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2011 UBC South Campus Urban Stream Restoration Project Rutherford, Rob; Rees, James; Claxton, Tom; Wilkes, Tyler 2011

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UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report  2011 UBC South Campus Urban Stream Restoration Project Rob Rutherford James Rees Tom Claxton Tyler Wilkes  University of British Columbia CIVL 498U April 15, 2011  Disclaimer: “UBC SEEDS provides students with the opportunity to share the findings of their studies, as well as their opinions, conclusions and recommendations with the UBC community. The reader should bear in mind that this is a student project/report and is not an official document of UBC. Furthermore readers should bear in mind that these reports may not reflect the current status of activities at UBC. We urge you to contact the research persons mentioned in a report or the SEEDS Coordinator about the current status of the subject matter of a project/report”.  !  ! ! ! ! !  #$""!%&'!()*+,!'-./*0! %12-3!(+14-.!540+)1-+6)3! 71)849+! !!!!!! C*+,)10D! 5)2!5*+,41:)1;! ! <-.40!5440! =).!'>-?+)3! =@>41!A6>B40!!  (*/41E60)1D! F1G!5)2!H6>>-1!  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CE43*4!-0!;4091624;!-2)E4G!!5)):!;1-63-T4!:1).!+,4!-;8-943+!2*6>;63T0!60!->0)!:4;!+)!+,4!/)3;!2@! -!1*334>!0@0+4.G!!]>)V0!63!4?9400!):!+,4!/)3;!,6T,!V-+41!>4E4>!-14!;6E41+4;!+)!-!0-3;!:6>+41!+,-+! 149,-1T40! +,4! >)9->! -U*6:41G! ! K394! +,4! -U*6:41! 60! :*>>@! 149,-1T4;P! 4?9400! :>)V0! )E41:>)V! 63+)! +,4! 0+)1.! ;1-63-T4! 0@0+4.G! ! F*163T! +,4! 0*..41! +,4! /)3;! 60! ,6T,>@! ;4/43;43+! )3! +,4! *04! V-+41! V6+,63! +,4! -U*6:41! +)! .-63+-63! -! 9)30+-3+! V-+41! >4E4>G! ! C! /*./! 0@0+4.! ;1-V0! V-+41! :1).! +,4! -U*6:41!+)!.-63+-63!+,4!9)30+-3+!V-+41!>4E4>!63!+,4!/)3;G!H)36+)163T!):!:>)V0!43+4163T!+,4!/)3;! ,-0! 3)+! 2443! /41:)1.4;g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#$""!%&'!()*+,!'-./*0!%12-3!(+14-.!540+)1-+6)3!71)849+! !  F8< A12B!E()$-6(25!3-2+!=(55(5?!,5;!X-,.!S)$5&$! =,4!049)3;!)/+6)3!63E40+6T-+4;!V-0!630+->>63T!-!049)3;-1@!)*+>4+!63!+,4!4?60+63T!.-3,)>4!>)9-+4;! -+!&63363T!5)-;!-3;!Z1-@!CE43*4G!=,4!4?60+63T!0+)1.!;1-63-T4!.-3,)>4!RmQFX(#"^S!>)9-+4;!-+! +,4! 63+41049+6)3! ):! &63363T! 5)-;! -3;! Z1-@! CE43*4! 60! ;6149+>@! -;8-943+! +)! +,4! /1)/)04;! 0+-1+63T! >)9-+6)3!:)1!+,4!*12-3!0+14-.G!!=,60!.-3,)>4!60!-!9)>>49+6)3!/)63+!:)1!+,4!*/>-3;!;1-63-T4!):!+,4! 34V>@!9)30+1*9+4;!2*6>;63T0!2)*3;4;!2@!A4021))B!H->>P!"`+,!CE43*4!-3;!7-96:69!(/616+!7-1BG!!I+!60! 4?/49+4;!+,-+!+,4!2-04!:>)V!;6E41+4;!-+!A4021))B!H->>!-3;!4?9400!:>)V0!:1).!H69,-4>!(.6+,!7-1B! 4E43+*->>@! 9)>>49+! -+! +,60! .-3,)>4P! .-B63T! +,60! -3! 6;4->! >)9-+6)3! :)1! ;6E41+63T! :>)V0! +)! +,4! /1)/)04;!*12-3!0+14-.G!!! C!14E64V!):!+,4!149)1;!;1-V63T0!14E4->4;!+,4!0*1:-94!4>4E-+6)3!:)1!+,4!.-3,)>4!60!-//1)?6.-+4>@! ^\G_`!.!T4);4+69P!V,6>4!+,4!)*+>4+!63E41+!60!`_G#_!.!T4);4+69G!!&-04;!)3!+,60!63:)1.-+6)3!6+!9-3!24! 0443! +,-+! +,4! .-3,)>4! ;4/+,! 60! OGO_! .! R"_G\! :+GSG! ! C00*.63T! -! ;6E4106)3! /6/4! 60! 630+->>4;! -+! +,60! 63E41+!-3;!60!/>-94;!-+!-!T1-;4!):!$GOb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`+,! CE43*4P! 7-96:69!(/616+!7-1B!-3;!&6134@!CE43*4G!!! C! 14E64V! ):! +,4! 149)1;! ;1-V63T0! 14E4->4;! +,-+! +,4! 0*1:-94! 4>4E-+6)3! :)1! +,4! .-3,)>4! 60! -//1)?6.-+4>@! ^_G[O! .! T4);4+69P! V,6>4! +,4! )*+>4+! 63E41+! 60! ^\G$_! .! T4);4+69G! ! &-04;! )3! +,60! 63:)1.-+6)3!6+!9-3!24!0443!+,-+!+,4!.-3,)>4!;4/+,!60!OG\^!.!R"^G`!:+GSG!!C00*.63T!-!;6E4106)3!/6/4! 60!630+->>4;!-+!+,60!63E41+!-3;!60!/>-94;!-+!-!T1-;4!):!$GO$bP!+,4!;6E4106)3!/6/4!V)*>;!;-@>6T,+!63! -//1)?6.-+4>@!#\O!.!;)V30+14-.G!!=,60!>)9-+6)3!V)*>;!1)*T,>@!24!63!+,4!/1)/)04;!>)9-+6)3!:)1! "_!  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Stream temperature should not exceed 24oC for optimal reproduction and growth of #$""!%&'!()*+,!'-./*0!%12-3!(+14-.!540+)1-+6)3!71)849+! ! cutthroat trout (Moyle and Chech 2004). Cutthroat trout require a minimum stream depth  !  of 0.06 m, velocity between 0.11 to 0.72 m/s, substrate size of 6-102 mm, and a mean redd area of 0.09-0.0 m2 for optimal spawning conditions (Hogan and Ward 1997). The J89 *'-$,+!A12B!K$L&(-$+$5'6! maximum swim speed and jumping height of cutthroat trout vary depending on its C0!+,4!/1)/)04;!0+14-.!V6>>!24!;406T34;!-0!6:!+)!24!*04;!-0!:60,!,-26+-+P!+,4!,-26+-+!14U*614.43+0! current life stage Ward24! 1997). 1, summarizes the maximum sustained, ):! 3-+6E4! :60,!(Hogan 0/49640!and 0,)*>;! *04;!Table -0! 9)30+1-63+0! )3! 43T6344163T! ;406T3G! c)0+-! (-360P! -! %&'! T1-;*-+4!0+*;43+!9)./6>4;!14>4E-3+!,-26+-+!14U*614.43+0!:)1!9*++,1)-+!+1)*+!R81596+=51-?&SP!+,4! prolonged, and burst swimming speeds, as well as the maximum jumping height for 3-+6E4!:60,!0/49640!+)!)+,41!3-+*1->!0+14-.0!34-1!+,4!%&'!9-./*0!R(-360!#$$`SG!=-2>4!"!)*+>6340! cutthroat trout at various stages in its lifecycle. +,4!.-?6.*.!0V6.!0/44;0!-3;!8*./!,46T,+0!:)1!9*++,1)-+!+1)*+G!  Table 1. Maximum swim speeds and jump height of adult and juvenile cutthroat L+M>&'(<'@+G"8$8'0?"8'02&&30'+.3'9$82'1&"#1/'-,%'+3$>/'+.3'9$I&.">&':$//1%,+/'/%,$/'NH+.