buildings. Given its versatility of the technology, rehabilitation of old buildings, with more colours and textures for designer to use, is readily easy to do. (Ibanez, 2010) As it is the case in Europe, especially Germany, green market is growing rapidly 20-30% a year. (Peck et al, 1999) Therefore it is not hard to imagine that vertical garden will create a new job opportunities for Vancouver, spreading out to rest of Canada.  13  3.0 ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT To fully comprehend the feasibility of installing the vertical garden to the New SUB Atrium, some environmental factors have to be considered. In this section, the environmental aspects of the vertical garden are discussed. Such assessments include the locations of installation, plant choice, and the impacts on the environment. In addition, the impacts can be divided up into the direct and the indirect categories. The following is a detailed explanation of the listed assessments, and how these environmental factors are beneficial and inspirational to the users of the New SUB.  3.1 Locations The location of installation of the vertical garden is as important as the functions of it. Figure 3 is the front design layout of the New SUB Atrium. Label 1, 2, and 3 are the potential locations for installing the vertical garden. Location 1 is glass windows, and it cannot be covered entirely with plants. Thus, the vertical garden can be constructed between the floors, where the glass will not be covered while blocking direct sunlight at noon. Location 2 is a wall with windows located partially. Therefore, a thin layer of vertical garden can be installed as long as they do not affect the windows. Location 3 is at the top of the building. There seem to be a large available space for the vertical garden.  Figure 2: Locations of the Vertical Garden  14  3.2 System Choice and Plant Choice There are two major types of vertical garden: Living Wall and Green Facade. The living wall is a kind of vertical garden in which vegetations are pre-planted onto panels or planters. These panels and planters are then installed vertically to a frame on a structure (Lambertini, A., & Ciampi, M., 2007). This type of vertical garden allows a wilder diversity of vegetations. Due to this reason, it has less resistance against Vancouver's windy and rainy weather, and requires constant maintenance. Thus, the living wall will not be considered in this case. Figure 3 is an example of a living wall.  Figure 3: Living Wall Example Source: tournesolsiteworks.com  Green Façade is another kind of vertical garden in which climbing vegetations are designed and trained to grow and cover a designated supporting structure. Metal frames, square panels, and cable systems are the options for the supporting structure.  15  Figure 4 is an example of green façade. The purpose of these supporting frames is to keep the vegetation off the wall surface so that they will not damage the exterior and will provide easy access during building maintenance. These self-clinging vegetations can be rooted in the ground or in hanging planters. In this case, each supporting frame (each block), will be 1 m in width, 1 m in height, and 30 cm in depth, and the entire vertical garden will be constructed with combination of blocks. English Ivy is suitable for living in a temperature between 5~25 Celsius and temporarily surviving extreme condition of -10 ~ 40 Celsius (Lambertini, A., & Ciampi, M., 2007). In conclusion, the combination of English Ivy and Green Façade system can be considered in constructing the vertical garden.  Figure 4: Green Façade Vertical Garden of Ivy Growing on Supporting Frames Source: www.nytimes.com  3.3 Direct Environmental Impacts The vertical garden has a high possibility for positive environmental change in the New SUB area; especially it is very close to the UBC Bus Loop and the heavy traffic  16  Westbrook Mall. These beneficial influences are reduction of UHI effect, improvement of air quality, improvement of energy efficiency, and noise reduction. 3.3.1 Reduction of Urban Heat Island Effect The UHI effect is the increment in temperature caused by the modification of the land by construction of new buildings. The materials used on the modern buildings, such as concrete and wood, trap heat and reduce the air flow in the city. This effect will occur once the New SUB is constructed as it will locate closely with the old SUB and the UBC Aquatic Centre. The vertical garden is capable of promoting natural cooling process. This is achieved by breaking the vertical air flow, which cools down the air as the vertical circulation slows down. (Green Roofs for Healthy cities, 2008) Moreover, the vertical garden simply provides shading to the surface of the building, thus it absorbs less heat.  3.3.2 Improvement of Air Quality Chemical particles such as NO2, SO2, VOC, and CO are harmful to human body. The emission of such particles has increased around UBC in the past decade (Ibanez, 2010) The vertical garden can filter these hazardous gases by capturing airborne contaminants and depositing them on leaf surfaces. On the other hand, the overall CO2 emission of the building can also be deducted as the vertical garden absorbs CO2.  