UBC Undergraduate Research

2011 UBC South Campus Urban Stream Restoration Project Rutherford, Rob; Rees, James; Claxton, Tom; Wilkes, Tyler 2011-12-31

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UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report 2011 UBC South Campus Urban Stream Restoration Project Rob Rutherford James Rees Tom Claxton Tyler Wilkes University of British Columbia CIVL 498U April 15, 2011 Disclaimer: “UBC SEEDS provides students with the opportunity to share the findings of their studies, as well as their opinions, conclusions and recommendations with the UBC community. The reader should bear in mind that this is a student project/report and is not an official document of UBC. Furthermore readers should bear in mind that these reports may not reflect the current status of activities at UBC. We urge you to contact the research persons mentioned in a report or the SEEDS Coordinator about the current status of the subject matter of a project/report”.! "! !!!!!! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! #$""!%&'!()*+,!'-./*0! %12-3!(+14-.!540+)1-+6)3! 71)849+! 5)2!5*+,41:)1;! <-.40!5440! =).!'>-?+)3! =@>41!A6>B40!! C*+,)10D! ! (*/41E60)1D! F1G!5)2!H6>>-1! 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Cutthroat trout require a minimum stream depth of 0.06 m, velocity between 0.11 to 0.72 m/s, substrate size of 6-102 mm, and a mean redd area of 0.09-0.0 m2 for optimal spawning conditions (Hogan and Ward 1997). The maximum swim speed and jumping height of cutthroat trout vary depending on its current life stage (Hogan and Ward 1997). Table 1, summarizes the maximum sustained, prolonged, and burst swimming speeds, as well as the maximum jumping height for cutthroat trout at various stages in its lifecycle.   Table 1. Maximum swim speeds and jump height of adult and juvenile cutthroat        trout (Salmo clarki). (Dane 1978) Species Lifestage Maximum Swim Seed (m/s) Maximum Cutthroat   Sustained Prolonged Burst Jump Height (m)   adults 0.9 1.8 4.3 1.5   juveniles (125 mm) 0.4 0.7 1.1 0.6   juveniles (50 mm) 0.1 0.3 0.4 0.3   When designing a stream, it is important that these velocities and jumping heights are taken into consideration to ensure fish are able to readily travel through the stream (Hogan and Ward 1997). Cutthroat trout are often found in streams with riffle pool and cascade pool morphology (Hogan and Ward 1997). These streams are suited to accommodate cutthroat trout at the various stages of its lifecycle (Hogan and Ward 1997). Riffle pool and cascade pool streams are discussed in the following section.      3.2 Riffle Pool and Cascade Pool Streams  Riffle pool or cascade pool morphology streams are an ideal choice for an urban stream taking fish habitat criteria into consideration. 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Channel morphologies of small- and intermediate-sized channels (Anon. 1996a, b).#$""!%&'!()*+,!'-./*0!%12-3!(+14-.!540+)1-+6)3!71)849+! ! [#! =,60!EX0,-/4!430*140!>)V!:>)V0!-14!:)9*04;!+)V-1;!+,4!943+41!):!+,4!0+14-.!+)!63914-04!;4/+,!:)1! :60,!/-00-T4!-3;!/14E43+!2-3B!09)*1!34-1!+,4!16::>40!RM4V2*1@P!Z-2)*1@!-3;!&-+40!"QQ^SG! ! !"#$%&'(O<'L&82>+/&'2%,2,0&3'-,%':,.0/%$:/",.'+.3'3&0"#.',-'%"-->&0'+.3':+0:+3&0'N]+>a&%_'@">>+%'+.3'V&?M$%K';[[JR' =,4!.)0+! 6./)1+-3+!16::>4!;406T3!/-1-.4+41!+)!;406T3!60!+,4!,46T,+!RuSG!=,4!16::>4!.*0+!24! >-1T4! 43)*T,! +)!.-63+-63! /))>! ;4/+,! :)1! :60,! ,-26+-+! )3! +,4! */0+14-.! 06;4P! 2*+!.*0+! 3)+! 34T-+6E4>@! 6./-9+! +,4! :>));!9)3E4@-394!9-/-96+@!):! +,4!9,-334>!RM4V2*1@P!Z-2)*1@!-3;!&-+40!"QQ^SG!u.-?! 9-3! 24! ;4+41.634;! *063T! $WD1(&6)+ I! -00*.63T! 3)! 4341T@! >)0040P! 3)! */0+14-.! 04;6.43+! -99*.*>-+6)3P!-3;!916+69->!3)3X2-9BV-+4163T!9)3;6+6)30!