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An investigation into composting alternatives at the new Student Union Building Downing, Doug; Vargas, Kelly; Penkar, Lawrence; Formby, James 2010

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UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report          An Investigation Into Composting Alternatives at the New Student Union Building  Doug Downing, Kelly Vargas, Lawrence Penkar, James Formby University of British Columbia APSC261 November 30, 2010         Disclaimer: “UBC SEEDS provides students with the opportunity to share the findings of their studies, as well as their opinions, conclusions and recommendations with the UBC community. The reader should bear in mind that this is a student project/report and is not an official document of UBC. Furthermore readers should bear in mind that these reports may not reflect the current status of activities at UBC. We urge you to contact the research persons mentioned in a report or the SEEDS Coordinator about the current status of the subject matter of a project/report”.  An Investigation into Composting Alternatives at the New Student Union Building Technology and Society – APSC 261  Doug Downing Kelly Vargas Lawrence Penkar James Formby   11/30/2010     Tutorial Instructor:  Craig Hennessey  i  ABSTRACT  The new student union building is to be built to as an example of sustainability for British Columbia and the world. As such, all aspects of sustainability, including how food waste is handled must be considered in detail. Nearly 48% of the total waste from the SUB is compostable. This represents about 46 tonnes annually. It is expected that after the new SUB is constructed, this figure will rise and more composting will be required. Composting at the current SUB building is mostly done offsite in a process that takes 21 days. This report will look in detail at an alternative method of composting using Black Soldier Fly (BSF) larvae. This is a new approach to vermicomposting and represents a significant advantage in both waste process time and overall composting ability. This report also examined the current operation of composting at the current sub, as well as the use of worms to improve overall food waste processing. Information was gathered to examine alternative composting methods from many sources, including interviews with UBC staff, industry professionals, academic journals, and online literature. As information was gathered, the possibility of utilizing BSF Larvae was examined and the requirements for such a configuration at the new SUB were examined. Interviews with LEED industry professionals and UBC Staff were also used to confirm our results and the overall result it would have on the project. Utilizing BSF Larvae to quickly digest food waste is a viable and environmentally friendly alternative to traditional composting methods. This reports shows that BSF Larvae harvest food waste much faster than worms or traditional composting with minimal human input. Labour costs would be significantly cut while fertilizer and agriculture feed outputs would be maximized. Additionally, one point towards the LEED Platinum certification could be obtained if this composting strategy was implemented. It should be noted that such a project requires more space than provided in the current SUB plans for composting.  ii   TABLE OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT ............................................................................................................................................. i GLOSSARY .......................................................................................................................................... iv LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS .................................................................................................................. v 1.0 INTRODUCTION ....................................................................................................................... 1 1.1 BACKGROUND ..................................................................................................................... 1 1.2 SCOPE .................................................................................................................................... 1 2.0 ALTERNATIVE COMPOSTING METHOD: BLACK SOLDIER FLY LARVAE ...................... 2 2.1 BLACK SOLDIER FLY BACKGROUND .............................................................................. 2 2.2 SUB WASTE REDUCTION OF FOOD BY BSF LARVAE .................................................... 2 2.3 DESIGN OF THE BSF COMPOSTER AND SUB LAYOUT .................................................. 3 2.4 COSTS OF BSF COMPOSTING ............................................................................................. 4 2.5 MAINTENANCE AND OTHER CONSIDERATIONS ........................................................... 6 3.0 VERMICOMPOSTING ............................................................................................................... 7 3.1 ENVIRONMENT .................................................................................................................... 