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An Investigation into Energy-Generating Revolving Doors Limkhuntham, Kim; Ma, Qian; Quach, Vincent; Yutuc, Elvin 2010-11-30

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UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report            An Investigation into Energy-Generating Revolving Doors Kim Limkhuntham, Qian Ma, Vincent Quach, Elvin Yutuc University of British Columbia APSC261 November 30, 2010         Disclaimer: “UBC SEEDS provides students with the oppor tunity t o s hare the f indings o f their studies, as  w ell as their opi nions, conclusions and recommendations with the UBC community. The reader should bear in mind that this is a student project/report and is not an official document of UBC. Furthermore readers should bear in mind that these reports may not reflect the current status of activities at UBC. We urge you to contact the research persons mentioned in a report or the SEEDS Coordinator about the current status of the subject matter of a project/report”.  The University of British Columbia Faculty of Electrical Engineering  An Investigation into Energy-Generating Revolving Doors  APSC 261: Technology and Society I  Submitted by Kim Limkhuntham Qian Ma Vincent Quach Elvin Yutuc  Submitted to Dr. C. Gyenge  November 30, 2010   2  ABSTRACT   This report analyzes the possibility of i mplementing energy-generating revolving doors in the new Student Union Building (SUB) at the University of British Columbia by making a triple- bottom-line assessment. This is done by inves tigating the impact on the econom y, society and environment. The econ omic im pact resu lts in  a net savings in the operational costs of the building. Although the initial cost of the revolvi ng door is significantly higher than the norm al swinging or sliding doors—approxim ately $17,000 to $42,000 m ore—the long term  savings from reduced energy consumption accounts for the initial cost in less than one year. Furthermore, because revolving doors lim it air leakage, th ey prevent the fluctuation of building tem perature that occurs with the use of s winging or sliding doors. Therefore, less energy is consum ed by the air conditioning units and heatin g units, which respectively cool  and heat th e building to maintain an optimal room temperature. By using less energy, the new SUB would be producing less greenhouse gases. In additi on, an energy-genera ting revolving door m ay also serve as an icon of the sustainability movement at UBC. Unlike other renewable energy sources, a revolving door involves an interaction betwee n the users and the door itself, thereby allowing the users to feel like they are personally contributing towards sustainability. The report also recomm ends the number of revolving doors that should be instal led, taking into consideration the need for a good balance of  triple-bottom-lin e aspec ts. Ultim ately, this repo rt shows that the energy- generating revolving door is a favorable renewable energy source for the new SUB. Each door saves over 75% of the energy consum ption from building hea ting and cooling,  as  compared to traditiona l doors. They generate nearly 4600 kWh of ener gy while reducing ten tonnes of greenhouse gas emissions per year, and they insp ire people to think of how and w hy practicing sustainability is paramount in the building of a strong future.             3  Table of Contents ABSTRACT ................................................................................................................................... 2 List of Illustrations .......................................................................................................................... 4 Glossary .......................................................................................................................................... 5 1.0 Introduction ......................................................................................................................... 2 2.0 Econom ic Impact ................................................................................................................ 3 2.1 Initial Cost ....................................................................................................................... 3 2.2 Maintenance .................................................................................................................... 3 2.3 Cost Savings.................................................................................................................... 3 2.4 Energy Generation .......................................................................................................... 7 3.0 Social Impact ...................................................................................................................... 7 3.1 Positive Aspects .............................................................................................................. 