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An investigation into : displaying sustainability Shabehpour, Nazafarin; Wang, Hsuan Yu (Allen); Yen, Alan 2011

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UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report  An Investigation into: Displaying Sustainability Nazafarin Shabehpour Hsuan Yu (Allen) Wang Alan Yen University of British Columbia APSC 261 November 23, 2011  Disclaimer: “UBC SEEDS provides students with the opportunity to share the findings of their studies, as well as their opinions, conclusions and recommendations with the UBC community. The reader should bear in mind that this is a student project/report and is not an official document of UBC. Furthermore readers should bear in mind that these reports may not reflect the current status of activities at UBC. We urge you to contact the research persons mentioned in a report or the SEEDS Coordinator about the current status of the subject matter of a project/report”.  	
   	
    An	
  Investigation	
  into:	
  Displaying	
  Sustainability	
   	
   	
   	
    	
   	
   	
   	
    Nazafarin	
  Shabehpour	
   Hsuan	
  Yu	
  (Allen)	
  Wang	
   Alan	
  Yen	
   	
   	
   November	
  23,	
  2011	
   APSC	
  261	
   Dr.	
  Steve	
  Oldridge	
   	
    	
    i	
   	
    Abstract	
   	
   This	
  report	
  presents	
  the	
  design	
  of	
  the	
  display	
  boards	
  that	
  will	
  be	
  installed	
  in	
  the	
  new	
  SUB.	
  The	
   design	
   is	
   separated	
   into	
   three	
   different	
   parts.	
   The	
   LED	
   energy	
   data	
   display	
   system	
   is	
   a	
   simple	
   system	
  that	
  shows	
  the	
  energy	
  usage	
  of	
  the	
  new	
  SUB;	
  this	
  system	
  will	
  compare	
  and	
  express	
  the	
   data	
   in	
   a	
   way	
   so	
   that	
   it	
   has	
   maximum	
   impact	
   on	
   the	
   SUB	
   users’	
   awareness	
   of	
   sustainability.	
   The	
   choice	
   of	
   televisions	
   compares	
   three	
   different	
   types	
   television:	
   LCD,	
   LED,	
   and	
   plasma;	
   the	
   comparison	
   judges	
   different	
   aspects	
   of	
   a	
   television	
   including	
   contrast,	
   colour,	
   motion,	
   viewing	
   angle,	
   and	
   pricing.	
   The	
   content	
   of	
   the	
   televisions	
   suggests	
   the	
   programs	
   that	
   are	
   going	
   to	
   be	
   played	
  on	
  the	
  televisions	
  in	
  the	
  new	
  SUB:	
  a	
  virtual	
  tour,	
  sustainability	
  tip	
  of	
  the	
  week,	
  and	
  tips	
   for	
  special	
  events	
  or	
  holidays.	
  Each	
  section	
  of	
  this	
  report	
  is	
  evaluated	
  using	
  the	
  triple-­‐bottom	
  – line	
  assessment,	
  which	
  includes	
  the	
  evaluation	
  of	
  social,	
  environmental,	
  and	
  economical	
  aspects.	
   	
    	
    ii	
   	
    Table	
  of	
  Contents	
   	
   1.0	
   Introduction	
  ..........................................................................................................................	
  1	
   2.0	
   LED	
  Energy	
  Data	
  Display	
  System	
  ...........................................................................................	
  2	
   2.1	
   System	
  designing	
  ...............................................................................................................	
  2	
   2.1.1	
   Water	
  Usage	
  ...............................................................................................................	
  3	
   2.1.2	
   Electricity	
  Consumption	
  .............................................................................................	
  3	
   2.1.3	
   Green-­‐House-­‐Gas	
  Emission	
  ........................................................................................	
  4	
   2.2	
   System	
  Evaluation	
  .............................................................................................................	
  4	
   2.2.1	
   Social	
  ..........................................................................................................................	
  4	
   2.2.2	
   Environmental	
  ............................................................................................................	
  4	
   2.2.3	
   Economical	
  .................................................................................................................	
  5	
   3.0	
   Display	
  board	
  .........................................................................................................................	
  6	
   3.1	
   Types	
  .................................................................................................................................	
  6	
   3.2	
   Ranking	
  ..............................................................................................................................	
  6	
   3.2.1	
   Contrast	
  Ratio	
  .............................................................................................................	
  6	
   3.2.2	
  	
   Color	
  ..........................................................................................................................	
  7	
   3.2.3	
   Motion	
  ........................................................................................................................	
  7	
   3.2.4	
   Viewing	
  Angle	
  .............................................................................................................	
  7	
   3.2.5	
   Power	
  Consumption	
  ...................................................................................................	
  7	
   3.2.6	
   Lifetime	
  .......................................................................................................................	
  7	
   3.2.7	
   Price	
  ............................................................................................................................	
  8	
   3.3	
   Evaluation	
  ..........................................................................................................................	
  8	
   4.0	
   Contents	
  of	
  the	
  Display	
  Board	
  .............................................................................................	
  10	
   4.1	
   Design	
  ..............................................................................................................................	
  10	
   4.2	
   Evaluation	
  ........................................................................................................................	
  12	
   4.2.1	
   Social	
  ........................................................................................................................	
  12	
   4.2.2	
   Environmental	
  ..........................................................................................................	
  12	
   4.2.3	
   Economical	
  ...............................................................................................................	
  12	
   5.0	
   Conclusion	
  ...........................................................................................................................	
  13	
   List	
  of	
  References	
  ..........................................................................................................................	
  14	
   	
   iii	
   	
    	
   List	
  of	
  Figures	
   	
   	
   Figure	
  1:	
  The	
  design	
  of	
  the	
  LED	
  energy	
  display	
  system……….….………………………………………………....3	
   Figure	
  2:	
  Displaying	
  Data	
  ………………………………………………………………………………………………………...10	
   	
    	
    iv	
   	
    	
   List	
  of	
  Tables	
   	
   	
   Table	
  1:	
  The	
  ranking	
  of	
  three	
  types	
  of	
  televisions	
  ………………………………………………………………8	
    v	
   	