&'(OPQR' trout (Salmo clarki). (Dane 1978) Species Cutthroat  Lifestage adults juveniles (125 mm) juveniles (50 mm)  Maximum Swim Seed (m/s) Sustained Prolonged Burst 0.9 1.8 4.3 0.4 0.7 1.1 0.1 0.3 0.4  Maximum Jump Height (m) 1.5 0.6 0.3  !  I3! -;;6+6)3! -3;! that 8*./! ,46T,+! 14U*614.43+0P! 9*++,1)-+! When designing+)!a 0V6..63T! stream, it is0/44;! important these velocities and jumping heights+1)*+! are ->0)! 14U*614! -! .636.*.!0+14-.!;4/+,!):!`!9.P!0*20+1-+4!06Y4!24+V443!`!-3;!"$#!..!:)1!0/-V363TP!-3;!"!.\!):! taken into consideration to ensure fish are able to readily travel through the stream V-+41! .-63+-634;! 63! /))>0! +,1)*T,! +,4! ;1@! 04-0)3G! N-0+>@P! +,4! )/+6.->! V-+41! +4./41-+*14! :)1! (Hogan and Ward 1997). Cutthroat trout are often found in streams with riffle pool and 9*++,1)-+!+1)*+!60!-//1)?6.-+4>@!"O!;4T1440!'4>06*0P!V6+,!-3!-20)>*+4!.-?6.*.!+4./41-+*14!):! #[! ;4T1440! '4>06*0! R(-360! #$$`SG!and C! 9)./>4+4! 0*..-1@! ):! 63:)1.-+6)3! cascade pool morphology (Hogan Ward 1997). These streams are /41+-6363T! suited to +)! :60,! ,-26+-+! 14U*614.43+0!9-3!24!:)*3;!63!(-360h!14/)1+G! accommodate cutthroat trout at the various stages of its lifecycle (Hogan and Ward 1997).  Riffle pool and cascade pool streams are discussed in the following section. &-04;!)3!+,4!:60,!,-26+-+!916+416)3P!:>)V0!63!+,4!;1@!0*..41!.)3+,0!V6>>!24!2-04;!)3!.-63+-6363T! -! .636.*.! :>)V! ;4/+,! ):! `! 9.! V6+,63! +,4! >)V! :>)V! 9,-334>P! V,6>4! ;*163T! V63+41! .)3+,0! +,4!  3.2;406T3!916+416-!V6>>!24!2-04;!)3!3)+!4?944;63T!-!.-?6.*.!:>)V!E4>)96+@!):!"G$!.a0!R(-360!#$$`SG!! Riffle Pool and Cascade Pool Streams C0!0*9,P!+,4!:>)V!;6E4106)3!0+1*9+*14!0,)*>;!24!06Y4;!+)!;4>6E41!-3!-//1)/16-+4!1-3T4!):!:>)V!+)! Riffle pool or cascade pool morphology streams are an ideal choice for an urban stream +,4!0+14-.G!54:41!(6!80=(&6)+#;"Q!:)1!;4+-6>0!)3!+,4!0+14-.!,@;1-*>690G!!! taking fish habitat criteria into consideration. 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T1-;643+0!4?944;63T![bP!9-09-;4X/))>!-3;!16::>4X/))>!+@/40!-14!:)*3;!)3!0>)/40!):!>400!+,-3![bP! -3;!16::>4X/))>!+@/40!V6+,!0-3;!2)++).0!-14!:)*3;!63!)3!0>)/40!):!>400!+,-3!#b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#$""!%&'!()*+,!'-./*0!%12-3!(+14-.!540+)1-+6)3!71)849+! ! L+M>&'U<'=%,2,0&3'0/%&+8'%&+:1'>&.#/1_'0>,2&_'+.3':,.0/%$:/",.'/K2&'  E&+:1'`' "! #! \! [! O! `!  7/+%/' $q$$$! $q\#$! $qO[$! $q`[$! $qQ$$! "q$_$!  B.3' $q\#$! $qO[$! $q`[$! $qQ$$! "q$_$! "q\$$!  A&.#/1' \#$.! ##$.! "$$.! #`$.! "_$.! ##$.!  7>,2&' \G$b! #G$b! \GOb! #GOb! "G$b! #G$b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r[b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#$""!%&'!()*+,!'-./*0!%12-3!(+14-.!540+)1-+6)3!71)849+! ! a) Step-Pool morphology (after Church 1992)  ! b) Cascade-Pool morphology (after Grant et al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c) Riffle-Pool morphology 40043+6->>@!0+44/41!/6+9,40!):!+,4!0+14-.!R#X[b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`SG!I3!3-+*1->!9-09-;4X /))>!0+14-.0P!>-1T4!V));@!;42160!RNAFS!.-@!24!/14043+!2*+!,-0!-!.636.->!:*39+6)3->!1)>4!63!+,4! 0+14-.!,-26+-+!4?94/+!+)!:)1.!0+4/0P!+1-/a09)*1!04;6.43+0!63!941+-63!>)9-+6)30P!-3;!/1)+49+!2-3B0! :1).!41)06)3!RL)T-3!-3;!A-1;!"QQ^SG!! Figure 2-3. Channel morphologies of small- and intermediate-sized channels (Anon. 1996a, b). Watershed Geomorphology and Fish Habitat  \Q!  2-6  #$""!%&'!()*+,!'-./*0!%12-3!(+14-.!540+)1-+6)3!71)849+! ! b) Cascade-Pool morphology (after Grant et al. 1990)  !  c) Riffle-Pool morphology  !"#$%&'(P<'6+0:+3&)2,,>'8,%21,>,#K'NZ%+./_'7?+.0,.'+.3'],>8+.'(OO[R'  =,4! 9-09-;4! 049+6)30! ):! +,4! 0+14-.! 0,)*>;! 24! 9)30+1*9+4;! ):! 0+)34! 06Y40! 0+-2>4! -+! 2-3B:*>>! :>)V! 9)3;6+6)30! RM4V2*1@P! Z-2)*1@! -3;! &-+40! "QQ^SG! =,4! ;6-.4+41! ):! 0+)34! +,-+! 60! 0+-2>4! -+! +,404! 9)3;6+6)30!9-3!24!40+6.-+4;!V6+,!+,4!:)>>)V63T!4U*-+6)3D! BC$+/",.'J''  " s (cm) = 1500DS '  '  V,414!F!60!+,4!;4/+,!):!:>)V!R.S!-3;!(!60!+,4!0>)/4!R.a.S!RM4V2*1@P!Z-2)*1@!-3;!&-+40!"QQ^SG! ! =,4!0+)340!0,)*>;!24!06Y4;!+)!24!-2)E4!+,4!V-+41!0*1:-94!;*163T!>)V!:>)V!9)3;6+6)30!+)!43-2>4! Figure 2-3. Channel morphologies of small- and intermediate-sized channels (Anon. 1996a, b).  T1)V+,!):!->T-4!-3;!.)00!)3!+,4!+)/0!63!)1;41!+)!14/>69-+4!3-+*1->!9-09-;4X/))>!0+14-.0!RL)T-3! -3;!A-1;!"QQ^SG!=,4!0+)340!0,)*>;!24!/>-94;!63!>6340!-91)00!+,4!9,-334>!63!-14-0!9)3349+63T!+,4!  Watershed Geomorphology and Fish Habitat  2-6  >)V41!T1-;643+!/))>0!-3;!0,)*>;!24!:))+4;!63+)!+,4!24;!.-+416->!+)!6./1)E4!0+-26>6+@!RM4V2*1@P! Z-2)*1@!-3;!&-+40!"QQ^SG!7))>0!0,)*>;!24!-+!>4-0+!)34!2-3B:*>>!V6;+,!63!>43T+,!RL)T-3!-3;!A-1;! "QQ^S!-3;!0,)*>;!24!0/-94;!-+!63+41E->0!4U*->!+)!`!+)!_!+6.40!+,4!2-3B:*>>!V6;+,!):!+,4!9,-334>! RM4V2*1@P!Z-2)*1@!-3;!&-+40!"QQ^SG!!  778F K(331$\N221!*'-$,+!E$6(?5! 56::>4X/))>! 0+14-.! .)1/,)>)T@! 60! 149)..43;4;! :)1! -3@! 0>)/40! >400! +,-3! )1! 4U*->! +)! #bG! 56::>4X /))>!0+14-.0!,-E4!>)V!T1-;643+0P!>-1T4!/))>0P!-3;!/1)E6;4!4?94>>43+!0/-V363T!-3;!14-163T!,-26+-+! :)1!:60,G!I3!3-+*1->!16::>4X/))>!0+14-.0P!>-1T4!V));@!;42160!RNAFS!;)40!3)+!/>-@!-!06T36:69-3+!1)>4! 63!:60,!,-26+-+g!+,414:)14P!0,)*>;!3)+!041E4!-!06T36:69-3+!:*39+6)3!63!