UBC Undergraduate Research

Rapidly renewable materials : wool and cork Ou-Yang, Bin; Bin, David; Bhan, Ritesh 2011

You don't seem to have a PDF reader installed, try download the pdf

Item Metadata

Download

Media
[if-you-see-this-DO-NOT-CLICK]
[if-you-see-this-DO-NOT-CLICK]
Ou-Yang_B_et_al_SEEDS_2011.pdf [ 366.72kB ]
[if-you-see-this-DO-NOT-CLICK]
Metadata
JSON: 1.0108357.json
JSON-LD: 1.0108357+ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 1.0108357.xml
RDF/JSON: 1.0108357+rdf.json
Turtle: 1.0108357+rdf-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 1.0108357+rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 1.0108357 +original-record.json
Full Text
1.0108357.txt
Citation
1.0108357.ris

Full Text

UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report Rapidly Renewable Materials: Wool And Cork Bin Ou-Yang David Tan Ritesh Bhan University of British Columbia APSC 262 March 31, 2011 Disclaimer: “UBC SEEDS provides students with the opportunity to share the findings of their studies, as well as their opinions, conclusions and recommendations with the UBC community. The reader should bear in mind that this is a student project/report and is not an official document of UBC. Furthermore readers should bear in mind that these reports may not reflect the current status of activities at UBC. We urge you to contact the research persons mentioned in a report or the SEEDS Coordinator about the current status of the subject matter of a project/report”.The University of British Columbia APSC 262 RAPIDLY RENEWABLE MATERIALS: WOOL AND CORK Done by:Bin Ou-YangDavid TanRitesh Bhani ABSTRACT This report presents an investigation into the feasibility of using two rapidlyrenewable materials, cork and wool, in the new student union building. The primeobjective of this report is to analyze these materials in terms of their economicalfactors, environmental factors, and social factors. This analysis is also referred to astriple-bottom-line assessment. Rapidly renewable materials (RRMs) are materials that can be regenerated withinten years. The short generation cycle make these materials significant in the LEEDqualification. It is believed that using RRMs can reduce our demand on finite rawmaterial and thus, promote the sustainable development. In the following paragraphs, the cost effectiveness, environmental impacts, andsocial impacts of cork and wool are discussed. Comparison between RRMs andalternative materials are presented. We are confident that the valuable informationelaborated in this report will help the shareholders of the new student unionbuilding make appropriate decisions pertaining to the use of construction material.ii TABLE OF CONTENT ABSTRACT .................................................................................................................................... i LIST OF FIGURES AND TABLE............................................................................................................ III LIST OF ABBREVIATION ...................................................................................................................... IV 1.0 INTRODUCTION................................................................................................................................. 1 2.0 WOOL .................................................................................................................................................... 2 2.1 ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS..................................................................................................... 2 2.1.1 Sheep Farming Maintenance..................................................................................................................2 2.1.2 Pesticide Treatments of the Flock ........................................................................................................3 2.1.3 Chemical Treatments of the Wool ........................................................................................................4 2.1.4 Transportation..............................................................................................................................................4 2.1.5 List of Environmental Advantage and Disadvantage .................................................................4 2.2 ECONOMICAL IMPACTS.............................................................................................................. 