8 3.2 Negative Aspects ............................................................................................................ 8 4.0 Environm ental Impact ....................................................................................................... 10 4.1 Energy Savings ............................................................................................................. 10 4.2 Construction .................................................................................................................. 11 4.3 Negative Impact ............................................................................................................ 13 5.0 Conclusion ........................................................................................................................ 14 REFERENCES ............................................................................................................................. 15 APPENDICES .............................................................................................................................. 17 Appendix A: Diagram of Revolving Door with Generator ...................................................... 18 Appendix B: Specification of Revolving Door ......................................................................... 19 Appendix C: Energy Saving Calculator .................................................................................... 20   4  List of Illustrations   Figures Figure 1. Air leakage frequency ...................................................................................................... 5 Figure 2. Average daily winter cost of energy as a function of revolving door usage ................... 6 Figure 3. Generator circuit diagram ................................................................................................ 7  Tables Table 1. Energy savings comparison .............................................................................................. 5 Table 2. Reduction of greenhouse gas emissions based on a 4600 kWh energy savings ............. 10 Table 3. Embodied energy of revolving door materials ............................................................... 12                      5  Glossary  Embodied Energy   Greenhouse Gases  LEED Platinum   Maxwell’s Law   Rectifier   The amount of energy that is used to make a product, bring it to market, and dispose of it.  A gas in the atmosphere that absorbs and emits radiation.  The highest level of certification in designing sustainable buildings.  Four differential equations relating electric and magnetic fields.  A device that converts alternating current (AC) to direct current (DC).         2  1.0 Introduction Sustainability, specifically energy regene ration and the reduction of  greenhouse gas emission, has becom e the rising environm ental c oncern in the world. With an open m ind to create a sustainable cam pus, the University of British Columbia (UBC) has becom e one of the leading universities in th e sustainability movement. The new Student Union Building (SUB) is designed to achieve LE ED Platinum rating. One of  the requirem ents for this rating is to have 20% of the building’s energy com e from  renewabl e energ y sources.  As one of the m ost used facilities on cam pus, the current SU B consumes huge a mounts of energy from  air condition ing and heating units, which produce tonnes of greenhouse gases each year. This report investigates the employment of energy-generating revolving doors at the m ain entrances o f the new SUB as a m eans of reducing UBC’s environm ental footprint and developing a new renewable ener gy source that capitalizes  on hum an activ ity. Compared with traditional s winging an d slid ing d oors, the re volving doo r not only r educes th e heating and cooling costs for large buildings, but also provides an opportuni ty to transform  human kinetic energy into electrical power [1]. As seen in Appendix A,  an energy-generating revolving door consists of a revolving door pane l, a fixed wire coil wheel, a rotating m agnetic wheel, a gear assembly, a rectifier, and a se t of batteries. Pushing the door panel spins the rotating m agnetic wheel, which changes the m agnetic field density th rough each sub-coil of the fixed wire wheel. By Maxwell’s law, this  generates an alternating current (AC) in the co il. The rec tifier, which is connected to all the coils, conve rts the AC into a direct curren t (DC) and stores  the generated energy into a set of batteries for future use. Following a triple-bottom-line assessment, this report analyzes the econom ic, social and environm ental impact of using energy-generating revolving doors.        