UBC Undergraduate Research

The New Student Union Building Rooftop Garden Brugger, Leslie; Burnett, Tracy; Tang, Xiu-Ming; Wang, Hilda 2010

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SEEDS Student Reports  1  UBC Social, Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Reports  The New Student Union Building Rooftop Garden Leslie Brugger Tracy Burnett Xiu-Ming Tang Hilda Wang University of British Columbia LFS 450 April 2010  Disclaimer: “UBC SEEDS provides students with the opportunity to share the findings of their studies, as well as their opinions, conclusions and recommendations with the UBC community. The reader should bear in mind that this is a student project/report and is not an official document of UBC. Furthermore readers should bear in mind that these reports may not reflect the current status of activities at UBC. We urge you to contact the research persons mentioned in a report or the SEEDS Coordinator about the current status of the subject matter of a project/report.”  LFS 450  UBC Food Systems Project Scenario #1:  The New Student Union Building Rooftop Garden  Group #8: Leslie Brugger Tracy Burnett Xiu-Ming Tang Hilda Wang  April 16, 2010  1  Table of Contents Title Page  p.1  Table of Contents  p.2  Abstract  p.3  Introduction  p.4  Problem Definition  p.5  Vision statement  p.5  Methodology  p.6  Results  p.10  Discussion  p.15  Recommendations  p.19  Conclusion  p.24  References  p.25  Appendix  p.26  2  Abstract The LFS 450 team worked in partnership with the Alma Mater Society (AMS) to generate a project that required students to write a working business proposal for the rooftop garden that will be located on the new Student Union Building (SUB) in 2014. Our team worked in collaboration with group 19 to develop this extensive document describing the layout, production, required resources, management plan, waste management, distribution, crop selection, and educational opportunities we would like to see established. The following report will describe crop selection, distribution and educational opportunities which our team was specifically responsible for, though all areas of the project were greatly integrated with one another. By combining these topics we hope to create a garden and lounge area that will enrich students’ learning experiences at UBC and promote sustainability awareness. Monthly records of produce purchased by AMS Food and Beverage were observed and analyzed to determine which products are in highest demand. We also consulted with the UBC Farm and the Sprouts club; to develop a list of primary and secondary crops to be grown in the garden. Bee hives were also proposed to be included to promote pollination and biodiversity. The majority of crops produced will go to AMS outlets in the new SUB and Sprouts’ student involvement programs. Mushrooms are in very high demand by AMS outlets and would be a great starting point for future research. A number of UBC professors from various disciplines as well as community partners are interested in working with the garden team and contributing their personal expertise. LFS professors were especially interested in possibilities for academic  3  research and directed studies for senior students. In the future we hope a Rooftop Garden Club’ can be established to strengthen support for the garden and help reach out to other community learning establishments.  Introduction When we first sat down to discuss ideas for the garden with group nineteen, everyone was really excited to be involved in this project and were eager to get started. We came up with a list of tasks to be completed over the course of the semester and assigned each group specific responsibilities. Group nineteen was assigned the layout, production, resources, management plan, and waste management sections for the project. Our group was assigned distribution, crop selection, and educational opportunities. Group nineteen received a heavier portion of the project as their group consisted of more members. Regardless, many of our tasks were closely integrated with one another’s and both groups communicated effectively. Collaboratively we created a business proposal seen in the appendix portion of this paper which describes the details of our plans as well as how to go about achieving them and why they are important. Throughout our project we wanted to make sure that a few overarching goals were incorporated into every decision including: costs, waste, and resources reduction, as well as maximizing awareness of the garden and sustainability issues. The purpose of the garden is to grow fresh, organic, and seasonally appropriate fruit and vegetables for the local UBC community. We also aim to enhance our community by bringing people together for social and educational functions. Being located at the heart of the UBC campus, it is appropriate to integrate  4  the garden as a learning tool for everyone. All of these benefits will be brought to us while at the same time reducing costs of transporting foods and the amount of energy used by the SUB.  Problem Definition This year the LFS 450 team and the Alma Mater Society have teamed up to create a design and working management plan for the new SUB rooftop garden. We are being challenged to create a proposal that will result in the development of a garden that will be an icon for economical, social, and ecological sustainability. The garden will not only promote the topic of sustainability but also serve as a catalyst in motivating future sustainable projects at UBC and the Greater Vancouver areas. Specific tasks outlines in our business proposal include: layout, year-round production, distribution plan, management plan, crop selection, resources needed, waste management, business plan, and educational opportunities.  Identification of Values The vision statement and guiding principles for a sustainable food system at UBC are fully representative of our goals established for the garden. We really wanted to emphasize minimizing the purchasing and importing of crops by the AMS outlets. This will not only create saving associated with transporting foods but also decrease carbon emissions. We also felt that creating a peaceful and social environment for students to enjoy was essential in establishing a strong sense of community. All of our group members believed that is was extremely important for all students to have access to  5  safe, nutritious foods, grown locally and organically for a fair price. We found this to be an advantage for the garden over the UBC farm because it is so centrally located and easily accessible. We fully agreed that these principles encompass exactly what a sustainable system should aim to achieve.  Methodology- Educational Opportunities UBC is well known for its dynamic learning environment that encourages faculty members and students to explore and integrate ideas within and across disciplines. The university puts emphasis on fostering global citizenship as well as advancing a civil and sustainable society. According to UBC mandates, there are nine commitment areas the university as a whole is constantly striving for: student learning, research excellence, community engagement, aboriginal engagement, alumni engagement, intercultural understanding, international engagement, outstanding work environment, and sustainability (UBC Mid-Level Plans, 2010). With the development of the upcoming rooftop garden there is no exception in practicing this motto. The UBC Alma Mater Society and various faculty professors are interested in incorporating an educational component into the rooftop garden. The garden can not only be used as a location for information dissemination but also directly as a site for teaching and learning. In addition to the limited number of applicable models to follow, a barrier encountered was the lack of tangibility observed since the rooftop garden has not been built nor has the scheme of the garden been confirmed. However, with the help of the LFS 450 teaching team and a few colleagues from the UBC Farm, a list of  6  possible parties from various disciplines, who may be interested in contributing to the educational aspect of the garden, was compiled. Mid way through the project, each of these parties was contacted via telephone or email. After receiving responses from parties of interest, the possibility of further activities such as telephone interviews, meetings, and actual on-site visiting was discussed. There were several obstacles at the contacting stage. A major once was the availability of each party. Because many of the individuals are UBC professors who have busy schedules, interviews via telephone were more efficient in reaching them within our time limit. This situation held true for other parties outside of UBC as well; however email was still a necessary method despite a delay of response. For the professors reached, after explaining the goals and intentions of the project, interview questions were then asked such as: Would you be interested in participating in the education component of the new SUB rooftop garden? Would you be interested in integrating your classes with the rooftop garden? Would you be interested in having directed studies students conducting research in the garden? Would you be interested in having your students design workshops for the rooftop gardens as projects? The professors were also encouraged to provide any comments, feedback, and new ideas about integrating the rooftop garden into their field of study. For other contacts, similar questions regarding interest in the incorporation of their profession into the rooftop garden were addressed. Later, the information obtained from these interviews was organized into potential educational opportunities reported in the Results section of this paper as well as our Business Proposal.  