6 2.2.1 Insulation Efficiency ...................................................................................................................................6 2.2.2 Material and Installation Cost ...............................................................................................................7 2.2.3 Maintenance and Recycling ....................................................................................................................8 2.3 SOCIAL IMPACTS .......................................................................................................................... 9 2.3.1 Impacts on Human Health .......................................................................................................................9 2.3.2 Controversy in Sheep Farming............................................................................................................10 2.3.3 Local Sheep Farming...............................................................................................................................11 3.0 CORK .................................................................................................................................................. 12 3.1 ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS.................................................................................................. 12 3.1.1 Carbon Sink..................................................................................................................................................13 3.1.2 Soil Conservation.......................................................................................................................................13 3.1.3 Wildlife Habitats........................................................................................................................................13 3.1.4 Transportation...........................................................................................................................................14 3.1.5 List of Environmental Advantage and Disadvantage ..............................................................14 3.2 ECONOMIC IMPACTS................................................................................................................ 15 3.2.1 Benefits of Cork Flooring .......................................................................................................................16 3.2.2 Material and Installation Cost ............................................................................................................17 3.2.3 Maintenance and Recycling .................................................................................................................17 3.3 SOCIAL IMPACTS ....................................................................................................................... 18 3.3.1 Impacts of Human Health .....................................................................................................................19 3.3.2 Impacts of Local Industry......................................................................................................................20 4.0 CONCLUSION.................................................................................................................................... 21 5.0 REFERENCE...................................................................................................................................... 22iii LIST OF FIGURES AND TABLES Figure 1: Batch of Wool Insulation Figure 2: Lifecycle of Wool Insulation Figure 3: Cork Flooriv LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS RRMs – Rapidly Renewable Materials LEED – Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design FAO – Food and Agriculture Organization VOCs – Volatile Organic Compounds1 1.0 INTRODUCTION Rapidly renewable materials (RRMs) are products that are made from animals andplants, which can be harvested within a ten-year life cycle or less. A few examples ofthese RRMs are: bamboo, straw, cotton, cork, wool, wheat board, etc. Thesematerials are considered sustainable because of their rapid regeneration.Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) found significance in thesesustainable materials. Implementing these materials in a building will qualify forvarious LEED credit. The idea is that these products have a short life cycle and usingthem does not deplete the finite raw material. This is only one of the manysustainable characteristics of RRMs. A triple-bottom-line analysis will be done forwool and cork. This report will focus on the environmental, economic and socialimpacts of wool and cork, and their advantages and disadvantages. This report divides into the following primary sections:- Wool- Cork- Conclusion2 2.0 WOOL Wool is harvested through shearing live sheep with the use of a powered handclipper or a blade shear. It is harvested once a year depending on the type of wool.The wool is separated