3  2.0 Economic Impact In this section, an econom ic analysis is perform ed in four  parts. First,  the initial cost of building an energy-generating revolving door is examined. This is followed by an analysis of the door’s maintenance costs. Then the cost savings from using an energy-generating revolving door is investigated. Lastly, the amount of energy generated from a revolving door is calculated. 2.1 Initial Cost After conta cting s everal com panies, two co mpanies, Horton Auto matics and Crane Revolving Doors, provided an estim ate for a r evolving door with a diam eter of seven feet and a height of seven feet. Both Horton Autom atics and Crane Revolving Doors estim ated the cost to be in a range of $25,000 to $50,000. The specification of th e door from Horton Automatics can be seen in Appendix B. This inclu ded the cos t of installation and the co st of m aterials. The generator, on the other hand, would have to be obt ained separately. This wa s estimated at a cost of around $500 to $1,000. The price of  a normal sliding door, seven feet in height and twelve feet  in width, is in the range of $8000 to $9000. This estim ate was also  obtained from  Horton Autom atics. In comparing the two types of doors, it is obvious that the revolvi ng door has a significantly larger initial cost. This large difference in initial cost is due to the fact that the revolving door requires a greater am ount of m aterials. In  ad dition, the labor cos ts to install th e revo lving door also increases the initial cost  due to the com plexity in assembling all of the com ponents of the door. In the end, the construction of an e nergy-generating revolving door  costs roughly $17,000 to $42,000 more than a normal sliding door. 2.2 Maintenance The m aintenance costs for revolving doors ar e m ainly from  replacing broken seals. Replacing these seals can be easily done by a maintenance team and costs approximately $12 per meter. Zmeureanu describes the im portance of maintaining a proper seal on revolving doors in his study on the effects of air leakage from  r evolving doors [2]. If t he broken seals are not replaced, they will allo w air to leak in and out  of the building. Consequently, th e energy costs will significantly increase due to the increase in heating and cooling costs.   4  These additional energy costs incu rred by the br oken seals can be seen when we calculate the pressure difference between th e insid e and  outside of the building.  The Nation al Build ing Code of Canada states that in order to lim it the physical force needed to open a door, the force exerted on the door cannot be greater than 90 N . This equates to a maximum pressure difference of 20 Pa between the outside and inside of a bu ilding. If, hypothetically, the pressure difference is 10 Pa and the seal on the re volving door is broken, then the ad ditional costs of heating and cooling the air from the leakage is approximately $47 to $124 per meter of broken seal per year. If, on the other hand, the pressure difference is  20 Pa, which is the m aximum allowed by the National Building Code of Canada, then the cost  of heating and cooling the air from  leakage rises to $75 to $204 per meter of broken seal per year. Therefore, the maintenance of a revolving door, especially the rep lacement of broken seals, is essential to reducing  the energy costs of a building. 2.3 Cost Savings Using a revolving door can im prove the air condition ing and heating  efficiency of the building by reducing air leakage, which will result in a net saving in air conditioning and heating costs. The average am ount of energy saved is around 4600 kW h per year, when compared to a normal sliding door [3]. Such an amount could po wer 5.1 houses for an entire year. Furthermore, using a revolving door can save up to $7,500 from th e cost of the natural gas which is used to heat up the building. This in tu rn affects the environment in a positive way by reducing the CO 2 emissions by fifteen tonnes. The Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) conducted a study on the effects of having revolving doors on cam pus and showed the relationship between the frequency of revolving door usage and the am ount of energy saved [4]. As the usage of the revolving door increases, the amount of annual energy savings dramatically increases as well. If revolving doors are used exclusively for a building, there is a 74% savings in energy consum ption. If the revolving doors are used only half the tim e and nor mal sliding doors are used the other half of the time, the savings in energy consumption drops radically to 14.5%. These figures are shown in Table 1 below.     5  Table 1. Energy savings comparison Revolving Door Usage 50% 75% 100% Saving of annual Energy consumption 14.5% 38.7% 74.0% # of houses the saved energy can heat in one year 1.0 2.7 5.1 # of years the saved energy can light a 100W bulb 5.8 15.3 29.0  Note. Adapted from “Modifying habits towards sustainability: a study of revolving door usage on the MIT campus” by B.A. Cullum, O. Lee, S. Sukkasi, and D. Wesolokski, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 2006.  