+,4!/1)/)04;!0+14-.!4?94/+!+)! [$!  #$""!%&'!()*+,!'-./*0!%12-3!(+14-.!540+)1-+6)3!71)849+! ! 0*//)1+!+,4!9)30+1*9+6)3!):!16::>40!-3;!/))>0G!NAF!+,-+!60!/>-94;!63!+,4!0+14-.!0,)*>;!24!)1643+4;! -91)00!-3;!0,)*>;!0/-3!+,4!43+614!9,-334>!RL)T-3!-3;!A-1;!"QQ^SG! c) Riffle-Pool morphology  ! Figure 2-3. Channel morphologies of small- and intermediate-sized channels (Anon. 1996a, b). !"#$%&'(Q'E"-->&)2,,>'0/%&+8'8,%21,>,#K'NW,#+.'+.3']+%3'(OOPR'  Watershed Geomorphology and Fish Habitat  =,4!.-63!:4-+*14!):!0+-2>4!16::>4X/))>!0+14-.0!60!14/4-+63T!16::>4X2-1X/))>!04U*43940G!7))>0P!2-10P! -3;!16::>40!0,)*>;!24!;6E4104!63!0,-/4!-3;!06Y4P!-3;!+,4!43+614!0+14-.!0,)*>;!9)3060+!):!24+V443! s!+)!t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bP! -3;! +@/69->>@! (;! 60! >400! +,-3! "$b! R'-1>63T! -3;! K11! #$$$P! M4V2*1@P! Z-2)*1@! -3;!&-+40!"QQ^SG!=,4!*/0+14-.!:-94!R(*S!0,)*>;!24!.*9,!0+44/41!+,-3!+,4!;)V30+14-.!:-94!V6+,! -! 0>)/4! 24+V443! #Ob! -3;! "$$b! RL4@! "QQ#P! M4V2*1@P! Z-2)*1@! -3;! &-+40! "QQ^SG! =)! :*1+,41! 14/>69-+4! 3-+*1->! 9,-334>! .)1/,)>)T@P! +,4! 16::>4! EX-/4?! 0>)/40! 0,)*>;! 24! -//1)?6.-+4>@! "$b! RA,@+4!"QQ^S!)1!,-E4!-!+)+->!EX-/4?!;4/+,!):!$G\!+)!$G`.!RM4V2*1@P!Z-2)*1@!-3;!&-+40!"QQ^SG! ["!  2-6  from specific energy principles assuming no energy losses or upstream sediment accumulation, and critical non-backwatering conditions at the structure crest (Figure 4). Under these circumstances:  Figure 2 Phase 2: Riffle design and hydraulic analysis flow chart.  likely need to be tailored to the specific project reach [24]. Design #$""!%&'!()*+,!'-./*0!%12-3!(+14-.!540+)1-+6)3!71)849+! aspects such as riffle location, configuration, and stability will 1/3 3 q2 q2 need! to be evaluated in terms of predicted or expected regime − (1) max = Yb + 2 g 2gYb2 channel geometry, and potential long-term impacts to project =,60!EX0,-/4!430*140!>)V!:>)V0!-14!:)9*04;!+)V-1;!+,4!943+41!):!+,4!0+14-.!+)!63914-04!;4/+,!:)1! where Yb is the limiting upstream depth, or the depth to top of reach hydraulics, flood capacity, sediment transport efficiency, bank (m); q = QD /W is the design unit discharge (m2 /s); W is and aquatic habitat sustainability (Figure 2). :60,!/-00-T4!-3;!/14E43+!2-3B!09)*1!34-1!+,4!16::>40!RM4V2*1@P!Z-2)*1@!-3;!&-+40!"QQ^SG!  x  Sd  Su  Sec. y-y’  ∆ y  y’  Lr  WB WT  Sv  δ x’  Sec. x-x’  Lr  WB  Figure 3 Riffle design template (after Newbury and Gaboury [21]).  !  !"#$%&'(O<'L&82>+/&'2%,2,0&3'-,%':,.0/%$:/",.'+.3'3&0"#.',-'%"-->&0'+.3':+0:+3&0'N]+>a&%_'@">>+%'+.3'V&?M$%K';[[JR'  =,4!.)0+!6./)1+-3+!16::>4!;406T3!/-1-.4+41!+)!;406T3!60!+,4!,46T,+!RuSG!=,4!16::>4!.*0+!24!>-1T4! 43)*T,! +)! .-63+-63! /))>! ;4/+,! :)1! :60,! ,-26+-+! )3! +,4! */0+14-.! 06;4P! 2*+! .*0+! 3)+! 34T-+6E4>@! 6./-9+! +,4! :>));! 9)3E4@-394! 9-/-96+@! ):! +,4! 9,-334>! RM4V2*1@P! Z-2)*1@! -3;! &-+40! "QQ^SG! u.-?! 9-3! 24! ;4+41.634;! *063T! $WD1(&6)+ I! -00*.63T! 3)! 4341T@! >)0040P! 3)! */0+14-.! 04;6.43+! -99*.*>-+6)3P! -3;! 916+69->! 3)3X2-9BV-+4163T! 9)3;6+6)30! -+! +,4! 9140+! ):! +,4! 16::>4! RA->B41P! H6>>-1! -3;!M4V2*1@!#$$[SG!!  ! BC$+/",.'S'  " max  !  # q 2 & # 3q 2 &1/ 3 = Yb + % ( ' 2 ( )% $ 2gYb ' $ 2g '  ! !  I3!$WD1(&6)+IP!v2!60!+,4!>6.6+63T!*/0+14-.!;4/+,!)1!+,4!;4/+,!+)!+,4!+)/!):!+,4!2-3Bg!U!60!+,4!;406T3! ;609,-1T4! /41! *36+! V6;+,! R.#a0Sg! -3;! A! 60! +,4! .4-3! 9,-334>! V6;+,! R.SG! =,4! ;406T3! :>));! .-@! +,43!24!*04;!63!4U*-+6)3!"!+)!430*14!+,-+!+,4!:>));!60!9)3+-634;!V6+,63!+,4!-994/+-2>4!:>));/>-63! RM4V2*1@P! Z-2)*1@! -3;! &-+40! "QQ^SG! (+-T4X;609,-1T4! 14>-+6)30,6/0! :)1! :>)V! )E41! +,4! 16::>40! 60! ;609*004;!:*1+,41!63!80=(&6)+#;"#"+  [#!  #$""!%&'!()*+,!'-./*0!%12-3!(+14-.!540+)1-+6)3!71)849+! ! K394!+,4!16::>4!0,-/4!,-0!2443!;406T34;P!.-+416->0!.*0+!24!0/496:64;!-3;!16::>4!0+-26>6+@!.*0+!24! -3->@Y4;G!=,4!06Y4!):!.-+416->!0+-2>4!:)1!16::>4!9)30+1*9+6)3P!;*163T!+,4!.-?6.*.!63!9,-334>!:>));! 0+-T4P!9-3!24!)2+-634;!*063T!$WD1(&6)+B!RA->B41P!H6>>-1!-3;!M4V2*1@!#$$[SG!  BC$+/",.'U'  D50 =  10 Y S '' " d d  FO$! 60! +,4! 9,-1-9+4160+69! 16::>4! T1-63! 06Y4! -+! V,69,! O$b! 60! :6341! R.Sg! v;! 60! +,4! .-?6.*.! *36:)1.! ! :>)V!;4/+,!)E41!+,4!16::>4g!-3;! "!60!-!9)1149+6)3!:-9+)1!:)1!0+44/>@!0>)/4;!24;0!RwObS!-3;!9-3!24! 40+6.-+4;!V6+,!$WD1(&6)+GD!!  BC$+/",.'P'  ! tan # " = cos# (1 $ )' tan %  V,414! " = tan #1 Sd ! 60! +,4! ;)V30+14-.! 16::>4! :-94! -3T>4! R;4T1440Sg! -3;! " ! 60! +,4! 3-+*1->! -3T>4! ):! ! 14/)04! ):! +,4! .-+416->G! =,4! +@/69->! E->*4! ):! " ! :)1! 04;6.43+! ;6-.4+410! T14-+41! +,-3! $G".! 60! [$x! !  RA->B41P!H6>>-1!-3;!M4V2*1@!#$$[SG!!  778J =$;!*&06'-,'$!  !  !  &4+V443! 16::>40! -3;! 9-09-;40P! 24;! .-+416->! .*0+! 24! 06Y4;! -//1)/16-+4>@! +)! -E)6;! 41)06)3! -3;! 06>+-+6)3!63!+,4!0+14-.!V,6>4!/1)E6;63T!0*::69643+!,-26+-+!:)1!:60,!0/-V363TG!4&*D-0+;Q!9-3!24!*04;! 63! 9)38*39+6)3! V6+,! 4?/49+4;! /4-B! 0+)1.! :>)V0! +)! ;4+41.634! .636.*.! 0+-2>4! /-1+69>4! 06Y4! :)1! 0+4-.!24;!0*20+1-+4G!  [\!  which will begin to move a given substrate material on a stream bed. Figure 9, outlines the critical velocities for various sizes of stream bed material. #$""!%&'!()*+,!'-./*0!%12-3!(+14-.!540+)1-+6)3!71)849+! !  !  