into four main categories: fleece, broken, bellies, and locks.This is done by a technique known as wool classing. Before the wool can be used forcommercial purposes, the wool must be cleaned. Scouring is the process of washingwool in warm water and detergents to remove the contaminants, and then drying it.In industrial applications, detergents, alkali and special equipment are used. 2.1 ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS Wool is a rapidly renewable resource. It has environmental impacts that rangesfrom beneficial to benign to highly destructive. These negative impacts may bereduced through changes in management practices. Factors that need to beconsidered are: pesticide treatments of the flock, sheep farming maintenance,chemical treatments of the wool. 2.1.1 Sheep Farming Maintenance Sheep farming can negatively impact the soil environment through tramplingcausing wide-scale land degradation. According to the Food and AgricultureOrganization of the United Nation (FAO), overgrazing and compaction cause 20% of3 pastures considered as degraded. In addition, FAO also stated that livestock uses30% of the Earth’s land surfaces. [1] This can be reduced through maximization ofland usage and better livestock management. On the other hand, litter from thesheep can act as a fertilizer and enhance the nutrition of the soil. Sheep is part of the ruminant family thus their manure emits methane gas (CH4),which is a greenhouse gas that is 21 times more potent than carbon dioxide (CO2).[2] This has a negative effect on the gaseous composition of the atmosphere aroundthe farms. Sheep urine also produces ammonia (NH3) that contributes to acidrainfall. By improving the sheep’s diet, methane gas emissions produced by thesheep can be reduced. Setting up biogas plant initiatives to recycle manure can alsohelp reduce the impact. 2.1.2 Pesticide Treatments of the Flock Sheep are often treated with insecticide and fungicide to ward off lice and ticks.Studies done in the United Kingdom show that pesticides used on sheep causesdamage to the nervous system of workers that have been exposed to it. Long-termexposer also causes reduced bone formation. Without proper disposal or if usedincorrectly, these chemicals can cause contamination to groundwater. Properirrigation and sewage systems will reduce environmental risk factors. Also, reducinglarge-scale livestock concentration close to cities will reduce the human risk factors.[3]4 2.1.3 Chemical Treatments of the Wool Cleaning wool takes a large amount of water. In addition, highly toxic dyes andchemicals are used to mothproof harvested wool. This may cause health problemsas well as produce waste matter. [4] Improper disposal of this contaminated watermay lead to further contamination of rivers, and run the risk of destroying marinelife. A proper irrigation system is needed to prevent the spread of waste matter torivers and underground water. 2.1.4 Transportation Transportation plays a vital role in the analysis of environmental impact. There arenumerous sheep farms around Canada, one of which is located in the Frazer Valleyin BC. The close distance saves a significant amount of energy and fuel duringtransportation. Also, very little energy is required to produce wool. [5] 2.1.5 List of Environmental Advantage and Disadvantage The following are some of the major advantage of wool. [6]- Natural, renewable and sustainable- Abundant available source- Sheep’s are able to graze on dry, unusable land- Able to absorb and retain Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs)- Natural fire retardant and antistatic- Easily cleanable5 - Biodegradable- Reusable and recyclable- Requires only a fraction of energy to produce compared to that of manmade counterparts- Multiple layered wool fibers effectively reduce airborne sound transferand noise pollution The following are some of the major disadvantage of wool. [6]- Often involves the use of pesticides and fertilizers- Sheep farming can degrade the land- Wool scouring can consume large amount of water and chemicals, andproduce heavily polluted waste-water- Insect-resist / mothproofing treatments may cause health problems aswell as producing effluent, toxic to aquatic life- Often involves the use of water polluting, heavy metal dyes. These negative impacts can be reduced through better management systems thatcan be put into practice. Comparing with the alternative, maintenance of cotton farmrequires a lot of fertilizers and requires the use of nitrates. This releases greenhousegases to the atmosphere also. In addition, pesticides are also used in cotton farm andit requires a large amount of water for irrigation.6 2.2 ECONOMICAL IMPACTS Wool products in the construction industry are getting more popular. Theenvironmental benefits of wool are being realized, and builders are trying to findnew ways to incorporate it into buildings. One of the most common uses for wool inconstruction is insulation.  