UBC Undergraduate Research

Synthesis report : UBC water Willock, Angela; Tyrrell, Alexandra; Abousaleh, Mustafa Apr 11, 2011

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UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report  Synthesis Report: UBC Water  Angela Willock Alexandra Tyrrell Mustafa Abousaleh  University of British Columbia APSC 364 April 11, 2011  Disclaimer: “UBC SEEDS provides students with the opportunity to share the findings of their studies, as well as their opinions, conclusions and recommendations with the UBC community. The reader should bear in mind that this is a student project/report and is not an official document of UBC. Furthermore readers should bear in mind that these reports may not reflect the current status of activities at UBC. We urge you to contact the research persons mentioned in a report or the SEEDS Coordinator about the current status of the subject matter of a project/report”.  !  !"#$%&'(')*&+,-$) ./!0)123)4)/%5'&)6) ) .+-(7)889):;88)  ) .#<&75)=(77,>?) .7&@5#A-5)B"--&77) CD'$5E5).F,D'57&%) ) E) ) .+-(7) ) .)  B.GHI)JK)0JLBILB!) 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J*(+2!(W,-)!5-5)(?2(W?J?)H!?2!(!-2?L-*!(23!*U.?)?2:!8(HX!(23!(+*!:+()*6-J!),!.,2)+?W-)*!),!)@*! W*:?22?2:5!,6!*>*2!;,+*!(8*5,;*!.-++?.-J-;!,BB,+)-2?)?*5!?2!)@*!6-)-+*/!  ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) )  !""#$%&'(!()(*!+,&' Criteria  Indicators  Water Water conserved compared to "business as Conservation usual" each year: High, Medium, Low  Contribution Magnitude of decrease in water purchased to closed-loop from GVRD each year. LOW (0 up to 10 water system million litres per year), MEDIUM (10 million 100 million litres per year), HIGH (more than 100 million litres per year)  GHG Emissions  Adaptability  Community Buy-In  Justification  Decrease the amount of water UBC purchased from GVRD  This is in line with recent UBC objectives to develop a closed loop system and reduce reliance on external water sources.  Increase the amount of water A legitimate closed loop system treated on campus and decrease requires wastewater to remain on-site costs of sending wastewater to Iona.  Predicted annual volume, in litres, of locally captured water as result of project option. LOW (0 up to 10 million litres per year), MEDIUM (10 million - 100 million litres per year), HIGH (more than 100 million litres per year) GHG emissions reductions: (A) Will reduce emissions, (B) Will not effect emissions, (C) Will increase emissions  Promote the capture and use of In line with UBC's objective of UBC rainwater project options. reducing their demand on the regional water supply and ultimately achieving a closed loop water system. Acheive a carbon net positive campus  Reduce energy consumption  Life span of project option given worst case Encourages solutions that will scenario implementation: A - over 20 years, B - endure for the long term and between 5 and 20 years C - less than 5 years emphasizes the importance of proper implementation Life span of project option given best case Encourages solutions that will scenario implementation: A - over 20 years, B - endure for the long term and between 5 and 20 years C - less than 5 years emphasizes the importance of proper implementation  Adaptability: (A) Minimal to no difficulty to modify, (B) Moderately difficult to modify, (C) Very Difficult to modify  To ensure options can be adjusted and improved throughout their lifespan.  Predicted community acceptance / buy-in of Ensure that campus users will project option: (A) High, (B) Medium, (C) Low actually use/participate in water conservation in a desired manner  Further UBC's GHG emission targets of reducing GHGs to 33% below 2007 levels by 2015, 67% below 2007 levels by 2020 and eliminating 100% of GHG emissions by 2050. To verify that new projects adhere to UBC's Energy Management Plan to ensure accountability, maintain current energy savings and identify further conservation opportunities. Quantitative ranges are used to capture a concrete/actual understanding of longevity. By identifying both the best and worst case scenarios we can accurately understand a projects potential lifespan. This also emphasizes that correct implementation is important because it improves longevity. This will discourage the implementation of projects that may require costly overhaul or total replacement.  Project Options & Rankings Grey Water Reclamation in the Aquatic Ranking Center  Upgrading to Water-Conserving Showers  Ranking  Medium  1  Medium: (the pool wastes 4L/s). We determined on a conservative estimate of 0.5L/s that can be saved using this option, assuming a 15 hour day operation. This saves about 9.8 Million liters annually.  3  Medium to High: The shower heads alone will decrease water purchased to a medium level, however, if the additional behavior change elements are successful then there could be significantly more reductions in the amount of water purchased from GVRD  1  Low  3  Medium  2  Medium to High: This project involves a beahvior change component and will its successful implementation this project would yield not only more efficient water use but also large quantities of conserved water due to changes in human behaviors, thus less water would need to travel to Iona.  1  Low  3  Low  2  N/A  N/A  Low  N/A  N/A  N/A  A  1  C: This increase emissions is the initial result of the infrastructural advancements necessary to implement this option. In the long-term this option may in fact reduce GHG emission.  