3.3.3 Improvement of Energy Efficiency According to the assessment on renewable energy from previous year, lack of thermal insulation capacity of the SUB can be one of the biggest factors that decrease the energy efficiency. The vertical garden simply reduces the surface temperature of the building by limiting the heat flux going through the wall (Bass, 2007). On the other hand, air itself is a good  17  insulator, by installing the vertical garden, a gap of air is formed between the garden and the wall. As describe above, the vertical garden slows down the vertical movement of heat. Therefore, the heat is trapped during cold weather, and is insulated during hot weather. Table 1 shows the average energy consumption of a five story building with and without the installation of the vertical garden (Binabid, J., 2010).  Energy Consumption  Average Energy  Average Energy  Consumption (kWh)  Consumption with Vertical Garden Installed (kWh)  Heating from Natural Gas  220,000  216,000  Cooling from Electricity  78,000  66,000  Lighting from Electricity  27,000  27,000  Hot Water from Natural Gas  70,000  70,000  395,000  378,000  Total  Table 1 Average Energy Consumption of a Five-Level Building with and without Vertical Garden  3.3.4 Noise Reduction The vegetations and the soil in the vertical garden will also contribute to improving the sound insulation and reducing sound reflection. The soil itself is a superb noise absorber. The noise reduction coefficient, NRC, is a scalar indication of the total absorption of sound energy after reflecting from a certain surface. A 1 represents a perfect absorption; a 0 represents a perfect reflection. The traffic noise frequency ranges from 100Hz to 1300Hz. This range includes tire/road noise, exhaust noise, and horn sound. At 1000Hz, a painted concrete wall has NRC of 0.07; an ordinary window glass has NRC of 0.03; plywood has NRC of 0.1. Whereas soil has a high NRC of 0.64 and a dense-planted grasses surface has NRC of 0.23 (Absorption Coefficient Chart). Thus, the vertical garden significantly complements the low NRC of the building.  18  4.0 ECONOMIC ASSESSMENT Every technology is bound to be decided on whether it can be profitable or not. Economic assessment evaluates the possible ways that a technology can retrieve its capital cost and stay profitable over its lifespan. The initial installation cost can vary from $100 per square foot to $1200 per square meter.(Curtis 2010; inhabitat,2007) However, vertical garden presents a number of ways to be financially beneficial and be a feasible option for new SUB building. 4.1 HVAC Systems In the urban environment, a phenomenon known as Urban Heat Island effect is common in concrete buildings. At daylight, heat is absorbed by the building and stays captured in the building. As a result, the building temperature rises above its surrounding and becomes a heat island. (See Figure 5 below)  Figure 5: Urban Heat Island Effect, (Ottele, 2010) It is no secret that the occupants will suffer from a high temperature and have to use air-conditioning emitting Chlorofluorocarbons and other GHGs. Also the electricity is produced by burning fossil fuels generating sulfur dioxide, nitrous dioxide harmful to respiratory system. For Vancouver, having vertical garden can reduce the energy for airconditioning as much as 30%. (Bass, 2001) This is possible because vertical garden can act as a plant canopy and by the evapo-transpiration of plants. Evapo-transpiration  19  simply means cooling effect by evaporation of water on the leaves. For instance, 2.5MJ energy is needed to evaporate 1kg of water. (Ottele, 2010) In summer, plants can store energy to lower the temperature of the shaded surface and regulate humidity at night by trapping air and in winter, plants can insulate and gives off heat to minimize temperature drop. (Bass, 2007) As a plant canopy, vertical garden can mitigate wind effect by decreasing wind chill factor by 75% and heating demand by 25%. (Peck et al, 1999) In numbers, potential savings during the peak energy requirements in the heat of summer and the cold of winter are estimated to be 0.24 and 0.4 KW per occupant respectively. (Darlington, 2004)  4.2 Stormwater Management Vertical gardens are not as effective as green roofs when it comes to stormwater management. This is due to its design characteristics and location on the side walls of building. Under heavy rain and strong wind, vertical garden is able to interrupt and delay run-off to some extent. For grey water treatment, vertical garden can clean and filter the water