    List	
  of	
  Abbreviations	
   	
   	
   	
   SUB	
  	
  	
   	
    	
    	
    	
    	
    	
    Student	
  Union	
  Building	
    	
    	
    	
    	
    	
    	
    Liquid	
  Crystal	
  Display	
    	
    	
    	
    	
    	
    	
    Light	
  Emitting	
  Diode	
    GHG	
  	
   	
    	
    	
    	
    	
    	
    Green	
  House	
  Gases	
    	
    	
    	
    	
    	
    Cold	
  Cathode	
  Fluorescent	
  Lamps	
    	
   LCD	
  	
   	
   LED	
  	
   	
    	
   CCFL	
  	
   	
    vi	
   	
    1.0	
   Introduction	
   	
   The	
   new	
   AMS	
   Student	
   Union	
   Building	
   intends	
   to	
   bring	
   new	
   gathering	
   space	
   for	
   UBC	
   students	
   and	
   staff,	
   as	
   well	
   as	
   for	
   the	
   student	
   services,	
   right	
   in	
   the	
   center	
   of	
   the	
   university	
   campus.	
  However,	
  this	
  is	
  not	
  the	
  one	
  and	
  only	
  goal	
  for	
  this	
  project.	
  The	
  new	
  SUB	
  committee	
  has	
   set	
   ten	
   major	
   goals	
   that	
   the	
   new	
   SUB	
   will	
   aim	
   to	
   enhance,	
   within	
   those	
   there	
   are:	
   “Environmental	
   sustainability	
   by	
   reducing	
   the	
   energy	
   and	
   materials	
   consumed	
   in	
   the	
   building	
   and	
   operation	
   of	
   the	
   SUB”	
   and	
   “Economic	
   sustainability	
   by	
   providing	
   entrepreneurship	
   opportunities	
   for	
   students	
   and	
   expanding	
   the	
   AMS	
   business”	
   [8]	
   pertinent	
   to	
   the	
   sustainability	
   factor.	
   In	
  order	
  to	
  ensure	
  the	
  goals	
  are	
  met,	
  the	
  public	
  and	
  the	
  users	
  need	
  to	
  be	
  aware	
  of	
  the	
  concept	
   of	
   sustainability	
   and	
   become	
   engaged	
   in	
   the	
   project.	
   For	
   this	
   purpose,	
   a	
   number	
   of	
   display	
   boards	
   are	
   proposed	
   for	
   the	
   main	
   atrium	
   of	
   the	
   building	
   and	
   other	
   locations	
   such	
   as	
   the	
   cafeteria.	
  The	
  boards	
  are	
  to	
  be	
  as	
  sustainable,	
  eco-­‐friendly	
  and	
  financially	
  affordable	
  as	
  possible,	
   while	
  they	
  need	
  to	
  function	
  in	
  an	
  effective	
  manner.	
   The	
   following	
   sections	
   of	
   the	
   report	
   will	
   discuss	
   the	
   suggested	
   design.	
   LED	
   arrays	
   will	
   constantly	
   update	
   and	
   display	
   daily	
   energy	
   usage	
   data	
   in	
   the	
   building.	
   The	
   other	
   display	
   board	
   suggested	
   is	
   TVs,	
   different	
   types	
   of	
   which	
   have	
   also	
   been	
   assessed	
   and	
   compared,	
   and	
   finally,	
   the	
   best	
   possible	
   option	
   has	
   been	
   chosen.	
   Using	
   TVs,	
   other	
   types	
   of	
   contents,	
   such	
   as	
   movies,	
   virtual	
   tours	
  and	
  pictures	
  can	
  be	
  displayed	
  as	
  well.	
    1	
   	