-+! +,4!9140+!):! +,4!16::>4! RA->B41P!H6>>-1! -3;!M4V2*1@!#$$[SG!! ! ! BC$+/",.'S' ' ! I3!$WD1(&6)+IP!v2!60!+,4!>6.6+63T!*/0+14-.!;4/+,!)1!+,4!;4/+,!+)!+,4!+)/!):!+,4!2-3Bg!U!60!+,4!;406T3! ;609,-1T4!/41!*36+!V6;+,! R.#a0Sg! -3;!A! 60! +,4!.4-3! 9,-334>!V6;+,! R.SG!=,4!;406T3! :>));!.-@! +,43!24!*04;!63!4U*-+6)3!"!+)!430*14!+,-+!+,4!:>));!60!9)3+-634;!V6+,63!+,4!-994/+-2>4!:>));/>-63! RM4V2*1@P! Z-2)*1@! -3;! &-+40! "QQ^SG! (+-T4X;609,-1T4! 14>-+6)30,6/0! :)1! :>)V! )E41! +,4! 16::>40! 60! ;609*004;!:*1+,41!63!80=(&6)+#;"#"+ 292 D.R. Walker et al. Phase 1 Catchment & Reach Assessment Project objectives Geomorphology Hydrology Hydraulics Ecology Phase 2 Design & Analysis Phase 3 Construction Phase 4 Monitoring & Maintenance Phase 5 Project Evaluation Figure 1 Riffle-pool rehabilitation proces. Yes Location & Spacing Sediment Accumulation Configuration Hydraulic Modelling Stability Phase 1 Objectives met? Sediment load? No No Yes Phase 3 Figure 2 Phase 2: Riffle design and hydraulic analysis flow chart. likely need to be tailored to the specific project reach [24]. Design aspects such as riffle location, configuration, and stability will need to be evaluated in terms of predicted or expected regime channel geometry, and potential long-term impacts to project reach hydraulics, flood capacity, sediment transport efficiency, and aquatic habitat sustainability (Figure 2). Lr Su Sec. y-y’ Sd y y’ δ ∆ x x’ WB WT Sec. x-x’ Sv WB Lr Figure 3 Riffle design template (after Newbury and Gaboury [21]). 3.1 Location and spacing An initial riffle location template may be obtained by applying an average riffle spacing (λ) criterion [22]. The criterion used should reflect spacings observed in representative reaches and the pre- dicted natural or equilibriumbankfull width (Wbf ). Where natural analogues are lacking, historical records may suggest appropri- ate riffle spacings. Alternatively, an average spacing of 5 to 7Wbf [19] may be used, with lower mean values (e.g., λ ≈ 2 to 4Wbf ) reserved for steeper channel gradients (e.g., So > 2 to 4%), or where large numbers of riffle/pool forcing elements exist (LWD, boulders, etc.) [26, 30]. An examination of the project reachmay also indicate points of inflection in the flow where riffle development would be expected [13]. It may also detect sites where they have begun to reform. However, since the project reach may be in a state of disequilib- rium, the long-term stability of these locations will need to be evaluated. Once initial riffle positioning is complete, individual structure locations can be modified to exploit existing geomorphic features, and enhance aquatic habitat variability [26]. 3.2 Configuration A preliminary riffle configuration template (Figure 3) can be developed based on project reach attributes, observations of natural riffle characteristics, and the rehabilitation objectives. While the riffle top (WT ) and base width (WB) will be dictated by existing channel geometry, the average crest amplitude (") will also depend in part on aquatic habitat requirements (e.g., depth, velocity, etc.) and the channel capacity required to contain the design discharge (QD) [10, 22]. The maximum " ("max) for a given riffle can be estimated from specific energy principles assuming no energy losses or upstream sediment accumulation, and critical non-backwatering conditions at the structure crest (Figure 4). Under these circumstances: "max = Yb + ( q2 2gY 2b ) − 3 2 ( q2 g )1/3 (1) where Yb is the limiting upstream depth, or the depth to top of bank (m); q = QD/W is the design unit discharge (m2/s); W is ! "max = Yb + q2 2gYb 2 # $ % & ' ( ) 3q 2 2g # $ % & ' ( 1/ 3#$""!%&'!()*+,!'-./*0!%12-3!(+14-.!540+)1-+6)3!71)849+! ! [\! K394!+,4!16::>4!0,-/4!,-0!2443!;406T34;P!.-+416->0!.*0+!24!0/496:64;!-3;!16::>4!0+-26>6+@!.