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An Investigation Into Energy Storage Options For the New SUB Kingston, Ryan; Porritt, Andrew 2010-11

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UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report  An Investigation Into Energy Storage Options For the New SUB Ryan Kingston, Andrew Porritt University of British Columbia APSC261 November 30, 2010  Disclaimer: “UBC SEEDS provides students with the opportunity to share the findings of their studies, as well as their opinions, conclusions and recommendations with the UBC community. The reader should bear in mind that this is a student project/report and is not an official document of UBC. Furthermore readers should bear in mind that these reports may not reflect the current status of activities at UBC. We urge you to contact the research persons mentioned in a report or the SEEDS Coordinator about the current status of the subject matter of a project/report”.  	
    An	
  Investigation	
  into	
  Energy	
  Storage	
   Options	
  for	
  the	
  New	
  SUB	
   	
  	
   Ryan	
  Kingston,	
  Andrew Porritt	
    	
   November	
  30th,	
  2010,	
  APSC	
  261,	
  Submitted	
  to:	
  Dr.	
  Dawn	
  Mills	
   	
   	
    	
    Abstract	
   	
   	
    The	
  new	
  SUB	
  is	
  being	
  built	
  to	
  be	
  as	
  green	
  as	
  possible,	
  with	
  a	
  goal	
  of	
  achieving	
    LEED	
  Platinum	
  status.	
  As	
  part	
  of	
  this	
  goal	
  the	
  developers,	
  the	
  Alma	
  Matter	
  Society	
   (AMS)	
  has	
  asked	
  the	
  architect	
  to	
  provide	
  a	
  pathway	
  towards	
  becoming	
  net	
  zero.	
   Accordingly	
  the	
  AMS	
  has	
  asked	
  that	
  this	
  report	
  be	
  written	
  to	
  investigate	
  possible	
   energy	
  storage	
  options.	
   	
    This	
  report	
  outlines	
  the	
  results	
  of	
  a	
  triple	
  bottom	
  line	
  assessment	
  of	
  two	
    energy	
  storage	
  options	
  and	
  a	
  third	
  option	
  of	
  not	
  storing	
  energy	
  in	
  the	
  building	
   electing	
  instead	
  to	
  sell	
  any	
  potential	
  energy	
  back	
  to	
  the	
  grid.	
  	
   	
    The	
  findings	
  of	
  this	
  analysis	
  conclude	
  that	
  from	
  a	
  social,	
  environmental	
  and	
    economic	
  choice	
  the	
  best	
  option	
  for	
  the	
  AMS	
  to	
  proceed	
  with	
  is	
  two-­‐way	
  metering.	
  If	
   a	
  significant	
  amount	
  of	
  power	
  is	
  ever	
  generated	
  this	
  option	
  could	
  be	
  improved	
  upon	
   by	
  selling	
  power	
  to	
  neighbouring	
  buildings	
  instead	
  of	
  the	
  directly	
  to	
  the	
  grid	
   allowing	
  the	
  AMS	
  to	
  set	
  their	
  own	
  rates	
  rather	
  than	
  having	
  them	
  dictated	
  by	
  BC	
   Hydro.  	
    ii	
    	
    Table	
  of	
  Contents	
   Table	
  of	
  Figures	
  ........................................................................................................................	
  1	
   Glossary	
  .......................................................................................................................................	
  2	
   Abbreviations	
  ............................................................................................................................	
  3	
   1.0	
   Introduction	
  ....................................................................................................................	
  4	
   2.0	
  Energy	
  Storage	
  Options	
  ..................................................................................................	
  4	
   2.1	
  Rechargeable	
  Batteries	
  ...........................................................................................................	
  4	
   2.1.1	
  Social	
  Issues	
  ............................................................................................................................................	
  4	
   2.1.2	
  Environmental	
  Issues	
  .........................................................................................................................	
  4	
   2.1.3	
  Economic	
  Issues	
  ...................................................................................................................................	
  5	
   2.2	
  Flywheel	
  ........................................................................................................................................	
  6	
   2.2.1	
  Social	
  ..........................................................................................................................................................	
  6	
   2.2.2	
  Environmental	
  .......................................................................................................................................	
  7	
   2.2.3	
  Economical	
  ..............................................................................................................................................	
  7	
   2.3	
  Two-­‐way	
  Metering	
  ....................................................................................................................	
  7	
   2.3.1	
  Social	
  Issues	
  ............................................................................................................................................	
  8	
   2.3.2	
  Environmental	
  .......................................................................................................................................	
  8	
   2.3.3	
  Economic	
  .................................................................................................................................................	
  9	
    3.0	
  Conclusion	
  ........................................................................................................................	
  10	
   4.0	
  Epilogue	
  ............................................................................................................................	
  11	
   Bibliography	
  ...........................................................................................................................	
  13	
   	
    	
    	
    Table	
  of	
  Figures	
   Figure	
  1-­‐	
  Common	
  Battery	
  Prices	
  [4]	
  ...............................................................................................	
  5	
    	