    2.0	
   LED	
  Energy	
  Data	
  Display	
  System	
   The	
   main	
   purpose	
   of	
   this	
   system	
   is	
   to	
   constantly	
   display	
   and	
   update	
   the	
   daily	
   energy	
   data	
   of	
   the	
   new	
   SUB	
   using	
   only	
   LED	
   light	
   bulbs,	
   and	
   this	
   system	
   should	
   increase	
   users’	
   awareness	
   of	
   sustainability.	
   Such	
   data	
   can	
   also	
   be	
   displayed	
   on	
   televisions;	
   however,	
   televisions	
   cannot	
   be	
   used	
   to	
   only	
   show	
   the	
   energy	
   consumption	
   data	
   because	
   other	
   programs,	
   such	
   as	
   advertisement,	
   will	
   be	
   played	
   occasionally.	
   Also,	
   the	
   electricity	
   usage	
   of	
   a	
   LED	
   TV	
   is	
   generally	
   much	
  higher	
  than	
  simple	
  LED	
  light	
  bulbs.	
  Although	
  this	
  system	
  is	
  designed	
  to	
  be	
  very	
  simple	
  so	
   that	
  every	
  user	
  can	
  understand	
  easily,	
  some	
  features	
  are	
  implemented	
  during	
  the	
  scaling,	
  sizing,	
   and	
   choosing	
   the	
   colours.	
   These	
   features	
   are	
   believed	
   to	
   effectively	
   increase	
   the	
   users’	
   awareness	
  of	
  sustainability	
  and	
  make	
  the	
  system	
  more	
  interactive.	
    2.1	
    System	
  designing	
   The	
   only	
   component	
   required	
   for	
   this	
   system	
   is	
   three	
   different	
   colours	
   of	
   LEDs:	
   blue	
    (490nm),	
  green	
  (565nm),	
  and	
  red	
  (660nm).	
  The	
  size	
  of	
  LEDs	
  will	
  be	
  5mm,	
  because	
  they	
  are	
  the	
   most	
  common	
  LED	
  size	
  and	
  are	
  relatively	
  cheaper.	
  There	
  will	
  be	
  three	
  different	
  measurements	
   being	
   displayed:	
   green-­‐house-­‐gas	
   (GHG)	
   emission,	
   water	
   consumption,	
   and	
   electricity	
   usage.	
   Each	
   measurement	
   will	
   be	
   displayed	
   in	
   different	
   meters	
   that	
   are	
   built	
   with	
   10	
   blocks	
   of	
   LEDs.	
   The	
  area	
  of	
  one	
  block	
  is	
  about	
  2.5x5	
  cm,	
  which	
  means	
  that	
  each	
  block	
  can	
  be	
  built	
  with	
  about	
  25	
   LEDs	
   (see	
   figure	
   1).	
   The	
   overall	
   size	
   of	
   this	
   system	
   is	
   expected	
   to	
   be	
   about	
   80x100	
   cm.	
   This	
   system	
  can	
  be	
  implemented	
  as	
  a	
  replacement	
  to	
  one	
  of	
  the	
  LED	
  TVs;	
  alternatively,	
  if	
  the	
  size	
  is	
   increased	
  to	
  2	
  to	
  3	
  times,	
  this	
  board	
  can	
  be	
  implemented	
  at	
  the	
  entrance	
  of	
  the	
  new	
  SUB	
  atrium	
   centre.	
  	
   The	
   LED	
   blocks	
   are	
   the	
   critical	
   components	
   of	
   this	
   system.	
   If	
   5	
   blocks	
   of	
   LEDs	
   are	
   ON,	
   then	
  the	
  new	
  SUB	
  is	
  running	
  at	
  its	
  expected	
  usage	
  or	
  consumption;	
  and	
  if	
  the	
  value	
  excesses	
  or	
    2	
   	
    reduces	
   by	
   a	
   certain	
   amount,	
   the	
   rest	
   of	
   the	
   blocks	
   will	
   be	
   turned	
   ON	
   or	
   OFF	
   respectively.	
   Therefore,	
   by	
   reading	
   the	
   LED	
   blocks,	
   new	
   SUB	
   users	
   will	
   know	
   if	
   they	
   are	
   wasting	
   too	
   much	
   energy	
  or	
  saving	
  more	
  energy	
  for	
  the	
  earth.	
  	
    Figure	
  1.	
  The	
  design	
  of	
  the	
  LED	
  energy	
  display	
  system.	
  (Hsuan	
  Yu	
  Wang,	
  2011)	
   	
   2.1.1	
   Water	
  Usage	
   The	
   meter	
   for	
   water	
   usage	
   will	
   be	
   blue	
   (490nm).	
   This	
   meter	
   shows	
   the	
   overall	
   water	
   usage	
   of	
   the	
   entire	
   new	
   SUB.	
   One	
   block	
   of	
   blue	
   LEDs	
   will	
   represent	
   5200	
   litres	
   of	
   water.	
   This	
   amount	
  of	
  water	
  is	
  only	
  enough	
  for	
  10	
  Vancouver	
  residents’	
  daily	
  use.	
  However,	
  5200	
  litres	
  of	
   water	
  is	
  enough	
  a	
  Saharan	
  African	
  to	
  use	
  for	
  more	
  than	
  a	
  year.	
  	
   2.1.2	
   Electricity	
  Consumption	
   Red	
   (660nm)	
   LEDs	
   will	
   be	
   used	
   to	
   display	
   the	
   electricity	
   consumption	
   of	
   the	
   new	
   SUB	
   building.	
  The	
  scaling	
  for	
  one	
  block	
  of	
  red	
  LEDs	
  will	
  be	
  1000KWh.	
  This	
  is	
  the	
  amount	
  of	
  electricity	
   that	
  a	
  North	
  American	
  needs	
  for	
  one	
  whole	
  month.	
    3	
   	
    	
    2.1.3	
   Green-­‐House-­‐Gas	
  Emission	
   Green	
  (565nm)	
  LEDs	
  will	
  be	
  used	
  to	
  display	
  the	
  GHG	
  emission	
  of	
  the	
  new	
  SUB	
  building.	
   Each	
  green	
  LED	
  block	
  symbolizes	
  one	
  ton	
  of	
  GHG.	
  A	
  tree	
  planted	
  in	
  tropic	
  can	
  absorb	
  about	
  22	
   kg	
  per	
  year,	
  but	
  trees	
  might	
  die	
  or	
  get	
  destroyed	
  during	
  their	
  lifetime.	
  Therefore,	
  Mr.	
  Michael	
   Bloch,	
   the	
   founder	
   of	
   the	
   website	
   “Green	
   Living	
   Tips”,	
   calculated	
   that	
   one	
   ton	
   of	
   CO2	
   is	
   approximately	
  equivalent	
  to	
  5	
  trees.	
  	