*0+!24! -3->@Y4;G!=,4!06Y4!):!.-+416->!0+-2>4!:)1!16::>4!9)30+1*9+6)3P!;*163T!+,4!.-?6.*.!63!9,-334>!:>));! 0+-T4P!9-3!24!)2+-634;!*063T!$WD1(&6)+B!RA->B41P!H6>>-1!-3;!M4V2*1@!#$$[SG! BC$+/",.'U' ' ' FO$! 60! +,4!9,-1-9+4160+69!16::>4!T1-63!06Y4!-+!V,69,!O$b!60! :6341!R.Sg!v;! 60! +,4!.-?6.*.!*36:)1.! :>)V!;4/+,!)E41!+,4!16::>4g!-3;! !60!-!9)1149+6)3!:-9+)1!:)1!0+44/>@!0>)/4;!24;0!RwObS!-3;!9-3!24! 40+6.-+4;!V6+,!$WD1(&6)+GD!! BC$+/",.'P' ' V,414! ! 60! +,4! ;)V30+14-.! 16::>4! :-94! -3T>4! R;4T1440Sg! -3;! ! 60! +,4! 3-+*1->! -3T>4! ):! 14/)04!):! +,4!.-+416->G!=,4! +@/69->!E->*4!):! ! :)1! 04;6.43+!;6-.4+410!T14-+41! +,-3!$G".! 60![$x! RA->B41P!H6>>-1!-3;!M4V2*1@!#$$[SG!! 778J =$;!*&06'-,'$! &4+V443! 16::>40! -3;! 9-09-;40P! 24;! .-+416->! .*0+! 24! 06Y4;! -//1)/16-+4>@! +)! -E)6;! 41)06)3! -3;! 06>+-+6)3!63!+,4!0+14-.!V,6>4!/1)E6;63T!0*::69643+!,-26+-+!:)1!:60,!0/-V363TG!4&*D-0+;Q!9-3!24!*04;! 63! 9)38*39+6)3!V6+,! 4?/49+4;! /4-B! 0+)1.! :>)V0! +)! ;4+41.634!.636.*.! 0+-2>4! /-1+69>4! 06Y4! :)1! 0+4-.!24;!0*20+1-+4G! ! D50 = 10 " Yd Sd ! " ! " = cos# (1$ tan# tan% ) ! " = tan #1 Sd ! " ! "#$""!%&'!()*+,!'-./*0!%12-3!(+14-.!540+)1-+6)3!71)849+! ! [[! ! !"#$%&';[<'6%"/":+>'I&>,:"/K'?"/1'%&02&:/'/,'0/%&+8M&3'8+/&%"+>'3"+8&/&%'NA+.&'(OSSR' C0!)*+>634;!63!80=(&6)+B"QP!+,4!.-?6.*.!;40614;!E4>)96+@!:)1!9*++,1)-+!+1)*+!,-26+-+!60!"!.a0!-3;! +,4!6;4->!0*20+1-+4!06Y4!:)1!0/-V363T!60!`!+)!"$#..G!%063T!4&*D-0+;QP!6+!9-3!24!;4.)30+1-+4;!+,-+! 0*20+1-+4! 06Y4! T14-+41! +,-3! "O..! 60! -//1)/16-+4! :)1! 2)+,! :>)V! -3;! :60,! 14U*614.43+0G!       23 Equation 4 allows critical velocity to be determined. Critical velocity is the velocity which will begin to move a given substrate material on a stream bed. Figure 9, outlines the critical velocities for various sizes of stream bed material.         Figure 9. Critical velocity with respect to stream bed material (sediment) diameter.        Depending on the velocity and the size of stream bed material, erosion, transport, or          sedimentation may occur. (Lane 1955)  #$""!%&'!()*+,!'-./*0!%12-3!(+14-.!540+)1-+6)3!71)849+! ! [O! ! 7<89 *'-$,+!O.;-,&1(%6! 7<87 *'-$,+!]$12%('.^!*',?$!,5;!E(6%R,-?$! =,4! 14>-+6)30,6/! 24+V443! E)>*.4+169! ;609,-1T4P! .4-3! E4>)96+@! -3;! V-+41! 0*1:-94! 4>4E-+6)3! R0+-T4S!:)1!+,4!/1)/)04;!0+14-.!60!6>>*0+1-+4;!2@!+,4!9,-1+0!24>)VP!2-04;!)3!H-3363Td0!4U*-+6)3! :)1!)/43!9,-334>!:>)VG!!'*1E40!,-E4!2443!/>)++4;!:)1!-!1-3T4!):!*36:)1.!9,-334>!0>)/40!24+V443! "G$!-3;!\G$bP!-3;!:)1!H-3363Td0!3!E->*40!1-3T63T!24+V443!$G$[!-3;!$G$`!:)1!+,4!.-63!/)1+6)3!):! +,4! 9,-334>G! ! 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T1-;643+0! ):! #G$b! -3;! 0+44/41P! -! 0+4//4;! 16::>4X/))>! )1! 9-09-;4X/))>! 0+14-.! /1):6>4! 60! 149)..43;4;! +)! 43,-394! ,-26+-+! E->*40P! V6+,! T1-;4! 214-B0! 1463:)194;! V6+,! >-1T4! V));! ;42160! -3;! 9)22>4a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estoring Habitats in Channelized or Uniform Streams 12-11 Figure 12-11. Langdale Creek Restoration Project, Howe Sound, B.C. Diverse hydraulic conditions have been created by strategically placing large boulders on the downstream face of this constructed riffle. Note the well riprapped banks in the riffle zone adjacent to the reconstructed Sunshine Coast Highway. 1. PLAN: build riffle crest across the stream with large diameter boulders; back up with next largest stone downstream. 2. PROFILE: construct downstream face of riffle at a shallow re-entry slope that mimics local natural riffles (5:1 to 20:1). 3. SECTION: V-shape the crest and face downwards to the centre of the riffle (0.3 to 0.6 m). 4. SURFACE: place large rocks randomly on the downstream face 20 to 30cm apart to dissipate energy and create low flow fish passage channels. 