through a system of planters filled with swam grasses and aquatic plants (Peck et al, 1999) Also, Hydroponic system in vertical garden can store rainwater and use it as a nutrient for plants to grow. Consequently, less water goes to the sewage. (Ottele, 2010) 4.3 Biofiltration of Indoor Air Quality Canadians spend more time indoor as much as 80 %of their time on a daily basis. (Butkovich et al, 2008). It is imperative to have a good Indoor Air Quality (IAQ). Vertical garden inside the building can act as a bio-filter as well as oxygen-generator. For instance, 25 m2 of leaf surface area can produce 27g of oxygen per hour during the day,  20  equal to human consumption and 150 m2 can balance human intake for one year. (Peck et al, 1999) This is just a huge amount of oxygen produced by a small leaf. If there are plants, not just the leaves, are present at a reasonable size, its impact is very powerful. In addition, 60m2 of vertical garden can filter 40 tons of harmful gases and process 15kg of heavy metals. (Vertical Ecosystems, 2011) Inside the building, VOCs, benzene, toluene and other toxic fumes are degraded by plants. (Darlington et al, 2001) These benefits will greatly impact and help people suffering from asthma and other respiratory diseases. In terms of energy savings, 3.5kw per person can be saved at peak seasons. (Cooney et al, 2004) 4.4 Other Economic Impacts Vertical garden is not only a money-saving, but also a money-making feature for a building. It is a widely spread misconception that vertical gardens will damage the wall. What really happens at the wall of buildings is that vertical garden can actually protect building material from UV radiation, driving rain, ice accretion, tear cause by moisture, and temperature difference. For maintenance, little is need once the plants have established. (Peck et al, 1999) If a section of vertical garden fails to thrive or dies, panels can be easily popped from their slot and replace without interfering rest of the structure. (Canwest 2008) However, the vertical garden becomes a financial burden, energy wasting, unappealing and destructive if it is not maintained properly. (Binabid, 2010) This is very unlikely to happen unless it is purposely left to be untouched. Lastly, American and British Studies show that having a green plant can increase the value of property by 6-15%. (Peck et al, 1999) Thus, the new SUB building’s property value will increase even more with the vertical garden.  21  5.0 Concerns and Barriers Even with all positive and beneficial aspects of vertical garden, there are barrier and concerns making this technology very slow to spread. How these barriers and concern can be resolved is the key to a wide-adoption of vertical garden.  5.1 Barriers for wide-adoption In his report, Peck et al (1999) has stated that even with all the benefits of vertical garden, there are barriers that prevent this new technology from being used. There are four barriers presented in the report are as following:  -Lack of knowledge and awareness -Lack of incentives to implement -Cost-based Barriers -Technical Issues and Risks associated with Uncertainty  These four barriers are closely related to each other. For instance, Lack of knowledge and awareness leads to technical issues and ricks associated with uncertainty. This can be solved by conducting more researches on vertical gardens and its application in urban setting. Once these two barriers are overcome, inevitably the government will promote using the technology by giving out incentives in a similar fashion to hybrid cars. Also, similar to hybrid cars, people are willing to pay for premiums upfront if they view the technology beneficial. (See Figure 6 below)  22  Figure 6: Perception on cost of vertical garden ( Knowles et al, 2002) Therefore, cost-based barriers will also be overcome over time as energy-saving becomes more and more intrinsic property of our homes and buildings without compromising the use of fossil fuels. 5.2 Concerns The concerns for vertical garden are mostly associated with the plants themselves. It is possible to have unpleasant odour and airborne diseases spread by pollen, dusts and other contaminants from having plants indoor. This can be solved by carefully choosing the right plants for indoor and make sure nothing allergic is present. Also, insects can be another factor to not have plants indoor but most of the insects will have a hard time finding foods indoor. (Peck et al, 1999)  23  6.0 CONCLUSION After the triple-bottom-line assessment on the social, environmental, and economical impacts of the vertical garden on the New SUB at the University of British Columbia, it can be concluded that the vertical garden is beneficial in social, environmental, and economical aspects. Therefore, the installation of the vertical garden is recommended The vertical garden implemented at the New SUB will inspire UBC students and visitors by the green features of the vertical garden. While all the benefits of installing a vertical garden is shown, public will then be motivated to extensively apply the concept of the vertical garden. Consequently, more vertical gardens will be constructed and, thus, the goal of improving the environment is achieved.  