Incorporating wool insulation into the new SUB will helpincrease the amount of LEED credits the building earns. 2.2.1 Insulation Efficiency Insulation efficiency is measured in R-values. R-value is a measure of the thermalresistance of building materials. It is the ratio of temperature difference across aninsulator. The higher the R-value of an insulator, the better its insulating property is.[7] The R-value of wool insulation is 3.5 to 3.8 per inch of material thickness.Fiberglass insulation on the other hand has an R-value of 3.2 per inch of materialthickness. These values vary depending on the quality of the insulation. On averagewool insulation will have an R-value about 0.3 to 0.6 points higher than that offiberglass insulation.[8] Wool insulation also has other benefits as an insulator when compared to thealternatives. It has the ability to absorb 30 – 40% of its own weight in moisturewithout affecting its insulating qualities. As wool absorbs moisture in winter, itreleases heat into its surroundings, thus providing a warming effect in winter. [8] In7 the summer, the wool insulation releases the moisture trapped in it and cools itssurroundings. This feature greatly reduces heating costs during winter and coolingcosts in the summer. Wool insulation also acts as a sound insulator and can helpmake the walls more fire resistant. 2.2.2 Material and Installation Cost In the lower mainland of British Columbia, the minimum code requirement forinsulation is R-20 in the walls and basement walls, and R-40 in the ceiling. [9] Thismeans that you would require approximately 6-inches of wool insulation in thewalls and 12-inches in the ceilings. Wool insulation is available as a batch or a rope.Ropes are used to insulate around doors and windows and are sold in rolls. Theycost about $0.75 per foot. Batches are used to insulate walls and ceilings.  They areavailable in rolls of 16-inches or 24-inches wide with an R-value of 19 and costapproximately $2.40 per square foot. [10] The price of the insulation usuallyincludes installation costs, so you don’t need to spend extra for installation. Figure 1 Batch of Wool Insulation8 Fiberglass insulation with an R-value of 19 will cost a lot less than wool insulation.The average cost for fiberglass is $0.75 a square foot installed. Wool insulation coststhree times as much as fiberglass insulation, but its ability to cool and warm thesurrounding area can greatly reduce heating and cooling costs. 2.2.3 Maintenance and Recycling Wool insulation is maintenance free. There is no regular maintenance required if itis installed correctly. If there is moisture build up between walls, wool insulationwill be able to withstand this without affecting its insulation properties. Wool canlast for thousands of years without the need for treatment. Fiberglass insulation onthe other hand is very susceptible to water damage. If fiberglass comes into contactwith water, it compromises its insulating property. The lifetime of fiberglassinsulation is also very good if it is installed properly. It has the ability to last as longas the house itself, but the air pockets within the insulation decreases thus reducingits R-value. Wool insulation is 100% recyclable and does not go to waste. Recycled woolinsulation gets used to make new insulation, as well as carpets and clothing. It canbe recycled for only a few hundred dollars and it takes very little energy to recyclewool. [11] Wool recycling involves breaking apart the wool fibers and then washingit with a disinfectant before sending it out to be reused. Fiberglass insulation is notrecyclable and therefore all of it goes to waste once it has reached its useful lifetime.9 Figure 2 Life Cycle of Wool Insulation 2.3 SOCIAL IMPACTS Wool is one of the oldest RRMs used in human history. However, unlike cork, whichhas a prominent reputation, the wool industry has caused a huge controversy in thepast decades. In the following paragraphs, we will study wool's impact on humanhealth, and some disputable issues regarding the sheep farms. 