7 3.2 FOOD ...................................................................................................................................... 7 3.3 NUMBER OF WORMS ........................................................................................................... 8 3.4 MAINTENANCE .................................................................................................................... 9 3.5 REPRODUCTION ................................................................................................................... 9 4.0 COST COMPARISON .............................................................................................................. 10 4.1 CURRENT COSTS ................................................................................................................ 10 4.2 COSTS WITH BSF COMPOSTING ...................................................................................... 10 4.3 COST COMPARISON........................................................................................................... 11 5.0 LEED ACCREDITATION IMPACT ......................................................................................... 12 6.0 CONCLUSION ......................................................................................................................... 13 6.1 RECOMMENDATIONS ....................................................................................................... 13 REFERENCES...................................................................................................................................... 14 BIBLIOGRAPHY ................................................................................................................................. 15  iii  APPENDICES APPENDIX A - INTERVIEW WITH DARREN DUFF ........................................................................ 16 APPENDIX B – INTERVIEW WITH JUSTIN RITCHIE...................................................................... 17 APPENDIX C - LEED INNOVATION CREDIT .................................................................................. 18  LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1 - SUB Waste Production Breakdown [BO] ................................................................................... 1 Figure 2 – Images of the Black Soldier Fly and its Larvae [BO] .................................................................. 2 Figure 3 Sketch of BSF Composter .......................................................................................................... 3 Figure 4 -Suggested layout of BSF Composters within an enclosure ......................................................... 4 Figure 5 – Placement of Food in Bin [BO] ............................................................................................... 8  LIST OF TABLES Table 1 - Bill of materials and rough costs for SUB BSF Composters. ..................................................... 5 Table 2 - Current Composting Cost........................................................................................................ 10 Table 3 - BSF Program Initial Costs ...................................................................................................... 10 Table 4 - BSF Program Monthly Costs .................................................................................................. 10 Table 5 - Cost Comparisons and Payback .............................................................................................. 11   iv  GLOSSARY  Prepupae: The stage directly following the larva and just before the pupa stage. As a larva finishes eating and growing, it begins the prepupa stage by looking for a place to hang itself and become a pupa. Vermicomposting : The breakdown of organic material that, in contrast to composting, involves the joint action of earthworms and micro-organisms and does not involve the generation of high heat as is with composting.       v  LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS BOM – Bill of Materials BSF – Black Soldier Fly CaGBC – Canada Green Building Council LEED – Leadership in Efficient and Environmental Design LEED-AP – LEED Accredited Professional LEED-NC – LEED New Construction SUB – Student Union Building UBC – University of British Columbia   1  1.0 INTRODUCTION As the new Student Union Building (SUB) building is constructed at UBC, special attention to sustainability and the environment will be taken. This report will look at sustainability as it relates to food waste at the new SUB building and will offer an alternative method of composting food waste to be considered in the construction of the new SUB. 1.1 BACKGROUND Composting at the current SUB building is mostly done offsite in a process that takes 21 days  (Refer to Appendix A). The composting takes place on the south of campus and requires 3 full time workers.  As it stands now, nearly 48% of the total waste from the SUB is compostable (see Figure 1). This represents about 46 tonnes annually. It is expected that after the new SUB is constructed, this figure will rise and more composting will be required. 1.2 SCOPE This report will look in detail at an alternative method of composting using Black Soldier Fly (BSF) larvae. This is a new approach to vermicomposting and represents a significant advantage in both waste process time and overall composting ability. This report also examined the current operation of composting at the current sub, as well as the use of worms to improve overall food waste processing.  