5. BANKS: rip-rap both banks with embedded boulders and cobbles to the floodplain level. Figure 12-12. This schematic pool and riffle construction drawing may be augmented for machine operators with note on the placement of construction survey stakes and photographs of natural and well constructed riffles (video, Newbury Hydraulics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a' E&0/,%+/",.' =%,9&:/' NV&?M$%K_' Z+M,$%K' +.3' 5+/&0'(OOPR'Restoring Habitats in Channelized or Uniform Streams 12-14 Figure 12-14. 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F4/-1+.43+!):!',4.69->!-3;!&6)>)T69->!J3T6344163TP!%36E4106+@!):!&16+60,!')>*.26-P!W-39)*E41P! #$$`G! (63T>4+)3P! LG! <G! C9V&0)(+ /1(0-+ ]D15&(.+ S-&(0-&1+ O6-+ S256-&)0"! ,++/DaaVVVG43EGT)EG29G9-aV-+aVUa&'T*6;4>6340a9,>)1634a9,>)1634G,+.>! R-994004;! #$""! z{|! "$XH-19,SG! A->B41P!FG!5GP!5G!ZG!H6>>-1P!-3;!5G!AG!M4V2*1@G! eL@;1-*>69!;406T3!):! 16::>40! 63!T1-E4>X9)22>4!24;! 16E410Gf!N)(5"+^"+P&M0-+31'&)+<1)1*090)(!#P!3)G![!R#$$[SD!#Q"X#QQG! A,@+4P! IGAGP! &-2-B-6::P! (GP! C;-.0P! HGCG! -3;! Z61)*?P! 7GCG! e',-/+41! OD! 540+)163T! :60,! -99400! -3;! 14,-26>6X! +-+6)3! ):! 0/-V363T! 06+40Gf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ivil 498U Hydraulic Analysis 150 mm dia. Diversion Pipe March 2011 Input Data: Invert Elevation (m) 73.08 Manhole Rim Elevation (m) 78.45 D/S Invert Elevation (m) 71.905 Pipe Length (m) 235 Low Flow Outlet Diameter (m) 0.15 Pipe Roughness (n) 0.013 Pipe Slope (m/m) 0.005 Calculations: Mannings Water Surface Elevation (m) Flow Depth (m) Hydraulic Head (m) HGL Slope (m) Theta (Rad) Flow Area (m2) Wetted Perimeter (m) Hydraulic Radius (m) Velocity (m/s) Discharge (m3/s) Froude Number Head in Manhole (m) 73.08 0 1.175 0.005 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.00 0.00 73.13 0.05 1.175 0.005 2.462 0.005 0.185 0.028 0.501 0.003 0.71 0.07 73.155 0.075 1.175 0.005 3.142 0.009 0.236 0.038 0.609 0.005 0.71 0.11 73.18 0.1 1.175 0.005 3.821 0.013 0.287 0.044 0.675 0.008 0.68 0.14 73.23 0.15 1.175 0.005 6.283 0.018 0.471 0.038 0.609 0.011 0.50 0.19 73.28 0.2 1.225 0.005 - 0.018 0.471 0.038 0.622 0.011 0.51 0.24 73.38 0.3 1.325 0.006 - 0.018 0.471 0.038 0.647 0.011 0.53 0.34 73.48 0.4 1.425 0.006 - 0.018 0.471 0.038 0.671 0.012 0.55 0.44 73.58 0.5 1.525 0.006 - 0.018 0.471 0.038 0.694 0.012 0.57 0.55 73.68 0.6 1.625 0.007 - 0.018 0.471 0.038 0.717 0.013 0.59 0.65 73.78 0.7 1.725 0.007 - 0.018 0.471 0.038 0.738 0.013 0.61 0.75 73.88 0.8 1.825 0.008 - 0.018 0.471 0.038 0.759 0.013 0.63 0.86 73.98 0.9 1.925 0.008 - 0.018 0.471 0.038 0.780 0.014 0.64 0.96 74.08 1 2.025 0.009 - 0.018 0.471 0.038 0.800 0.014 0.66 1.06 74.18 1.1 2.125 0.009 - 0.018 0.471 0.038 0.820 0.014 0.68 1.17 74.28 1.2 2.225 0.009 - 0.018 0.471 0.038 0.839 0.015 0.69 1.27 74.38 1.3 2.325 0.010 - 0.018 0.471 0.038 0.857 0.015 0.71 1.37 74.48 1.4 2.425 0.010 - 0.018 0.471 0.038 0.875 0.015 0.72 1.47 74.58 1.5 2.525 0.011 - 0.018 0.471 0.038 0.893 0.016 0.74 1.58 74.68 1.6 2.625 0.011 - 0.018 0.471 0.038 0.911 0.016 0.75 1.68 74.78 1.7 2.725 0.012 - 0.018 0.471 0.038 0.928 0.016 0.77 1.78 74.88 1.8 2.825 0.012 - 0.018 0.471 0.038 0.945 0.017 0.78 1.89 74.98 1.9 2.925 0.012 - 0.018 0.471 0.038 0.961 0.017 0.79 1.99 75.08 2 3.025 0.013 - 0.018 0.471 0.038 0.978 0.017 0.81 2.09 Partial Pipe Flo w Pressure Pipe Flo w!"##$%&'$()*+,$'-./*0$%12-3$(+14-.