2.3.1 Impact on Human Health Wool is commonly used inside buildings as carpet or wall insulation. Therefore, ithas huge influences on the indoor air quality. In fact, many researchers and studiesindicate that wool insulation, and other wool products can improve the indoor airquality by trapping pollutants.10 Recently, the most common indoor pollutants are combustion products, such assulphur dioxide, nitrogen oxide, and formaldehyde, which is often used in resin-based wood products and other building material [12] Emissions from cooking andheating with gas or solid fuels can further contaminate the indoor air. Theseunwanted particles and gases might cause respiratory diseases in occupants.However, there is reasonable evidence showing that the wool carpet can trap theseparticles due to its special physical structure. New Zealand researchers, using apurpose-built controlled environmental chamber, have demonstrated that woolcarpet can reduce high levels of introduced formaldehyde to virtually zero in 4hours. [13] Similar experiments were also done by the US Gas Research Institute.Their results also prove that wool carpet can absorb a significant amount ofnitrogen dioxide. [14] 2.3.2 Controversy in Sheep Farm Sheep farms are the only source for the wool; therefore, the welfare of the sheep isalso studied in our report. Based on our investigation, we found that the sheepfarms are becoming more and more controversial today due to the high death rateof sheep. A tremendous amount of documents indicate that the condition of the sheep farmsin Australia, the largest exporter of wool, is terrible.[15] It is reported that Australiaexports more than three million live sheep to other countries around the world.  In11 some trips to the Middle East, sheep have to endure extremely high temperatures ofup to 45 degrees Celsius. High temperatures and poor ventilation in the cargo tankoften encourage diseases to spread quickly among sheep and kill thousands of them.The situation of sheep in the Australian sheep farms is also terrible. Evidences haveemerged showing that sheep are suffering from inhumane treatment and are beingslaughtered in the farms. 2.3.3 Local Sheep Farm Canada is also one of the largest wool exporters in the world. The wool industry isan important element in the Canadian economy. It is estimated that thousands oftons of wool, which accounts for 70% [16] of Canadian wool production, areexported to China and India for clothing manufacture and generate an annual profitof several million dollars. Through our investigation, we also found that the situation of sheep in BC is muchbetter than the sheep in Australia. Many regulations have been enforced to ensurethe welfare of sheep. The BC Sheep Federation, the representative of the local sheepindustry, also has policies to encourage the sustainable development in the woolindustry.12 3.0 CORK Cork is another rapidly renewable material. Cork oak trees are harvested every nineyears without damaging the trees and the environment. Harvesting cork is doneentirely by hand and requires no modern machinery. This is better for the healthand preservation of the trees and also uses less energy and produces less pollutionduring the harvesting process. During the harvest, only a small percentage of thebark from the cork oak tree is removed to retain the protection of trees duringregeneration. When harvesting cork, not a single tree is cut down. 3.1 Environmental Impacts Cork oak trees have proven biodiversity, environmental and ecological value.Producing cork does not have a significant negative impact to the environment andit leaves minimal ecological footprint. In fact, cork oak trees help reduce greenhousegases and prevent global warming. It also plays a vital role in safeguarding a widerange of habitats. Key factors of cork oak trees and cork production that play animportant role in the environment are: carbon sink, soil conservation, wildlifehabitats, and transportation. [17]13 3.1.1 Carbon Sink Cork oak trees act as a carbon sink. The effects of global warming and the impacts ofclimate change are already visible. Cork oak trees play a key role in trapping carbonwith its unique cell structure, which reduces the global warming effect. It alsoproduces oxygen through photosynthesis. A study done by the School of Agronomyconcluded that an area of 2.2 million hectares of Mediterranean cork forest acts as acarbon sink for 14 million tones of carbon dioxide yearly. On average, 5.5 tones ofcarbon dioxide are emitted from a typical passenger vehicle. [18] This equates to 2.5million cars being compensated for by the cork trees. 3.1.2 Soil Conservation Cork oak trees also play a vital part in preventing wind erosion and increases therate of at which rainwater infiltrates and replenishes groundwater. In addition, corkoak trees also reduce soil erosion by reducing the amount of water run-off. 3.1.3 Wildlife Habitats In a cork oak landscape, such as The Mediterranean Basin, is a home to thousands ofplants and animal species. It is an ideal winter habitat for migratory birds. It alsoprotects endemic wildlife and endangered animals. [19]14 3.1.4 TransportationCork oak trees are mainly found in Mediterranean areas and the manufacturing ofcork is mostly done in Europe. This causes a significant amount of energy and fuel tobe used during shipping. Since manufacturing of cork uses a low amount of energy,it compensates for the transportation energy consumption. 