Figure 1 - SUB Waste Production Breakdown [2] 2  2.0 ALTERNATIVE COMPOSTING METHOD: BLACK SOLDIER FLY LARVAE  As an alternative to traditional vermicomposting with red worms, a relatively new form of composting is becoming more prevalent throughout the world in the past 5 years; the use of BSF larvae (see Figure 2 below) to digest organic material.  The BSF larvae are voracious digesters of organic material, and can process 3-5 kg of organic scraps per metre2 of the organic material with a 40% rough conversion rate. [1].  This means that the BSF larvae would be able to process roughly 40% of all of the organic material generated by the SUB each year, or about 15,200 kg [2].  The remaining 22,800 kg of residue remaining would still need to be either processed on site by traditional vermicomposting, or trucked offsite to the South Campus as is done today. Vermicomposting will be discussed later in this report. 2.1 BLACK SOLDIER FLY BACKGROUND The BSF adult fly, and its larvae are non pathogenic, and pose no health threats.  The adult flies, have no mouths, and only live for 5 days to mate and lay eggs, living only on their reserves.  As long as there is a supply of decaying organic material, the cycle of egg laying, new larvae to adult flies will continue unabated.  Food scraps in and harvested larvae out, is the pared down result.  The BSF fly is not commonly found in the metro Vancouver area, so there needs to be some sort of room, or enclosure to keep the flies in the general area of the food scraps.  There is a liquid by-product of the larvae’s processing of the organic material.  This is a major attractant to the egg laying female, so any flies that pupate to adults from this area, would naturally want to stay in the area to lay their eggs in this prime location.  The adult BSF fly needs sunlight for successful mating, so the enclosure would have to account for this as well. 2.2 SUB WASTE REDUCTION OF FOOD BY BSF LARVAE The conversion rate of food scraps to actual BSF larvae, at an optimal feeding rate of 0.100 kg of scraps/larvae, yields roughly 10% of the entire 38,000 kg of food scraps being turned into 3,800 kg of BSF larvae per year.  Weekly, this is 76 kg of BSF larvae Figure 2 – Images of the Black Soldier Fly and its Larvae [6] 3   Figure 3 Sketch of BSF Composter Showing 3 m2 food scrap area, harvester bins, and hinged lid (separate).  Lids to have 2 spring actuators, to facilitate easy opening.  Dry, open bin with wood chips and sawdust in the rear of the unit to facilitate pupation to adult flies. per week that can be harvested.  BSF larvae, in either live form or dried form, are an excellent feed for chickens, fish, or lizards.  Andrew Rushmere, of the UBC Farm, has indicated the UBC Farm would be able to take all of the harvested BSF larvae to feed their chickens.  As they deliver food on campus every week, a 5 gallon pail exchange could take place every week to take the harvested BSF larvae to the farm. 2.3 DESIGN OF THE BSF COMPOSTER AND SUB LAYOUT The BSF larvae, when ready to pupate, leave the composting area, and try to find a dry area to transform into an adult BSF fly.  This natural ability to leave the composting area, is used to build a BSF composter, where these prepupae can be channelled and collected into harvesting bins (see Figure 3 below for sketch of a BSF Composter).  There would also be an open bin with dry wood chips and sawdust for some of the prepupae to escape to hatch to adult BSF flies to keep the cycle going.  On the inside of the roofs of the BSF Composter lids, would be layers of plastic cardboard to allow easy egg laying by the females into the plastic channels, to have the hatchlings drop onto the waiting food scraps.  The entire composter is made modular with a bottom, top and the lid.  The materials are regular plywood coated with fibreglass resin, SCH80 PVC pipe and fittings, aluminum 10 mesh, and grey PVC for the harvester bins.  The area of the composter, where the food scraps would be placed by SUB workers, has aluminum 10 mesh as the table, and is 3 m 2.  The mesh allows the liquid from the larvae’s processing to fall through to the bottom collecting area, where a maintenance worker would need to drain from time to time.  This liquid is a natural organic fertilizer, and can be diluted to spray onto any area needing fertilizing.  The number of BSF Composters required for the entire SUB’s food scrap output is 11.  The calculation is: 4   Figure 4 -Suggested layout of BSF Composters within an enclosure Shown with 1200 ft 2  footprint.  Right side door would lead into SUB, and left side door to loading dock area. 40’ 30’               The square footage to house the BSF Composters, with area to move equipment unobstructed within the enclosure is 1200 ft 2 , as seen in Figure 4 to the right.  The allotment of square footage given to compost on site at the new SUB building is 480 ft 2 , as laid out in the Roof Garden Program Area document distributed to interested parties.  The stakeholders will need to make a decision whether to expand this area to include this BSF composting proposal. 