    	
    	
    1	
    Glossary	
   Two-­‐way	
  meter	
  –	
  (aka	
  Net	
  meter,	
  unidirectional	
  meter)	
  –	
  power	
  meter	
  capable	
  of	
   tracking	
  net	
  power	
  used	
  allowing	
  power	
  to	
  flow	
  to	
  and	
  from	
  the	
  power	
  grid	
    	
    2	
    Abbreviations	
   BCH	
  –	
  BC	
  Hydro	
   AMS	
  –	
  Alma	
  Matter	
  Society	
   SUB	
  –	
  Student	
  Union	
  Building	
   PPE-­‐	
  Personal	
  Protective	
  Equipment	
    	
    	
    	
    3	
    1.0 Introduction	
   Two	
  main	
  storage	
  options	
  are	
  considered	
  in	
  this	
  report,	
  batteries	
  and	
   flywheels.	
  Both	
  of	
  these	
  options	
  have	
  been	
  used	
  in	
  building	
  design	
  before	
  and	
  both	
   have	
  strengths	
  and	
  weaknesses.	
  Another	
  option	
  to	
  storing	
  energy	
  in	
  the	
  SUB	
  is	
  to	
   use	
  two-­‐way	
  metering	
  and	
  either	
  sell	
  the	
  energy	
  back	
  to	
  BC	
  Hydro,	
  or	
  use	
  it	
  to	
   power	
  other	
  buildings	
  on	
  campus.	
  In	
  the	
  following	
  sections,	
  each	
  of	
  these	
  options	
  is	
   investigated	
  from	
  a	
  social,	
  environmental	
  and	
  economic	
  perspective.	
    2.0	
  Energy	
  Storage	
  Options	
   2.1	
  Rechargeable	
  Batteries	
   Rechargeable	
  batteries	
  could	
  be	
  a	
  viable	
  energy	
  storage	
  option.	
  They	
  are	
  well	
   known	
  and	
  are	
  used	
  to	
  store	
  energy	
  in	
  a	
  variety	
  of	
  situations	
  already.	
  Energy	
   densities	
  of	
  batteries	
  are	
  high	
  compared	
  to	
  other	
  storage	
  options.	
  Lithium	
  ion	
   batteries	
  as	
  an	
  example	
  have	
  a	
  storage	
  density	
  range	
  of	
  about	
  .46	
  -­‐	
  .72MJ/kg	
  [1].	
   2.1.1	
  Social	
  Issues	
   	
    Battery	
  manufacturing	
  involves	
  the	
  use	
  of	
  very	
  harsh	
  chemicals.	
  Workers	
    must	
  wear	
  special	
  PPE	
  (personal	
  protective	
  equipment)	
  when	
  working	
  in	
  battery	
   manufacturing	
  plants,	
  but	
  this	
  does	
  not	
  guarantee	
  their	
  safety	
  from	
  the	
  effects	
  of	
  the	
   chemicals.	
  The	
  United	
  States	
  department	
  of	
  labour	
  has	
  set	
  guidelines	
  that	
  must	
  be	
   followed	
  to	
  protect	
  workers	
  working	
  in	
  battery	
  factories	
  [2].	
  Most	
  batteries	
  that	
  are	
   sold	
  in	
  Canada	
  and	
  the	
  United	
  States	
  are	
  manufactured	
  in	
  Asia.	
  Many	
  Asian	
   countries	
  do	
  not	
  have	
  the	
  same	
  health	
  and	
  safety	
  standards	
  that	
  exist	
  in	
  western	
   countries;workers	
  overseas	
  may	
  not	
  be	
  protected	
  properly	
  from	
  the	
  harsh	
   chemicals	
  in	
  batteries.	
   2.1.2	
  Environmental	
  Issues	
   	
    Rechargeable	
  batteries	
  have	
  a	
  large	
  number	
  of	
  environmental	
  issues	
    associated	
  with	
  their	
  construction,	
  life	
  and	
  disposal.	
  	
    	
    4	
    They	
  are	
  manufactured	
  using	
  harmful	
  chemicals.	
  If	
  these	
  chemicals	
  are	
  not	
   handled	
  properly	
  they	
  could	
  reach	
  a	
  stream	
  or	
  river	
  and	
  cause	
  large	
  environmental	
   problems.	
  This	
  problem	
  is	
  magnified	
  because	
  batteries	
  are	
  generally	
  manufactured	
   in	
  countries	
  that	
  do	
  not	
  have	
  high	
  environmental	
  standards	
  for	
  manufacturing	
   processes.	
   	
    Another	
  large	
  environmental	
  problem	
  with	
  batteries	
  is	
  that	
  they	
  have	
  a	
  finite	
    life.	
  Most	
  batteries	
  only	
  last	
  between	
  200-­‐400	
  cycles	
  before	
  they	
  must	
  be	
  replaced	
   due	
  to	
  a	
  large	
  decrease	
  in	
  their	
  capacity	
  [1].	
  Since	
  batteries	
  cannot	
  be	
  disposed	
  of	
   easily	
  this	
  could	
  case	
  a	
  disposal	
  problem.	
   	