3  A: A lower amount of water use, in particular hot water use, will mean less GHG emissions.  2  A  1  C: This increase energy is the result of the infrastructural advancements necessary to implement this option and the continual requirement of energy to run the system.  3  A  2  C  3  C  2  C  1  Decrease water consumption on Achieve UBC's goal to become a UBC campus water net positive campus  Magnitude of decrease in wastewater sent to Iona treatment plant. LOW (0 up to 10 million litres per year), MEDIUM (10 million - 100 million litres per year), HIGH (more than 100 million litres per year)  Energy Energy consumption: (A) Energy use will be Consumption reduced, (B) Energy use will stay the same, (C) Energy use will increase Life Span  Objectives  B  3  A  1  A: the components proposed for the solution are easily implementable and removable if needed.  2  B  3  2  C: implementation of the solution will take time and will render portions of Aquatic facilities unusable. As a well-used facility with many different users, this might pose difficulties.  3  Helps in saving money and effort by A: Campus residents might not use the gauging early acceptance/rejection by shower timer devices, but they will not community. This will likely have to be necessarily 'reject' the presence of them. gauged using surveys, or other This would change if we are looking at the investigative tools shower handles with a timing device integrated into it (buy-in might be lower).  Student Residence Water Ranking Conservation Competition Low to Medium: This solution relies heavily on behavior change; therefore; the degree of change undertaken by participants will 2 dictate whether this solution is able to conserve a low or medium amount of water.  B: Althought this project could conceivably last 'forever' we gave it a 5 to 20 year life span because, ideally, this level of behavior change program will be obsolete after 20 years, in that water conservation will be more ingrained in our communities. A: Implementation of this solution is considered easier than implementation of water conserving showers because it is a program that can be tweaked at little environmental cost, like that which might associated in infrastructural tweaks. B: Not everyone will want to participate in the competition.  2  1  1  Potential to be viewed as innovative / cutting edge / "cool": (A) High, (B) Medium, (C) Low  Economic Feasibility Research Opportunity  Educational value  Avoids stagnation in terms of sustainability initiatives and promotes "outside the box" thinking. Adheres to one of UBC's themes: "the university as an agent of change." Financial costs likely required for project Ensure economic feasibility and At the bottom line, the University must option. (A) Low, (B) Medium, (C) High cost efficiency with relation to make decisions that are economically water savings feasible. Magnitude of research potential: (A) High Increase prevalence of This will further UBC's mission to (there are many research connections that sustainability research at UBC explore and exemplify sustainability exist or have the potential to be established), teaching, learning and research. (B) Medium (some research connections exist or have potential to be established) (C) Low (no foreseeable research potential) Quality of research potential: (A) High (is timely and relevant, can potentially involve many students, etc), (B) Medium (relevant, potential to involve students is limited), (C) Low (Untimely, cannot involve students)  Integrate more innovative, cutting edge and/or "cool" sustainability features on campus  Increase relevant and timely research that involves more students  Student education, notably at the undergraduate level, can be inadequate at providing hands-on experience with meaningful issues  C: The shower times is an interesting and potentially useful idea, but it is doubtful that people - notably its users - will think that it is cool.  3  B  B: Research into behavioral implications of the shower timer will be useful, but not substantial in magnitude.  B: The behavioral component of the shower timers may provide some research opportunities.  Water Quality Does the potable water meet Health Canada's Ensure all water meant for In order to ensure that everyone has Guidelines for Canadian Drinking Water human consumption adheres to equitable access to clean, safe water, Quality (Ranking: Y/N) Canadian standards. meeting consistent and universallyapproved standards is crucial. It is mandatory that options receive a N/A "yes" ranking here. This criteria/indicator does not apply to our options because none of them involve tampering with potable water. Behavior % campus population interacting with water Ensure high engagement The more people that are engaged in B: Around 20% of students live on campus Change conservation option at least once each year: numbers conserving water, the more water and, presumably, all of the them take (A) 51-100%, (B) 21-50%, (C) 6-20%, (D) 0conserved in the short term and showers University of British Columbia. 