    2.2	
    System	
  Evaluation	
   This	
   system	
   is	
   evaluated	
   using	
   the	
   triple-­‐bottom-­‐line	
   assessment.	
   A	
   final	
   decision	
   is	
    determined	
  by	
  three	
  factors:	
  social,	
  environmental,	
  and	
  economic.	
  Ideally,	
  this	
  product	
  will	
  have	
   low	
  impact	
  to	
  the	
  environment;	
  increase	
  the	
  users’	
  awareness	
  of	
  sustainability;	
  and	
  low	
  cost.	
   2.2.1	
   Social	
   Social	
   impact	
   is	
   the	
   priority	
   concern	
   when	
   this	
   system	
   is	
   being	
   designed.	
   The	
   main	
   objective	
  of	
  this	
  system	
  is	
  to	
  inform	
  the	
  users	
  the	
  difference	
  they	
  can	
  make	
  by	
  converting	
  blocks	
   of	
  LEDs	
  to	
  quantities	
  that	
  people	
  can	
  easily	
  understand,	
  such	
  as	
  number	
  of	
  trees.	
  This	
  system	
  is	
   believed	
   to	
   effectively	
   reduce	
   the	
   energy	
   waste	
   by	
   all	
   users	
   of	
   the	
   new	
   SUB	
   building.	
   Nevertheless,	
   the	
   ultimate	
   gold	
   of	
   this	
   system	
   is	
   to	
   encourage	
   the	
   users	
   to	
   reduce	
   their	
   daily	
   energy	
  consumption.	
   2.2.2	
   Environmental	
   Each	
   LED	
   consumes	
   about	
   10	
   watts	
   of	
   electricity;	
   this	
   is	
   about	
   1/10	
   of	
   the	
   energy	
   that	
   a	
   traditional	
   light	
   bulb	
   uses.	
   This	
   system	
   contains	
   only	
   LED	
   light	
   bulbs,	
   so	
   the	
   energy	
   consumption	
   of	
  this	
  system	
  is	
  considerably	
  low.	
  The	
  average	
  lifetime	
  of	
  LED	
  light	
  bulb	
  ranged	
  from	
  50,000	
  to	
   100,000	
  hours;	
  light	
  bulb	
  replacement	
  is	
  not	
  necessary	
  for	
  at	
  least	
  5	
  years.	
    4	
   	
    2.2.3	
   Economical	
   Again,	
   the	
   only	
   component	
   needed	
   to	
   build	
   this	
   system	
   is	
   LED	
   light	
   bulbs.	
   The	
   market	
   price	
  for	
  them	
  is	
  about	
  75	
  cents	
  each.	
  The	
  number	
  of	
  LEDs	
  needed	
  is	
  depending	
  on	
  the	
  size	
  of	
   the	
  system.	
  For	
  an	
  80x100	
  cm	
  board,	
  this	
  system	
  would	
  cost	
  about	
  $560	
  dollars.	
  As	
  the	
  previous	
   section	
  comments,	
  the	
  maintenance	
  (switching	
  light	
  bulbs)	
  is	
  not	
  necessary	
  for	
  at	
  least	
  5	
  years.	
   Therefore,	
  this	
  system	
  also	
  has	
  low	
  maintenance	
  fees.	
    5	
   	
    3.0	
   Display	
  board	
   In	
  the	
  current	
  market,	
  there	
  are	
  three	
  main	
  types	
  of	
  display	
  boards	
  that	
  we	
  will	
  consider	
   in	
   our	
   research.	
   We	
   will	
   be	
   comparing	
   the	
   advantages	
   and	
   disadvantages	
   of	
   each	
   type,	
   and	
   conclude	
  with	
  the	
  best	
  solution	
  possible	
  using	
  the	
  triple	
  bottom	
  line.	
    3.1	
    Types	
   The	
   three	
   types	
   of	
   boards	
   we	
   will	
   be	
   discussing	
   are	
   LCD	
   (liquid	
   crystal	
   display),	
   LED	
    (light-­‐emitting	
   diode),	
   and	
   plasma.	
   An	
   LCD	
   television	
   has	
   liquid	
   crystals	
   placed	
   in	
   between	
   the	
   display	
  panel	
  and	
  waiting	
  to	
  be	
  activated	
  through	
  a	
  supply	
  of	
  currents.	
  On	
  the	
  other	
  hand,	
  LED	
   television,	
   with	
   similar	
   platform	
   as	
   LCD,	
   uses	
   light-­‐emitting	
   diodes	
   as	
   the	
   back-­‐light	
   of	
   the	
   television.	
  Whereas	
  the	
  LCD	
  uses	
  cold	
  cathode	
  fluorescent	
  lamps	
  (CCFL)	
  back-­‐light.	
  Unlike	
  LCD,	
   plasma	
   television	
   works	
   on	
   a	
   different	
   platform.	
   It	
   is	
   basically	
   a	
   sheet	
   of	
   cells	
   placed	
   between	
   two	
   glass	
   panels	
   that	
   hold	
   a	
   mixture	
   of	
   noble	
   gases.	
   When	
   current	
   is	
   applied,	
   phosphors	
   are	
   excited,	
  thus	
  emitting	
  light.	
  All	
  three	
  types	
  of	
  television	
  are	
  different,	
  yet	
  very	
  similar.	
  We	
  will	
  be	
   taking	
  a	
  closer	
  look	
  at	
  different	
  aspects	
  of	
  the	
  three	
  types	
  of	
  display.	
    3.2	
    Ranking	
   There	
   are	
   several	
   aspects	
   we	
   have	
   to	
   consider	
   when	
   deciding	
   the	
   best	
   type	
   of	
   television	
    we	
  purchase.	
  We	
  will	
  be	
  ranking	
  all	
  three	
  types	
  of	
  televisions	
  throughout	
  all	
  the	
  categories.	
   3.2.1	
   Contrast	
  Ratio	
   The	
   contrast	
   ratio	
   indicates	
   how	
   well	
   the	
   device	
   displays	
   the	
   difference	
   between	
   the	
   darker	
  and	
  lighter	
  areas	
  on	
  the	
  screen.	
  Generally,	
  plasma	
  televisions	
  have	
  better	
  contrast	
  ratio	
   than	
  LED,	
  and	
  LCD	
  being	
  the	
  worst.	
    6	
   	