$540+)1-+6)3$71)849+$ $ ::$ $ Civil 498U Hydraulic Analysis 200 mm dia. Diversion Pipe March 2011 Input Data: Invert Elevation (m) 73.08 Manhole Rim Elevation (m) 78.45 D/S Invert Elevation (m) 71.905 Pipe Length (m) 235 Low Flow Outlet Diameter (m) 0.2 Pipe Roughness (n) 0.013 Pipe Slope (m/m) 0.005 Calculations: Mannings Water Surface Elevation (m) Flow Depth (m) Hydraulic Head (m) HGL Slope (m) Theta (Rad) Flow Area (m2) Wetted Perimeter (m) Hydraulic Radius (m) Velocity (m/s) Discharge (m3/s) Froude Number Head in Manhole (m) 73.08 0 1.175 0.005 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.00 73.13 0.05 1.175 0.005 2.094 0.006 0.209 0.029 0.517 0.003 0.739 0.08 73.18 0.1 1.175 0.005 3.142 0.016 0.314 0.050 0.738 0.012 0.745 0.15 73.23 0.15 1.175 0.005 4.189 0.025 0.419 0.060 0.837 0.021 0.690 0.22 73.28 0.2 1.175 0.005 6.283 0.031 0.628 0.050 0.738 0.023 0.527 0.25 73.38 0.3 1.275 0.005 - 0.031 0.628 0.050 0.769 0.024 0.549 0.36 73.48 0.4 1.375 0.006 - 0.031 0.628 0.050 0.799 0.025 0.570 0.46 73.58 0.5 1.475 0.006 - 0.031 0.628 0.050 0.827 0.026 0.590 0.57 73.68 0.6 1.575 0.007 - 0.031 0.628 0.050 0.855 0.027 0.610 0.67 73.78 0.7 1.675 0.007 - 0.031 0.628 0.050 0.881 0.028 0.629 0.78 73.88 0.8 1.775 0.008 - 0.031 0.628 0.050 0.907 0.029 0.648 0.88 73.98 0.9 1.875 0.008 - 0.031 0.628 0.050 0.933 0.029 0.666 0.98 74.08 1 1.975 0.008 - 0.031 0.628 0.050 0.957 0.030 0.683 1.09 74.18 1.1 2.075 0.009 - 0.031 0.628 0.050 0.981 0.031 0.700 1.19 74.28 1.2 2.175 0.009 - 0.031 0.628 0.050 1.004 0.032 0.717 1.30 74.38 1.3 2.275 0.010 - 0.031 0.628 0.050 1.027 0.032 0.733 1.40 74.48 1.4 2.375 0.010 - 0.031 0.628 0.050 1.050 0.033 0.749 1.51 74.58 1.5 2.475 0.011 - 0.031 0.628 0.050 1.071 0.034 0.765 1.61 74.68 1.6 2.575 0.011 - 0.031 0.628 0.050 1.093 0.034 0.780 1.72 74.78 1.7 2.675 0.011 - 0.031 0.628 0.050 1.114 0.035 0.795 1.82 74.88 1.8 2.775 0.012 - 0.031 0.628 0.050 1.134 0.036 0.810 1.92 74.98 1.9 2.875 0.012 - 0.031 0.628 0.050 1.155 0.036 0.824 2.03 75.08 2 2.975 0.013 - 0.031 0.628 0.050 1.175 0.037 0.839 2.13 Pipe Flo w Pressure Pipe Flo w!"##$%&'$()*+,$'-./*0$%12-3$(+14-.$540+)1-+6)3$71)849+$ $ :>$ Civil 498U Hydraulic Analysis 300 mm dia. Diversion Pipe March 2011 Input Data: 73.08 78.45 71.91 235 0.3 0.013 0.005 Calculations: Mannings Water Surface Elevation (m) Flow Depth (m) Hydraulic Head (m) HGL Slope (m) Theta (Rad) Flow Area (m2) Wetted Perimeter (m) Hydraulic Radius (m) Velocity (m/s) Discharge (m3/s) Froude Number Head in Manhole (m) 73.08 0 1.175 0.005 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.00 73.13 0.05 1.175 0.005 1.682 0.008 0.252 0.031 0.533 0.004 0.761 0.08 73.18 0.1 1.175 0.005 2.462 0.021 0.369 0.056 0.795 0.016 0.802 0.16 73.23 0.15 1.175 0.005 3.142 0.035 0.471 0.075 0.967 0.034 0.797 0.24 73.28 0.2 1.075 0.005 3.821 0.050 0.573 0.087 1.024 0.051 0.731 0.30 73.38 0.3 1.175 0.005 6.283 0.071 0.942 0.075 0.967 0.068 0.564 0.39 73.48 0.4 1.275 0.005 0.071 0.942 0.075 1.008 0.071 0.587 0.50 73.58 0.5 1.375 0.006 0.071 0.942 0.075 1.046 0.074 0.610 0.61 73.68 0.6 1.475 0.006 0.071 0.942 0.075 1.084 0.077 0.632 0.71 73.78 0.7 1.575 0.007 0.071 0.942 0.075 1.120 0.079 0.653 0.82 73.88 0.8 1.675 0.007 0.071 0.942 0.075 1.155 0.082 0.673 0.93 73.98 0.9 1.775 0.008 0.071 0.942 0.075 1.189 0.084 0.693 1.04 74.08 1 1.875 0.008 0.071 0.942 0.075 1.222 0.086 0.712 1.14 74.18 1.1 1.975 0.008 0.071 0.942 0.075 1.254 0.089 0.731 1.25 74.28 1.2 2.075 0.009 0.071 0.942 0.075 1.286 0.091 0.749 1.36 74.38 1.3 2.175 0.009 0.071 0.942 0.075 1.316 0.093 0.767 1.47 74.48 1.4 2.275 0.010 0.071 0.942 0.075 1.346 0.095 0.785 1.58 74.58 1.5 2.375 0.010 0.071 0.942 0.075 1.375 0.097 0.802 1.68 74.68 1.6 2.475 0.011 0.071 0.942 0.075 1.404 0.099 0.818 1.79 74.78 1.7 2.575 0.011 0.071 0.942 0.075 1.432 0.101 0.835 1.90 74.88 1.8 2.675 0.011 0.071 0.942 0.075 1.460 0.103 0.851 2.01 74.98 1.9 2.775 0.012 0.071 0.942 0.075 1.487 0.105 0.867 2.11 75.08 2 2.875 0.012 0.071 0.942 0.075 1.513 0.107 0.882 2.22 Pipe Flo w Pressure Pipe Flo w Invert Elevation (m) Manhole Rim Elevation (m) D/S Invert Elevation (m) Pipe Length (m) Low Flow Outlet Diameter (m) Pipe Roughness (n) Pipe Slope (m/m)!"##$%&'$()*+,$'-./*0$%12-3$(+14-.