7  Methodology- Crops and Distribution In deciding which crops should be grown in the garden, we wanted to look at the three pillars of sustainability: ecological, economic, and social sustainability. We took into consideration the crops that are currently being grown with great success at the UBC farm and which of these crops are in highest demand across campus. In maintaining economic sustainability, we also wanted to make sure we chose crops that would be greatly utilized by the AMS food outlets in the SUB since they will be one of our primary destinations of distribution. Currently included in these outlets are: The Moon, Pi R Squared, The Pendulum, The Pit Burger Bar, Bernoulli's Bagels, The Honor Roll, Blue Chip, as well as the Land and Food System’s Wednesday Night BBQ. Social sustainability was considered with respect to ambiance in the lounge area for students. We have included various ornamentals as a primary crop, as well as several berries and fruit trees to attract visitors and make their visit more enjoyable. In addition we are proposing the production of honey to provide an ecological service which will be looked at further in the Discussion section. In creating a list of plants and crops, we observed and analyzed data provided to us by Nancy Toogood, the AMSFB purchasing coordinator. We created an excel spreadsheet to compare produce currently being purchased monthly by AMS food and beverage (AMSFB), in terms of weight (lbs) and dollars spent. From this document we were able to create a prioritized list of crops that are best suited for growth in Vancouver’s climate; which we formatted into a summary chart provided in the Appendix. We also wanted to keep the needs of Sprouts in mind as they have expressed a great amount of interest in helping with the garden, and are another one of  8  our primary distribution source. Crops from the garden can be utilized by the Sprouts Community Supported Agriculture (CSA) program called Sprouts Boxes, student cooking workshops, Community Eats and their SUB grocery store. A partnership with Sprouts would also give us the opportunity to recruit volunteers to help with the growth and maintenance of the garden. In order to get a realistic view on how a functioning garden is operated, our group went on a field trip to the District Main community rooftop garden which is managed by John Terezaki. He gave us a tour of the garden and explained how the overall functioning of the garden is managed. The following is information obtained from this garden that we found useful for creating our proposal plans. The total area of the garden is about 6000 square feet and the building cost was about $25,000. It is an important space for residents to meet and socialize, especially during the summer months. The rooftop garden not only brings beauty and shade to the apartments but can also be booked for special occasions such as birthdays and family reunions. Vegetables from the garden are distributed among the residents, and the leftovers are donated to the local food bank (personal communication, February 18, 2010). The garden’s soil is about 4 feet deep and at the time of our visit, was covered with winter cover crops. During the summer months, the garden produces cucumbers, squashes, beans, kale, strawberry, and some Asian vegetables. The garden also has short fruit trees that provide shade to help cool the building. The depth of soil for the trees is also 4 feet. The garden’s organic wastes are composted in black compost bins on the rooftop garden to generate fertile soil, using red razor worm (J. Terezaki,  9  personal communication, February 18, 2010). For irrigation, an automatic irrigation system that uses water supply from the building is installed and rain water is collected in rain barrels for manual watering of the plants. However, District Main has been recently working on integrating the automatic irrigation system with rain water collected in the barrels (J. Terezaki, personal communication, February 18, 2010). A green house is located at the end of the garden. The green house is mainly used for nursery of the vegetables that will be grown in the garden. Beside the green house, there is a small sink for washing vegetables and hands. A small plastic cabinet is used to store gardening tools (J. Terezaki, personal communication, February 18, 2010).  Results- Educational Opportunities In recent years, an increasing amount of people have become aware of the concept, “sustainability”. Trends towards growing one’s own food or buying “locally” has been consistently emerging in Vancouver as well as many other cities (Ayalon, Guilmette, Hauteoeur,& Lee-Popham, 2009). Increasing popularity of community gardens and farmers markets demonstrates this trend. Many universities around the world have put much effort in incorporating sustainability into academic settings. For example, with the Rooftop Garden Project at McGill University, an “Edible Garden” was created to transform urban space into productive green space which has contributed significantly to the local community as well as urban ecology (The Rooftop Garden Project, 2006). UBC currently participates in other forms of urban agriculture such the UBC Farm, the Orchard garden and LFS garden. The new SUB rooftop  10  garden will be another unique project to educate people and contribute to UBC’s growing sustainable food practices. Throughout our research process, we have contacted a number of participants: Liska Richer; SEEDS (Social, Ecological, Economic, Development Studies) program coordinator, Allen Garr; the current bee keeper for the UBC farm, John Terezaki; District Main building manager, Dr. Andrew Riseman; professor in the Faculty of Land and Food Systems, Dr. Chanway; professor in the Faculty of Land and Food Systems, Dr. Adams; professor in the Faculty of Land and Food Systems, Dr. McArthur; professor in the Faculty of Land and Food Systems, Dr. James Vercamme; professor in the Faculty of Commerce, Dr. Darren Dahl; professor in the Faculty of Commerce, Dr. Daniel Roehr; professor in the Faculty of Landscape Architecture, Dr. Douglas D Paterson; professor in the Faculty of Landscape Architecture, Dr. Pechetl; professor in the Faculty of Landscape Architecture, Dr. Glass; professor in the Faculty of Science, Debra Hanberg; research assistant at the Department of Family Practice and Sandra Bodenhamer; project coordinator of the Aboriginal Community Kitchen Garden Project. Due to busy schedules and educational and research preferences, only some of the parties we contacted were interested in participating in the education component of the rooftop garden. Allen Garr, an experienced urban bee keeper, would like to put on seminars for students about bee keeping and is also interested in managing our bees in the garden. He also suggested that there should be a storage area for the bee keeping equipments, fresh water availability, a free parking spot for the bee keeper, and 24 hour access to the bees (A. Garr, personal communication, February 26, 2010). John Terezaki is the  11  District Main building and garden manager who has many years of experience in gardening. He would like to give seminars for students about how to grow their own food, compost organic waste, and keep a healthy garden. Dr. Riseman is a professor in the Faculty of Land and Food Systems. His research area is plant science and he is interested in having directed studies projects in the garden. Dr. Vercammen is a professor in both the Faculty of Land and Food Systems and Commerce. His research interests are agricultural marketing, agriculture policy analysis, agriculture risk and insurance and environmental markets. He is interested in introducing real life situations from the garden as case studies in his classes. Dr. Roehr is a professor in the Faculty of Landscape Architecture. He is a well known international expert on green roofs and green buildings. He is interested in being a part of the educational components of the rooftop garden. Debra Hanberg, a research assistant at the UBC hospital, promotes the idea of healthy workplaces through her balcony garden full of medical plants at the hospital (D. Hanberg, personal communication, March 22, 2010). Debra expressed great interest in connecting her studies and the new SUB rooftop garden. It should be noted that without a concrete and finalized plan of the garden and the plants that will be grown, a tangible connection between the garden and the research is difficult to be drawn. However, she is willing to be updated about the progress of the garden. The Urban Aboriginal Community Kitchen Garden Project started in 2005 under the Vancouver Native Health Society and is funded by the Public Health Agency of Canada. The project shares half an acre with the UBC Farm as the Musqueam Community Kitchen Garden. Aboriginal participants from the Downtown East side are  12  provided with transportation to the farm where they grow, harvest, and then cook the food in the on-site kitchen. The project goal is to not only establish social and cultural support but also teach basic knowledge about food preparation as well as food and health related issues (Mundel, 2008). This project has been partnered with the UBC Farm since it was founded by the project coordinator, Sandra Bodenhamer. She believes there is great potential for expansion of the project from the UBC Farm to the new rooftop garden (personal communication, March 16, 2010).  