3.1.5 List of Environmental Advantage and Disadvantage The following are some positive impacts of cork or cork flooring [20]- Natural, renewable and sustainable- Uses less carbon and chemicals in its manufacture- Excellent heat insulation- Cork flooring has a 50-100 years life span- Reduces sound pollution- It absorbs impact upon landing- Does not off gas or shed microfibers- Natural moisture, mold, rot, insect, and bacteria resistant- Recovers from compression- Recyclable- Easy to clean and maintain- Flame retardant The following are some negative impacts of cork or cork flooring [20]- Only production is in Mediterranean places- Fades in direct sunlight- Interacts with climate condition (High humidity causes cork flooring to bemore spongier)15 Choosing to buy cork products helps the survival of cork oak trees, which reduce thegreenhouse gases, improves the environment, and protects the habitants of wildlife.Producing cork flooring is more environmental friendly compared to bamboo orhardwood flooring. Growing bamboo sometimes require the use of fertilizers and alarge amount of land are cleared to make room for planning bamboos. Hardwoodfloorings are made from trees. Manufacturing hardwood will require cutting downof trees, unlike cork, which does not require trees to be cut down. Harvesting corkdoes not damage the tree, and there are no pollutions and greenhouse gasesassociated in the production of cork with the exception of the shipping process. 3.2 ECONOMICAL IMPACTS The leading use of cork in industry today is for making whine corks stoppers.Almost 70% of cork being produced in the world today gets used to make corkstoppers. According to cork importers, $1.1 billion in raw cork sales go directly intothe production of cork stoppers, whereas all other combined uses only represent$400 million dollars. [21] Although very little cork is used to produce productsother than cork stoppers, it still has many important uses. These include clothing,furniture but most of all flooring. Cork flooring is mostly made of 100% recycledcork and can be a good way to incorporate rapidly renewable materials into the newsub building.16 3.2.1 Benefits of Cork Flooring Cork floors have many properties that give it some advantages over hardwoodfloors. Cork floors are softer when compared to hardwood and they have many tinyair pockets trapped within them. These air pockets allow the cork floors to havegood thermal insulation and sound proofing. Cork floors are not susceptible todamage. They can resist denting and scratching because of its elastic like property.Cork flooring can compress up to 40% and still come back to its original shape. [22]It is also resilient to water damage, mold, mildew and pests. The aesthetics of corkflooring is also very pleasant. They are available in many different shapes, colorsand sizes. Another bonus property that cork floors have is that they are verycomfortable to walk on. It feels like walking with running shoes on because it isreally soft and has some give. Figure 3 Cork Floor17 3.2.2 Material and Installation Costs Cork floors are available in many different shapes, sizes and patterns; thereforethere is a wide price range for this product. The cost of cork flooring can beanywhere from $2.00 a square foot to $5.00 a square foot. [22] The prices can behigher depending on the quality and the type of cork being used. This is not veryexpensive when comparing it to hardwood and bamboo floors. Hardwood andbamboo floors are in the same price range as cork flooring and can be purchased for$2.00 to $5.00 a square foot. The savings are more evident in installation costs.Installing cork flooring can be a very easy DUI project. It easily sits on top of anytype of sub floor and is really easy to cut and shape. Hardwood floors may needprofessional installation if you are not very handy. Depending on the cost of labor,installation of hardwood floors can cost anywhere from $2.00 to $3.00 a square foot.If you do decide to get the cork floors professionally installed, it will cost $1.00 to$2.00 a square foot because less labor is required to install them. 3.2.3 Maintenance and Recycling Cork flooring does not require regular maintenance or re-finishing and only costs$100 to $200 dollars to maintain. If taken care of properly, cork floors can lastindefinitely. The only required maintenance is mopping with a damp mop once amonth