    3.2.2	
  	
   Color	
   Color	
   is	
   one	
   of	
   the	
   most	
   important	
   considerations	
   of	
   television	
   in	
   people’s	
   mind.	
   However,	
  there	
  is	
  no	
  clear	
  winner	
  this	
  time.	
  All	
  three	
  types	
  of	
  television	
  are	
  very	
  similar	
  in	
  terms	
   of	
  the	
  picture	
  quality.	
  Though	
  differences	
  may	
  exists	
  between	
  two	
  different	
  models	
  of	
  the	
  same	
   type	
  of	
  television	
  (higher	
  priced	
  television	
  displays	
  better	
  color).	
   3.2.3	
   Motion	
   In	
  the	
  category	
  of	
  pictures	
  in	
  motion,	
  plasma	
  television	
  is	
  leading	
  in	
  front	
  of	
  LCD	
  and	
  LED.	
   Although,	
  LCD	
  televisions	
  have	
  improved	
  significantly	
  throughout	
  the	
  recent	
  years,	
  but	
  it	
  is	
  still	
   losing	
  compared	
  to	
  plasma.	
  Also,	
  LED	
  televisions	
  use	
  the	
  same	
  technology	
  as	
  LCD.	
   3.2.4	
   Viewing	
  Angle	
   The	
  viewing	
  angle	
  represents	
  the	
  angle	
  of	
  which	
  the	
  image	
  on	
  the	
  television	
  screen	
  can	
   be	
  viewed	
  from.	
  	
  The	
  higher	
  the	
  viewing	
  angle,	
  the	
  better	
  the	
  television	
  is,	
  because	
  this	
  means	
   more	
  people	
  will	
  be	
  able	
  to	
  watch	
  the	
  television	
  from	
  a	
  wider	
  range.	
  In	
  this	
  category,	
  plasma	
  is	
   the	
  clear	
  winner	
  as	
  it	
  can	
  be	
  view	
  from	
  almost	
  any	
  angle.	
  On	
  the	
  other	
  hand,	
  LCD	
  is	
  the	
  worst	
   out	
  of	
  the	
  three.	
   3.2.5	
   Power	
  Consumption	
   It	
  is	
  no	
  doubt	
  that	
  LED	
  televisions	
  are	
  the	
  most	
  energy	
  efficient	
  type	
  out	
  of	
  the	
  three,	
   followed	
  by	
  LCD,	
  with	
  plasma	
  falling	
  behind.	
  	
   3.2.6	
   Lifetime	
   LCD	
   televisions	
   are	
   reported	
   to	
   have	
   about	
   60,000	
   hours	
   of	
   lifespan,	
   which	
   translates	
   to	
   close	
  to	
  seven	
  years.	
  On	
  the	
  other	
  hand,	
  plasma	
  televisions	
  makers	
  are	
  trying	
  their	
  hardest	
  to	
   bring	
   up	
   its	
   lifespan	
   as	
   close	
   to	
   LCD	
   as	
   possible.	
   There	
   are	
   no	
   actual	
   figures	
   of	
   how	
   long	
   LED	
   televisions	
   can	
   last,	
   as	
   it	
   is	
   a	
   new	
   technology	
   and	
   it	
   would	
   take	
   more	
   than	
   7	
   years	
   to	
   test	
   its	
   7	
   	
    lifespan	
   (assuming	
   it	
   has	
   the	
   same,	
   if	
   not	
   more,	
   lifespan	
   as	
   a	
   LCD	
   television).	
   Though,	
   LED	
   televisions	
  are	
  expected	
  to	
  have	
  at	
  least	
  the	
  same	
  lifespan	
  as	
  LCD	
  televisions.	
   3.2.7	
   Price	
   The	
  budget	
  is	
  probably	
  the	
  number	
  one	
  priority	
  for	
  most	
  of	
  the	
  people.	
  In	
  the	
  past	
  years,	
   plasma	
  televisions	
  have	
  much	
  lower	
  prices	
  than	
  LCD.	
  However,	
  as	
  the	
  increase	
  in	
  demand	
  and	
   production	
   for	
   LCD	
   televisions,	
   the	
   prices	
   start	
   to	
   get	
   competitive	
   for	
   plasma.	
   The	
   most	
   expensive	
   type	
   of	
   the	
   three	
   is	
   LED	
   television.	
   This	
   is	
   due	
   to	
   the	
   fact	
   that	
   LED	
   is	
   a	
   recent	
   technology,	
  and	
  not	
  yet	
  produced	
  at	
  the	
  same	
  volume	
  as	
  LCD	
  televisions.	
   	