Results- Crops and Distribution First and foremost, our primary destination for crops is going to be AMSFB outlets located within in the new SUB. Second to these outlets, crops will be sold through the garden’s kiosk, which will also be located in the new SUB. This kiosk will serve as a sales booth as well as help in marketing and promotions for the garden to the student body. A large amount will go to Sprouts various student involvement programs such as: Sprouts Boxes, the SUB grocery store, Community Eats and student cooking programs. Our secondary destinations for distribution will be the UBC farm’s Saturday markets which distribute fresh produce to the surrounding community. The Land and food systems Wednesday night Barbeques which are put on weekly by LFS volunteers. Extra crops that are unable to be distributed will be preserved via canning, freezing, pickling, and jamming if possible. All other crops will be donated to local food banks and shelters or used for composting. The following is a list of our primary crops: basil, Italian parsley, sage, mint, thyme, cilantro, cherry tomatoes, heirloom tomatoes, patty pan squash, baby carrots,  13  multicolored carrots, daikon, chayote, broccoli, lettuce (romaine, iceberg, and salad mixed greens), nugget potatoes, russet potatoes, purple potatoes, leeks, asparagus, artichokes, red pepper, green onion, cauliflower, green pepper, zucchini, eggplant, green cabbage, jalapeño, onions, cucumber, spinach, garlic, yams, raspberries, blueberries, fennel, strawberries, teas, kale, chard, honey and ornamentals. A list of secondary crops is as follows: ginger, red onion, red cabbage, bok choy, celery, beets, rosemary, oregano, savory, radish, pumpkin, peas, and beans (green, pole, bush).  Discussion- Educational Opportunities The results of our research demonstrate that most of the professors being contacted, as well as the SEEDS initiative, have high interest in integrating the new SUB rooftop garden into their research, directed studies, and case studies for particular courses. Undoubtedly, students will achieve a higher standard of education by having the opportunity to supplement the knowledge they learn in lectures. Convenience is another advantage the rooftop garden provides since it is located centrally on campus and is readily accessible for all students and faculty members. Another benefit of using the rooftop garden as a teaching tool is information dissemination. The garden can be used as an outdoor classroom for workshops or seminars once complete. The topics covered will mostly be related to sustainability but will still be quite flexible depending on the specialization of each presenter. This is an exciting way to supplement lecture style learning designs in order to pass information on to a larger population.  14  From a social perspective, the rooftop garden can also help UBC in reaching out to the community. Our Aboriginal populations are identified as a more vulnerable group in society, prone to many diet-related health problems such as Type II diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. This situation is worsened by food insecurity often seen in these lower socially-economic status populations (Rosecrans et al., 2008). By participating in the Urban Aboriginal Community Kitchen Garden Project, UBC can help aboriginals from the downtown east side by increase their knowledge about healthy cooking and eating, as well as rebuilding social and cultural support. The rooftop garden is envisioned to be another key step in transforming the university into a more sustainable community. As previously mentioned the concept of “sustainability” is multifaceted and encompasses many diverse factors including ecological, economic, social, and political topics. In short, the new rooftop garden is expected to unite and integrate these different aspects and therefore advance our campus towards becoming an iconic model of sustainability.  Discussion- Crops and Distribution Our group wanted to ensure that we would be able to grow these garden crops with great success while still maintaining them in a sustainable manor. To do this we compared crops which are currently grown successfully at the UBC Farm and vegetables which are currently purchased by AMS outlets, as well as considering crops which were specifically requested by stakeholders. In doing so, we found crops that are ideally grown in our climate, produce high revenues on campus, are in high demand by AMS outlets, and fulfill prospect niches.  15  We have also looked into some allelopathic (chemicals released by one plant which inhibits growth of another) relationships between crops which will be kept in mind while planting the garden. Through this research we discovered that in addition to the more commonly known corn-bean-squash relationship, there are also other “companion” plants which have symbiotic relationships and allelopathies with weeds. The first companion plant pair we would like to highlight is between tomatoes and asparagus. There is a symbiotic relationship between these two crops because asparagus plants are known to produce a chemical which kills nematodes which tend to ail tomato plant roots (Odum, 2007). In return, tomato plants protect asparagus from the asparagus beetle (Odum, 2007). Furthermore, many farmers are slightly apprehensive about the cultivation of asparagus because it requires high sodium contents in the soil. This elevated sodium level can make it difficult for other crops to grow in the same soil. However, this is not a problem for tomatoes (Odum, 2007). As previously mentioned, it is also important to remember that there can be negative relationships amoung crop plants as well. Allelopathic characteristics should be avoided between two cash crops but encouraged between a cash crop and weeds. For instance, an example, tomato growth is impeded around the Brassica family crops such as broccoli and cauliflower. Tomatoes will reduce the growth of certain other crops such as: corn, apricots and potatoes (Odum, 2007). However, these impediments can be used to the gardens advantage by reducing weed growth (Frick and Johnson, 2006). Another effective way to reduce weed growth, especially through the winter months, is by using cover crops. Cover crops have many advantages such as weed reduction (both by allelopathic characteristics and out-competing weeds), the addition of nutrients  16  (such as the fixation of nitrogen), and the addition of organic matter (Frick and Johnson, 2006). All of these factors will greatly contribute to the productivity of the rooftop garden. Another ecological service which is very important for plant growth is pollination. Pollination is a key component to healthy crops, and bees are one of the main vectors of this success. When a bee lands on a plant, pollen gets stuck on the hairs of their legs and when they fly to the next plant, this pollen is transferred. The transfer of pollen from plant to plant allows for reproduction, and thus can increase plant yields. For these reasons we are proposing the production of honey to serve as an ecological service in the rooftop garden as well as increase biodiversity. In addition to pollination, introducing hives into urban areas can help in conservation efforts of bees. Populations of bees have been declining due to a great deal of change in agricultural practices, such as pesticides, land clearing, and elimination of natural habitats (Gruszka, 1998). Having green spaces such as rooftop gardens will hopefully help save these much needed insects (World Focus, 2009). For agricultural crops, honey bee pollinations supply anywhere from ten to one hundred times the monetary values of honey and beeswax; this does not even include the aesthetic value of ornamental plants (Gruszka, 1998). Beekeeping is quite low maintenance, and has minimal inputs. The cultivation of bees requires a beehive along with bee veils, a smoker and hive tool; as well as a trained professional (Gruszka, 1998). The hives should be facing south in an area which is dry, sheltered from strong winds, and has a small amount of shade. For the UBC SUB rooftop garden, there has been interest shown by Allen Garr in helping care for the bees.  17  Due to the recent infection of clubroot at the UBC Farm, we would like to stress the important roles the rooftop garden could take on in filling the void of certain crops which can no longer be grown at the farm. Clubroot is a fungal disease which effects the growth of plants in the Brassica family (Meyers, 2008). This would include such vegetables as: cabbages, cauliflower, radish, bok choy, broccoli, and rutabaga; which also encompass UBC's popular salad greens mixture. One resource that is particularly interested in working with the rooftop garden is Sprouts. Collaborating with Sprouts brings many exciting opportunities for the distribution of the food from the garden. Sprouts conduct many student workshops and also run a campus grocery store which would be able to utilize some of the garden crops. The grocery store’s first priority is promoting sustainability which makes it an ideal program to work with seeing as they share the same values as the garden and LFS team. Sprouts also have a community supported agriculture (CSA) program called Sprouts Boxes. This program distributes fresh produce throughout the UBC campus. In accessing this unique market, the garden will be able to receive income from crops even if they are not visually appealing and would normally not be sold. In addition to distributing the crops through Sprouts, there is also opportunity to sell produce with the UBC Farm. The UBC Farm is another obvious organization which shares the gardens’ same sustainability goals, and selling crops at the Saturday famers markets would not only contribute to the economic sustainability to the rooftop garden, but also the social sustainability. Any crops which are in excess and are not either sold to AMSFB outlets or at the UBC Farm, have the potential to be preserved. This is especially important through the summer months when there is high crop production  18  and low consumption. These goods can then be sold during the school year when there are more consumers on campus. Finally, if there are still any goods which cannot be sold, or preserved, we think it would be a good idea to donate to local food banks or shelters. Organizations such as Food Not Bombs are excellent resources that provide meals to homeless populations around Vancouver. This will be looked at further in the Recommendations section. We also considered social sustainability in respect to crop choice. We think it is important for visitors to enjoy the lounge area which is provided in the rooftop garden. As a result, we tried to create an enjoyable ambiance in the lounge area. To accomplish this, we included ornamentals as well as different types of berry plants which visitors can pick freely.  