2.4 COSTS OF BSF COMPOSTING The cost to build each of the BSF Composters has been tabulated in the bill of materials (BOM) in Table 1 below.  It shows the breakdown of the different components required. These BSF Composters could be built on campus by students, or could be shopped out to a millwork shop, and then to a boat builder in the lower mainland area to bring the costs down.  A project for the Capstone 45x project in the mechanical engineering department is another possibility for this undertaking.  5   Table 1 - Bill of materials and rough costs for SUB BSF Composters. SUB Project: On Site Composting BSF Single Unit    Material  Amount Needed  Price  Total    3/8" Plywood  190 ft2 $    0.78   $       148.44 1" SCH80 PVC Pipe  35 ft  $    1.50   $         52.50 1" SCH80 PVC Elbow (SW)  4   $    4.09   $         16.36 1" SCH80 PVC Tee (SW)  4   $    7.33   $         29.32 Actuators  2   $  35.00   $         70.00 Hardware  1   $  15.00   $         15.00 Fibreglass Mat  190 ft2  $    1.04  ft2  $       197.60 Fibreglass Resin  190 ft2  $  30.00   $         30.00 1/4" PVC Sheet (Grey)  7.5 ft2  $    3.44   $         25.80 Miscellaneous  1   $  20.00   $         20.00 Plastic Cardboard  8 ft2 0.625 ft2  $           5.00 Aluminum 10 Mesh  33 ft2  $    2.25   $         74.25 Labour  25 hrs  $  25.00   $       625.00      Grand Total Per Unit:  $    1,309.27   ↓ Rounded Up Cost Per Unit:   $    1,325.00    Grand Total For 11 Units Needed For SUB:   $  14,575.00  6  2.5 MAINTENANCE AND OTHER CONSIDERATIONS The maintenance for the compost area would involve recovery of any uneaten material from the BSF Composters, emptying the composter bins to a 5 gallon pail, draining the liquid from the bottom of the BSF Composters, and to keep the area generally clean and safe for the SUB workers.  A 5-6 hour estimate of work to achieve this per week is an estimate.  A grad student from the Zoology Department could oversee the area, as it involves entomology, and could be used on a resume as direct work experience.  The new SUB would need to be equipped with sorting bins throughout, with 4 bins, one of which would be solely used for uneaten food only, and nothing else (no liquids).  This is one of the recommendations of the Waste Audit Report to do away with stand alone garbage bins, and replace with the multi-bin alternatives [2]. All food related scraps from the SUB could be directly dumped into the BSF Composters on a daily basis by SUB employees. A short demonstration of the composting procedure to all SUB employees who would be emptying the food scraps into the BSF Composters would need to be implemented.  The BSF Composters work the same way as a normal garbage bin, just larger in size, with an easy open lid, with actuators like a car trunk.            7  3.0 VERMICOMPOSTING Vermicomposting is a method of recycling waste which uses worms. This is generally considered an easy way to compost since the requirements are quite simple and the worms don't require a lot of attention. Vermicomposting is relatively fast, does not require a large space, and the odour produced is not significant. Although various kings of earthworms can be used for vermicomposting, generally Red Wigglers (Eisenia Foetida) are used due to their ability to eat satisfactory amounts of organic waste. 3.1 ENVIRONMENT Red Wigglers can survive a good range of temperature (4-27C), but the optimal temperature for them to process the waste is 25C [3]. Since this temperature is higher than the average winter temperatures in Vancouver, the worm bin would have to be kept inside a building. They tend to breed quite rapidly assuming the environment is appropriate. The environment of a worm bin is the kind of environment they enjoy, after all there are large amounts of waste and they are densely stored in the bin. The worms need some kind of damp bedding in the bin such as paper or cardboard. They are sensitive to lights so they should be kept in the dark. There must be ventilation in the bin in order to get oxygen in the bin. When the bin is open to add more waste, the air in the bin will be recycled.  3.2 FOOD The worms will eat vegetable, fruits, tea bags, crushed egg shells, paper, coffee grounds, cardboard, and yard waste. Meat, fat, dairy products, and starch should be avoided. The food should be placed on a different section of the bin every week or have different bins for various weeks. 8   Figure 5 – Placement of Food in Bin [4] Red Wigglers can consume up to 2 lbs of organic waste per day making them able to process one pound of waste per week for every square foot of worms. 3.3 NUMBER OF WORMS For every person we need about 0.5kg of worms and a bin size of 45 x 60 x 30 cm. The worms can eat up to their weight in waste every two days. It is necessary to have one pound of worms per cubic foot of volume of the bin.      