5% (Note: population means all campus users potentially in the long term, as well. Wikipedia. Retrieved 10 April 2011 from including resident, students, faculty and staff http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/University_of_Br members) itish_Columbia#Residences Quality of user interaction: (A) Very frequent, To ensure an impactful More exposure results in greater / A: Every time a student takes a shower, (B) Somewhat frequent, (C) Infrequent frequency of interaction longer lasting behaviour change. there will be the potential to interact with the timer Number of jobs created and changed: (A) Integrate sustainability objectives Integrating sustainability behavior into More than 100 (B) Between 10 and 100, (C) into more job descriptions and job descriptions ensures long term Less than 10 create more green jobs sustainability of those behaviors C: There will be a few key operational staff among campus stewards, and involved in the implementation and provides another channel through maintenance of the system which to proliferate sustainability values Technical Successfully implemented of similar project, Ensure option is technically The results of previous attempts at Yes: Didn't find information of implementing Feasibility or aspects of project, at another campus or feasible similar projects will illuminate the the whole solution but there have been residential area (Ranking: Y/N) potential issues to be aware of and partial implementations of the solution in allow UBC to avoid unnecessary various residential areas. costs. Citizenship Amount of opportunities available for Promote community building Building trust and relationships further community members to spend quality time propels citizenship and opportunities C together: (A) Many, (B) Some, (C) Few or for sustainable development None Governance Foreseeable quality of engagement with To engage stakeholders in Those who are affected by decisions stakeholders: (A) High (e.g. multiple open decision-making, implementation should participate in making them. dialogue consultations and stakeholders and assessment process. This promotes both equality and present on steering committee), (B) Medium holistic solutions. C (example: one quality open dialogue consultation), (C) Low (e.g. one or no consultation available) Appropriateness of engagement: (A) Ensure appropriate stakeholder Stakeholder engagement is not Mandatory, (B) Appropriate to a certain engagement always necessary. It should be degree, (C) Unnecessary proportional to the degree to which C people are affected by decisions  A: This option is more 'cool' than innovative, in that the idea of greywater is not new per se, but people might see it as a 'good thing to do'.  2  A: Fun competitions that get people together to be more sustainable is innovative and cool.  1  2  C  3  A  1  3  A: Research in transferring grey water from the aquatic center to nearby building's toilets and the effects of grey water are two potential fields of research. Also, study of people's perception to using grey water for their toilets might reveal some important behavioral data.  1  A: There are several opportunities to research the effeciveness of various behaviour change events and strategies.  2  3  B: There may be opportunities to conduct research on improving the greywater technology.  2  A: Student resident behavioral research is best conducted by student peers to attract participants. The necessary research is within the scope of a SEEDS project, as demonstrated by the one done for the Totem Park energy competition.  1  N/A  N/A  N/A  N/A  N/A  1  D: While there will be many people who use the bathrooms at the Aquatic Pool, our option does not have any direct engagement features.  3  C: Not all students that live in residence will participate in the competition.  2  2  A  3  B: Students are able to avoid interacting with engagement programs in residence.  1  4  C: There will be a few key operational staff involved in the implementation and maintenance of the system  3  A: Residence Advisors will have to help manage the program.  1  2  No: There are many greywater technologies, but none that attempt to integrate one into an aquatic centre.  3  Yes: Please, see fuller description of option  1  2  C  3  A  1  3  C  2  A. It is necessary to engage the residence associations, as residence activities are under their jurisdiction and the advisors will be doing much of the groundwork.  1  N/A  B. The administrators of the Aquatic Centre will need to be consulted, as construction might interfere with pool activities.  N/A  A  N/A  being made and appropriate to the case / context RANKING TOTALS FINAL RANKING OF PROJECT OPTIONS  37 2nd Place  40 3rd Place  21 1st Place  .//ILNMa)G) ) .D$%,-'%(+)!$5$&Y&#$))  ! K2:*J(!8(5!+*5B,25?WJ*!6,+!.,;B?J?2:!)@*!?2)+,3-.)?,2eW(.[:+,-23!?26,+;()?,2X!)@*!J?;?)()?,25! ,6!,-+!B+,g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e?23?.(),+5!),!3,!(2!?2?)?(J!+*>?5?,2X!)@*2!KJ*U!(23!K2:*J(!B,J?5@*3! -B!)@*!;()+?U!.,2)*2)!(5!(!8@,J*/! ! K2:*J(!(23!KJ*U!),,[!,2!)@*!6?2(J!.,;B?J?2:X!;(g,+!*3?)5X!(23!6?2(J!+*>?5?,25!,6!)@*!+*B,+)X!?2!?)5! *2)?+*)H/!KJJ!:+,-B!;*;W*+5!8*+*!)@*2!:?>*2!)@*!,BB,+)-2?)H!),!)([*!,2*!J(5)!J,,[!,>*+!)@*!8@,J*! +*B,+)!?2!,+3*+!),!(BB+,>*!5-W;?55?,2/!  

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