    Batteries	
  contain	
  heavy	
  metals,	
  once	
  these	
  metals	
  come	
  into	
  contact	
  with	
  a	
    liquid	
  some	
  compounds	
  will	
  dissolve.	
  If	
  the	
  heavy	
  metals	
  contained	
  in	
  batteries	
  are	
   allowed	
  to	
  enter	
  the	
  water	
  supply,	
  there	
  will	
  be	
  environmental	
  consequences	
  [3].	
   The	
  hazardous	
  chemicals	
  contained	
  in	
  batteries	
  account	
  for	
  a	
  long	
  list	
  of	
  issues	
   associated	
  with	
  disposing	
  of	
  batteries	
  in	
  an	
  environmentally	
  friendly	
  matter.	
   2.1.3	
  Economic	
  Issues	
   	
    	
    The	
  cost	
  of	
  batteries	
  varies,	
  but	
  overall	
  they	
  are	
  expensive.	
  Some	
    common	
  battery	
  prices	
  are	
  listed	
  in	
  figure	
  1.	
   Figure	
  1-­‐	
  Common	
  Battery	
  Prices	
  [4]	
    	
    	
   Energy	
   per	
   discharge	
   Cycle	
  life	
   (best	
   cases)	
   Cost	
  per	
   battery	
   (ref.	
  only)	
   Cost	
  per	
   kWh	
   ($US)	
    	
    NiCdAA	
   Cell	
    NiMHAA	
   Cell	
    Lead	
  Acid	
   (Plastic)	
    Li-­‐ion	
   18650	
   Cell	
    BB-­‐390	
   for	
   military	
    4.5Wh	
    7.5Wh	
    24Wh	
    8.6Wh	
    130Wh	
    1500	
    500	
    250	
    500	
    250	
    $50	
    $70	
    $50	
    $100	
    $260	
    $7.50	
    $18.50	
    $8.50	
    $24.00	
    $8.00	
    5	
    	
    Battery	
  selection	
  will	
  depend	
  on	
  how	
  much	
  power	
  the	
  building	
  is	
  able	
  to	
    generate.	
  At	
  this	
  point	
  there	
  is	
  no	
  intention	
  of	
  the	
  new	
  SUB	
  being	
  net	
  zero	
  at	
  the	
   time	
  of	
  commissioning	
  and	
  there	
  is	
  no	
  guarantee	
  that	
  it	
  will	
  ever	
  generate	
  any	
   power	
  all	
  be	
  it	
  a	
  significant	
  amount.	
   	
    Batteries	
  also	
  require	
  control	
  systems.	
  These	
  systems	
  must	
  control	
  the	
    charge	
  and	
  discharge	
  of	
  batteries	
  at	
  all	
  times.	
  Over	
  charging	
  or	
  under	
  charging	
   batteries	
  will	
  have	
  a	
  negative	
  impact	
  on	
  their	
  capacity	
  and	
  will	
  cause	
  their	
  capacities	
   to	
  deteriorate	
  faster	
  [5]..	
  As	
  batteries	
  charge	
  and	
  discharge	
  the	
  exothermic	
  reaction	
   that	
  takes	
  place	
  within	
  them	
  will	
  cause	
  them	
  to	
  heat	
  up	
  [5].	
  Proper	
  cooling	
  systems	
   will	
  need	
  to	
  be	
  designed	
  in	
  order	
  to	
  ensure	
  that	
  the	
  batteries	
  cannot	
  over	
  heat,	
   which	
  would	
  lead	
  to	
  reduced	
  performance	
  and	
  fire	
  risk.	
  	
   	
    All	
  of	
  these	
  extra	
  systems	
  are	
  costly	
  and	
  will	
  require	
  maintenance,	
  they	
  will	
    all	
  add	
  to	
  the	
  cost	
  of	
  storing	
  the	
  energy	
  produced	
  by	
  the	
  SUB	
  in	
  batteries.	
  Since	
   there	
  is	
  no	
  guarantee	
  that	
  the	
  SUB	
  will	
  ever	
  generate	
  any	
  power,	
  all	
  be	
  it	
  a	
   significant	
  amount	
  of	
  power	
  this	
  would	
  be	
  a	
  very	
  expensive	
  system	
  with	
  no	
   guarantee	
  of	
  return	
    2.2	
  Flywheels	
   	
    Flywheels	
  are	
  used	
  to	
  store	
  energy	
  in	
  a	
  variety	
  of	
  mechanical	
  systems.	
  There	
    are	
  many	
  articles	
  and	
  journals	
  written	
  on	
  this	
  subject	
  because	
  flywheels	
  are	
  a	
   relatively	
  mature	
  technology.	
  Their	
  capacity	
  to	
  store	
  energy	
  depends	
  on	
  their	
   moment	
  of	
  inertia	
  and	
  their	
  angular	
  velocity	
  [6].	
  Typical	
  energy	
  density	
  ranges	
  are	
   36	
  -­‐	
  .50MJ/kg	
  [1],	
  which	
  is	
  lower	
  than	
  most	
  batteries.	
   2.2.1	
  Social	
   	
    Manufacturing	
  flywheels	
  poses	
  no	
  large	
  health	
  risks	
  to	
  the	
  public	
  and	
  would	
    also	
  create	
  jobs.	
  	