Furthermore, accord ing to the MIT  study, th e energy sav ings rate varies th roughout the year depending on the tem perature. This is due to a va riation in the amount of air leakage from the building.  Air leakage is m ost significant in the winter months when the tem perature is cold. Compared to a sliding door, a revolving door can sa ve more than eight tim es the a mount of air leakage created by the pressure difference and door usage. Figure 1 belo w, also from  MI T, shows the fluctuation of the amount of air leakage throughout the year.   Figure 1. Air leakage frequency Note. Adapted from “Modifying habits towards sustainability: a study of revolving door usage on the MIT campus,” by B.A. Cullum, O. Lee, S. Sukkasi, and D. Wesolokski, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 2006.   6  The average daily cost o f energy in the winter  is dependent on the frequency of usage of the revolving door. W hen revolving doors are used ha lf the tim e and norm al sliding doors are used the other half of the tim e, the average da ily cost of energy is roughly $11. On the other hand, when the revolving doors are used exclusivel y, the average daily cost  of energy drops to approximately $2.50. In Figure 2 below, as construc ted by MIT, the average daily cost of energy in the winter is displayed as a function of revolving door usage.   Figure 2. Average daily winter cost of energy as a function of revolving door usage Note. Adapted from “Modifying habits towards sustainability: a study of revolving door usage on the MIT campus,” by B.A. Cullum, O. Lee, S. Sukkasi, and D. Wesolokski, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 2006.  Using an en ergy savings calculator from Horton Automatics, as seen in Appendix C, the expected payback period will be around seven months when comparing a $50,000 revolving door to a $8,000 sliding door. This is calculated by esti mating the average temperature in the building to be 75 degrees Fahrenheit with 50% hum idity, with approxim ately 8,000 people entering and leaving during the ten hours of  operation each day. This number of 8,000 people entering and leaving per day is a conservative estim ate, and takes into account the new S UB Project Coordinator Andreanna Doyon’s estim ation of approximately 5,000 people entering and leaving the SUB during the peak time at noon.   7  2.4 Energy Generation The revolving door energy generator is th e innovation that com bines three m ajor components: people, tec hnology, and architecture.  This revolving door generator combines the architecture of a revolving door with the technology of an electr ic generator to capture the unused energy created when people enter and leave a building. This idea, introduced by Fluxxlab, is similar to the idea of a hydroelectric dam or a wind turbine [5]. The door is equipped with a spec ial generator, gears, and batt ery. First, when a person passes through the door, the gear that connects to the core o f the door will tu rn the smaller gear that connects to the power generator, as seen in Figure 3 below.  Figure 3. Generator circuit diagram Note. Adapted from “Power generation from revolving doors,” by G. Rajasekar, and A. Meenakshi, IEEE, 2010.  This power generator co nsists of a s pecial DC m agnetic motor. This g ear sys tem uses a technique called piezoelectricity, which converts the kinetic energy into electric energy [6]. The gear system is limited by the speed of the power generator, which is set at 4500 rpm  in order to ensure the safety of users. With this speed, the revolving door is able to  generate a power of 0.8- 0.9 volts with 200m A to be collect ed in the battery. The estim ated calculation shows that this revolving door can power a 150W  light bulb for 100 hours if the doo r runs continuously for one day. Thus, the revolving door can  potentially save approxim ately $1.52 per day in electricity costs. Another factor that affect s the amount of energy that can be generated is the weight of the revolving door. W ith a heavier revolving door, mo re power is generate d through the generator because more kinetic energy is requ ired to operate the door. However, a heavier rev olving door might deter people from using it.   8  3.0 Social Impact Energy-generating revolving doors have a sign ificant social im pact, both positive and negative. These will be discussed in further detail in the following sections. 