Recommendations- Educational opportunities As discussed previously, the major barriers for producing a solid educational plan are the inexistence of the garden at this point and time limitations. The following list includes some suggestions for future LFS 450 students to develop. Rooftop Garden Club A rooftop garden club could be created by a group of UBC students and faculty members who are interested in urban farming. Regular events and activities can be held such as lunch/dinner gatherings at the rooftop garden, visits to other urban gardens, organizing sustainability workshops, planning special festivals, and promoting the rooftop garden, etc. This is a good opportunity for practicing leadership and teamwork as well as for advocating sustainability on campus.  19  Integration of Elementary and Secondary Schools in the Community By collaborating with elementary and secondary schools in the community, field trips could be arranged to the garden. The concept of sustainability could be introduced in earlier stages of education. This will raise awareness and therefore increase the possibility of these children living a more sustainable lifestyle in the future. There is also an opportunity for the collaboration of the Faculty of Education and Faculty of Land and Food Systems in terms of delivering quasi-classes to the students. Furthermore, volunteering opportunities could be offered to high school students for their community service hours. The Lounge area With students frequently using the lounge area, it is an ideal location for disseminating information about the rooftop garden and advertising any sustainability related events taking place on campus. Examples of such information tool are posters, pamphlets, and magazines that can only be read while visiting the lounge. We would also have this information available on-line that would be readily accessible for anyone interested. UBC Student Involvement The garden could be reserved and used by UBC students from various faculties as a place to deliver workshops. These workshops could involve both individual and group learning experiences. Students from the LFS series (100, 250, 350 450) can volunteer in the garden to enhance their learning and fulfill community service hours. Collaboration with UBC Sustainability Academic Strategies (SAS) SAS is a relatively new initiative formed to advocate sustainability learning and research. Two key components of SAS visions are to explore various aspects of  20  sustainability through research, teaching, and learning in various disciplines and to exemplify sustainability operations. The visions of SAS are in coherence with the creation of the SUB rooftop garden. Therefore, there is great potential in the collaboration of SAS and the rooftop garden since both the garden the entire new Student Union Building will be an example of sustainability in practice. Therefore by working with SAS, more educational opportunities could be explored and incorporated into the rooftop garden in years to come.  Recommendations- Crops and Distribution Dwarf trees While analyzing data sets, and trying to decide which plants would be most useful at the garden, we noticed that some of the most highly demanded crops are rarely purchased locally because they are not native to Canada and cannot grow in our climate. Out of all the fresh produce purchased by the AMS food outlets, the most money spent monthly is on avocados and coming close behind is mushrooms and warm weather tree fruits (such as lemons, limes and oranges). Ideally, we would like to be able to provide these sorts of imported foods in hopes of reducing the distance foods have to traveled, thus reducing costs and ecological damages. We think it would be beneficial for the garden to look into specialized dwarf tree cultivars. These trees are the ideal size for the garden and could potentially be grown inside the greenhouse in the winter to shield them from the cold. If we were able to produce this crop it would save our purchasers a lot of time and money. Future LFS students should look into the  21  success of these trees in our climate, what would be needed to make this happen and if they would be successful enough to make it worthwhile. Mushrooms As mentioned above, mushrooms are also a crop in high demand by AMS food and beverage outlets, however; they were not included in our list of primary crops. This is due to the fact that mushrooms are crops which require a higher experience level to cultivate, and in addition need to be sheltered from a lot of light (Beetz and Kustundia, 2004). Since the garden will be run by a wide range of volunteers, an expert would be needed to manage their production. Future LFS 450 students may want to look into how they can make this possible, keeping the appropriate environmental, economical, and maintenance aspects in mind. Sprouts Becoming involved with Sprouts brings many opportunities for the rooftop garden in regards to distribution of crops through the variety of Sprouts programs. This collaboration would also help the garden obtain much needed volunteers for production and maintenance duties. This will help keep distribution of our crops local, and minimize the gardens carbon footprint. Medical Plants We can look further into whether the hospital would be interested in having a section of the garden available to them for growth of medicinal plants. Debra Hanberg, a research assistant at the UBC hospital, has already expressed her interest to us, but we were unable to acquire specific details. We would need to obtain information on the specific plants that would be grown, and if they would be successful in our climate. We would  22  also want to make sure that they would not cause any complications or contamination of neighboring crops. Food banks and Shelters Finally, we think it’s important to realize that we live in a city which has one of the highest populations of homeless people across Canada. In the last two years alone, the number of homeless people in Vancouver has risen 12 % (Intraspec, 2010). As a result, we believe as citizen of Vancouver we have a moral obligation to attempt to help some of these people in the best way that we can. We think that future research could be put towards food aid programs, such as Food Not Bombs. In doing so, the rooftop garden could look into providing excess food, or perhaps growing specifically for these organizations. This will help the garden not only be involved in the UBC community but also extend into Vancouver’s community. Specifics Given that we are the first LFS 450 group to be assigned this project, the time line and the fact that the garden is not going to start construction until 2011, there were many specifics that we were not able to cover. First of all, many of our proposals are merely ideas and suggestions. When the garden is actually built it will be much easier for future LFS 450 groups to get many more details on how everything is going to come together. They will be able to get more concrete agreements of participation by partners such as Sprouts, community members such as Allen Garr, and faculty members such as Dr. Vercammen. Future students will also be able to organize specifics such as getting a kiosk in the SUB, where food handling and packaging can be done, where the  23  volunteers will be coming from, who will be managing the garden and how future beneficial changes to the existing garden can be made.  Conclusion Looking at the new SUB Program Survey summary, we can see that many members of the community are eager for a chance to work with the garden. From our discussion, we can conclude that a rooftop garden should be included in the new SUB project as it will be beneficial to many UBC and community members. The garden will promote urban agriculture and awareness of sustainability through its proposed educational opportunities. It will create opportunities for community involvement which will help us expand our sustainable food system visions. By integrating previously existing UBC organizations such as SEEDS and Sprouts, we will be able to create a strong volunteer base and reinforce UBC’s position as a leader in sustainability. It will also help facilitate new relationship-building while providing a cross-discipline learning experience. With the great variety of vegetables and herbs that the garden will provide, there are endless opportunities for diverse and cultural cuisines to create and enjoy. The garden will be both a productive and enjoyable social environment for the UBC community. Having a rooftop garden on the new SUB will enrich the learning, working, and social experiences of all campus members and beyond.  We would like to give a special thanks to our teaching team and especially our TA Gavin for all of their help and hard work.  24  References Ayalon, R., Guilmette, M., Hauteoeur, I., & Lee-Popham, A. (2009). Roots Around the World Pedagogical Guide. The Rooftop Garden Project website http://rooftopgardens.ca/files/racines_EN_web_final-1.pdf Beetz, A. and Kustundia M. 2004. Mushroom cultivation and marketing. ATTRA. Available at: http://attra.ncat.org/attra-pub/mushroom.html Department of Family Practice-Faculty of Medicine. (2010). Home. http://www.familymed.ubc.ca/Family_Practice_Home.htm Frick, B. and Johnson E. 2006. Using allelopathic and cover crops to suppress weeds. Organic Agriculture Centre of Canada. Available at: http://www.organicagcentre.ca/ResearchDatabase/ext_weed_allelopathic.asp. Gruszka, J. 1998. Beekeeping in western Canada. Edmonton: Alberta Agriculture, Food and Rural Development Publishing Branch. Meyers, Trish. 