$540+)1-+6)3$71)849+$ $ :?$ $ Civil 498U Hydraulic Analysis 375 mm dia. Diversion Pipe March 2011 Input Data: 73.08 78.45 71.905 235 0.375 0.013 0.005 Calculations: Mannings Water Surface Elevation (m) Flow Depth (m) Hydraulic Head (m) HGL Slope (m) Theta (Rad) Flow Area (m2) Wetted Perimeter (m) Hydraulic Radius (m) Velocity (m/s) Discharge (m3/s) Froude Number Head in Manhole (m) 73.08 0 1.175 0.005 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.00 73.13 0.05 1.175 0.005 1.495 0.009 0.280 0.031 0.539 0.005 0.770 0.08 73.18 0.1 1.175 0.005 2.171 0.024 0.407 0.058 0.816 0.019 0.824 0.16 73.23 0.15 1.175 0.005 2.739 0.041 0.514 0.080 1.013 0.042 0.835 0.25 73.28 0.2 1 0.004 3.275 0.060 0.614 0.098 1.063 0.064 0.759 0.31 73.38 0.3 1.1 0.005 4.429 0.095 0.830 0.114 1.238 0.117 0.722 0.45 73.455 0.375 1.175 0.005 6.283 0.110 1.178 0.094 1.123 0.124 0.585 0.50 73.48 0.4 1.2 0.005 - 0.110 1.178 0.094 1.134 0.125 0.591 0.52 73.58 0.5 1.3 0.006 - 0.110 1.178 0.094 1.181 0.130 0.616 0.64 73.68 0.6 1.4 0.006 - 0.110 1.178 0.094 1.225 0.135 0.639 0.75 73.78 0.7 1.5 0.006 - 0.110 1.178 0.094 1.268 0.140 0.661 0.86 73.88 0.8 1.6 0.007 - 0.110 1.178 0.094 1.310 0.145 0.683 0.97 73.98 0.9 1.7 0.007 - 0.110 1.178 0.094 1.350 0.149 0.704 1.08 74.08 1 1.8 0.008 - 0.110 1.178 0.094 1.389 0.153 0.724 1.19 74.18 1.1 1.9 0.008 - 0.110 1.178 0.094 1.427 0.158 0.744 1.30 74.28 1.2 2 0.009 - 0.110 1.178 0.094 1.464 0.162 0.764 1.41 74.38 1.3 2.1 0.009 - 0.110 1.178 0.094 1.501 0.166 0.782 1.52 74.48 1.4 2.2 0.009 - 0.110 1.178 0.094 1.536 0.170 0.801 1.63 74.58 1.5 2.3 0.010 - 0.110 1.178 0.094 1.570 0.173 0.819 1.74 74.68 1.6 2.4 0.010 - 0.110 1.178 0.094 1.604 0.177 0.836 1.85 74.78 1.7 2.5 0.011 - 0.110 1.178 0.094 1.637 0.181 0.854 1.96 74.88 1.8 2.6 0.011 - 0.110 1.178 0.094 1.670 0.184 0.871 2.07 74.98 1.9 2.7 0.011 - 0.110 1.178 0.094 1.702 0.188 0.887 2.18 75.08 2 2.8 0.012 - 0.110 1.178 0.094 1.733 0.191 0.903 2.29 Pressure Pipe Flo w Pipe Flo w Invert Elevation (m) Manhole Rim Elevation (m) D/S Invert Elevation (m) Pipe Length (m) Low Flow Outlet Diameter (m) Pipe Roughness (n) Pipe Slope (m/m)!"##$%&'$()*+,$'-./*0$%12-3$(+14-.$540+)1-+6)3$71)849+$ $ :@$ $ Civil 498U Hydraulic Analysis 450 mm dia. Diversion Pipe March 2011 Input Data: 73.08 78.45 71.905 235 0.45 0.013 0.005 Calculations: Mannings Water Surface Elevation (m) Flow Depth (m) Hydraulic Head (m) HGL Slope (m) Theta (Rad) Flow Area (m2) Wetted Perimeter (m) Hydraulic Radius (m) Velocity (m/s) Discharge (m3/s) Froude Number Head in Manhole (m) 73.08 0 1.175 0.005 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.00 73.13 0.05 1.175 0.005 1.359 0.010 0.306 0.032 0.543 0.005 0.776 0.08 73.18 0.1 1.175 0.005 1.964 0.026 0.442 0.060 0.830 0.022 0.838 0.17 73.23 0.15 1.175 0.005 2.462 0.046 0.554 0.084 1.041 0.048 0.859 0.26 73.28 0.2 0.925 0.004 2.919 0.068 0.657 0.104 1.067 0.073 0.762 0.31 73.38 0.3 1.025 0.004 3.821 0.113 0.860 0.131 1.310 0.148 0.764 0.47 73.455 0.375 1.1 0.005 4.601 0.142 1.035 0.137 1.397 0.198 0.728 0.56 73.48 0.4 1.125 0.005 4.924 0.149 1.108 0.135 1.400 0.209 0.706 0.59 73.53 0.45 1.175 0.005 6.283 0.159 1.414 0.113 1.268 0.202 0.603 0.61 73.58 0.5 1.225 0.005 - 0.159 1.414 0.113 1.294 0.206 0.616 0.66 73.68 0.6 1.325 0.006 - 0.159 1.414 0.113 1.346 0.214 0.641 0.78 73.78 0.7 1.425 0.006 - 0.159 1.414 0.113 1.396 0.222 0.664 0.89 73.88 0.8 1.525 0.006 - 0.159 1.414 0.113 1.444 0.230 0.687 1.00 73.98 0.9 1.625 0.007 - 0.159 1.414 0.113 1.491 0.237 0.709 1.12 74.08 1 1.725 0.007 - 0.159 1.414 0.113 1.536 0.244 0.731 1.23 74.18 1.1 1.825 0.008 - 0.159 1.414 0.113 1.580 0.251 0.752 1.34 74.28 1.2 1.925 0.008 - 0.159 1.414 0.113 1.622 0.258 0.772 1.45 74.38 1.3 2.025 0.009 - 0.159 1.414 0.113 1.664 0.265 0.792 1.57 74.48 1.4 2.125 