Figure 9. Critical velocity with respect to stream bed material (sediment) diameter. Depending on the velocity and the size of stream bed material, erosion, transport, or !"#$%&';[<'6%"/":+>'I&>,:"/K'?"/1'%&02&:/'/,'0/%&+8M&3'8+/&%"+>'3"+8&/&%'NA+.&'(OSSR' sedimentation may occur. (Lane 1955) C0!)*+>634;!63!80=(&6)+B"QP!+,4!.-?6.*.!;40614;!E4>)96+@!:)1!9*++,1)-+!+1)*+!,-26+-+!60!"!.a0!-3;! +,4!6;4->!0*20+1-+4!06Y4!:)1!0/-V363T!60!`!+)!"$#..G!%063T!4&*D-0+;QP!6+!9-3!24!;4.)30+1-+4;!+,-+! 0*20+1-+4! 06Y4! T14-+41! +,-3! "O..! 60! -//1)/16-+4! :)1! 2)+,! :>)V! -3;! :60,! 14U*614.43+0G! 23  [[!  #$""!%&'!()*+,!'-./*0!%12-3!(+14-.!540+)1-+6)3!71)849+! ! !  7<89 *'-$,+!O.;-,&1(%6! 7<87 *'-$,+!]$12%('.^!*',?$!,5;!E(6%R,-?$! =,4! 14>-+6)30,6/! 24+V443! E)>*.4+169! ;609,-1T4P! .4-3! E4>)96+@! -3;! V-+41! 0*1:-94! 4>4E-+6)3! R0+-T4S!:)1!+,4!/1)/)04;!0+14-.!60!6>>*0+1-+4;!2@!+,4!9,-1+0!24>)VP!2-04;!)3!H-3363Td0!4U*-+6)3! :)1!)/43!9,-334>!:>)VG!!'*1E40!,-E4!2443!/>)++4;!:)1!-!1-3T4!):!*36:)1.!9,-334>!0>)/40!24+V443! "G$!-3;!\G$bP!-3;!:)1!H-3363Td0!3!E->*40!1-3T63T!24+V443!$G$[!-3;!$G$`!:)1!+,4!.-63!/)1+6)3!):! +,4! 9,-334>G! ! KE412-3B! /)1+6)30! ):! +,4! 9,-334>! ,-E4! 2443! 9)3060+43+>@! -006T34;! H-3363Td0! 3! E->*40!):!$G$^G! !  ! !"#$%&';(<'7/+#&)3"0:1+%#&':$%I&'-,%'F<[^'$."-,%8'0>,2&'%&+:1&0'  [O!  #$""!%&'!()*+,!'-./*0!%12-3!(+14-.!540+)1-+6)3!71)849+! !  ! !"#$%&';;<'b&>,:"/K)3"0:1+%#&'%&>+/",.01"2'-,%'F<[^'$."-,%8'0>,2&'%&+:1&0'  ! !"#$%&';F<'7/+#&)3"0:1+%#&'%&>+/",.01"20'-,%'(<[^'$."-,%8'0>,2&'%&+:1&0(  [`!  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b! -3;! 0+44/41P! -! 0+4//4;! 16::>4X/))>! )1! 9-09-;4X/))>! 0+14-.! /1):6>4! 60! 149)..43;4;! +)! 43,-394! ,-26+-+! E->*40P! V6+,! T1-;4! 214-B0! 1463:)194;! V6+,! >-1T4! V));! ;42160! -3;! 9)22>4a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a0G!  [^!  #$""!%&'!()*+,!'-./*0!%12-3!(+14-.!540+)1-+6)3!71)849+! !  ! !"#$%&';S<'B0/"8+/&3':%"/":+>'3&2/1'+.3'02&:"-":'&.&%#K',I&%'%"-->&':%&0/0'  =,4! ;)V30+14-.! :-94! ):! +,4! 16::>4! ,-0! 2443! ;406T34;! +)! 639)1/)1-+4! -! $G\! .4+14! ;1)/! )E41! -! >43T+,! ):! [G$! .4+140P! :)1! -! 0>)/4! ):! ^GO$! b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#$""!%&'!()*+,!'-./*0!%12-3!(+14-.!540+)1-+6)3!71)849+! !  !  !  [Q!  #$""!%&'!()*+,!'-./*0!%12-3!(+14-.!540+)1-+6)3!71)849+! !  ! !"#$%&';U<'7/+#&)I&>,:"/K)3"0:1+%#&'%&>+/",.01"2'+.3'!%,$3&'.$8M&%0'-,%'3,?.0/%&+8'-+:&',-'%"-->&0  O$!  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estoration 4&*D-0+ Project,;H!Howe B.C. 3-+*1->! 16::>40!Figure 9-3! 24! *04;!Langdale +)! ;6149+! Creek +,4! 9)30+1*9+)10G! 60! -3!Sound, 4?-./>4! ):! 9)30+1*9+6)3! Diverse hydraulic conditions have been created by strategically placing large  ;1-V63T0!*04;!63!/14E6)*0!0+14-.!140+)1-+6)3!/1)849+0!9)3;*9+4;!63!&16+60,!')>*.26-!-3;!60!-3! boulders on the downstream face of this constructed riffle. Note the well riprapped banks in the riffle zone adjacent to the reconstructed Sunshine 4?-./>4!):!+,4!14U*614;!:63->!;406T3!/1);*9+0!:)1!+,4!%&'!()*+,!'-./*0!/1)849+G! Coast Highway.  1. PLAN: build riffle crest across the stream with large diameter boulders; back up with next largest stone downstream. 2. PROFILE: construct downstream face of riffle at a shallow re-entry slope that mimics local natural riffles (5:1 to 20:1). 3. SECTION: V-shape the crest and face downwards to the centre of the riffle (0.3 to 0.6 m). 4. SURFACE: place large rocks randomly on the downstream face 20 to 30cm apart to dissipate energy and create low flow fish passage channels. 5. BANKS: rip-rap both banks with embedded boulders and cobbles to the floodplain level.  !  Figure 12-12. This schematic pool and riffle construction drawing may be augmented for machine operators with note on the placement of !"#$%&';P<'BG+82>&',-':,.0/%$:/",.'3%+?".#0'-,%'8+:1".&',2&%+/,%0'/,':,.0/%$:/'%"-->&0'NV&?M$%K'WK3%+$>":0'(OOUR' construction survey stakes and photographs of natural and well constructed riffles (video, Newbury Hydraulics 1996). Restoring Habitats in Channelized or Uniform Streams  O"!  12-11  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igure 12-14. Chapman Creek Restoration Project 1992, Strait of Georgia, B.C. Condensed plan and profile drawings for the restoration project undertaken in 1992 and 1993.  !"#$%&' ;Q<' 6,.3&.0&3' 2>+.' +.3' 2%,-">&' 3%+?".#0' -,%' /1&' 61+28+.' 6%&&a' E&0/,%+/",.' =%,9&:/' NV&?M$%K_' Z+M,$%K' +.3' Restoring Habitats in Channelized or Uniform Streams 5+/&0'(OOPR'  12-14  O#!  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T1-E4>X9)22>4! 24;! 16E410Gf!N)(5"+^"+P&M0-+31'&)+<1)1*090)(!#P!3)G![!R#$$[SD!#Q"X#QQG! A,@+4P! IGAGP! &-2-B-6::P! (GP! C;-.0P! HGCG! -3;! Z61)*?P! 7GCG! e',-/+41! OD! 540+)163T! :60,! -99400! -3;! 14,-26>6X! +-+6)3! ):! 0/-V363T! 06+40Gf! I3! 4&'2+ [1V&(1(+ P021V&5&(1(&6)+ >-6=0@D-0'G! W-39)*E41P! &'D! H6360+1@!):!J3E61)3.43+P!N-3;0!-3;!7-1B0P!"QQ^G! A6424P!<4004P!-3;!M69B!H-1+430G!>-05&9&)1-.+8D-M0.+1)@+C5&*)90)(+/6-?+>1=?1*0Y+_-V1)+8(-019+ P0'(6-1(&6)+>-6E0=("!%36E4016+@!):!&16+60,!')>*.26-P!W-39)*E41D!%&'!(JJF(!71)T1-.P!#$"$G!  O`!  !"##$%&'$()*+,$'-./*0$%12-3$(+14-.$540+)1-+6)3$71)849+$ $  !""#$%&'(!)(*+,$(,$%(*-./&+#(0-,1&$23(  :;$  !"