2008. Agronomic Spotlight: Clubroot. Monsanto Canada Inc. Available at: http://www.canolacouncil.org/uploads/Clubroot/Agronomic%20spotlight% 20clubroot%20from%20Monsanto.pdf Mundel, E. (2008). Story gathering with the Urban Aboriginal Community Kitchen Garden Project. Retrieved from Public Health Agency of Canada website: http://cbpp-pcpe.phac-aspc.gc.ca/intervention_pdf/en/622.pdf Odum, S. 2007. Companion Plants: Tomato Asparagus. Available at: http://vegetablegardens.suite101.com/article.cfm/companion_plants_tomato_asp aragus The Rooftop Garden Project. (2006). About Us. http://rooftopgardens.ca/?q=en/about Rosecrans, A. M., Gittelsohn, J., Ho, L. S., Harris, S. B., Naqshbandi, M., & Sharma, S. (2008). Process evaluation of a multiple-institutional community-based program for Diabetes Prevention Among First Nations. Health Education research,23, 272-286. World Focus. 2009. Mysterious decline in bee population creates worry. Available at: http://worldfocus.org/blog/2009/08/20/mysterious-decline-in-bee-populationcreates-worry/6892/  25  Appendix Summary of AMS Food and Beverage Monthly Crop Purchasing  Price ALFALFA SPROUTS APPLES AVOCADO AVOCADO BANANAS BASIL ALFALFA SPROUTS AVOCADO BANANAS BEAN SPROUTS BOK CHOY CABBAGE GREEN CARROTS CELERY CUCUMBERS EGGPLANT GARLIC WHL/PEEL JALAPENOS LETTUCE FANCY LEAF LETTUCE ROMAINE CHOPPED MUSHROOMS FOOD… ONIONS-GREEN ORANGES PEARS PEPPERS-RED SALAD, TOSSED SPRING MIX TOMATOES ZUCCHINI  2000 1800 1600 1400 1200 1000 800 600 400 200 0  BEAN SPROUTS BEETS BOK CHOY BROCCOLI CROWNS CABBAGE GREEN CABBAGE RED CARROTS  Price 2000 1800 1600 1400 1200 1000 800 600 400 200 0  ALFALFA SPROUTS APPLES AVOCADO AVOCADO BANANAS BASIL  TOMATOES  SPINACH  PEPPERS-RED  PARSLEY  ONIONS-GREEN  LIMES  LETTUCE FANCY LEAF  GINGER  EGGPLANT  CILANTRO  CARROTS  BROCCOLI CROWNS  BEAN SPROUTS  AVOCADO  ALFALFA SPROUTS  BEAN SPROUTS BEETS BOK CHOY BROCCOLI CROWNS CABBAGE GREEN CABBAGE RED  Toogood, N. AMSFB Monthly Produce Purchasing Data, 2010. 26  Pictures from the District Main Rooftop Garden Field Trip  27  LFS 450 Business Proposal for the New SUB Rooftop Garden Group 19 Benjamin Amundson Janbaaz Ghani Patricia Szeto Joseph Shen Nanette Ho  Group 8 Xiu-Ming Tang Leslie Brugger Tracy Burnett Hilda Wang  28  Table of Contents 1.0 OVERVIEW .......................................................................................................................... 31 1.1 INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................................................................. 31 1.2 INTENT OF THE GUIDELINES ............................................................................................................................... 31 1.3 BACKGROUND: .................................................................................................................................................. 32 1.3.1 Summary of Rooftop Garden Benefits:......................................................................................................32 1.3.2 Reduce Storm Water Runoff......................................................................................................................32 1.3.3 Rooftop Gardens are Energy Efficient .......................................................................................................33 Figure 1: Rooftop Gardens can reduce the energy needed for cooling or heating the building. ........................33 1.3.4 Improves Air Quality ..................................................................................................................................33 1.3.5 Rooftop Gardens Enhance Biodiversity .....................................................................................................34 1.3.6 Rooftop Gardens Extends the Life of Roofing ............................................................................................34 1.3.7 Possible Confounding Factors for a Rooftop Garden ................................................................................35 1.3.8 Partners and Contacts ...............................................................................................................................35  2.0 SITE DESCRIPTION AND PLANS ................................................................................... 36 2.1 GENERAL LAYOUT GUIDELINES ........................................................................................................................ 36 2.1.1 Details to Layout .......................................................................................................................................38 2.1.2 New SUB survey.........................................................................................................................................40 2.2 GREEN WALL FEATURES ................................................................................................................................... 41 2.2.1 Indoor Green Wall .....................................................................................................................................41 Figure 8: Indoor green wall air filtration ............................................................................................................42 2.2.2 Outdoor Green Wall ..................................................................................................................................42 2.4 GREENHOUSE ..................................................................................................................................................... 44  3.0 PRODUCTION PLAN ......................................................................................................... 45 3.1 GROWING METHODS .......................................................................................................................................... 45 3.2 PLAN OF PRODUCTION ....................................................................................................................................... 46 3.2.1 Crop types..................................................................................................................................................47 4.1 ALLOCATION OF PRODUCE................................................................................................................................. 50  5.0 MANAGEMENT PLAN ...................................................................................................... 51 5.1 POTENTIAL MANAGEMENT OF THE ROOFTOP GARDEN ...................................................................................... 51 5.2 OPERATIONS OF ROOFTOP GARDEN ................................................................................................................... 51 5.3 MANAGEMENT TEAM......................................................................................................................................... 52 5.4 BRIDGING THE ROOFTOP WITH LEARNING OPPORTUNITIES ............................................................................... 53  6.0 RESOURCES ........................................................................................................................ 53 6.1 RESOURCES NEEDED FOR ROOFTOP FOUNDATION ............................................................................................. 53 6.3 RESOURCES AND MAINTENANCE OF GARDEN FEATURES .................................................................................. 54  7.0 ORGANIC DISCARDS ........................................................................................................ 58 7.1 WASTE MANAGEMENT ...................................................................................................................................... 58  8.0 BUDGET ................................................................................................................................ 60 8.1 ESTIMATED UBC ROOFTOP GARDEN ................................................................................................................. 60 8.1.1 Estimated Cost for Extensive Garden (Upper Lounge Area) ......................................................................60 8.1.2 Estimated Cost for Container Rooftop Gardening .....................................................................................60 8.2 OTHER ESTIMATED BUDGET ACCORDING TO UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO CASE STUDY...................................... 61 8.3 OTHER ESTIMATED BUDGET ACCORDING TO ATHENS-CLARKE COUNTY CITY HALL CASE STUDY .................. 62  9.0 EDUCATIONAL OPPORTUNITIES ................................................................................ 65 29  9.1 EDUCATION FRAMEWORK.................................................................................................................................. 65 9.1.1 Educators...................................................................................................................................................66 9.2 OTHER SUGGESTIONS FOR THE EDUCATIONAL OPPORTUNITIES AT THE ROOFTOP GARDEN: ............................. 68  10.0 CONCLUSION ................................................................................................................... 70 10.1 RECOMMENDATIONS ........................................................................................................................................ 70  11 ADDITIONAL INFORMATION ............................................................................................. 11.1 APPENDIX ............................................................................................................................................................  