Number of Pounds of Food a Week = Surface Area sq ft x 0.5 lb/ft sq/day x 7 days/week  9  3.4 MAINTENANCE The waste should be covered with a layer of damp bedding. The liquid which forms on the bottom of the bin needs to be removed. The waste should be spread out in the bin to encourage growth in the worm population. Every three months new bedding needs to be put in, at this point the worms and finished compost product should be moved to the other side of the bin. The worms tend to slowly move to the other side of the bin looking for new food. 3.5 REPRODUCTION The worms will take three months to start breeding since an egg takes about three weeks to develop. When the egg is hatched, up to twenty worms can come out. The worms themselves will keep the population growing constantly as long as the environment is appropriate.  10  4.0 COST COMPARISON The costs of implementing the alternative method of composting were compared to current food waste management at UBC. These costs were estimated assuming that future production of food waste does not significantly vary from the present consumption and production. 4.1 CURRENT COSTS The following table is a summary of the current operating costs for the SUB composting program. Table 2 - Current Composting Cost  Monthly Cost 3 Full Time Employees – 40 Hours/week $10,400 Maintenance Gas ($0.42/km, 4 km/day) $51 TOTAL $10,451    4.2 COSTS WITH BSF COMPOSTING The following table is a summary of the expected initial costs for the proposed BSF composting program. Table 3 - BSF Program Initial Costs  Initial Costs Worms $36,000 Construction – 11 units $14,575 TOTAL INITIAL COSTs $50,575  The following table is a summary of the expected monthly costs for the proposed BSF composting program. Table 4 - BSF Program Monthly Costs  Monthly Costs 20 hours/week labour $ 4,800  11  4.3 COST COMPARISON The operating costs for a BSF Composting system on site are much lower than the current composting costs. The following table outlines the differences in costs and shows the simple payback (in months) for implementing the new strategy. Table 5 - Cost Comparisons and Payback Strategy Initial Costs  Monthly Costs Simple Payback Current Composting Strategy - $10,451 9 months BSF composting Strategy $50,575 $4,800    12  5.0 LEED ACCREDITATION IMPACT The new SUB is attempting to gain LEED accreditation at the Platinum level in accordance with CaGBC (Canada Green Building Council) guidelines for new construction (LEED-NC). In order to achieve LEED Platinum, the SUB must achieve at least 80 of the 110 possible points according to the LEED-2009 reference guide. Unfortunately, the LEED rating system does not attribute standard points for post construction waste management plans and facilities in new buildings [5]. However, it is possible for the project to achieve a point in the Innovation Category for dedicated food composting system located on site. According to Brian Derkash, an accredited LEED AP, an innovation credit may be earned for this project if the intent of the project is clearly defined and the project has a significant impact on building sustainability. As 40% of the waste exiting the building would be diverted, it is expected that if this strategy was implemented, a LEED innovation credit would be obtained (refer to Appendix C).  13  6.0 CONCLUSION The BSF Larvae composting technique, presented in this report, is a very effective way to sustainably process food waste. Not only would the increased rate of food waste processing improve fertilizer and agricultural feed output, but labour costs and labour requirements for processing the waste would be minimized. In addition, 40% of the food waste produced on site could be diverted and be processed to be used in local agricultural products. A LEED Innovation Credit would also be obtained if the BSF Compositing Strategy was implemented.  However, it should be noted that such a project requires substantially more space than provided in the current SUB plans for composting. As a result, recommendations have been made to address these issues. 6.1 RECOMMENDATIONS The following is a list of recommendations for the new SUB Food Waste Management System:  Increase space for composting  Consider vertically stacking composting units  Consider doing a portion of composting offsite (to allow for overflow)  14  REFERENCES  [1] Stephan Diener, Christian Zurbrugg, and Klement Tockner, "Conversion of organic material by black soldier fly larvae: Establishing optimal feeding rates," Waste Management and Reseach, vol. 27, no. 6, pp. 603-610, 2009. [2] MJ Waste Solutions, "Student Union Building, Phase 2, Waste Audit Results and Waste Managment Report," MJ Waste Solutions, Vancouver, 2010. [3] Sean Kelly and Rachael Williams. (2010, November) The Pampered Worom. [Online]. http://www.thebigredbarniniowa.com [4] Environment Canada. (2002, Nov.) Environment Canada. [Online]. http://www.on.ec.gc.ca/community/classroom/millennium/m4-vermi-e.html [5] Canada Green Building Council. (2010, June) LEED Canada for New Construction and MAjor Renovations 2009. Online Document. [6] Black Soldier Fly Blog. (2010, Nov.) Black Soldier Fly Blog. [Online]. http://blacksoldierflyblog.com/wp-content/gallery/bsfimages/bsf-larvae-in-hand-wm.jpg              15  BIBLIOGRAPHY  The Aquaponic Gardening Blog, " Aquaponics and Black Soldier Fly Larva," [Online document], 2010, [cited 2010 Nov 25], Available HTTP: http://www.theaquaponicsource.com/aquaponicgardeningblog/2010/06/07/aquaponics-and- black-soldier-fly-larva/  CaGBC, “LEED® Canada for New Construction and Major Renovations 2009," [Online document], 2010 June 18, [cited 2010 Oct 20], Available HTTP: http://www.cagbc.org/uploads/LEED/NC/LEED_Canada_NC_CS_2009_Rating_System- En-Jun2010.pdf  IPM North Carolina, "Black Soldier Fly," [Online document], 1998, [cited 2010 Nov 25], Available HTTP: http://ipm.ncsu.edu/AG369/notes/black_soldier_fly.html  Sean Kelly; Rachel Williams, “The Pampered Worm," [Online document], 2010, [cited 2010 Nov 25], Available HTTP: http://www.thebigredbarniniowa.com/  Microponics, “Black Soldier Fly Larvae," [Online document], 2009, [cited 2010 Nov 25], Available HTTP: http://www.microponics.net.au/?p=175  M.J. O’Donnel, Student Union Building Phase 2 Waste Audit Results and Waste Management Plan, Vancouver: n.p., 2010.  