to prevent the cork from fading. Keeping the surface clean by regularsweeping and vacuuming can also prolong the life of the floor. Hardwood floors18 have to be sanded and stained every 10 to 15 years. They only have a lifetime ofapproximately 30 to 50 years and will need replacement [22]. Over its lifespan,hardwood floors will cost a lot more to maintain than cork flooring. Cork is a 100% recyclable material. Most cork floors are recycled back into newercork floors. There is a cork-recycling program here in Canada that takes back oldcork and recycles the cork into its raw product and is sold to flooring companies at avery low price. Recycled cork costs $0.75 cents per pound and when compared tothe raw material, it is a lot cheaper. This helps keep the cost of new cork flooringlow and competitive with hardwood and ceramic flooring. Hardwood floors cannotbe recycled and most of them end up in the landfills or get incinerated. If thehardwood has not been treated with any type of chemicals, they can be composted,but it is rare to find untreated hardwood flooring. 3.3 Social impacts As one of the well-known RRMs, human has harvested cork for over one thousandyears. Currently, 99% of the cork productions are from the Mediterranean and mostof the cork becomes wine stoppers, which accounts for 66% of the revenue in theglobal cork industry Cork is getting its popularity in the construction industry due toits thermal insulation and other physical properties. The waste from themanufacture of the wine stopper can be manufactured to flooring material. To study19 cork in the social perspectives, we will focus on cork product’s’ impacts on humanhealth and local industry. 3.3.1 Impacts on Human Health Cork harvesting has been going on for over one thousand years. The method used toharvest bark hasn’t changed all that much [23]. Nowadays, harvesting is still doneby hand with specially designed axes. To meet the increasing demand of cork,thousands of workers are hired to peel bark in the harvesting season. In this humanlabor-intensive industry, the safety and working environment of workers becomeour priority concern.  Through our investigation, we found that most countries thatproduce cork are developed countries in the Euro. They tend to have high standardsfor working safety and working environment. Workers are well protected andundergo comprehensive training before they start working. These procedures notonly significantly reduce the workers’ risk of getting injury but also minimizedamage to the cork trees due to inexperienced workers. Besides putting in effort toprevent work place accidents, the cork industry also tries to protect their employeesfrom getting occupational diseases.  During the process of agglomerating the cork,binders are added to hold the ground cork granules together. High VOC chemicals,such as Urea Formaldehyde (UF), were used in the past. Scientific evidences showthat people working in environments with high VOC levels have a higher chance ofgetting respiratory disease. [24] And today, in order to minimize the VOC20 concentration in the work place, low VOC chemicals, such as Urea Melamine (UM),Phenol Formaldehyde (PF), are more commonly used in the industry [25] In addition to cork’s impacts on workers’ health, we also study cork product’simpacts on the health of occupants. Cork does not off-gas or shed microfibers and isnaturally moisture, mold, and rot resistant. [25] Using cork flooring can helpimprove the hygienic of the interior environment. Cork is highly abrasion resistanton its own, but minor routine maintenance, such as mopping, is needed to maintainits durability. Using standard chemicals might introduce a large amount of VOC intothe air. It is recommended to select low or non-toxic products for these purposes.[25] 3.3.2 Impacts on Local Industry As we mentioned above, cork only grow in the Mediterranean. Therefore, all thecork farms and cork manufacture companies are located outside of Canada anddon’t offer direct job opportunities to our local community. However, with ourincreasing demand for natural and non-toxic cork products, importing cork fromEuro has become a prosperous business, which creates thousands of jobs intransportation and retail.21 4.0 CONCLUSION Rapidly renewable materials are just starting to be discovered and recognized assustainable products. Using cork floors can be a great way to incorporate rapidlyrenewable materials into the design of the SUB building. Cork floors are reallysustainable and are mostly made of recycled cork stoppers from whine bottles. Itcosts the same as hardwood and ceramic floors but have many benefits that makecork floors more superior than its alternatives. Cork floors will