  An	
  interesting	
  advantage	
  to	
  flywheels	
  is	
  that	
  they	
  could	
  be	
  placed	
   so	
  that	
  they	
  are	
  visible	
  to	
  the	
  public	
  inside	
  or	
  outside	
  the	
  building.	
  This	
  could	
   provide	
  an	
  interesting	
  device	
  for	
  people	
  to	
  look	
  at	
  and	
  discuss	
  inside	
  the	
  SUB.	
  The	
   public	
  could	
  physically	
  see	
  when	
  the	
  building	
  was	
  storing	
  the	
  energy	
  that	
  could	
   provide	
  awareness	
  about	
  how	
  environmentally	
  friendly	
  the	
  new	
  SUB	
  is.	
  However	
    	
    6	
    since	
  the	
  SUB	
  does	
  not	
  intend	
  on	
  being	
  net	
  zero	
  at	
  the	
  time	
  of	
  commissioning	
  there	
   would	
  just	
  be	
  a	
  large	
  stationary	
  flywheel	
  in	
  the	
  middle	
  of	
  the	
  SUB	
  until	
  the	
  building	
   did	
  start	
  generating	
  energy.	
   2.2.2	
  Environmental	
   	
    Flywheels	
  pose	
  minimal	
  environmental	
  problems.	
  Manufacturing	
  should	
  be	
    done	
  to	
  minimize	
  wasted	
  material.	
  As	
  long	
  as	
  the	
  flywheels	
  are	
  made	
  of	
  recyclable	
   materials,	
  disposal	
  should	
  not	
  pose	
  any	
  large	
  environmental	
  list.	
   2.2.3	
  Economical	
   	
    The	
  largest	
  problem	
  with	
  flywheels	
  is	
  that	
  they	
  can	
  only	
  store	
  energy	
  for	
  a	
    relatively	
  short	
  period	
  of	
  time	
  compared	
  to	
  batteries	
  or	
  other	
  storage	
  options.	
  They	
   are	
  not	
  a	
  good	
  way	
  to	
  store	
  energy	
  for	
  an	
  extended	
  period	
  of	
  time.	
  Flywheels	
  like	
   any	
  mechanical	
  system	
  will	
  also	
  need	
  maintenance	
  to	
  ensure	
  they	
  operate	
  at	
   optimum	
  levels.	
  Their	
  high	
  wear	
  components	
  such	
  as	
  belts	
  and	
  bearings	
  will	
  need	
  to	
   be	
  replaced	
  in	
  regular	
  intervals	
  in	
  order	
  to	
  ensure	
  that	
  performance	
  is	
  optimized.	
  	
  If	
   the	
  flywheels	
  are	
  neglected,	
  large	
  amounts	
  of	
  friction	
  could	
  develop	
  in	
  the	
  system	
   that	
  would	
  result	
  in	
  an	
  decrease	
  in	
  efficiency.	
    2.3	
  Two-­‐way	
  Metering	
   Two-­‐way	
  metering	
  refers	
  to	
  the	
  ability	
  for	
  a	
  building	
  to	
  sell	
  any	
  excess	
  power	
   that	
  is	
  generated	
  back	
  to	
  the	
  grid.	
  In	
  order	
  for	
  a	
  building	
  in	
  BC	
  to	
  engage	
  in	
  two-­‐way	
   metering	
  it	
  has	
  to	
  meet	
  two	
  requirements:	
   •  •  Has	
  to	
  be	
  certified	
  by	
  BC	
  Hydro	
  to	
  ensure	
  that	
  the	
  building	
  cannot	
  damage	
  the	
  grid	
   (ie.	
  The	
  technical	
  systems	
  are	
  compatible	
  and	
  everything	
  is	
  in	
  phase,	
  at	
  the	
  right	
   voltage	
  and	
  the	
  right	
  frequency)	
   o In	
  2010	
  Grouse	
  Mountain	
  brought	
  a	
  1.5	
  megawatt	
  wind	
  turbine	
  online	
  [7]	
   however	
  the	
  turbine’s	
  connection	
  to	
  the	
  grid	
  was	
  stalled	
  while	
  completing	
   approval	
  by	
  BC	
  Hydro	
  [8]	
   Has	
  to	
  have	
  a	
  meter	
  capable	
  of	
  tracking	
  power	
  flow	
  both	
  in	
  and	
  out	
  of	
  the	
  building	
    The	
  first	
  of	
  the	
  two	
  requirements	
  is	
  a	
  technical	
  exercise	
  that	
  needs	
  to	
  be	
  tackled	
   whether	
  two-­‐way	
  metering	
  is	
  planned	
  or	
  not.	
  For	
  electrical	
  generating	
  devices	
  to	
  be	
   connected	
  to	
  the	
  BCH	
  grid	
  the	
  interconnection	
  must	
  be	
  commissioned	
  by	
  BCH	
  [9].	
    	