##$%&'$()*+,$'-./*0$%12-3$(+14-.$540+)1-+6)3$71)849+$ $ $  :<$  !"##$%&'$()*+,$'-./*0$%12-3$(+14-.$540+)1-+6)3$71)849+$ $ $  :=$  !"##$%&'$()*+,$'-./*0$%12-3$(+14-.$540+)1-+6)3$71)849+$ $  >"$  !"##$%&'$()*+,$'-./*0$%12-3$(+14-.$540+)1-+6)3$71)849+$ $  !""#$%&'()*(+,-".#(/,.01.,2&3$4(  :#$  !"##$%&'$()*+,$'-./*0$%12-3$(+14-.$540+)1-+6)3$71)849+$ $ $  :!$  !"##$%&'$()*+,$'-./*0$%12-3$(+14-.$540+)1-+6)3$71)849+$ $  $ :;$  !"##$%&'$()*+,$'-./*0$%12-3$(+14-.$540+)1-+6)3$71)849+$ $  $ :<$  !"##$%&'$()*+,$'-./*0$%12-3$(+14-.$540+)1-+6)3$71)849+$ $  March 2011  Hydraulic Analysis 150 mm dia. Diversion Pipe  Civil 498U Input Data: Invert Elevation (m) Manhole Rim Elevation (m) D/S Invert Elevation (m) Pipe Length (m)  73.08 78.45 71.905 235  Low Flow Outlet Diameter (m) Pipe Roughness (n) Pipe Slope (m/m)  0.15 0.013 0.005  Calculations:  Pressure Pipe Flow  Partial Pipe Flow  Mannings Water Surface Elevation (m)  Flow Depth (m)  73.08  Flow Area  Hydraulic Head (m)  HGL Slope (m)  Wetted Hydraulic Perimeter Radius (m) (m)  Theta (Rad)  (m /s)  Froude Number  Head in Manhole (m)  0  1.175  0.005  0.000  0.000  0.000  0.000  0.000  0.00  0.00  73.13  0.05  1.175  0.005  2.462  0.005  0.028  0.501  0.003  0.71  0.07  73.155  0.075  1.175  0.005  3.142  73.18  0.1  1.175  0.005  3.821  0.236  0.038  0.609  0.005  0.71  0.11  0.287  0.044  0.675  0.008  0.68  0.14  73.23  0.15  1.175  0.005  0.018  0.471  0.038  0.609  0.011  0.50  0.19  73.28  0.2  1.225  73.38  0.3  1.325  -  0.018  0.471  0.038  0.622  0.011  0.51  0.24  -  0.018  0.471  0.038  0.647  0.011  0.53  0.34  73.48  0.4  0.006  -  0.018  0.471  0.038  0.671  0.012  0.55  0.44  73.58 73.68  1.525  0.006  -  0.018  0.471  0.038  0.694  0.012  0.57  0.55  1.625  0.007  -  0.018  0.471  0.038  0.717  0.013  0.59  0.65  0.7  1.725  0.007  -  0.018  0.471  0.038  0.738  0.013  0.61  0.75  73.88  0.8  1.825  0.008  -  0.018  0.471  0.038  0.759  0.013  0.63  0.86  73.98  0.9  1.925  0.008  -  0.018  0.471  0.038  0.780  0.014  0.64  0.96  74.08  1  2.025  0.009  -  0.018  0.471  0.038  0.800  0.014  0.66  1.06  74.18  1.1  2.125  0.009  -  0.018  0.471  0.038  0.820  0.014  0.68  1.17  74.28  1.2  2.225  0.009  -  0.018  0.471  0.038  0.839  0.015  0.69  1.27  74.38  1.3  2.325  0.010  -  0.018  0.471  0.038  0.857  0.015  0.71  1.37  74.48  1.4  2.425  0.010  -  0.018  0.471  0.038  0.875  0.015  0.72  1.47  74.58  1.5  2.525  0.011  -  0.018  0.471  0.038  0.893  0.016  0.74  1.58  74.68  1.6  2.625  0.011  -  0.018  0.471  0.038  0.911  0.016  0.75  1.68  74.78  1.7  2.725  0.012  -  0.018  0.471  0.038  0.928  0.016  0.77  1.78  74.88  1.8  2.825  0.012  -  0.018  0.471  0.038  0.945  0.017  0.78  1.89  74.98  1.9  2.925  0.012  -  0.018  0.471  0.038  0.961  0.017  0.79  1.99  75.08  2  3.025  0.013  -  0.018  0.471  0.038  0.978  0.017  0.81  2.09  Velocity (m/s)  Discharge  0.000  0.185  0.009 0.013  6.283  0.005 0.006  1.425  0.5 0.6  73.78  2  (m )  3  $ :=$  !"##$%&'$()*+,$'-./*0$%12-3$(+14-.$540+)1-+6)3$71)849+$ $  March 2011  Hydraulic Analysis 200 mm dia. Diversion Pipe  Civil 498U Input Data: Invert Elevation (m) Manhole Rim Elevation (m) D/S Invert Elevation (m) Pipe Length (m)  73.08 78.45 71.905 235  Low Flow Outlet Diameter (m) Pipe Roughness (n) Pipe Slope (m/m)  0.2 0.013 0.005  Calculations: Mannings  Pressure Pipe Flow  Pipe Flow  Water Flow Surface Hydraulic Depth Elevation Head (m) (m) (m)  HGL Slope (m)  Theta (Rad)  Flow Area 2  (m )  Wetted Hydraulic Head in Velocity Discharge Froude Perimeter Radius Manhole 3 (m/s) Number (m /s) (m) (m) (m)  73.08  0  1.175  0.005  0.000 0.000  0.000  0.000  0.000  0.000  0.000  0.00  73.13  0.05  1.175  0.005  2.094 0.006  0.209  0.029  0.517  0.003  0.739  0.08  73.18  0.1  1.175  0.005  3.142 0.016  0.314  0.050  0.738  0.012  0.745  0.15  73.23  0.15  1.175  0.005  4.189 0.025  0.419  0.060  0.837  0.021  0.690  0.22  73.28  0.2  1.175  0.005  6.283 0.031  0.628  0.050  0.738  0.023  0.527  0.25  73.38  0.3  1.275  0.005  -  0.031  0.628  0.050  0.769  0.024  0.549  0.36  73.48  0.4  1.375  0.006  -  0.031  0.628  0.050  0.799  0.025  0.570  0.46  73.58  0.5  1.475  0.006  -  0.031  0.628  0.050  0.827  0.026  0.590  0.57  73.68  0.6  1.575  0.007  -  0.031  0.628  0.050  0.855  0.027  0.610  0.67  73.78  0.7  1.675  0.007  -  0.031  0.628  0.050  0.881  0.028  0.629  0.78  73.88  0.8  1.775  0.008  -  0.031  0.628  0.050  0.907  0.029  0.648  0.88  73.98  0.9  1.875  0.008  -  0.031  0.628  0.050  0.933  0.029  0.666  0.98  74.08  1  1.975  0.008  -  0.031  0.628  0.050  0.957  0.030  0.683  1.09  74.18  1.1  2.075  0.009  -  0.031  0.628  0.050  0.981  0.031  0.700  1.19  74.28  1.2  2.175  0.009  -  0.031  0.628  0.050  1.004  0.032  0.717  1.30  74.38  1.3  2.275  0.010  -  0.031  0.628  0.050  1.027  0.032  0.733  1.40  74.48  1.4  2.375  0.010  -  0.031  0.628  0.050  1.050  0.033  0.749  1.51  74.58  1.5  2.475  0.011  -  0.031  0.628  0.050  1.071  0.034  0.765  1.61  74.68  1.6  2.575  0.011  -  0.031  0.628  0.050  1.093  0.034  0.780  1.72  74.78  1.7  2.675  0.011  -  0.031  0.628  0.050  1.114  0.035  0.795  1.82  74.88  1.8  2.775  0.012  -  0.031  0.628  0.050  1.134  0.036  0.810  1.92  74.98  1.9  2.875  0.012  -  0.031  0.628  0.050  1.155  0.036  0.824  2.03  75.08  2  2.975  0.013  -  0.031  0.628  0.050  1.175  0.037  0.839  2.13  $ ::$  !"