3.1 Positive Aspects Revolving d oors th at ge nerate powe r have  m any social po sitive inf luences. By hav ing doors that generate energy each tim e a student com es in and out of the Student Union Building, the students will be individually  c ontributing towards su stainability. This awar eness can  be reinforced by notices and posters that are put up near or on the doors, which will remind students of their ow n personal roles in achieving sustai nability. Such awareness m ay allow students a sense of  self -fulfillment, as they can say th at they a re conscious ly contribu ting toward s sustainability. Furthermore, through the knowledge that every other person who com es in or out of the SUB will a lso be helping sustainability, these energy-generating revolving doors have the potential to increase the stude nts’ sense of connectedness to the rest o f the UBC community. Thus, students can feel as though they are each doing their part in helping UBC as a whole attain its goals of sustainability. In addition to posters, these revolving doors w ill have im ages and slogans printed on the glass of the door to promote sust ainability. For example, images and slogans were employed for the first revolving doors in the Netherlands, in order to bring aw areness to the public [7]. These Dutch revolving doors also included a meter to show how much energy each person is producing as they enter and leave the building.  Such a t ool would further people’s awareness of their own contribution, giving them a concre te, quantitative indicator to show  the results of their actions . The im portance of educating  people about sustai nability is undeniable, especially  when these people are the students who are the future of  this world. After all, if  we as a socie ty continue living the w ay we are c urrently, we  will not b e ab le to sus tain ou r lif estyles indef initely [ 8]. Promoting sustainability at the center of the campus, where most students come and go everyday, is the first step towards bringing sustainability awareness to the students. If we are able to get the students educated on this m atter, they will be able to spr ead their knowledge to others, disseminating this knowledge and positive attitude to the general public as well. Of course, while energ y-generating revolv ing doors m ay bring abou t m any positive consequences, we m ust also consider the negati ve aspects of using this strategy to prom ote   9  sustainability. After all, only in recognizing and understanding both the positive and the negative aspects of such a project can we then properly assess its value and its potential for execution. 3.2 Negative Aspects Although the positive social impacts outweigh the negatives, the negative aspects still exist and must be discussed. Firstly, due  to the fact that re volving doors cost a lot m ore to construct than normal doors, the overall cost of operating the SUB would increase. W hen we consider the multiple revolving doors that would be required in order to effectively allow a contin ual, steady flow of people in and out of the building without lineups, the initial co st to install these doo rs increases dram atically. This increas e in cost  m ust be covered by someone. Most likely, the students would ultimately be required to cover the extra cost by paying higher SUB fees. As 46% of students already oppose the rise in such SUB fees in recent years [9], a further in crease might enrage them. This is especially of concern given that many students work hard in order to be able to afford postsecondary education at UBC while also supporting themselves; increases in fees or tuition always affects them financially, physic ally, and mentally. Ross, Cleland, and Macleod argue, for exam ple, that as high as 82% of st udents suffer fro m mone y-related stress [10]. If students are required to pay highe r school fees, this additional burden to financially sustain themselves will increase their stress, potentially leading to health consequences. There are also m any problems that would aff ect some students who go to the SUB. After all, not everyone can use these revolving doors. People in wheelchairs or people with children in strollers would have a difficult ti me using the revolving doors; theref ore, there would have to be normal swinging doors f or them. This would further increase the cost of the SUB, which would then increase the fees to the students. In add ition, normal swinging doors m ust also be installed because they are needed as fire exits, as revolving doors do not allow people to evacuate quickly out of a building.      10  4.0 Environment al Impact The technology of the revolving door, even without an electromechanical generator, would be very beneficial for any new building as a resu lt of the savings incurred from lowered heating and cooling costs. While there are some problematic issues, such as a need for more materials to store and distribute the electricity, the environmental and energy saving benefits far outweigh the problems that arise. By retrofitt ing an already s ustainable system, the revolving door, with an electromechanical gener ator, the po sitive envir onmental impact is in creased, thu s m aking this technology an ideal replacem ent for at least som e of the en trances in th e new SUB. The generator of the revolving door w ill not create an abundance of energy in a stand-alone system . However, with the us e of one or m ore revolving doors, this  technology will greatly reduce total energy usage at the SU B, which will he lp UBC at tain the 20% renewable energy resources goal and achieve the LEED Platinum certification. 