    Best	
  Choice	
    Second	
  Choice	
    Worst	
  Choice	
    Contrast	
  Ratio	
    Plasma	
    LED	
    LCD	
    Viewing	
  Angle	
    Plasma	
    LED	
    LCD	
    Color	
    No	
  Differences	
    Motion	
    Plasma	
    LED,	
  LCD	
    Power	
    LED	
    LCD	
    Plasma	
    Lifetime	
    LCD	
    Plasma	
    N/A	
    Price	
    Plasma	
    LCD	
    LED	
    Consumption	
    Table	
  1:	
  The	
  ranking	
  of	
  three	
  types	
  of	
  televisions	
  (Alan	
  Yen,	
  2011).	
    3.3	
    Evaluation	
   Looking	
  at	
  the	
  chart	
  above,	
  there	
  is	
  no	
  clear	
  winner.	
  In	
  terms	
  of	
  price	
  and	
  picture	
  quality,	
    plasma	
   is	
   definitely	
   the	
   right	
   choice	
   to	
   make.	
   However,	
   LED	
   consumes	
   much	
   less	
   power	
   that	
   plasma	
   requires,	
   which	
   makes	
   it	
   a	
   lot	
   more	
   environmental	
   friendly.	
   Another	
   important	
   aspect	
   we	
   need	
   to	
   consider	
   is	
   the	
   social	
   interest.	
   Ultimately,	
   we	
   still	
   have	
   to	
   decide	
   which	
   type	
   of	
   8	
   	
    television	
  to	
  purchase.	
  Personally,	
  I	
  would	
  suggest	
  installing	
  a	
  plasma	
  television	
  first.	
  After	
  a	
  few	
   years,	
  LED	
  televisions	
  will	
  be	
  mass	
  produced,	
  resulting	
  in	
  a	
  drop	
  in	
  price,	
  as	
  well	
  as	
  having	
  better	
   picture	
   quality	
   since	
   the	
   technology	
   advances.	
   Then	
   we	
   can	
   replace	
   the	
   old	
   plasma	
   television	
   with	
  the	
  new	
  LED	
  television.	
  	
   	
    	
    9	
   	
    4.0	
   Contents	
  of	
  the	
  Display	
  Board	
   The	
  social	
  aspect	
  of	
  a	
  new	
  project	
  is	
  one	
  of	
  the	
  most	
  important	
  sides	
  of	
  it	
  that	
  can	
  lead	
  to	
  a	
   successful	
  program,	
  having	
  the	
  display	
  boards	
  in	
  the	
  new	
  SUB	
  points	
  towards	
  this	
  motive.	
    4.1	
   Design	
   The	
  contents	
  of	
  the	
  boards	
  are,	
  on	
  the	
  next	
  level,	
  what	
  inform	
  people	
  about	
  the	
  concept	
  of	
   sustainability	
   and	
   present	
   them	
   with	
   some	
   useful	
   data.	
   These	
   data	
   will	
   compare	
   daily	
   energy	
   usage,	
   water	
   consumption	
   and	
   Green	
   House	
   Gases	
   emission	
   in	
   the	
   new	
   SUB	
   and	
   the	
   old	
   SUB.	
   But	
  in	
  order	
  to	
  have	
  a	
  more	
  sustainable	
  society,	
  individuals	
  will	
  have	
  to	
  make	
  some	
  changes	
  in	
   their	
   own	
   life;	
   therefore,	
   having	
   some	
   data	
   indicating	
   how	
   much	
   water	
   and	
   electricity	
   an	
   average	
  North	
  American	
  family	
  consumes	
  and	
  how	
  much	
  garbage	
  they	
  produce,	
  will	
  help.	
    	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
   	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  Figure	
  2:	
  Displaying	
  Data	
  (Purchased	
  from	
  Fotolia	
  By	
  Nazafarin	
  Shabehpour,	
  Nov	
  2011)	
   	
   Another	
   feature	
   that	
   is	
   interesting	
   to	
   be	
   added	
   to	
   the	
   contents	
   of	
   the	
   display	
   board	
   is	
   displaying	
   short	
   virtual	
   tours	
   of	
   all	
   the	
   new	
   sustainable	
   features.	
   A	
   virtual	
   tour	
   is	
   a	
   simulation	
   of	
   an	
  existing	
  location	
  or	
  one	
  that	
  is	
  under	
  a	
  change	
  or	
  construction.	
  Virtual	
  tours	
  are	
  widely	
  used	
   in	
  real	
  estate	
  and	
  architectural	
  projects	
  to	
  give	
  a	
  better	
  sense	
  of	
  the	
  location	
  without	
  actually	
   10	
   	
    having	
  to	
  be	
  there.	
  In	
  the	
  case	
  of	
  the	
  new	
  SUB,	
  virtual	
  tours	
  can	
  go	
  behind	
  the	
  scenes	
  and,	
  for	
   instance,	
  show	
  what	
  happens	
  when	
  one	
  steps	
  on	
  the	
  pavegens,	
  how	
  electricity	
  is	
  generated	
  and	
   then	
   displays	
   the	
   data	
   of	
   how	
   much	
   energy	
   is	
   generated	
   and	
   what	
   is	
   then	
   done	
   with	
   the	
   electricity	
   produced;	
   this	
   will	
   indirectly	
   motivate	
   people	
   to	
   use	
   the	
   sustainable	
   features	
   as	
   such.	
   This	
   approach	
   is	
   especially	
   effective	
   if	
   displayed	
   in	
   the	
   cafeteria,	
   where	
   people	
   have	
   to	
   spend	
   at	
   least	
  ten	
  minutes	
  to	
  eat,	
  while	
  most	
  of	
  the	
  time,	
  have	
  nothing	
  else	
  to	
  do	
  a	
  moving	
  tour	
  would	
   draw	
   their	
   attention.	
   There	
   are	
   numerous	
   animation	
   companies,	
   who	
   are	
   specialized	
   in	
   producing	
  animated	
  virtual	
  tours;	
  within	
  those	
  there	
  are:	
    •  XR3D	
  from	
  Utah,	
  United	
  States.	
  Pricing	
  is,	
  based	
  on	
  the	
  complexity	
  of	
  the	
  tour,	
   from	
  $50	
  to	
  $70	
  per	
  second.	
  Their	
  animations	
  are	
  pretty	
  neat	
  and	
  precise.	
  [1]	
    •  Total	
  Real	
  from	
  Zurich,	
  Switzerland.	
  Prices	
  range	
  from	
  $6487	
  to	
  $9369	
  depending	
   on	
  the	
  length	
  of	
  the	
  tour	
  and	
  number	
  of	
  projects.	
  [11]	
    As	
   another	
   set	
   of	
   contents,	
   “Sustainability	
   tips	
   of	
   the	
   week”	
   is	
   proposed.	
   Tips	
   such	
   as	
   “Reduce,	
   Reuse,	
   and	
   Recycle”,	
   “Optimize	
   your	
   computer’s	
   energy-­‐savings	
   by	
   setting	
   it	
   to	
   automatically	
   hibernate	
   after	
   several	
   minutes	
   of	
   inactivity”	
   and	
   “Purchase	
   reusable	
   shopping	
   bags	
  and	
  bring	
  them	
  with	
  you	
  every	
  time	
  you	
  shop.	
  	