##$%&'$()*+,$'-./*0$%12-3$(+14-.$540+)1-+6)3$71)849+$ $  March 2011  Hydraulic Analysis 300 mm dia. Diversion Pipe  Civil 498U Input Data: Invert Elevation (m) Manhole Rim Elevation (m) D/S Invert Elevation (m) Pipe Length (m)  73.08 78.45 71.91 235  Low Flow Outlet Diameter (m) Pipe Roughness (n) Pipe Slope (m/m)  0.3 0.013 0.005  Calculations: Mannings  Pressure Pipe Flow  Pipe Flow  Water Surface Elevation (m)  HGL Slope (m)  Flow Area  Flow Depth (m)  Hydraulic Head (m)  73.08  0  1.175  0.005 0.000 0.000  0.000  0.000  0.000  0.000  0.000  0.00  73.13  0.05  1.175  0.005 1.682 0.008  0.252  0.031  0.533  0.004  0.761  0.08  73.18  0.1  1.175  0.005 2.462 0.021  0.369  0.056  0.795  0.016  0.802  0.16  73.23  0.15  1.175  0.005 3.142 0.035  0.471  0.075  0.967  0.034  0.797  0.24  73.28  0.2  1.075  0.005 3.821 0.050  0.573  0.087  1.024  0.051  0.731  0.30  73.38  0.3  1.175  0.005 6.283 0.071  0.942  0.075  0.967  0.068  0.564  0.39  73.48  0.4  1.275  0.005  0.071  0.942  0.075  1.008  0.071  0.587  0.50  73.58  0.5  1.375  0.006  0.071  0.942  0.075  1.046  0.074  0.610  0.61  73.68  0.6  1.475  0.006  0.071  0.942  0.075  1.084  0.077  0.632  0.71  73.78  0.7  1.575  0.007  0.071  0.942  0.075  1.120  0.079  0.653  0.82  73.88  0.8  1.675  0.007  0.071  0.942  0.075  1.155  0.082  0.673  0.93  73.98  0.9  1.775  0.008  0.071  0.942  0.075  1.189  0.084  0.693  1.04  74.08  1  1.875  0.008  0.071  0.942  0.075  1.222  0.086  0.712  1.14  74.18  1.1  1.975  0.008  0.071  0.942  0.075  1.254  0.089  0.731  1.25  74.28  1.2  2.075  0.009  0.071  0.942  0.075  1.286  0.091  0.749  1.36  74.38  1.3  2.175  0.009  0.071  0.942  0.075  1.316  0.093  0.767  1.47  74.48  1.4  2.275  0.010  0.071  0.942  0.075  1.346  0.095  0.785  1.58  74.58  1.5  2.375  0.010  0.071  0.942  0.075  1.375  0.097  0.802  1.68  74.68  1.6  2.475  0.011  0.071  0.942  0.075  1.404  0.099  0.818  1.79  74.78  1.7  2.575  0.011  0.071  0.942  0.075  1.432  0.101  0.835  1.90  74.88  1.8  2.675  0.011  0.071  0.942  0.075  1.460  0.103  0.851  2.01  74.98  1.9  2.775  0.012  0.071  0.942  0.075  1.487  0.105  0.867  2.11  75.08  2  2.875  0.012  0.071  0.942  0.075  1.513  0.107  0.882  2.22  Theta (Rad)  2  (m )  :>$  Wetted Hydraulic Head in Velocity Discharge Froude Perimeter Radius Manhole 3 (m/s) Number (m /s) (m) (m) (m)  !"##$%&'$()*+,$'-./*0$%12-3$(+14-.$540+)1-+6)3$71)849+$ $  March 2011  Hydraulic Analysis 375 mm dia. Diversion Pipe  Civil 498U Input Data: Invert Elevation (m) Manhole Rim Elevation (m) D/S Invert Elevation (m) Pipe Length (m)  73.08 78.45 71.905 235  Low Flow Outlet Diameter (m) Pipe Roughness (n) Pipe Slope (m/m)  0.375 0.013 0.005  Calculations: Mannings  Pressure Pipe Flow  Pipe Flow  Water Surface Elevation (m)  HGL Slope (m)  Flow Area  Flow Depth (m)  Hydraulic Head (m)  73.08  0  1.175  0.005 0.000 0.000  0.000  0.000  0.000  0.000  0.000  0.00  73.13  0.05  1.175  0.005 1.495 0.009  0.280  0.031  0.539  0.005  0.770  0.08  73.18  0.1  1.175  0.005 2.171 0.024  0.407  0.058  0.816  0.019  0.824  0.16  73.23  0.15  1.175  0.005 2.739 0.041  0.514  0.080  1.013  0.042  0.835  0.25  73.28  0.2  1  0.004 3.275 0.060  0.614  0.098  1.063  0.064  0.759  0.31  73.38  0.3  1.1  0.005 4.429 0.095  0.830  0.114  1.238  0.117  0.722  0.45  73.455  0.375  1.175  0.005 6.283 0.110  1.178  0.094  1.123  0.124  0.585  0.50  73.48  0.4  1.2  0.005  -  0.110  1.178  0.094  1.134  0.125  0.591  0.52  73.58  0.5  1.3  0.006  -  0.110  1.178  0.094  1.181  0.130  0.616  0.64  73.68  0.6  1.4  0.006  -  0.110  1.178  0.094  1.225  0.135  0.639  0.75  73.78  0.7  1.5  0.006  -  0.110  1.178  0.094  1.268  0.140  0.661  0.86  73.88  0.8  1.6  0.007  -  0.110  1.178  0.094  1.310  0.145  0.683  0.97  73.98  0.9  1.7  0.007  -  0.110  1.178  0.094  1.350  0.149  0.704  1.08  74.08  1  1.8  0.008  -  0.110  1.178  0.094  1.389  0.153  0.724  1.19  74.18  1.1  1.9  0.008  -  0.110  1.178  0.094  1.427  0.158  0.744  1.30  74.28  1.2  2  0.009  -  0.110  1.178  0.094  1.464  0.162  0.764  1.41  74.38  1.3  2.1  0.009  -  0.110  1.178  0.094  1.501  0.166  0.782  1.52  74.48  1.4  2.2  0.009  -  0.110  1.178  0.094  1.536  0.170  0.801  1.63  74.58  1.5  2.3  0.010  -  0.110  1.178  0.094  1.570  0.173  0.819  1.74  74.68  1.6  2.4  0.010  -  0.110  1.178  0.094  1.604  0.177  0.836  1.85  74.78  1.7  2.5  0.011  -  0.110  1.178  0.094  1.637  0.181  0.854  1.96  74.88  1.8  2.6  0.011  -  0.110  1.178  0.094  1.670  0.184  0.871  2.07  74.98  1.9  2.7  0.011  -  0.110  1.178  0.094  1.702  0.188  0.887  2.18  75.08  2  2.8  0.012  -  0.110  1.178  0.094  1.733  0.191  0.903  2.29  Theta (Rad)  2  (m )  Wetted Hydraulic Head in Velocity Discharge Froude Perimeter Radius Manhole 3 (m/s) Number (m /s) (m) (m) (m)  $ :?$  !"##$%&'$()*+,$'-./*0$%12-3$(+14-.