4.1 Energy Savings The use of a revolving door as an electromechanical energy ge nerator is a unique idea in that it harnesses current technology  to provide another benefit. As  already stated in our report, the use of a revolving door can save up to 4600 kWh per year in reduced air heating and cooling costs. This 4600 kWh translates into an equivalent reduced emission of greenhouse gases, which is depicted in Table 2 below [11]. Table 2. Reduction of greenhouse gas emissions based on a 4600 kWh energy savings Gaseous Emission Reduction (kg) Carbon Dioxide 2801.82 Methane 23209.09 Nitrous Oxides 40145.45  Note. Adapted from “Calculators,” by A. Joseph, 2000.      11  By reducing heating costs, there would be a sm aller need for the use of  natural gas to heat the building. This would further reduce the gr eenhouse gas e missions created by the new SUB. Of course, this 4600 kWh figure does not include the amount of energy generated by the door, which would be used to offset the external  energy source from  th e UBC power  grid. The generated electricity would help  meet the 20% renewable ener gy goal in two ways: Firstly, by reducing the overall energy used by the SUB, and secondly, by providing a renewable energy resource. 4.2 Construction The construction of a revolving door is not too different from  a regular door so the additional environmental impacts are minimal [12]. There are no known harmful chem icals used in the m anufacturing process of the door. For a typical revolving door, the m aterials used are glass, alum inum, steel and som etimes wood, m ost of which are recyclable, hence m aking disposal of these doors environm entally fr iendly. The m ost common materials used b y manufacturers is an alu minum frame with som e for m of coa ting and glass panes [13] [14]. However, creating a door m ade out of wood would further lower the environmental impact and the em bodied energy required in  the construction of the m aterials before it is used to manufacture the door. Another alternative is to  use recycled alum inum and steel, on the assumption that the suppliers of these materials can provide metal of a high enough quality to be of acceptable use for a revolving door. Embodied energy is the amount of energy that is consumed in the entire cycle of a product from the harvesting of raw m aterials, to the manufacturing, and to the transportation. Table 3 below only depicts the em bodied energy calcula ted for the possible m aterials used for a revolving door, and do not include assem bly a nd transportation of th e final product to the construction site [15].         12  Table 3. Embodied energy of revolving door materials Material Embodied Energy MJ/kg MJ/m 3 Lumber 2.5 1380 Plywood 10.4 5720 Glass 15.9 37 550 Steel 32.0 251 2s00 Steel (Recycled) 8.9 37 210 Aluminum 227 515 700 Aluminum (Recycled) 8.1 21 870  Note. Adapted from “Embodied Energy,” by Unknown Author, Canadian Architect, 2000.  The amount of material used for each door vari es from supplier to supplier. One recurring issue is that all revolving door m odels use m ore raw m aterials than what is used to m ake a normal sliding or swinging door. Nonetheless, over  the lifetime of the revolving door, the yearly energy savings achieved from  by using a revolving door will still offset the additional energy used in construction.              13  4.3 Negative Impact Unfortunately, there are som e negative environmental impacts that arise f rom the use of a revolving door generator. Firstly, the electricity created from the generator will need to be stored on batteries, which contain a lot of environmentally hazardous products such as lead.  In addition batteries are very volatile substances, and need to be handled, stored and maintained with care so as to lim it the possibility of an accident resu lting in an explosion, especially of concern given that the revolving door generator would em ploy large lead cell batteries. Special care should be taken to red uce any m ovement that could caus e these batteries to shift and to elim inate the possibility of  the te rminals sho rting togeth er which would m ake the batteries susceptible to combustion. Another added building m aterial would be the wiring and electrical ci rcuitry required to allow the generated electricity to be plugged into  the normal power grid for the new SUB and t o be distributed throughout the building. Any power cr eated would need to be  stored and accessed at a later date. To do this, the system  would have  to be con nected to the main SUB power