    7	
    One	
  way	
  to	
  mitigate	
  the	
  technical	
  challenge	
  involved	
  in	
  this	
  process	
  is	
  to	
  design	
   isolated	
  systems	
  that	
  are	
  powered	
  completely	
  by	
  internal	
  systems,	
  for	
  example	
  solar	
   panels	
  might	
  generate	
  power	
  that	
  is	
  exclusively	
  used	
  to	
  make	
  hot	
  water	
  and	
   additional	
  heating	
  could	
  be	
  provided	
  by	
  separate	
  electrical	
  coils	
  or	
  natural	
  gas	
  in	
   this	
  way	
  no	
  interconnection	
  would	
  be	
  required.	
   The	
  second	
  requirement	
  is	
  a	
  device	
  capable	
  of	
  two-­‐way	
  metering.	
  These	
   devices	
  are	
  common	
  and	
  are	
  relatively	
  inexpensive	
  (when	
  compared	
  with	
  any	
  scale	
   of	
  energy	
  storage).	
  	
  As	
  part	
  of	
  the	
  Liberal	
  government’s	
  clean	
  energy	
  plan	
  [10],	
  the	
   BCH	
  has	
  begun	
  rolling	
  out	
  smart	
  metering	
  technology	
  and	
  plans	
  on	
  having	
  it	
  in	
  all	
   homes	
  by	
  the	
  end	
  of	
  2012	
  [11].	
  Smart	
  metering	
  technology	
  provides	
  a	
  range	
  of	
   advantages	
  over	
  traditional	
  meters	
  including	
  accommodation	
  for	
  power	
  transfer	
  to	
   the	
  grid	
  [12].	
  	
   Installing	
  two-­‐way	
  metering	
  technology	
  has	
  been	
  simplified	
  in	
  the	
  past	
   couple	
  years.	
  The	
  largest	
  challenge	
  is	
  BCH	
  certification	
  of	
  interconnections	
  however	
   this	
  needs	
  to	
  be	
  addressed	
  regardless	
  of	
  whether	
  two-­‐way	
  metering	
  is	
  employed	
  or	
   not.	
   2.3.1	
  Social	
  Issues	
   The	
  BCH	
  smart	
  metering	
  program	
  will	
  create	
  jobs	
  throughout	
  the	
  province	
   [13]	
  however	
  installing	
  smart	
  metering	
  technology	
  or	
  two-­‐way	
  metering	
  in	
  the	
  new	
   SUB	
  will	
  not	
  create	
  many	
  jobs	
  by	
  itself.	
  Utilizing	
  two-­‐way	
  metering	
  technology	
  in	
  the	
   new	
  SUB	
  does	
  not	
  directly	
  offer	
  any	
  social	
  benefits	
  however	
  it	
  is	
  in	
  keeping	
  with	
  the	
   AMS	
  mission	
  to	
  serve	
  the	
  concerns	
  of	
  students.	
  Two-­‐way	
  metering	
  meets	
  the	
  social	
   responsibility	
  that	
  the	
  AMS	
  has	
  to	
  UBC	
  students	
  of	
  serving	
  their	
  concerns;	
  UBC	
   students	
  are	
  concerned	
  with	
  the	
  environment	
  and	
  they	
  want	
  to	
  see	
  their	
  fees	
  used	
   responsibly.	
   2.3.2	
  Environmental	
   The	
  environmental	
  impact	
  of	
  using	
  two-­‐way	
  meteringcan	
  best	
  be	
  seen	
  by	
  its	
   lack	
  of	
  impact.	
  The	
  new	
  SUB	
  has	
  no	
  intention	
  of	
  being	
  net	
  zero	
  when	
  it	
  is	
  first	
   commissioned,	
  the	
  architects	
  are	
  supplying	
  the	
  AMS	
  with	
  a	
  “pathway”	
  to	
  become	
   net-­‐zero	
  someday	
  [14]	
  however	
  there	
  is	
  no	
  guarantee	
  that	
  the	
  new	
  SUB	
  will	
   	