$540+)1-+6)3$71)849+$ $  March 2011  Hydraulic Analysis 450 mm dia. Diversion Pipe  Civil 498U Input Data: Invert Elevation (m) Manhole Rim Elevation (m) D/S Invert Elevation (m) Pipe Length (m)  73.08 78.45 71.905 235  Low Flow Outlet Diameter (m) Pipe Roughness (n) Pipe Slope (m/m)  0.45 0.013 0.005  Calculations:  Pressure Pipe Flow  Pipe Flow  Mannings Water Surface Elevation (m)  Flow Depth (m)  Hydraulic Head (m)  73.08  0  1.175  0.005 0.000 0.000  0.000  0.000  0.000  0.000  0.000  0.00  73.13  0.05  1.175  0.005 1.359 0.010  0.306  0.032  0.543  0.005  0.776  0.08  73.18  0.1  1.175  0.005 1.964 0.026  0.442  0.060  0.830  0.022  0.838  0.17  73.23  0.15  1.175  0.005 2.462 0.046  0.554  0.084  1.041  0.048  0.859  0.26  73.28  0.2  0.925  0.004 2.919 0.068  0.657  0.104  1.067  0.073  0.762  0.31  HGL Slope (m)  Theta (Rad)  Flow Area 2  (m )  Wetted Hydraulic Head in Velocity Discharge Froude Perimeter Radius Manhole 3 (m/s) Number (m /s) (m) (m) (m)  73.38  0.3  1.025  0.004 3.821 0.113  0.860  0.131  1.310  0.148  0.764  0.47  73.455  0.375  1.1  0.005 4.601 0.142  1.035  0.137  1.397  0.198  0.728  0.56  73.48  0.4  1.125  0.005 4.924 0.149  1.108  0.135  1.400  0.209  0.706  0.59  73.53  0.45  1.175  0.005 6.283 0.159  1.414  0.113  1.268  0.202  0.603  0.61  73.58  0.5  1.225  0.005  -  0.159  1.414  0.113  1.294  0.206  0.616  0.66  73.68  0.6  1.325  0.006  -  0.159  1.414  0.113  1.346  0.214  0.641  0.78  73.78  0.7  1.425  0.006  -  0.159  1.414  0.113  1.396  0.222  0.664  0.89  73.88  0.8  1.525  0.006  -  0.159  1.414  0.113  1.444  0.230  0.687  1.00  73.98  0.9  1.625  0.007  -  0.159  1.414  0.113  1.491  0.237  0.709  1.12  74.08  1  1.725  0.007  -  0.159  1.414  0.113  1.536  0.244  0.731  1.23  74.18  1.1  1.825  0.008  -  0.159  1.414  0.113  1.580  0.251  0.752  1.34  74.28  1.2  1.925  0.008  -  0.159  1.414  0.113  1.622  0.258  0.772  1.45  74.38  1.3  2.025  0.009  -  0.159  1.414  0.113  1.664  0.265  0.792  1.57  74.48  1.4  2.125  0.009  -  0.159  1.414  0.113  1.705  0.271  0.811  1.68  74.58  1.5  2.225  0.009  -  0.159  1.414  0.113  1.744  0.277  0.830  1.79  74.68  1.6  2.325  0.010  -  0.159  1.414  0.113  1.783  0.284  0.849  1.91  74.78  1.7  2.425  0.010  -  0.159  1.414  0.113  1.821  0.290  0.867  2.02  74.88  1.8  2.525  0.011  -  0.159  1.414  0.113  1.858  0.296  0.884  2.13  74.98  1.9  2.625  0.011  -  0.159  1.414  0.113  1.895  0.301  0.902  2.25  75.08  2  2.725  0.012  -  0.159  1.414  0.113  1.930  0.307  0.919  2.36  $ :@$  !"##$%&'$()*+,$'-./*0$%12-3$(+14-.$540+)1-+6)3$71)849+$ $  Existing Outlet Capacity Analysis (No Weir)  Civil 498U Input Data: Invert Elevation (m) Manhole Rim Elevation (m) D/S Manhole Invert Elevation (m) Pipe Length (m) Outlet Diameter (m)  March 2011  73.08 78.45 70.91 60.00 0.675  Weir Loss Coefficient Orifice Loss Coefficient  0.90 0.72  Calculations: WEIR  Orifice Flow  Weir Flow  Water Surface Elevation (m)  Flow Depth (m)  Flow Theta (RAD Area - A 2 ) (m )  Orifice  Free Surface Width - B (m)  Ratio A/B  Discharge  Velocity (m/s)  Discharge  (m /s)  (m /s)  Velocity (m/s)  3  3  73.08  0.000 0.00  0.000  0.000  0.00  0.000  0.000  -  -  73.13  0.050 1.10  0.012  0.354  0.03  0.006  0.519  -  -  73.18  0.100 1.58  0.033  0.480  0.07  0.024  0.740  -  -  73.23  0.150 1.96  0.059  0.561  0.11  0.054  0.916  -  -  73.28  0.200 2.30  0.089  0.616  0.14  0.095  1.070  -  -  73.38  0.300 2.92  0.154  0.671  0.23  0.207  1.349  -  -  73.48  0.400 3.51  0.221  0.663  0.33  0.359  1.627  0.445  2.02  73.58  0.500 4.15  0.284  0.592  0.48  0.555  1.954  0.641  2.26  73.68  0.600 4.92  0.336  0.424  0.79  0.843  2.509  0.830  2.47  73.73  0.650 5.51  0.354  0.255  1.39  1.174  3.320  0.909  2.57  73.78  0.700  -  0.358  -  -  -  -  0.955  2.67  73.83  0.750  -  0.358  -  -  -  -  0.988  2.76  73.88  0.800  -  0.358  -  -  -  -  1.021  2.85  73.98  0.900  -  0.358  -  -  -  -  1.083  3.03  74.08  1.000  -  0.358  -  -  -  -  1.141  3.19  74.18  1.100  -  0.358  -  -  -  -  1.197  3.34  74.28  1.200  -  0.358  -  -  -  -  1.250  3.49  74.38  1.300  -  0.358  -  -  -  -  1.301  3.64  74.48  1.400  -  0.358  -  -  -  -  1.350  3.77  74.58  1.500  -  0.358  -  -  -  -  1.398  3.91  74.68  1.600  -  0.358  -  -  -  -  1.444  4.03  74.78  1.700  -  0.358  -  -  -  -  1.488  4.16  74.88  1.800  -  0.358  -  -  -  -  1.531  4.28  74.98  1.900  -  0.358  -  -  -  -  1.573  4.40  75.08  2.000  -  0.358  -  -  -  -  1.614  4.51  $ >"$  !"##$%&'$()*+,$'-./*0$%12-3$(+14-.$540+)1-+6)3$71)849+$ $  March 2011  Existing Outlet Capacity Analysis (50mm High Weir)  Civil 498U Input Data: Invert Elevation (m) Manhole Rim Elevation (m) D/S Manhole Invert Elevation (m) Pipe Length (m) Outlet Diameter (m)  73.08 78.45 70.91 60.00 0.675  Weir Loss Coefficient  0.90 0.012 0.72  Weir Cross Sectional Area (m2) Orifice Loss Coefficient Calculations:  WEIR  Orifice Flow  Weir Flow  Water Surface Elevation (m)  Flow Depth (m)  Flow Theta (RAD Area - A 2 ) (m )  Orifice  Free Surface Width - B (m)  Ratio A/B  Discharge  Velocity (m/s)  Discharge  (m /s)  (m /s)  Velocity (m/s)  3  3  73.08  0.000 0.00  0.000  0.000  0.00  0.000  0.000  -  -  73.13  0.050 1.10  0.000  0.354  0.00  0.000  0.000  -  -  73.18  0.100 1.58  0.021  0.480  0.04  0.012  0.591  -  -  73.23  0.150 1.96  0.047  0.561  0.08  0.039  0.818  -  -  73.28  0.200 2.30  0.077  0.616  0.12  0.076  0.995  -  -  73.38  0.300 2.92  0.142  0.671  0.21  0.184  1.296  -  -  73.48  0.400 3.51  0.209  0.663  0.31  0.330  1.582  0.421  2.02  73.58  0.500 4.15  0.272  0.592  0.46  0.521  1.912  0.614  2.26  73.68  0.600 4.92  0.324  0.424  0.76  0.799  2.464  0.801  2.47  73.73  0.650 5.51  0.342  0.255  1.34  1.115  3.263  0.878  2.57  73.78  0.700  -  0.346  -  -  -  -  0.923  2.67  73.83  0.750  -  0.346  -  -  -  -  0.955  2.76  73.88  0.800  -  0.346  -  -  -  -  0.987  2.85  73.98  0.900  -  0.346  -  -  -  -  1.046  3.03  74.08  1.000  -  0.346  -  -  -  -  1.103  3.19  74.18  1.100  -  0.346  -  -  -  -  1.157  3.34  74.28  1.200  -  0.346  -  -  -  -  1.208  3.49  74.38  1.300  -  0.346  -  -  -  -  1.258  3.64  74.48  1.400  -  0.346  -  -  -  -  1.305  3.77  74.58  1.500  -  0.346  -  -  -  -  1.351  3.91  74.68  1.600  -  0.346  -  -  -  -  1.395  4.03  74.78  1.700  -  0.346  -  -  -  -  1.438  4.16  74.88  1.800  -  0.346  -  -  -  -  1.480  4.28  74.98  1.900  -  0.346  -  -  -  -  1.520  4.40  75.08  2.000  -  0.346  -  -  -  -  1.560  4.51  >#$  !"##$%&'$()*+,$'-./*0$%12-3$(+14-.$540+)1-+6)3$71)849+$ $  March 2011  Existing Outlet Capacity Analysis (100mm High Weir)  Civil 498U Input Data: Invert Elevation (m) Manhole Rim Elevation (m) D/S Manhole Invert Elevation (m) Pipe Length (m) Outlet Diameter (m)  73.08 78.45 70.91 60.00 0.675  Weir Loss Coefficient  0.90 0.033 0.72  Weir Cross Sectional Area (m2) Orifice Loss Coefficient Calculations:  WEIR  Orifice Flow  Weir Flow  Water Surface Elevation (m)  Flow Depth (m)  Flow Theta (RAD Area - A 2 ) (m )  Orifice  Free Surface Width - B (m)  Ratio A/B  Discharge  Velocity (m/s)  Discharge  (m /s)  (m /s)  Velocity (m/s)  3  3  73.08  0.000 0.00  0.000  0.000  0.00  0.000  0.000  -  -  73.13  0.050 1.10  0.000  0.354  0.00  0.000  0.000  -  -  73.18  0.100 1.58  0.000  0.480  0.00  0.000  0.000  -  -  73.23  0.150 1.96  0.026  0.561  0.05  0.016  0.609  -  -  73.28  0.200 2.30  0.056  0.616  0.09  0.047  0.847  -  -  73.38  0.300 2.92  0.121  0.671  0.18  0.144  1.195  -  -  73.48  0.400 3.51  0.188  0.663  0.28  0.282  1.500  0.379  2.02  73.58  0.500 4.15  0.251  0.592  0.42  0.461  1.837  0.566  2.26  73.68  0.600 4.92  0.303  0.424  0.71  0.722  2.382  0.749  2.47  73.73  0.650 5.51  0.321  0.255  1.26  1.013  3.161  0.824  2.57  73.78  0.700  -  0.325  -  -  -  -  0.867  2.67  73.83  0.750  -  0.325  -  -  -  -  0.897  2.76  73.88  0.800  -  0.325  -  -  -  -  0.926  2.85  73.98  0.900  -  0.325  -  -  -  -  0.983  3.03  74.08  1.000  -  0.325  -  -  -  -  1.036  3.19  74.18  1.100  -  0.325  -  -  -  -  1.086  3.34  74.28  1.200  -  0.325  -  -  -  -  1.135  3.49  74.38  1.300  -  0.325  -  -  -  -  1.181  3.64  74.48  1.400  -  0.325  -  -  -  -  1.226  3.77  74.58  1.500  -  0.325  -  -  -  -  1.269  3.91  74.68  1.600  -  0.325  -  -  -  -  1.310  4.03  74.78  1.700  -  0.325  -  -  -  -  1.351  4.16  74.88  1.800  -  0.325  -  -  -  -  1.390  4.28  74.98  1.900  -  0.325  -  -  -  -  1.428  4.40  75.08  2.000  -  0.325  -  -  -  -  1.465  4.51  $ >!$  !"##$%&'$()*+,$'-./*0$%12-3$(+14-.$540+)1-+6)3$71)849+$ $  March 2011  Existing Outlet Capacity Analysis (150mm High Weir)  Civil 498U Input Data: Invert Elevation (m) Manhole Rim Elevation (m) D/S Manhole Invert Elevation (m) Pipe Length (m) Outlet Diameter (m)  73.08 78.45 70.91 60.00 0.675  Weir Loss Coefficient  0.90 0.059 0.72  Weir Cross Sectional Area (m2) Orifice Loss Coefficient Calculations:  WEIR  Orifice Flow  Weir Flow  Water Surface Elevation (m)  Flow Depth (m)  Flow Theta (RAD Area - A 2 ) (m )  Orifice  Free Surface Width - B (m)  Ratio A/B  Discharge  Velocity (m/s)  Discharge  (m /s)  (m /s)  Velocity (m/s)  3  3  73.08  0.000 0.00  0.000  0.000  0.00  0.000  0.000  -  -  73.13  0.050 1.10  0.000  0.354  0.00  0.000  0.000  -  -  73.18  0.100 1.58  0.000  0.480  0.00  0.000  0.000  -  -  73.23  0.150 1.96  0.000  0.561  0.00  0.000  0.000  -  -  73.28  0.200 2.30  0.030  0.616  0.05  0.018  0.617  -  -  73.38  0.300 2.92  0.094  0.671  0.14  0.100  1.058  -  -  73.48  0.400 3.51  0.162  0.663  0.24  0.225  1.392  0.326  2.02  73.58  0.500 4.15  0.225  0.592  0.38  0.391  1.738  0.507  2.26  73.68  0.600 4.92  0.277  0.424  0.65  0.631  2.277  0.684  2.47  73.73  0.650 5.51  0.294  0.255  1.15  0.892  3.029  0.757  2.57  73.78  0.700  -  0.299  -  -  -  -  0.797  2.67  73.83  0.750  -  0.299  -  -  -  -  0.825  2.76  73.88  0.800  -  0.299  -  -  -  -  0.852  2.85  73.98  0.900  -  0.299  -  -  -  -  0.904  3.03  74.08  1.000  -  0.299  -  -  -  -  0.952  3.19  74.18  1.100  -  0.299  -  -  -  -  0.999  3.34  74.28  1.200  -  0.299  -  -  -  -  1.043  3.49  74.38  1.300  -  0.299  -  -  -  -  1.086  3.64  74.48  1.400  -  0.299  -  -  -  -  1.127  3.77  74.58  1.500  -  0.299  -  -  -  -  1.166  3.91  74.68  1.600  -  0.299  -  -  -  -  1.205  4.03  74.78  1.700  -  0.299  -  -  -  -  1.242  4.16  74.88  1.800  -  0.299  -  -  -  -  1.278  4.28  74.98  1.900  -  0.299  -  -  -  -  1.313  4.40  75.08  2.000  -  0.299  -  -  -  -  1.347  4.51  $ >;$  

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