grid, which would increase the amount of wiring needed. By increasing th e wiring in the building, we would also increase the am ount of raw m aterials that are required, consequently increasing the total embodied energy of the materials of the revolving door.               14  5.0 Conclusion After analyzing both positive and negative impacts, this report concludes that the energy- generating revolving door is a great source of renewable energy. We recommend that the new SUB should implement three revolving doors at the main entrance and at least one at each of the other entrances in order to balance the traffic flow and the initial costs. As detailed in our report, the use of revolving doors in the new SUB has certain benefits and drawbacks for the economy, the environment, and society. Financially, the revolving door saves over three quarters of the annual energy consumption on heating and cooling. Although the costs of materials and installation for revolving doors are higher than for traditional doors, there is an expected payback period of less than one year. Environmentally, the revolving door reduces over ten tonnes of carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxides emissions every year from the SUB. Although we must consider the issue of battery recycling, the overall performance of revolving doors is more sustainable than swinging or sliding doors. Socially, an energy-generating revolving door inspires people to be aware of sustainability and to implement sustainable strategies in other avenues of their lives. Ultimately, the energy-generating revolving doors have the potential to be a great icon of the sustainability movement at UBC and to contribute to the new SUB’s goal of achieving the LEED Platinum rating.                15  REFERENCES  [1] J. Chapa, “Web extension to the World’s First Energy-Generating Revolving Door,” [Online Article], Dec. 2008, [cited 2010 Oct 18], Available HTTP: http://www.inhabitat.com/2008/12/10/energy-generating-revolving-door-by-boon-edam/  [2] R. Zmeureanu, T. Stathopoulos, M.E.D. Schopmeijer, F. Siret, and J. Payer, “Measurements of air leakage through revolving doors of institutional building,” Journal of Architectural Engineering, vol. 7, no. 4, pp. 131-137, 2001.  [3] D. Quick. “Revolving door generates its own power.” [Online Article], Dec. 2008, [cited 2010 Oct 20], Available HTTP: http://www.gizmag.com/rotating-door-energy- generator/10557/  [4] B.A. Cullum, O. Lee, S. Sukkasi, and D. Wesolokski, “Modifying habits towards sustainability: a study of revolving door usage on the MIT campus,” Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 2006.  [5] K. Yergaliyev, “Generate Energy with Fluxxlab’s ‘Revolution’ Revolving Door,” [Online Article], Feb. 2008, [cited 2010 Oct 20], Available at HTTP: http://www.inhabitat.com/2008/02/07/generate-energy-with-fluxxlabs-revolution-revolving- door/  [6] G. Rajasekar, and A. Meenakshi, “Power generation from revolving doors.” [Online Article], 2010, [cited 2010 Nov 10], Available at HTTP: http://www.ieeehtn.org/htn/index.php/Power_generation_from_revolving_doors/  [7] D. Groot, “Boon Edam introduces the world’s first energy generating revolving door Edam,” [Online Press Release], Nov. 2008, [cited 2010 Oct 20], Available at HTTP: http://www.boonedam.us/press/pressdetail.asp?PressId=182/    16  [8] B. Jickling, “A Future for Sustainability?,” Water, Air & Soil Pollution, vol. 123, pp. 467- 476, 2000.  [9] M. Kreitzman, “March 2008 AMS Referendum Results,” UBC Insider, 2008.  [10] S. Ross, J. Cleland, and M. Macleod, “Stress, debt and undergraduate medical student performance,” Medical Education, vol. 40, no. 6, pp 584-589, 2006.  [11] A. Joseph, “Calculators,” [Online Calculator], July 2000, [cited 2010 Nov 17], Available at HTTP: http://www.whygreenbuildings.com/ecolodgical/calculators.php  [12] “Revolving Door,” Advameg Inc, [Online Article], 2010, [cited 2010 Nov 10], Available at HTTP: http://www.madehow.com/Volume-7/Revolving-Door.html  [13] Horton Automatics, EasyFlow™ Manual Revolving Door, 2008.  [14] DORMA Entrance Systems™, Crane 1000 Series Revolving Door, 2003.  [15] “Embodied Energy,” Canadian Architect, [Online Article], 2010, [cited 2010 Nov 14], Available at HTTP: http://www.canadianarchitect.com/asf/perspectives_sustainibility/measures_of_sustainablity /measures_of_sustainablity_embodied.html            17               APPENDICES              18  Appendix A: Diagram of Revolving Door with Generator    Note. Adapted from “Generate Energy with Fluxxlab’s ‘Revolution’ Revolving Door” by K. Yergaliyev, 2008.   19  Appendix B: Specification of Revolving Door   Note. Adapted from “EasyFlow™ Manual Revolving Door” by Horton Automatics, 2008.   20  Appendix C: Energy Saving Calculator      Note. Adapted from “Energy Saving Calculator” by Horton Automatics, 2003. 

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