Dr. Paul A. Olivier, " Bioconversion – Utilizing Lower Life Forms for the Bioconversion of Putrescent Waste," [Online document], 2010, [cited 2010 Nov 25], Available HTTP: http://blacksoldierflyblog.com/bioconversion-dr_paul_olivier/  Jennifer Pocock, “How Vermicomposting Works," [Online document], 2010, [cited 2010 Nov 25], Available HTTP: http://home.howstuffworks.com/vermicomposting.htm  Whats That Bug, “Window Fly or Black Soldier Fly Larvae," [Online document], 2008, [cited 2010 Nov 25], Available HTTP:  http://www.whatsthatbug.com/2008/06/27/window- fly-or-black-soldier-fly-larvae/    16  APPENDIX A - INTERVIEW WITH DARREN DUFF As part of our research project, we focused on the benefits of composting at UBC to comply with UBC's pledge to be the most sustainable campus in North America.  Clearly, the data and statistics change from year to year; we, to comply with the scope of the project, have used rough estimates from the last year. Our group interviewed, Mr. Darren Duff, the manager of UBC Waste Management for collecting valuable statistical data and his insight on this topic.  A synopsis of this interview is as follows. Organic waste material is picked up every day at UBC using a pick-up truck with a tailgate.  It carries 12 rolling bins per trip, each bin being able to hold up to 150 lbs.  The Student Union Building produces on average about 30 to 35 bins per week.  This fluctuates during the school year with class sessions being lower in the summer. Although an exact breakdown the cost of hauling compostable waste (labour/ gas/ equipment/ other expenses) alone wasn’t given to us, we were told that UBC employs one full time employee hauling the compost and another 2 full time employees working on the composter. This includes loading the machine, washing the bins, running the machine, piling the compost in the bays and turning the compost piles.  In addition, each year, when the final product of the composting is screened it takes about 5 weeks for 1 person to work full-time on the backhoe. The operating expenses vary depending on the maintenance required each year, on the composter the bin washer the trucks and other related items. UBC Waste Management uses an “In-Vessel” compost processing method that composts organic waste within 17-21 days.  Leaves and grass clippings from the UBC campus is also collected. All the waste composted on campus is used by our landscaping crew on campus. UBC does not sell its compost but provides some of it to small community projects on campus upon request. We wish to thank Mr. Darren Duff for his time and effort in making our research project successful.  17  APPENDIX B – INTERVIEW WITH JUSTIN RITCHIE As part of our research project, we focused on the benefits of composting at the Student Union Building (SUB) to comply with UBC's pledge to be the most sustainable campus in North America.  Clearly, the data and statistics change from year to year; we, to comply with the scope of the project, have used rough estimates from the last year. Our group interviewed, Mr. Justin Ritchie, the Sustainability Coordinator for the Alma Mater Society (AMS) of UBC to collect valuable statistical data and his insight on this topic.  A synopsis of this interview is as follows. Organic waste material is generated every day at the SUB.  The amount of this waste fluctuates during the school year with class sessions being lower in the summer. Last year, the SUB generated about 47 metric tonnes of compostable waste. The AMS provides information to the vendors as well as students to promote composting.  In the past, the SUB did not engage in such activities and has come a long way. About three years ago, it didn’t have any specific bins for recyclable containers, compostable food waste etc. but just one “multi-purpose” bin.  Today, the SUB has many tri-bins – one bin each for recyclables, food waste and other garbage.  The AMS has also got vendors to recycle and compost their waste on a regular basis.  It has also moved from using Styrofoam dishes and cutlery to compostable ones. Last year the AMS, in total, composted and recycled over 91 metric tonnes.   This was explained to us as just enough to save about 9 metric tonnes of carbon emission had this waste been sent to a landfill. The number of persons using the SUB will only increase in the years to come and the AMS is proud that this step will help them save more emissions in the years to come. We wish to thank Mr. Justin Ritchie for his time and effort in making our research project successful.       18      APPENDIX C - LEED INNOVATION CREDIT  19   20  

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