  If	
  you	
  are	
  purchasing	
  only	
  a	
  few	
  items,	
  stick	
   them	
   in	
   your	
   purse	
   or	
   briefcase	
   rather	
   than	
   asking	
   for	
   a	
   new	
   plastic	
   bag”	
   are	
   appropriate	
   for	
   this	
   purpose.	
   There	
   could	
   also	
   be	
   “Green	
   tips	
   for	
   special	
   arrangements”;	
   sentences	
   like	
   “Most	
   flowers	
  are	
  grown	
  using	
  large	
  amounts	
  of	
  harmful	
  pesticides.	
  Purchase	
  flowers	
  that	
  are	
  organic	
   and	
   free	
   from	
   toxicity”	
   and	
   “Much	
   like	
   coffee	
   farmers,	
   cocoa	
   farmers	
   often	
   work	
   in	
   very	
   poor	
   labour	
   conditions.	
   Purchase	
   chocolates	
   that	
   are	
   fair-­‐trade	
   and	
   certified	
   organic”	
   can	
   be	
   displayed	
  a	
  few	
  days	
  before	
  Christmas,	
  Valentine’s	
  day,	
  Mother’s	
  day,	
  etc.	
  and	
  help	
  people	
  be	
   able	
  to	
  think	
  greener	
  or	
  maybe	
  revise	
  their	
  gift	
  ideas.	
  [9]	
   11	
   	
    4.2	
   Evaluation	
   This	
   system	
   is	
   evaluated	
   using	
   the	
   Triple-­‐Bottom-­‐Line	
   assessment.	
   Three	
   factors	
   of	
   Social,	
   Environmental	
  and	
  Economic	
  impacts	
  will	
  make	
  the	
  final	
  decision.	
    4.2.1 Social	
  	
   Social	
  impact	
  is	
  the	
  number	
  one	
  priority	
  in	
  this	
  design.	
  The	
  principal	
  notion	
  of	
  the	
  design	
  is	
  to	
   enlighten	
  people	
  about	
  sustainability	
  and	
  the	
  sustainable	
  attributes	
  of	
  the	
  new	
  SUB.	
  Everything	
   from	
  the	
  “tip	
  of	
  the	
  week”	
  to	
  “Data	
  displaying”	
  follows	
  the	
  path	
  towards	
  the	
  unique	
  objective	
   that	
  is	
  informing	
  people	
  and	
  getting	
  them	
  to	
  think	
  Greener.	
  	
    4.2.2 Environmental	
   The	
  contents	
  of	
  the	
  board	
  encourage	
  people	
  to	
  realize	
  how	
  much	
  energy,	
  money	
  and	
  natural	
   resources	
   they	
   can	
   save	
   by	
   thinking	
   and	
   living	
   greener.	
   By	
   following	
   the	
   tips	
   displayed	
   and	
   implementing	
   them	
   in	
   their	
   individual	
   lives	
   and	
   maybe	
   persuading	
   others	
   to	
   pay	
   attention	
   to	
   those	
  tips	
  will	
  help	
  save	
  our	
  communities	
  and	
  the	
  planet.	
    4.2.3 Economical	
   The	
   system	
   is	
   designed	
   to	
   work	
   for	
   a	
   lifetime	
   or	
   as	
   long	
   as	
   the	
   building	
   features	
   are	
   still	
   working.	
   The	
   Data	
   can	
   be	
   collected	
   for	
   a	
   very	
   little	
   amount	
   of	
   money	
   or	
   for	
   no	
   charge;	
   Sustainability	
  tips	
  can	
  be	
  found	
  online	
  for	
  free	
  or	
  obtained	
  from	
  the	
  CIRS.	
  For	
  the	
  tour	
  only	
  there	
   are	
  options	
  to	
  consider,	
   •  Can	
   be	
   done	
   by	
   a	
   local	
   or	
   North	
   American	
   company,	
   which	
   would	
   be	
   about	
   $4200	
   to	
   $7000	
  for	
  a	
  minute	
  of	
  tour.	
  	