24  List of References Absorption Coefficient Chart. (n.d.). Retrieved from SAE institution: http://www.sae.edu/reference_material/pages/Coefficient%20Chart.htm Aminuddin, M. (2001). Inspiring and distraction garden: The city advertiser,. Almusaed, A., (2011) Socio and Healthy Human Psychology upon Biophilic ArchitectureSpringer-Verlag London Limited , pp173-186 Bass, Brad (2001) Evaluating Rooftop and Vertical Gardens as an Adaptation Strategy for Urban Areas National Research Centre of Canada Bass, B. (2007). Green Roofs and Green Walls: Potential Energy Savings in the Winter. Toronto: Adaptation & Impacts Research Division Environment Canada at the University of Toronto Centre for Environment. Bass, B., Kennedy, C., Pressnail, K., & Saiz, S. (2006). Comparative Life Cycle Assessment of Standard and Green Roofs. Environmental Science and Technology, , 4312-4316. Binabid, J. (2010). Vertical Garden The Study of Vertical Gardens and Their Benefits for Low-Rise Buildings in Moderate and Hot Climate. University of Southern California. Brown, k., Bellows, A., & Smit, J. (2004). Health Benefits of Urban Agriculture. Retrieved from Community Food Security Coalition: http://www.foodsecurity.org/UAHealthArticle.pdf Bringslimark, T, Hartig, T, Patil, & Grete G, (2009) The psychological benefits of indoor plants: A critical review of the experimental literature, JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY; 422-433  25  Butkovich, K., Graves, J., McKay, J., & Slopack, M. (2008). An Investigation Into the Feasibility of Biowall Technology. George Brown College Applied Research&Innovation. CanWest MediaWorks Publications Inc. (2008, July 3). Going up-Vertical Gardens catch on. Vancouver, BC, Canada. Cooney, E., Deller, S., Michie, L., & Wedderburn, D. (2004). A Research Study of the Feasibility of Implementing a Living Wall into the Environmental Studies 2 Building. University of Waterloos. Curtis, L. Stuart, M, (2010) Enhancing CHBE Indoor Air Quility : Biowall Technology, University of British Columbia Darlington, A., Dat, J., & Dixon, M. (2001). The Biofiltration of Indoor Air: Air Flux and Temperature Influences the Removal of Toluene, Ethylbenzene, and Xylene. ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY, 240-246. Darlington, A, (2004) An Integrated Indoor Air Biofiltration System for Municipal Infrastructure Air Quality Solutions Ltd Dwyer, A. (2011, November 2). Vertical gardens make for a breath of fresh air . Retrieved from The Globe and Mail: http://www.theglobeandmail.com/report-onbusiness/small-business/sb-growth/sustainability/vertical-gardens-make-for-abreath-of-freshair/article2221420/?utm_medium=Feeds%3A%20RSS%2FAtom&utm_source=Ho me&utm_content=2221420 Green Roofs for Health Cities. (2009, August 7). 2008 Awards of Excellence: Vancouver Aquarium . Vancouver, B.C., Canada. Green Roofs for Healthy cities. (2008). Introduction to Green walls, Benfits & Design.  26  Huang, Y, (2011) Impact of Green Building Design on Healthcare Occupants------with a focus on healthcare staff Michigan State University Ibanez, A. (2010). GREEN ELEMENTS IN ARCHITECTURE. COPENHAGEN TECHNICAL ACADEMY. Inhabitat, (2007) Living Wall http://inhabitat.com/living-wall/livingwall1_copy/ Lambertini, A., & Ciampi, M. (2007). Vertical Gardens. London: Verba volant. Knowles, L, MacLean, P, Rosato, M, Stanley, C, Volpe, S, &Yousif, D,(2002) Living Wall: Feasibility Study of SLC University of Waterloo Ottele, M. (2010). Vertical greened surfaces and the potential to reduce air pollution and the improvement of the insulation value of buildings. Delft Univsersity of Technology. Peck, Steve &W., Callaghan, Chris (1999) Greenbacks from Green Roofs: Forging a New Industry in Canada Canadian Mortgage and Housing Corperation Risser, P., & Johnson, F. (1973). Carbon Dioxide Exchange Characteristics of Some Prairie Grass Seedlings. The Southwest Naturalist, 85-91. Vertical Ecosystems. (2011). Vertical Garden Benefits. Retrieved from Vertical Ecosystems: http://www.paisajismourbano.com/EN/beneficts.php Smith, A, Tucker, M, & Pitt M, (2010) Healthy, productive workplaces: towards a case for interior plantscaping EMERALDS; 209-223 Wong, N., Tan, A., Tan, P., Sia, A., & Wong, N. (2010). Perception Studies of Vertical Greenery Systems in Singapore. JOURNAL OF URBAN PLANNING AND DEVELOPMENT, 330-338.  27  Appendix  28  29  30  

Cite

Citation Scheme:

        

Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
http://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/dsp.18861.1-0108430/manifest

Comment

Related Items