    8	
    generate	
  more	
  power	
  than	
  it	
  consumes	
  for	
  any	
  length	
  of	
  time.	
  With	
  the	
  low	
  amount	
   of	
  power	
  that	
  will	
  ever	
  be	
  generated	
  other	
  systems	
  such	
  as	
  batteries,	
  flywheels,	
  and	
   gravitational	
  storage	
  represent	
  large	
  environmental	
  costs	
  without	
  a	
  net	
  lifetime	
   payoff.	
  The	
  construction	
  of	
  each	
  of	
  these	
  systems	
  does	
  large	
  environmental	
  damage	
   through	
  the	
  use	
  of	
  hazardous	
  chemicals,	
  large	
  amounts	
  of	
  raw	
  materials	
  and	
   emissions	
  burned	
  during	
  manufacturing	
  and	
  transportation.	
   In	
  contrast,	
  two-­‐way	
  metering	
  does	
  not	
  have	
  a	
  high	
  environmental	
  cost	
  associated	
   with	
  installation.	
  The	
  majority	
  of	
  the	
  infrastructure	
  required	
  to	
  institute	
  two-­‐way	
   metering	
  is	
  already	
  present	
  in	
  modern	
  buildings.	
  Compared	
  to	
  a	
  traditional	
  building	
   the	
  only	
  additional	
  equipment	
  is	
  meters	
  capable	
  of	
  two-­‐way	
  recording	
  and	
   communication	
  with	
  BCH.	
   BCH	
  generates	
  most	
  of	
  its	
  power	
  from	
  Hydro	
  Dams;	
  an	
  advantage	
  to	
  hydro	
   dams	
  is	
  that	
  they	
  are	
  flexible	
  to	
  changing	
  loads,	
  as	
  an	
  example	
  of	
  this,	
  BC	
  exports	
   power	
  to	
  the	
  United	
  States	
  at	
  times	
  of	
  peak	
  load	
  and	
  then	
  imports	
  it	
  from	
  during	
   times	
  of	
  reduced	
  load	
  [15].	
  BCH	
  can	
  do	
  this	
  because	
  BC’s	
  dams	
  can	
  handle	
  the	
   fluctuating	
  load	
  where	
  as	
  the	
  American	
  power	
  plants	
  are	
  either	
  on	
  or	
  off	
  and	
  don’t	
   handle	
  partial	
  loads	
  well.	
  As	
  a	
  result	
  of	
  BCH’s	
  flexibility	
  to	
  fluctuating	
  loads	
  there	
  is	
   no	
  environmental	
  downside	
  to	
  two-­‐way	
  power	
  flow	
  (even	
  if	
  it	
  was	
  employed	
  on	
  a	
   large	
  scale	
  in	
  BC).	
  	
   There	
  is	
  a	
  very	
  small	
  environmental	
  cost	
  to	
  setup	
  two-­‐way	
  metering,	
  a	
   fraction	
  of	
  the	
  environmental	
  cost	
  to	
  installing	
  energy	
  storage	
  devices.	
  Selling	
  power	
   back	
  to	
  the	
  grid	
  ensures	
  that	
  all	
  of	
  the	
  generated	
  power	
  is	
  used	
  by	
  other	
  consumers	
   without	
  the	
  inefficiencies	
  associated	
  with	
  energy	
  storage.	
   2.3.3	
  Economic	
   The	
  economic	
  advantages	
  to	
  two-­‐way	
  metering	
  follow	
  the	
  same	
  theme	
   established	
  in	
  the	
  environmental	
  section.	
  The	
  economic	
  gains	
  to	
  using	
  two-­‐way	
   metering	
  opposed	
  to	
  full	
  scale	
  power	
  storage	
  options	
  come	
  as	
  a	
  result	
  of	
  the	
  lack	
  of	
   additional	
  equipment	
  and	
  infrastructure	
  required	
  during	
  construction.	
  If	
  the	
  new	
   SUB	
  is	
  to	
  have	
  power	
  generating	
  devices	
  connected	
  to	
  the	
  power	
  system	
  inside	
  the	
   building	
  the	
  electrical	
  design	
  will	
  have	
  to	
  account	
  for	
  BCH	
  requirements	
  that	
  these	
    	