30  1.0 Overview 1.1 Introduction A New Student Union Building (SUB) is scheduled for completion in 2014, with construction starting in the fall/winter of 2011. The New SUB design phase will be taking place between January 2010 and 2011. This will involve creating a design that is innovative and incorporates sustainable practices. Consultations with UBC faculty, staff, and students have been collected regarding the needs and requests in the New SUB. Based upon these surveys, it was found that the primary concern was that the New SUB should be economically, socially, and ecologically sustainable. Furthermore, there was overwhelming response for a rooftop garden being the most preferred location for a student lounge.  The New SUB has designated a total of 30,000 square feet of roof space to be made into green space. The design of this 30,000 square feet rooftop has been assigned as a project scenario for LFS 450. The tasks for LFS 450 students are to design and create a business proposal for a rooftop garden on the New SUB.  1.2 Intent of the Guidelines The intent of these guidelines is to incorporate the AMS goals and translate them into an environmental and financially sustainable rooftop garden model. The guidelines are based on UBC's building design guidelines, feedback from UBC students and stakeholders, research of existing university rooftop gardens, and AMS mission statements.  A study at the University of McGill found that the transportation of raw and processed foods accounts for 1.4 quadrillion BTU/year of energy, this translates to about 14% of the total energy that is used in food production (Making Rooftops Bloom). A rooftop garden at UBC would not only reduce energy to transport and process food, but also promote local eating, reduce chemicals and pesticide used, and make an otherwise unproductive rooftop to one that nourishes the university and its community members.  A rooftop garden has many beneficiaries including, the University establishment, UBC students and faculty members, the surrounding communities and schools, and the environment. As a consequence, the guidelines are focused on:  31  1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.  Creating a financially sustainable rooftop garden; Providing student, faculty, and community members a place to relax, study, enjoy, and eat; Providing a space that promotes sustainability and general health and wellness; Providing a space that allows for educational opportunities; Providing food that is ethnically diverse, affordable, safe, and nutritious; Providing food that not only nourishes but also enhances the community; and Raising awareness on consuming responsibly.  1.3 Background: Alma Mater Society (AMS) is the student government in charge of guiding the design and management of the New SUB project. AMS has been given the duty of creating a SUB that will exemplify sustainability.  1.3.1 Summary of Rooftop Garden Benefits: Economic Benefits - Garden can serve as venue that promotes sustainability for student, faculty and community members. - Distribution of crops grown on rooftop to UBC and other organizations. - Reduces energy needed to cool the building in the summer and heat the building in the winter - Protects rooftop from damage and extending the life of rooftop. - Production of marketable crops to public, such as herbal teas and honey). - Help gain possible funding for green initiatives. - Provides sound insulation for the building.  Public Benefits - Promotes community self-reliance and sustainability - Increasing capacity for local food source - Reduce carbon footprint by reduction of fossil fuels - Improve air, reduce pollution, and enhance biodiversity by providing habitat for wildlife and insects. - Promotes foods security - Educational opportunities for research, teaching and learning - Urban heat island effect - Storm water retention - Aesthetically pleasing  Table 1: Summary of Rooftop Garden Benefits  1.3.2 Reduce Storm Water Runoff A rooftop itself, beyond the garden, can help retain the rainwater and the rainwater can be either used as a water supply for the rooftop garden and green walls or be returned to the atmosphere via 32  evaporation and transpiration. There is a reduction in runoff and the stress on the sewage system is significantly improved. Excess water can eventually go into the main system but that can also be prevented by collecting and storing the water for ground level irrigation. A study at BCIT found that a green roof could reduce the storm water runoff and save money in the long run.  1.3.3 Rooftop Gardens are Energy Efficient Rooftop gardens can reduce the energy needed for cooling or heating the building. In the summer, a green rooftop shades the outer surface of the building from direct solar heat and in the winter it provides added insulation that reduces heat lost through the roof. In a larger scope, reduced energy to heat and cool the building means a decrease in greenhouse gas emissions.  Figure 1: Rooftop Gardens can reduce the energy needed for cooling or heating the building. Source: BCIT Green Roof Research Program  1.3.4 Improves Air Quality 33  The plant leaves can trap dust and pollutants from the air leading to improved air quality. Also green rooftops ability to return moisture back in the atmosphere via evaporation and transpiration (evapotranspiration) aids in cooling the ambient temperatures, thus reducing Urban Heat Island prolife.  Figure 2: Temperatures in the urban core can be 3o-5o C warmer than rural and suburban areas. Source: BCIT Green Roof Research Program  1.3.5 Rooftop Gardens Enhance Biodiversity A rooftop garden can serve as habitat for both plant, animal, and insect species which would encourage biodiversity in the urban areas. BCIT Green Roof studies have stated that, "Ground-nesting birds, such as Killdeer, use green roofs for nesting and raising their young."  1.3.6 Rooftop Gardens Extends the Life of Roofing  A rooftop garden provides protection from the rain as well as UV rays from the sun. It can also protect the building from any extreme fluctuations in temperatures which extends the life of the roof. BCIT Green Roof projects have stated that a green roof can extend the life of the waterproofing membrane on the roof by two times, when compared with conventional rooftops. The extended life of the roofing translated to less costs over time in re-roofing and less waste caused by re-roofing.  34  Figure 3: REF: Reference Roof (without rooftop garden) GR-1 and GR-2: Green roofs  Median daily temperature fluctuation experienced by roof membrane of the three sections (REF, GR-1 and GR- 2) Source: BCIT Green Roof Research Program  1.3.7 Possible Confounding Factors for a Rooftop Garden If plants get dry, it could be a fire hazard and so "fire breaks" should be considered where there are regular spaces around the roofs. The spaces should be made from non-combustible material like gravel or concrete pavers (about 60 cm wide) and located every 40 meters in all directions. Another option would be to use fire retardant plants (like sedums) or installing a sprinkler system connected to the irrigation.  1.3.8 Partners and Contacts Partners  Alma Mater Society (AMS) ♦ Jensen Metchie, Coordinator for New SUB Project ♦ Liska Richer, Coordinator for SEEDS Program, UBC Sustainability Office  AMS New SUB Project Design Team ♦ Guillaume Savard, MHPM, New SUB Project Manager and Client Advisor 35  Contacts  AMS Food and Beverages ♦ Nancy Toogood, Manager  AMS/UBC Clubs ♦ Caitlin Dorward, Co-President of Sprouts Club. References —1.2— Making Rooftops Bloom. www.rooftopgardens.ca/files/Making_Rooftops_Bloom_Final_Draft.pdf —1.3— BCIT Green Roof Research Program. http://commons.bcit.ca/greenroof/publications/cmhc_report.pdf  2.0 Site Description and Plans 2.1 General Layout Guidelines The garden design and layout is based on survey results polled from UBC students. The garden will feature: indoor and outdoor student lounge areas, small food outlet, community kitchen, greenhouse, water reservoir system, composting system, garden research area, indoor and outdoor green walls, 2 beehives, and crop areas. Rooftop layout focuses on the demands of students and the necessity for the garden to be sustainable.  The layout includes a tiered outdoor lounge area. An approximately 4000 square feet extensive lounge area will be on the top tier and on the lower level will be a community kitchen space, food outlet, restrooms, elevator, and more indoor lounge area. An indoor green wall is proposed in the lounge (working aesthetically and as an air filtration system). The remaining rooftop will be inaccessible to the public and is designated for crop production. The crop area includes a greenhouse, water reservoir system, composting system, garden research area, and 2 beehives. The remaining area in the crop space allows for at least 6500 square feet of farming.  Outdoor Layout View  36  A - Outdoor upper lounge with extensive garden floor  Figure 4: Above; Figure 5: Below  B - Outdoor lounge seating area C - Research garden D - Beehives E - Water barrels F - Compost/waste area G - Shed H - Resting area I - Greenhouse J - Central green art display K - Outdoor green wall with  Bottom Indoor Lounge Layout View  37  Figure: 6  LMNOPQR-  Community kitchen area Food outlet Indoor lounge seating area Indoor lounging/study area Indoor green wall Restrooms Elevator  2.1.1 Details to Layout  Features  Location/Area  Why it's proposed  LOUNGE AREA  Lounge (upper floor, outdoor)  - North side - 80’ x 50’ = about 4000 sq ft  - Building guidelines (blooming rooftop) - Outdoor lounge space  Green wall (outdoor)  (see 2.2.2 for more detail)  Marketplace (indoor)  - 25’ x 10’ = 250 sq ft  Community Kitchen (indoor)  - 25’ x 20’ = 500 sq ft  Green Wall (indoor)  Bottom indoor lounge  - Possible area for people to purchase refreshments and sell/feature crops from the rooftop garden  - Built in fan to circulate air, better air quality  38  (see 2.2.1 for more detail) Bathrooms (indoor)  - 7’ x 6’ (x2 for gendered rooms)  - Standard sized bathrooms.  