0.009 - 0.159 1.414 0.113 1.705 0.271 0.811 1.68 74.58 1.5 2.225 0.009 - 0.159 1.414 0.113 1.744 0.277 0.830 1.79 74.68 1.6 2.325 0.010 - 0.159 1.414 0.113 1.783 0.284 0.849 1.91 74.78 1.7 2.425 0.010 - 0.159 1.414 0.113 1.821 0.290 0.867 2.02 74.88 1.8 2.525 0.011 - 0.159 1.414 0.113 1.858 0.296 0.884 2.13 74.98 1.9 2.625 0.011 - 0.159 1.414 0.113 1.895 0.301 0.902 2.25 75.08 2 2.725 0.012 - 0.159 1.414 0.113 1.930 0.307 0.919 2.36 Pipe Slope (m/m) Pipe Flo w Pressure Pipe Flo w Invert Elevation (m) Manhole Rim Elevation (m) D/S Invert Elevation (m) Pipe Length (m) Low Flow Outlet Diameter (m) Pipe Roughness (n)!"##$%&'$()*+,$'-./*0$%12-3$(+14-.$540+)1-+6)3$71)849+$ $ >"$ $ Civil 498U Existing Outlet Capacity Analysis (No Weir) March 2011 Input Data: Invert Elevation (m) 73.08 Manhole Rim Elevation (m) 78.45 D/S Manhole Invert Elevation (m) 70.91 Pipe Length (m) 60.00 Outlet Diameter (m) 0.675 Weir Loss Coefficient 0.90 Orifice Loss Coefficient 0.72 Calculations: Water Surface Elevation (m) Flow Depth (m) Theta (RAD ) Flow Area - A (m2) Free Surface Width - B (m) Ratio A/B Discharge (m3/s) Velocity (m/s) Discharge (m3/s) Velocity (m/s) 73.08 0.000 0.00 0.000 0.000 0.00 0.000 0.000 - - 73.13 0.050 1.10 0.012 0.354 0.03 0.006 0.519 - - 73.18 0.100 1.58 0.033 0.480 0.07 0.024 0.740 - - 73.23 0.150 1.96 0.059 0.561 0.11 0.054 0.916 - - 73.28 0.200 2.30 0.089 0.616 0.14 0.095 1.070 - - 73.38 0.300 2.92 0.154 0.671 0.23 0.207 1.349 - - 73.48 0.400 3.51 0.221 0.663 0.33 0.359 1.627 0.445 2.02 73.58 0.500 4.15 0.284 0.592 0.48 0.555 1.954 0.641 2.26 73.68 0.600 4.92 0.336 0.424 0.79 0.843 2.509 0.830 2.47 73.73 0.650 5.51 0.354 0.255 1.39 1.174 3.320 0.909 2.57 73.78 0.700 - 0.358 - - - - 0.955 2.67 73.83 0.750 - 0.358 - - - - 0.988 2.76 73.88 0.800 - 0.358 - - - - 1.021 2.85 73.98 0.900 - 0.358 - - - - 1.083 3.03 74.08 1.000 - 0.358 - - - - 1.141 3.19 74.18 1.100 - 0.358 - - - - 1.197 3.34 74.28 1.200 - 0.358 - - - - 1.250 3.49 74.38 1.300 - 0.358 - - - - 1.301 3.64 74.48 1.400 - 0.358 - - - - 1.350 3.77 74.58 1.500 - 0.358 - - - - 1.398 3.91 74.68 1.600 - 0.358 - - - - 1.444 4.03 74.78 1.700 - 0.358 - - - - 1.488 4.16 74.88 1.800 - 0.358 - - - - 1.531 4.28 74.98 1.900 - 0.358 - - - - 1.573 4.40 75.08 2.000 - 0.358 - - - - 1.614 4.51 W eir Flo w Orifice Flo w WEIR Orifice!"##$%&'$()*+,$'-./*0$%12-3$(+14-.$540+)1-+6)3$71)849+$ $ >#$ Civil 498U Existing Outlet Capacity Analysis (50mm High Weir) March 2011 Input Data: Invert Elevation (m) 73.08 Manhole Rim Elevation (m) 78.45 D/S Manhole Invert Elevation (m) 70.91 Pipe Length (m) 60.00 Outlet Diameter (m) 0.675 Weir Loss Coefficient 0.90 Weir Cross Sectional Area (m2) 0.012 Orifice Loss Coefficient 0.72 Calculations: Water Surface Elevation (m) Flow Depth (m) Theta (RAD ) Flow Area - A (m2) Free Surface Width - B (m) Ratio A/B Discharge (m3/s) Velocity (m/s) Discharge (m3/s) Velocity (m/s) 73.08 0.000 0.00 0.000 0.000 0.00 0.000 0.000 - - 73.13 0.050 1.10 0.000 0.354 0.00 0.000 0.000 - - 73.18 0.100 1.58 0.021 0.480 0.04 0.012 0.591 - - 73.23 0.150 1.96 0.047 0.561 0.08 0.039 0.818 - - 73.28 0.200 2.30 0.077 0.616 0.12 0.076 0.995 - - 73.38 0.300 2.92 0.142 0.671 0.21 0.184 1.296 - - 73.48 0.400 3.51 0.209 0.663 0.31 0.330 1.582 0.421 2.02 73.58 0.500 4.15 0.272 0.592 0.46 0.521 1.912 0.614 2.26 73.68 0.600 4.92 0.324 0.424 0.76 0.799 2.464 0.801 2.47 73.73 0.650 5.51 0.342 0.255 1.34 1.115 3.263 0.878 2.57 73.78 0.700 - 0.346 - - - - 0.923 2.67 73.83 0.750 - 0.346 - - - - 0.955 2.76 73.88 0.800 - 0.346 - - - - 0.987 2.85 73.98 0.900 - 0.346 - - - - 1.046 3.03 74.08 1.000 - 0.346 - - - - 1.103 3.19 74.18 1.100 - 0.346 - - - - 1.157 3.34 74.28 1.200 - 0.346 - - - - 1.208 3.49 74.38 1.300 - 0.346 - - - - 1.258 3.64 74.48 1.400 - 0.346 - - - - 1.305 3.77 74.58 1.500 - 0.346 - - - - 1.351 3.91 74.68 1.600 - 0.346 - - - - 1.395 4.03 74.78 1.700 - 0.346 - - - - 1.438 4.16 74.88 1.800 - 0.346 - - - - 1.480 4.28 74.98 1.900 - 0.346 - - - - 1.520 4.40 75.08 2.000 - 0.346 - - - - 1.560 4.51 WEIR Orifice W eir Flo w Orifice Flo w!"