    9	
    devices	
  be	
  connected	
  in	
  a	
  way	
  that	
  will	
  not	
  harm	
  the	
  overall	
  grid.	
  This	
  needs	
  to	
  be	
   designed	
  into	
  the	
  building	
  regardless	
  of	
  whether	
  the	
  AMS	
  plans	
  to	
  sell	
  power	
  to	
  the	
   grid	
  or	
  not.	
  With	
  the	
  BCH	
  requirements	
  taken	
  care	
  of	
  the	
  only	
  additional	
  cost	
  is	
  a	
   special,	
  net	
  power	
  meter	
  (which	
  it	
  is	
  possible	
  BCH	
  would	
  require	
  to	
  commission	
  a	
   building	
  with	
  power	
  generating	
  abilities	
  regardless	
  of	
  the	
  net	
  zero	
  intentions).	
  The	
   additional	
  construction	
  costs	
  incurred	
  as	
  a	
  result	
  of	
  setting	
  the	
  building	
  up	
  for	
  two-­‐ way	
  metering	
  would	
  be	
  insignificant	
  in	
  the	
  overall	
  cost.	
   If	
  the	
  new	
  SUB	
  were	
  to	
  generate	
  a	
  significant	
  amount	
  of	
  power	
  there	
  would	
   eventually	
  be	
  trade	
  off	
  where	
  the	
  lifetime	
  cost	
  of	
  a	
  full	
  scale	
  energy	
  storage	
  system	
   would	
  be	
  below	
  the	
  lifetime	
  cost	
  of	
  relying	
  solely	
  on	
  net	
  metering.	
  This	
  is	
  because	
   BCH	
  purchases	
  power	
  for	
  less	
  than	
  it	
  sells	
  it	
  so	
  the	
  SUB	
  could	
  potentially	
  save	
  more	
   in	
  the	
  long	
  run	
  by	
  completely	
  avoiding	
  taking	
  power	
  from	
  the	
  grid	
  by	
  storing	
   electricity	
  on	
  site.	
    3.0	
  Conclusion	
   The	
  AMS	
  actively	
  engages	
  in	
  social	
  programs	
  aimed	
  at	
  the	
  benefit	
  of	
  students,	
   these	
  programs	
  include	
  the	
  AMS	
  foodbank,	
  the	
  walk	
  safe	
  program,	
  tutoring	
  and	
  the	
   advocacy	
  office	
  [16].	
  When	
  considering	
  the	
  existence	
  of	
  the	
  AMS	
  it	
  is	
  clear	
  that	
  for	
   the	
  AMS	
  to	
  be	
  socially	
  responsible	
  it	
  must	
  represent	
  the	
  students’	
  interests;	
  this	
   means	
  that	
  the	
  new	
  SUB	
  must	
  be	
  constructed	
  fiscally	
  and	
  environmentally	
   conscious	
  as	
  well	
  as	
  built	
  using	
  sustainable	
  materials	
  and	
  practices.	
   Full	
  scale	
  energy	
  storage	
  systems	
  such	
  as	
  batteries	
  and	
  flywheels	
  have	
  a	
   large	
  green	
  buzz	
  surrounding	
  them	
  however	
  upon	
  closer	
  examination	
  they	
  aren’t	
   very	
  environmentally	
  friendly	
  when	
  you	
  consider	
  the	
  lifetime	
  cost	
  of	
  these	
  options.	
   Ethanol	
  and	
  electric	
  cars	
  have	
  a	
  similar	
  green	
  buzz	
  surrounding	
  them	
  however	
  they	
   also	
  are	
  widely	
  criticized	
  for	
  not	
  being	
  as	
  green	
  as	
  they	
  are	
  promoted	
  [17].	
  In	
   contrast,	
  net	
  metering	
  has	
  none	
  of	
  the	
  lifetime	
  issues	
  associated	
  with	
  other	
  methods	
   while	
  still	
  ensuring	
  that	
  all	
  the	
  clean	
  energy	
  generated	
  in	
  the	
  new	
  SUB	
  is	
  used	
  to	
   offset	
  the	
  use	
  of	
  non-­‐renewables.	
  	
    	
    10	
    A	
  major	
  concern	
  of	
  students	
  is	
  how	
  their	
  money	
  is	
  being	
  spent	
  on	
  the	
  new	
   SUB.	
  Construction	
  costs	
  are	
  going	
  to	
  be	
  higher	
  than	
  average	
  as	
  a	
  result	
  of	
  the	
  goal	
  of	
   achieving	
  LEED	
  Platinum	
  certification.	
  Installing	
  large	
  scale	
  energy	
  storage	
  facilities	
   would	
  add	
  significantly	
  to	
  this	
  ballooning	
  cost.	
  On	
  the	
  flip	
  side,	
  utilizing	
  two-­‐way	
   metering	
  instead	
  of	
  energy	
  storage	
  would	
  have	
  reduce	
  the	
  construction	
  cost.	
  The	
   only	
  possible	
  fiscal	
  downside	
  to	
  two-­‐way	
  metering	
  is	
  that	
  if	
  the	
  SUB	
  were	
  to	
  start	
   producing	
  a	
  large	
  amount	
  more	
  power	
  than	
  it	
  consumes	
  there	
  would	
  be	
  a	
  loss	
  in	
   savings	
  because	
  the	
  SUB	
  would	
  be	
  selling	
  power	
  back	
  to	
  the	
  grid	
  for	
  less	
  than	
  it	
  can	
   be	
  purchased	
  for.	
   Considering	
  the	
  social,	
  environmental	
  and	
  economic	
  concerns	
  it	
  is	
  clear	
  the	
   best	
  energy	
  storage	
  option	
  in	
  the	
  new	
  SUB	
  is	
  not	
  to	
  store	
  energy	
  at	
  all.	
  Uni-­‐ directional	
  metering	
  is	
  in	
  keeping	
  with	
  the	
  social	
  responsibilities	
  of	
  the	
  AMS	
  and	
  has	
   much	
  lower	
  environmental	
  and	
  fiscal	
  implementation	
  costs	
  than	
  full	
  scale	
  storage	
   options.	
   	
