UBC Undergraduate Research

Synthesis report : UBC water Willock, Angela; Tyrrell, Alexandra; Abousaleh, Mustafa 2011-04-11

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UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report      Synthesis Report: UBC Water  Angela Willock Alexandra Tyrrell Mustafa Abousaleh  University of British Columbia APSC 364 April 11, 2011           Disclaimer: “UBC SEEDS provides students with the opportunity to share the findings of their studies, as well as their opinions, conclusions and recommendations with the UBC community. The reader should bear in mind that this is a student project/report and is not an official document of UBC. Furthermore readers should bear in mind that these reports may not reflect the current status of activities at UBC. We urge you to contact the research persons mentioned in a report or the SEEDS Coordinator about the current status of the subject matter of a project/report”. !!"#$%&'(')*&+,-$) ./!0)123)4)/%5'&)6) ) .+-(7)889):;88) ) .#<&75)=(77,>?) .7&@5#A-5)B"--&77) CD'$5E5).F,D'57&%) ) E) ) .+-(7) ) .) B.GHI)JK)0JLBILB!) 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J*(+2!(W,-)!5-5)(?2(W?J?)H!?2!(!-2?L-*!(23!*U.?)?2:!8(HX!(23!(+*!:+()*6-J!),!.,2)+?W-)*!),!)@*! W*:?22?2:5!,6!*>*2!;,+*!(8*5,;*!.-++?.-J-;!,BB,+)-2?)?*5!?2!)@*!6-)-+*/! ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) !""#$%&'(!()(*!+,&' Criteria Indicators Objectives Justification Upgrading to Water-Conserving Showers Ranking Grey Water Reclamation in the Aquatic Center Ranking Student Residence Water Conservation Competition Ranking Water Conservation Water conserved compared to "business as usual" each year: High, Medium, Low Decrease water consumption on UBC campus Achieve UBC's goal to become a water net positive campus Medium 1 Medium: (the pool wastes 4L/s). We determined on a conservative estimate of 0.5L/s that can be saved using this option, assuming a 15 hour day operation. This saves about 9.8 Million liters annually. 3 Low to Medium: This solution relies heavily on behavior change; therefore; the degree of change undertaken by participants will dictate whether this solution is able to conserve a low or medium amount of water. 2 Contribution to closed-loop water system Magnitude of decrease in water purchased from GVRD each year.  LOW (0 up to 10 million litres per year), MEDIUM (10 million - 100 million litres per year), HIGH (more than 100 million litres per year) Decrease the amount of water UBC purchased from GVRD This is in line with recent UBC objectives to develop a closed loop system and reduce reliance on external water sources. Medium to High: The shower heads alone will decrease water purchased to a medium level, however, if the additional behavior change elements are successful then there could be significantly more reductions in the amount of water purchased from GVRD 1 Low 3 Medium 2 Magnitude of decrease in wastewater sent to Iona treatment plant. LOW (0 up to 10 million litres per year), MEDIUM (10 million - 100 million litres per year), HIGH (more than 100 million litres per year) Increase the amount of water treated on campus and decrease costs of sending wastewater to Iona. A legitimate closed loop system requires wastewater to remain on-site Medium to High: This project involves a beahvior change component and will its successful implementation this project would yield not only more efficient water use but also large quantities of conserved water due to changes in human behaviors, thus less water would need to travel to Iona. 1 Low 3 Low 2 Predicted annual volume, in litres, of locally captured water as result of project option. LOW (0 up to 10 million litres per year), MEDIUM (10 million - 100 million litres per year), HIGH (more than 100 million litres per year) Promote the capture and use of UBC rainwater project options. In line with UBC's objective of reducing their demand on the regional water supply and ultimately achieving a closed loop water system. N/A N/A Low N/A N/A N/A GHG Emissions GHG emissions reductions: (A) Will reduce emissions, (B) Will not effect emissions, (C) Will increase emissions Acheive a carbon net positive campus Further UBC's GHG emission targets of reducing  GHGs to 33% below 2007 levels by 2015, 67% below 2007 levels by 2020 and eliminating 100% of GHG emissions by 2050. A 1 C: This increase emissions is the initial result of the infrastructural advancements necessary to implement this option. In the long-term this option may in fact reduce GHG emission. 3 A: A lower amount of water use, in particular hot water use, will mean less GHG emissions. 2 Energy Consumption Energy consumption: (A) Energy use will be reduced, (B) Energy use will stay the same, (C) Energy use will increase Reduce energy consumption To verify that new projects adhere to UBC's Energy Management Plan to ensure accountability, maintain current energy savings and identify further conservation opportunities. A 1 C: This increase energy is the result of the infrastructural advancements necessary to implement this option and the continual requirement of energy to run the system. 