give the building aunique look and requires very little maintenance. It is also mold, mildew and pestresistant, thus making it ideal for high traffic areas. Using wool insulation would be a great way to insulate the building, but it is verycostly when compared to the alternatives. It costs almost three times as much asfiberglass and is not worth incorporating into the new SUB. Wool may be a rapidlyrenewable material, but producing wool is controversial. It is not produced in themost sustainable way. Sheep farming has many negative impacts on theenvironment and the sheep themselves are not well looked after. The use of rapidly renewable materials in the new SUB building will lead byexample and in the process increase our chances of becoming the most sustainablebuilding in North America. The use of wool insulation may not be the best, but corkfloors are a great alternative to ceramic and hardwood floors.22 5.0 REFERENCES[1] Christopher Mathews, Life Stock a Major Threat to Environment, November 2006http://www.fao.org/newsroom/en/news/2006/1000448/index.html[2] Collin Dunn, Which is Greener: Wool or Cotton?, February, 2008http://www.treehugger.com/files/2008/02/greener-cotton-or-wool.php[3] Hannah, Environment Impact of Fabric: Wool, February 2011http://wearnothingnew.typepad.com/wear-nothing-new/2011/02/environmental-impacts-of-fabric-wool.html[4] Organic Trade Association, Wool and the Environment,http://www.ota.com/wool_environment.html[5] Isover, Natural, Abundant and Recycles Raw Materialshttp://www.isover.com/Our-commitment-to-sustainability/Our-contribution/Environmental-impacts-of-our-products[6] Instyle, Wool Advantages and Disadvantages,http://www.instyle.com.au/impact_of_textiles/Natural%20-%20Wool.pdf[7] Wikipedia, R-Value, March 2011http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/R-value_(insulation)[8] Wikipedia, Wool Insulation, February 2011http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wool_insulation[9] BC Hydro, Insulate the Home to Keep the Heat in and your Energy Bills Lowhttp://www.bchydro.com/etc/medialib/internet/documents/Power_Smart_FACT_sheets/FACTS_Insulating_for_Energy_Efficiency.Par.0001.File.A10_241_Insulation_PS_Tip_Sheet.pdf[10] Good Shepard Wool Insulation, Cost of Insulationhttp://www.goodshepherdwool.com/[11] Sheep Wool Insulation, Why Should I Use Wool?http://us.sheepwoolinsulation.com/why_wool/[12] Wool Carpet and Indoor Air Qualityhttp://www.conferenceboard.ca/hcp/details/environment/voc-emissions.aspx^[13] B Y Sou, R C McMillan and S M Causer, Absorption of Formaldehyde by Carpets,WRONZ Report R219, Wool Research Organisation of New Zealand,Christchurch23 [14] C W Spicer, R W Coutant, G F Ward, D W Joseph, A J Gaynor and I H Billick,.Rates and mechanisms of NO2 removal from indoor air by residentialmaterials, EnvironmentInternational, 1989, 15, 643-654[15] Australia Exporting live sheep an often cruel deathhttp://www.ciwf.org.uk/news/transport_of_live_animals/australia_exporting_live_sheep_to_an_often_cruel_death.aspx[16] Liberation BC, woolhttp://liberationbc.org/issues/wool[17] Preshani Maistry, Rapidly Renewable Materials, July 2007http://www.greenalberta.ca/downloads/Rapidly_Renewable_Materials.pdf[18] US EPA, Green House Gasses From a Typical Transport Vehicle, February 2005http://www.epa.gov/oms/climate/420f05004.htm[19] Cork Information Bureau, Cork. Culture, Nature, Future. 2010http://www.realcork.org/userfiles/File/Environmental%20Importance%20of%20Cork.pdf[20] The Sexy Kitchen, Cork Flooring in the Kitchenhttp://www.thesexykitchen.com/cork-kitchen-flooring.html[21] Ask Metafilter, Cork Economics, December 2007http://ask.metafilter.com/78183/Cork-economics[22] Bob Formisano, About Cork Flooringhttp://homerepair.about.com/od/interiorhomerepair/ss/cork_flooring_10.htm[23] Preshani Maistry, Rapidly Renewable Materials. July 2007http://www.greenalberta.ca/downloads/Rapidly_Renewable_Materials.pdf[24] VOC Emission Per Capitahttp://www.conferenceboard.ca/hcp/details/environment/voc-emissions.aspx[25] Christi Graham, Cork Flooringhttp://www.healthyhomeplans.com/articles/information11.php

Cite

Citation Scheme:

    

Usage Statistics

Country Views Downloads
United States 9 1
Australia 8 7
China 7 2
France 3 0
Poland 1 0
Chile 1 0
India 1 0
Canada 1 0
City Views Downloads
Unknown 12 16
Ashburn 4 0
Beijing 3 1
Shenzhen 2 0
Chesnee 2 0
Lyon 1 0
Chengdu 1 0
Mountain View 1 0
Xi'an 1 0
Valdivia 1 0
Seattle 1 0
Adelaide 1 1
Calgary 1 0

{[{ mDataHeader[type] }]} {[{ month[type] }]} {[{ tData[type] }]}
Download Stats

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
http://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/dsp.18861.1-0108357/manifest

Comment

Related Items