    •  Can	
  be	
  done	
  by	
  the	
  architectural	
  group	
  that	
  has	
  the	
  software	
  for	
  a	
  little	
  less.	
    •  Can	
  be	
  done	
  by	
  students	
  who	
  are	
  knowledgeable	
  and	
  interested,	
  voluntarily.	
   12	
   	
    5.0	
   Conclusion	
   	
   	
   Our	
   goal	
   is	
   not	
   only	
   to	
   select	
   the	
   best	
   type	
   of	
   televisions	
   using	
   the	
   triple-­‐bottom-­‐line	
   guidelines,	
   but	
   also	
   bringing	
   sustainability	
   awareness	
   to	
   the	
   users	
   of	
   the	
   new	
   SUB.	
   We	
   first	
   demonstrate	
   the	
   usage	
   of	
   water,	
   electricity,	
   and	
   green-­‐house-­‐gas	
   emissions	
   with	
   LED	
   arrays.	
   This	
   reflects	
   the	
   users’	
   efforts	
   to	
   hopefully	
   reduce	
   the	
   amount	
   of	
   usage,	
   as	
   well	
   as	
   indicating	
   how	
  much	
  can	
  be	
  wasted.	
  On	
  the	
  other	
  hand,	
  we	
  provide	
  sustainability	
  tips	
  every	
  week	
  to	
  users	
   which	
   aid	
   them	
   to	
   be	
   greener.	
   Also,	
   a	
   virtual	
   tour	
   will	
   be	
   played	
   in	
   the	
   cafeteria	
   area	
   where	
   users	
   can	
   learn	
   about	
   all	
   the	
   new	
   sustainability	
   features.	
   This	
   will	
   increase	
   the	
   usage	
   of	
   these	
   new	
   features	
   and	
   promoting	
   sustainability	
   awareness	
   to	
   our	
   community.	
   We	
   believe	
   after	
   implementing	
   all	
   these	
   concepts	
   into	
   the	
   new	
   SUB,	
   users	
   will	
   be	
   encouraged	
   to	
   take	
   part	
   in	
   a	
   sustainable	
   lifestyle.	
   Even	
   though	
   the	
   steps	
   we	
   take	
   right	
   now	
   are	
   small,	
   but	
   as	
   the	
   steps	
   accumulate,	
  we	
  will	
  reach	
  our	
  goal	
  of	
  living	
  a	
  sustainable	
  life.	
   	
   	
    	
    13	
   	
    List	
  of	
  References	
   	
   	
   [1]	
  3D	
  Visualization	
  and	
  Animation	
  (n.d.).	
  Retrieved	
  from	
  http://www.xr3d.com/	
  on 	
   November	
  6,	
  2011	
   	
   [2]	
  Bloch,	
  M.	
  (2006).	
  Carbon	
  dioxide	
  emissions	
  calculator.	
  Retrieved	
  October	
  18,	
  2011,	
  from	
   Carbonify:	
  http://www.carbonify.com/carbon-­‐calculator.htm	
   	
   [3]	
  Best	
  Buy.	
  (n.d.).	
  Retrieved	
  from	
  http://www.bestbuy.ca/en-­‐CA/home.aspx	
  on	
  October	
  25,	
   2011	
   	
   [4]	
  Future	
  Shop.	
  (n.d.).	
  Retrieved	
  from	
  http://www.futureshop.ca/en-­‐ca/home.aspx	
  on	
  October	
   25,2011	
   	
   [5]	
  Grafman,	
  L.	
  (2011,	
  September	
  8).	
  LED	
  traffic	
  light	
  FAQ.	
  Retrieved	
  October	
  17,	
  2011,	
  from	
   Appropedia:	
   http://www.appropedia.org/LED_traffic_light_FAQ#How_many_incandescent_bulbs_.2 8and_light_bulb_changes.29_do_you_need_to_last_as_long_as_a_single_LED.3F	
   	
   [6]	
  Lin	
  Heng	
  LyeOfori,	
  Victor	
  SavageGeorge.	
  (2010).	
  Sustainability	
  Matters:	
  Enviromental	
   	
   Management	
  in	
  Asia.	
  World	
  Scientific.	
   	
   [7]	
  Manners,	
  D.	
  (2008).	
  Lower	
  costs	
  put	
  LEDs	
  in	
  the	
  limelight.	
  Electronics	
  weekly,	
  7.	
   	
   [8]	
  My	
  New	
  SUB,	
  “Project-­‐Project	
  Goals”	
  (n.d.),	
  Retrieved	
  from 	
  http://mynewsub.com/site/?page_id=9http://my.pulseenergy.com/ubc/dashboard%20-­‐ %20/location/6	
  on	
  Nov	
  3,2011	
   	
    14	
   	
    [9]	
  Sustainability	
  Leaders	
  Blog	
  (n.d.).	
  Retrieved	
  from 	
   http://yalesustainabilityleaders.wordpress.com/category/green-­‐tip-­‐of-­‐the-­‐week/	
  on	
   	
   November	
  6,	
  2011	
   	
   	
   [10]	
  The	
  Vancouver	
  Sun.	
  (2008,	
  June	
  7).	
  Water	
  woes:	
  public	
  urged	
  to	
  conserve.	
  Retrieved	
   October	
  18,	
  2011,	
  from	
  Canada.com:	
   http://www.canada.com/vancouversun/features/going_green/story.html?id=00f8a061-­‐ 70c1-­‐4a10-­‐84f2-­‐16f557dc0708	
   	
   [11]	
  Total	
  Real,	
  Visuals	
  and	
  Movies	
  for	
  Architecture	
  and	
  ART	
  (n.d.).	
  Retrieved	
  from	
   http://www.totalreal.ch/index-­‐e.html	
  On	
  November	
  6,	
  2011	
   	
   	
    15	
   	
    

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