##$%&'$()*+,$'-./*0$%12-3$(+14-.$540+)1-+6)3$71)849+$ $ >!$ $ Civil 498U Existing Outlet Capacity Analysis (100mm High Weir) March 2011 Input Data: Invert Elevation (m) 73.08 Manhole Rim Elevation (m) 78.45 D/S Manhole Invert Elevation (m) 70.91 Pipe Length (m) 60.00 Outlet Diameter (m) 0.675 Weir Loss Coefficient 0.90 Weir Cross Sectional Area (m2) 0.033 Orifice Loss Coefficient 0.72 Calculations: Water Surface Elevation (m) Flow Depth (m) Theta (RAD ) Flow Area - A (m2) Free Surface Width - B (m) Ratio A/B Discharge (m3/s) Velocity (m/s) Discharge (m3/s) Velocity (m/s) 73.08 0.000 0.00 0.000 0.000 0.00 0.000 0.000 - - 73.13 0.050 1.10 0.000 0.354 0.00 0.000 0.000 - - 73.18 0.100 1.58 0.000 0.480 0.00 0.000 0.000 - - 73.23 0.150 1.96 0.026 0.561 0.05 0.016 0.609 - - 73.28 0.200 2.30 0.056 0.616 0.09 0.047 0.847 - - 73.38 0.300 2.92 0.121 0.671 0.18 0.144 1.195 - - 73.48 0.400 3.51 0.188 0.663 0.28 0.282 1.500 0.379 2.02 73.58 0.500 4.15 0.251 0.592 0.42 0.461 1.837 0.566 2.26 73.68 0.600 4.92 0.303 0.424 0.71 0.722 2.382 0.749 2.47 73.73 0.650 5.51 0.321 0.255 1.26 1.013 3.161 0.824 2.57 73.78 0.700 - 0.325 - - - - 0.867 2.67 73.83 0.750 - 0.325 - - - - 0.897 2.76 73.88 0.800 - 0.325 - - - - 0.926 2.85 73.98 0.900 - 0.325 - - - - 0.983 3.03 74.08 1.000 - 0.325 - - - - 1.036 3.19 74.18 1.100 - 0.325 - - - - 1.086 3.34 74.28 1.200 - 0.325 - - - - 1.135 3.49 74.38 1.300 - 0.325 - - - - 1.181 3.64 74.48 1.400 - 0.325 - - - - 1.226 3.77 74.58 1.500 - 0.325 - - - - 1.269 3.91 74.68 1.600 - 0.325 - - - - 1.310 4.03 74.78 1.700 - 0.325 - - - - 1.351 4.16 74.88 1.800 - 0.325 - - - - 1.390 4.28 74.98 1.900 - 0.325 - - - - 1.428 4.40 75.08 2.000 - 0.325 - - - - 1.465 4.51 WEIR Orifice W eir Flo w Orifice Flo w!"##$%&'$()*+,$'-./*0$%12-3$(+14-.$540+)1-+6)3$71)849+$ $ :=$ $ Civil 498U Existing Outlet Capacity Analysis (150mm High Weir) March 2011 Input Data: Invert Elevation (m) 73.08 Manhole Rim Elevation (m) 78.45 D/S Manhole Invert Elevation (m) 70.91 Pipe Length (m) 60.00 Outlet Diameter (m) 0.675 Weir Loss Coefficient 0.90 Weir Cross Sectional Area (m2) 0.059 Orifice Loss Coefficient 0.72 Calculations: Water Surface Elevation (m) Flow Depth (m) Theta (RAD ) Flow Area - A (m2) Free Surface Width - B (m) Ratio A/B Discharge (m3/s) Velocity (m/s) Discharge (m3/s) Velocity (m/s) 73.08 0.000 0.00 0.000 0.000 0.00 0.000 0.000 - - 73.13 0.050 1.10 0.000 0.354 0.00 0.000 0.000 - - 73.18 0.100 1.58 0.000 0.480 0.00 0.000 0.000 - - 73.23 0.150 1.96 0.000 0.561 0.00 0.000 0.000 - - 73.28 0.200 2.30 0.030 0.616 0.05 0.018 0.617 - - 73.38 0.300 2.92 0.094 0.671 0.14 0.100 1.058 - - 73.48 0.400 3.51 0.162 0.663 0.24 0.225 1.392 0.326 2.02 73.58 0.500 4.15 0.225 0.592 0.38 0.391 1.738 0.507 2.26 73.68 0.600 4.92 0.277 0.424 0.65 0.631 2.277 0.684 2.47 73.73 0.650 5.51 0.294 0.255 1.15 0.892 3.029 0.757 2.57 73.78 0.700 - 0.299 - - - - 0.797 2.67 73.83 0.750 - 0.299 - - - - 0.825 2.76 73.88 0.800 - 0.299 - - - - 0.852 2.85 73.98 0.900 - 0.299 - - - - 0.904 3.03 74.08 1.000 - 0.299 - - - - 0.952 3.19 74.18 1.100 - 0.299 - - - - 0.999 3.34 74.28 1.200 - 0.299 - - - - 1.043 3.49 74.38 1.300 - 0.299 - - - - 1.086 3.64 74.48 1.400 - 0.299 - - - - 1.127 3.77 74.58 1.500 - 0.299 - - - - 1.166 3.91 74.68 1.600 - 0.299 - - - - 1.205 4.03 74.78 1.700 - 0.299 - - - - 1.242 4.16 74.88 1.800 - 0.299 - - - - 1.278 4.28 74.98 1.900 - 0.299 - - - - 1.313 4.40 75.08 2.000 - 0.299 - - - - 1.347 4.51 WEIR Orifice W eir Flo w Orifice Flo w

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