3 A 2 Life Span Life span of project option given worst case scenario implementation: A - over 20 years, B - between 5 and 20 years C - less than 5 years Encourages solutions that will endure for the long term and emphasizes the importance of proper implementation Quantitative ranges are used to capture a concrete/actual understanding of longevity. C 3 C 2 C 1 Life span of project option given best case scenario implementation: A - over 20 years, B - between 5 and 20 years C - less than 5 years Encourages solutions that will endure for the long term and emphasizes the importance of proper implementation By identifying both the best and worst case scenarios we can accurately understand a projects potential lifespan. This also emphasizes that correct implementation is important because it improves longevity. B 3 A 1 B: Althought this project could conceivably last 'forever' we gave it a 5 to 20 year life span because, ideally, this level of behavior change program will be obsolete after 20 years, in that water conservation will be more ingrained in our communities. 2 Adaptability Adaptability: (A) Minimal to no difficulty to modify, (B) Moderately difficult to modify, (C) Very Difficult to modify To ensure options can be adjusted and improved throughout their lifespan. This will discourage the implementation of projects that may require costly overhaul or total replacement. A: the components proposed for the solution are easily implementable and removable if needed. 2 B 3 A: Implementation of this solution is considered easier than implementation of water conserving showers because it is a program that can be tweaked at little environmental cost, like that which might associated in infrastructural tweaks. 1 Community Buy-In Predicted community acceptance / buy-in of project option: (A) High, (B) Medium, (C) Low Ensure that campus users will actually use/participate in water conservation in a desired manner Helps in saving money and effort by gauging early acceptance/rejection by community. This will likely have to be gauged using surveys, or other investigative tools A: Campus residents might not use the shower timer devices, but they will not necessarily 'reject' the presence of them. This would change if we are looking at the shower handles with a timing device integrated into it (buy-in might be lower). 2  C: implementation of the solution will take time and will render portions of Aquatic facilities unusable. As a well-used facility with many different users, this might pose difficulties. 3 B: Not everyone will want to participate in the competition. 1 Project Options & Rankings Potential to be viewed as innovative / cutting edge / "cool": (A) High, (B) Medium, (C) Low Integrate more innovative, cutting edge and/or "cool" sustainability features on campus Avoids stagnation in terms of sustainability initiatives and promotes "outside the box" thinking. Adheres to one of UBC's themes: "the university as an agent of change." C: The shower times is an interesting and potentially useful idea, but it is doubtful that people - notably its users - will think that it is cool. 3 A: This option is more 'cool' than innovative, in that the idea of greywater is not new per se, but people might see it as a 'good thing to do'. 2 A: Fun competitions that get people together to be more sustainable is innovative and cool. 1 Economic Feasibility Financial costs likely required for project option. (A) Low, (B) Medium, (C) High Ensure economic feasibility and cost efficiency with relation to water savings At the bottom line, the University must make decisions that are economically feasible. B 2 C 3 A 1 Research Opportunity Magnitude of research potential: (A) High (there are many research connections that exist or have the potential to be established), (B) Medium (some research connections exist or have potential to be established) (C) Low (no foreseeable research potential) Increase prevalence of sustainability research at UBC This will further UBC's mission to explore and exemplify sustainability teaching, learning and research. B: Research into behavioral implications of the shower timer will be useful, but not substantial in magnitude. 3 A: Research in transferring grey water from the aquatic center to nearby building's toilets and the effects of grey water are two potential fields of research. Also, study of people's perception to using grey water for their toilets might reveal some important behavioral data. 1 A: There are several opportunities to research the effeciveness of various behaviour change events and strategies. 2 Educational value Quality of research potential: (A) High (is timely and relevant, can potentially involve many students, etc), (B) Medium (relevant, potential to involve students is limited), (C) Low (Untimely, cannot involve students) Increase relevant and timely research that involves more students Student education, notably at the undergraduate level, can be inadequate at providing hands-on experience with meaningful issues B: The behavioral component of the shower timers may provide some research opportunities. 