    The	
  only	
  trade	
  off	
  to	
  using	
  	
  two-­‐way	
  metering	
  is	
  that	
  if	
  the	
  SUB	
  were	
  ever	
  to	
    become	
  a	
  significant	
  power	
  producer	
  there	
  could	
  be	
  lost	
  opportunities	
  due	
  to	
  the	
   fact	
  that	
  BCH	
  pays	
  less	
  for	
  power	
  than	
  it	
  sells	
  it	
  for.	
  To	
  overcome	
  this	
  obstacle,	
  the	
   AMS	
  could	
  collaborate	
  with	
  neighbouring	
  buildings	
  such	
  as	
  the	
  pool	
  to	
  sell	
  excess	
   electricity	
  at	
  negotiated	
  rates	
  above	
  what	
  BCH	
  pays.	
    4.0	
  Epilogue	
   If	
  the	
  AMS	
  does	
  truly	
  want	
  to	
  build	
  as	
  green	
  a	
  building	
  as	
  possible	
  they	
   should	
  think	
  outside	
  the	
  box.	
  The	
  current	
  approaches	
  being	
  discussed	
  such	
  as	
  wind	
   turbines	
  and	
  solar	
  panels	
  on	
  the	
  roof,	
  small	
  scale	
  power	
  generation	
  from	
  human	
   interactions	
  and	
  grey	
  water	
  recycling	
  are	
  all	
  examples	
  of	
  small	
  scale	
  solutions	
  that	
   have	
  very	
  high	
  costs	
  without	
  significant	
  benefits	
  and	
  no	
  chance	
  of	
  lifetime	
  payoffs.	
   Options	
  that	
  the	
  AMS	
  should	
  look	
  at	
  are	
  heat	
  recovery	
  on	
  the	
  neighbouring	
   pool	
  exhaust	
  and	
  using	
  that	
  energy	
  to	
  heat	
  the	
  new	
  SUB.	
  If	
  the	
  new	
  SUB	
  does	
  want	
   to	
  be	
  net	
  zero	
  it	
  should	
  be	
  accepted	
  that	
  the	
  energy	
  will	
  not	
  be	
  generated	
  within	
  the	
   confines	
  of	
  the	
  SUB.The	
  AMS	
  should	
  investigate	
  building	
  a	
  Wind	
  Mill	
  in	
  Northern	
  BC	
    	
    11	
    (or	
  another	
  suitable	
  location)	
  and	
  collaborating	
  with	
  BCH	
  to	
  become	
  and	
   independent	
  power	
  provider;	
  if	
  an	
  option	
  like	
  this	
  were	
  used	
  the	
  new	
  SUB	
  itself	
   would	
  not	
  be	
  net	
  zero	
  however	
  the	
  entire	
  system	
  could	
  be.	
  The	
  AMS	
  should	
  look	
   beyond	
  the	
  SUB	
  itself	
  and	
  look	
  and	
  being	
  a	
  true	
  leader	
  in	
  green	
  development.	
   	
    	
    	
    12	
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   [1]	
  Battery	
  University.	
  (2010)	
  [Online].	
   http://batteryuniversity.com/learn/article/how_to_prolong_lithium_based_batteries	
   [2]	
  United	
  States	
  Department	
  of	
  Labor.	
  (2006,	
  November)	
  United	
  States	
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  Labor:	
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  December	
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   [4]	
  Isidor	
  Buchmann.	
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  December)	
  Batteries	
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   [5]	
  Isidor	
  Buchmann.	
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  December)	
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   http://www.buchmann.ca/faq.asp	
   [6]	
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  ̈rn	
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  and	
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  Leijon,	
  "Flywheel	
  energy	
  and	
  power	
  storage	
  systems,"	
   Renewable	
  and	
  Sustainable	
  Energy	
  Reviews,	
  no.	
  11,	
  pp.	
  235-­‐258,	
  January	
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  April)	
  CBC	
  News.	
  [Online].	
  http://www.cbc.ca/canada/british-­‐ columbia/story/2010/04/14/bc-­‐grouse-­‐mountain-­‐wind-­‐turbine-­‐stalled.html)	
   [7]	
  BC	
  Hydro.	
  (2010,	
  September)	
  BC	
  Hydro	
  congratulates	
  Grouse	
  Mountain	
  Resort	
  on	
  The	
  Eye	
  of	
   the	
  Wind	
  turbine's	
  successful	
  clean	
  energy	
  generation.	
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  Hydro.	
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  Oct)	
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   [10]	
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  Clean	
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  April)	
  Energy	
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  Hydro.	
  (2010,	
  November)	
  Smart	
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  FAQ.	
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   [12]	
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  October)	
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   [13]	
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  April)	
  New	
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  forward	
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  and	
  jobs.	
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    13	
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    14	
    

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