3 B: There may be opportunities to conduct research on improving the greywater technology. 2 A: Student resident behavioral research is best conducted by student peers to attract participants. The necessary research is within the scope of a SEEDS project, as demonstrated by the one done for the Totem Park energy competition. 1 Water Quality Does the potable water meet Health Canada's Guidelines for Canadian Drinking Water Quality (Ranking: Y/N) Ensure all water meant for human consumption adheres to Canadian standards. In order to ensure that everyone has equitable access to clean, safe water, meeting consistent and universally- approved standards is crucial. It is mandatory that options receive a "yes" ranking here. This criteria/indicator does not apply to our options because none of them involve tampering with potable water. N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A Behavior Change % campus population interacting with water conservation option at least once each year: (A)  51-100%, (B) 21-50%, (C) 6-20%, (D) 0- 5% (Note: population means all campus users including resident, students, faculty and staff members) Ensure high engagement numbers The more people that are engaged in conserving water, the more water conserved in the short term and potentially in the long term, as well. B: Around 20% of students live on campus and, presumably, all of the them take showers University of British Columbia. Wikipedia. Retrieved 10 April 2011 from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/University_of_Br itish_Columbia#Residences 1 D: While there will be many people who use the bathrooms at the Aquatic Pool, our option does not have any direct engagement features. 3 C: Not all students that live in residence will participate in the competition. 2 Quality of user interaction: (A) Very frequent, (B) Somewhat frequent, (C) Infrequent To ensure an impactful frequency of interaction More exposure results in greater / longer lasting behaviour change. A: Every time a student takes a shower, there will be the potential to interact with the timer 2 A 3 B: Students are able to avoid interacting with engagement programs in residence. 1 Number of jobs created and changed: (A) More than 100 (B) Between 10 and 100, (C) Less than 10 Integrate sustainability objectives into more job descriptions and create more green jobs Integrating sustainability behavior into job descriptions ensures long term sustainability of those behaviors among campus stewards, and provides another channel through which to proliferate sustainability values C: There will be a few key operational staff involved in the implementation and maintenance of the system 4 C: There will be a few key operational staff involved in the implementation and maintenance of the system 3 A: Residence Advisors will have to help manage the program. 1 Technical Feasibility Successfully implemented of similar project, or aspects of project, at another campus or residential area (Ranking: Y/N) Ensure option is technically feasible The results of previous attempts at similar projects will illuminate the potential issues to be aware of and allow UBC to avoid unnecessary costs. Yes: Didn't find information of implementing the whole solution but there have been partial implementations of the solution in various residential areas. 2 No: There are many greywater technologies, but none that attempt to integrate one into an aquatic centre. 3 Yes: Please, see fuller description of option 1 Citizenship Amount of opportunities available for community members to spend quality time together: (A) Many, (B) Some, (C) Few or None Promote community building Building trust and relationships further propels citizenship and opportunities for sustainable development C 2 C 3 A 1 Governance Foreseeable quality of engagement with stakeholders: (A) High (e.g. multiple open dialogue consultations and stakeholders present on steering committee), (B) Medium (example: one quality open dialogue consultation), (C) Low (e.g. one or no consultation available) To engage stakeholders in decision-making, implementation and assessment process. Those who are affected by decisions should participate in making them. This promotes both equality and holistic solutions. C 3 C 2 A. It is necessary to engage the residence associations, as residence activities are under their jurisdiction and the advisors will be doing much of the groundwork. 1 Appropriateness of engagement: (A) Mandatory, (B) Appropriate to a certain degree, (C) Unnecessary Ensure appropriate stakeholder engagement Stakeholder engagement is not always necessary. It should be proportional to the degree to which people are affected by decisions being made and appropriate to the case / context C N/A B. The administrators of the Aquatic Centre will need to be consulted, as construction might interfere with pool activities. N/A A N/A 37 40 21RANKING TOTALS FINAL RANKING OF PROJECT OPTIONS 2nd Place 3rd Place 1st Place .//ILNMa)G) ) .D$%,-'%(+)!$5$&Y&#$)) ! 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