Elevator (indoor)  - 5’ x 6’  - Canadian standard sized elevator (small) for handicap accessibility (optional)  Garden Research Area  - 24’ x 20’ = 480 sq ft  - Allotted for faculty, student and community use. Used to study new methods of rooftop gardening/agriculture practices  Compost (vermicomposting)  - 30 x 40 cm minimum bin size. - Allotted 24 x 20’ = 480 sq ft  - Odourless and worms grow to reach capacity (how to setup rooftop article)  Water System Area  - For every 1 cm, 10.7 sq ft of collection surface = 10 L (1 barrel - Permeable paving, = 200 L) - Capture, filter, reuse, the rain - Rain barrels connected to barrels hooked onto growing containers (self-watering system) growers, 5 L for each additional autonomy per fruiting plant/day  Apiculture Area  - 10’ x 20’ = 200 sq ft - 2x beehive boxes located at furthest point from lounge area  OUTDOOR CROP AREA  - Bees promote pollination and health of crops - Honey production could generate revenue - Container farming allows for ease of maintenance and flexibility (esp. for volunteers)  Crop Area  - Several crop areas of differing sizes; total of at least 6500 sq ft of -Allows for more varied selection crop space of crops - Proposed methods of polytunnel and container gardening - Polytunnel usage increases farming capabilities of year-round production.  39  Shed  - 16’ x 30’ = 480 sq ft  - 80’ x 20’ = 1600 sq ft Greenhouse - Southeast side  Full/shaded crop  - Full sun in the east wall - Shaded along west wall  - For storage of materials and tools. - Location based on maximum amount of sunlight exposure during winter hours. - Also proposed as it could be area for seeding tables. - Accommodates the requirements of more diverse plants.  Table 2: Details of the layout  2.1.2 New SUB survey  Figure 7: Results of New SUB Program Survey showing Students’ preferred AMS Food policy Source: New SUB Program Survey Summary  40  2.2 Green Wall Features There are two types of green walls; ornamental (fascade) and living walls. Ornamental/fascade walls are composed of climbing plants that grow directly onto the wall or on supported structures. The plants are planted on the sides of the building; the roots are rooted into the ground while the plant shoots crawl up the side of the building. In a living wall, the wall is usually made of polypropylene plastic containers, geotextiles, irrigation systems, growing medium and appropriate vegetation.  Living walls can be further categorized into passive and active systems. Active living walls are based on a bio-filtration system in which the air is routed through the root system of the wall so that beneficial microbes can degrade the pollutants in the air and mechanically return the filtered air back into the space. It has been studied by the University of Waterloo and has been said that, "Living walls with biofilters increase the capacity of air filtration." Passive living walls do not move air into the roots where degradation of pollutants can occur thus the effects of passive living green walls on air quality is not clear.  2.2.1 Indoor Green Wall An indoor green wall feature not only makes a space feel more comfortable and relaxing but also has the potential to clean the air and has been associated to reduce the stress levels and increase productivity of the occupants. There are several types of green walls. Some which are mainly ornamental (and tend to be low maintenance and low cost) and others that are more productive (which tend to need a little more maintenance and installation). The proposed is a more productive green wall. They require more maintenance and installation than an ornamental green wall but they are actively cleaning the air. Thus, Naturaire Biofilter has been proposed for the indoor lounge space in the New SUB.  The Naturaire Biofilter has been well researched at the University of Guelph. The biofilter consists of a hydroponic green wall. The wall contains a water pump and fan that is integrated into the building structure. The air goes through the wall of plants and the pollutants (such as formaldehyde and benzene in the air) are degraded into benign counterparts of water and carbon dioxide. The filtered air is then redistributed back into the space mechanistically. In general, all green walls have the capacity to clean the air but often the air/pollutant do not get through the foliage layers of the plants to be filtered. This active living wall system ensures that the air penetrate that wall to enhance air filtration.  It has also been done in several other green walls that the water is directly connected to the irrigation and rain water runoff system from the rooftop. According to Nedlaw Living Walls, a company 41  that uses the Naturaire system, the plants have a 90% survival rate each year and would require general maintenance once a month. Also, normally 1 square meter or green wall would be sufficient for 100 square meters for floor space.  "A single pass through the Living Wall removed up to 80% of the formaldehyde, 50% of the toluene and 10% of TCE. These numbers are incredibly impressive; particularly when you consider that the filter is only 5 cm thick. Concentrations of toluene and formaldehyde in the aquatic system did not increase during the four-week experiment, suggesting that these materials were readily metabolized. TCE levels in the aquatic system initially did increase slightly, but then plateaued, suggesting a possible capability to degrade this compound. Even before the challenge, we knew that two to three percent of the bacteria present had the ability to break down VOCs (Volatile Organic Compounds)."  A confounding factor with an indoor green wall is the research to find the optimal plant species that would thrive in the space and the availability of sunlight; this will play a big part in plant health.  Figure 8: Indoor green wall air filtration  2.2.2 Outdoor Green Wall An outdoor green wall is both aesthetically and practically beneficial in the rooftop garden. A green wall can provide shading for the outdoor lounge area and also help reduce the overall temperature of the building which can consequently save energy cooling the building. Green walls can also reuse 42  rainwater and may have the capacity to filter slightly polluted water (such as grey water). Due to the vertical structure of a green wall, there is less evaporation and this may enhance plant viability.  There are several different green wall systems available, the wall mounting system has been proposed due to its ability for the plant panels to be easily removed or replaced if necessary. The removable panel feature allows for the changing of green wall art (please see photo below). Also, this system has a built-in irrigation system that uses recaptured water from drainage.  Figure 9: Outdoor green wall system  43  2.4 Greenhouse A greenhouse can help supply certain crops in seasons where it would not be possible to grow them outside. The changing climate and conditions of the roof (increased wind) can also make it difficult for new, more sensitive plants to thrive. Once these plants have established themselves, they can be transferred outside if needed. Temperature, humidity, light, and water control can all be monitored to ensure an optimal environment for the plants being grown in the greenhouse. Currently, greenhouse crop production in the lower mainland is high in tomatoes, peppers, cucumber and lettuce but the production can be catered to the demands of stakeholders. Crop Production Cycle  Figure: 10 Crop production cycle Source: An Overview of the BC Greenhouse Vegetable Industry  A greenhouse 1600 square ft. with the dimension 20 feet by 80 feet is proposed for the rooftop garden (see figure 11). The floor will consist of compartments enclosed in areas similar to the growing method outside the greenhouse. The frame of the greenhouse can be made from the trees that will be cut down during the construction of the New SUB to maximize sustainability. Covering material should be made from fiberglass reinforced panels because they are cheaper, long lasting, and more functional than some of the alternatives. See Appendix A for possible materials and suggestions made by the LFS team. The greenhouse should be placed where there is maximum Figure: 11 amount of sunlight, especially during the winter. According to the sunrise and sunset positions in Vancouver, it should be set up near the East side of the roof because there are less buildings and more exposure to the sun.  References —2.1.2— Preferred AMS Food Policy. http://www2.ams.ubc.ca/images/uploads/General_Survey_Summary_-_revised.pdf 44  —2.2— 6 Things You Need to Know About Green Walls. http://www.bdcnetwork.com/article/3790336_Things_You_Need_to_Know_About_Green_Walls.php Future of Rooftop gardens on the University of Waterloo Campus. www.watgreen.uwaterloo.ca/projects/library/s00rooftopgardens.pdf —2.2.1— Nedlaw Living Walls. http://www.naturaire.com/building_mgr_faq.php —2.2.2— Resources for Outdoor Green Walls. http://www.greenrooftops.com/GreenWallPanels.aspx —2.4— An Overview of the BC Greenhouse Vegetable Industry. http://www.agf.gov.bc.ca/ghvegetable/publications/documents/industry_profile.pdf Rising and setting times for the Sun. http://www.timeanddate.com/worldclock/astronomy.html?n=256&month=4&year=2010&obj=sun& afl=-1&day=1  3.0 Production Plan 3.1 Growing Methods After reviewing all the above methods of growing management we recommend the following and the layout of the garden was mainly based on these decisions: Container Gardening As highlighted in Appendix B, containers allow portability and provide flexibility, which is ideal for the number of different uses of the garden we have proposed. Soil content in each container can be separately controlled to provide optimal conditions for different crops (Novak, 2004) and the containers allow for easy vertical gardening http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RlQaOsDZuBQ&feature=channel http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YHOPg5hDvsA&feature=fvw http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BbIipA86uek&feature=fvw). Use of Mobile Polytunnels 45  Polytunnels can be used during harsh weather to protect crops and maintain an optimal climate. Portable polytunnels allow for removal during good weather and can transport from plot to plot depending on the different needs of each plot (Growing Raw Health, 2009). Drip Irrigation Can be easily installed with container gardening as this type of gardening can lead to moisture loss due to lower soil mass and the materials of the container. Drip irrigation can save water and allow for optimal control over the water distribution and usage. Fertilizer solution can also be distributed using the drip irrigation system. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RS2QqR3JBi4 Vermicomposting This is an easy form of composting that can be done at a small scale (for rooftop gardens) and allows for good crop growth. It works at moderate temperatures and thus does not take as much energy than systems that require heating to reach high temperatures. It is also a relatively rapid form of composting so soil can be replenished relatively quickly if need be. This form of composting also uniquely allows for the maintenance of an optimal bacterial balance for ideal crop growth and disease minimization Greywater treatment During drier seasons, greywater treatment can be used for irrigation in the garden and as stated in the above table, helps to reduce stain on the sewage system. This system also needs to be well installed and allow for good filtration to reduce undesirable health and environmental effects from contaminated water  3.2 Plan of Production When selecting crops for the rooftop garden, we wanted to make our decisions based on the three pillars of sustainability: ecological, economic, and social sustainability. As a result, we compared crops that are currently grown on the UBC Farm and vegetables that are currently purchased by AMS outlets and considered the capabilities and limitations of container gardening. By doing so, we created a primary and secondary list of crops to be grown on the rooftop garden. Ecologically, we have chosen plants that can be grown successfully and in large quantities for our climate range and proposed growing methods. Refer to Figure 12 for the growing season of 46  common BC crops. In addition to this we are proposing the production of honey to serve as an ecological service. To maintain economic sustainability we analyzed data given to us on crops purchased by each of the eight AMS outlets, which include: The Moon, Pi R Squared, The Pendulum, The Pit Burger Bar, Bernoulli's Bagels, The Honor Roll, Blue Chip, as well as the Wednesday Night LFS BBQ. From this, we calculated which crops were in highest demand (in quantity) and which crops would yield the most profits. This also reduces the ecological footprint of some of these outlets as these ingredients can be obtained straight from the building. Social sustainability was considered in respect to ambiance in the lounge area for visitors. We have included ornamentals as a primary crop, as well as different berries and fruit trees to attract visitors and make their stay more enjoyable. In discussion with Nancy Toogood, the AMS Food and Beverage Manager, she suggested that we also look into growing more unique crops like multi-coloured carrots, beets (golden and candy cane), daikon, chayote, heirloom tomatoes, mushrooms and unique varieties of potatoes like purple potatoes etc. Through researching vertical gardening we also found that vining crops like cucumbers, watermelons and pumpkins are also a possibility. Vertical gardening is also needed for heirloom tomatoes as listed above (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RlQaOsDZuBQ&feature=channel). In addition, Bee pollination is a key component of successful crop production. As well, bee hives can benefit the rooftop garden by yielding honey. When a bee lands on a plant, it transfers pollen stuck on its legs from the previous plant. This cross pollination helps the reproduction cycle of plants, which ultimately benefits crop production. In addition, the populations of bees have been on a decline and having green spaces such as rooftop gardens can help preserve the bee population (World Focus, 2009). Due to the recent infection of clubroot at the UBC Farm, we would like to stress the important role the rooftop garden could take in filling the void of certain crops which will no longer be able to be grown. Clubroot is a fungal disease that effects the growth of plants in the Brassica family (Meyers, 2008). This would include such vegetables as: cabbages, cauliflower, radish, Bok Choy, broccoli, and rutabaga, which also encompass UBC's popular salad greens mixture.  3.2.1 Crop types Primary crops: Basil, parsley, cilantro, tomatoes, broccoli, lettuce (romaine, iceberg, and salad mixed greens), potatoes, red pepper, green onion, cauliflower, green pepper, onions, cucumber, spinach, carrots, apples, garlic, yams, raspberries, blueberries, fennel, strawberries, teas, kale, chard, honey and ornamentals 47  Secondary crops: ginger, zucchini, eggplant, red onion, red cabbage, jalapeño, green cabbage, Bok Choy, celery, beets, rosemary, oregano, savory, leeks, thyme, radish, squash, pumpkin, peas, and beans (green, pole, bush) Another option: Meyer lemons, key limes, dwarf oranges, kumquats, avocado, papaya, guava, blackberry, dwarf grapefruit, blueberry and fig dwarf trees can be grown in containers and put in green house during freezing months (need to stay above -7 degrees Celsius)  References —3.1— Greywater Treatment. http://www.greywater.com/ Mobile Polytunnels. Growing Raw Health. Urban agriculture on the rooftop. Cornell University. Vermicomposting. http://www.compostsantacruzcounty.org/Home_Composting/Backyard_Composting/by_technique s.htm —3.2— Agronomic Spotlight: Clubroot. http://www.canolacouncil.org/uploads/Clubroot/Agronomic%20spotlight%20for%20clubroot%20from %20Monsanto.pdf Mysterious decline in bee population creates worry. http://worldfocus.org/blog/2009/08/20/mysteriousdecline-in-bee-population-creates-worry/6892/  For more in-depth information on how to grow each of these crops listed above, these are very useful websites:  • • •  http://www.howtogardenadvice.com/ http://www.saltspringseeds.com/ http://www.westcoastseeds.com/gardenresources/  48  Figure 12: Vegetable planting chart for coastal BC 49  Source: West Coast Seeds  Price  ALFALFA SPROUTS APPLES AVOCADO AVOCADO BANANAS BASIL BEAN SPROUTS BEETS  Figure 12.1: Toogood, N. AMSFB Monthly Purchasing Data, 2010.  References —3.2— West Coast Seeds-Gardening Guide. http://www.westcoastseeds.com/admin/product/item/catalogue/2009-catalogue-west-coast-seeds.pdf  4.0 Distribution Plan 4.1 Allocation of Produce Our group would like to be able to provide the AMS food outlets in the new SUB with the greatest amount of our crops as possible. This will reduce travel costs and promote the garden through advertising sustainability and "where your food comes from" in these outlets. We would like to have a kiosk in the new sub where promotions for the garden can take place and crops can be sold to foot traffic. This kiosk will also be used to educate the student population on the importance of buying local and organic foods, and tips for reducing your carbon footprint. The sprouts club has expressed a lot of interest in participating with the garden. They have student workshops and a campus grocery store that would be able to utilize some of the garden crops as well. The grocery store's first priory is promoting sustainability and would be a great program to collaborate with who shares the same sustainable values with the garden. The manager of the grocery store was especially interested in getting a variety of herbal teas from the garden. They also have a community supported agriculture (CSA) program called "Sprouts boxes" which 50  distributes fresh produce throughout the UBC campus that the garden would be able to contribute to as well. Building a strong relationship with sprouts would also help with the organization of volunteers needed for growth and maintenance of the garden. The Land and Food systems (LFS) faculty puts on a student barbecue every Wednesday night. They currently get a lot of their crops from the UBC farm; this would be another great place for some garden crops to go. Volunteers from the garden would be able to participate in the Saturday farmers markets at the UBC farm in order to sell the remaining crops and help spread awareness of the new garden to community members. While production is high during the summer months, crops can be preserved for sales during the school year via pickling, canning, and jamming methods. Any extra crops that are not utilized can be donated to local food banks or composted. Our group came up with a list of crops that would be best suited to grow in the garden and our climate.  5.0 Management Plan 5.1 Potential Management of the Rooftop Garden At first, the prospect of inventing an AMS Rooftop Garden Club was an attractive alternative to an AMS regulatory body managing the rooftop garden operations. Since the space belongs to AMS, it was deemed appropriate for an AMS body to govern and allocate the rooftop garden space once the rooftop is completed in 2014. Subsequently, after discussing with AMS stakeholders on forming a Rooftop Garden Club, it was soon discovered to be an unnecessary option, so the issue was disregarded. At the moment, various groups such as UBC Sprouts Club and UBC Friends of the Farm have shown genuine interest about participating in the rooftop garden’s operations.  The lounge space will be open to the public. It will include both an indoor and outdoor seating area and a community kitchen. The crop area will not be publicly accessible outside of certain hours or unless there is supervision. We want to minimize the risk of pollutants, contaminations, and safety hazards. The design of the building allows for an elevator to open on to the rooftop. The advantages of this feature can be fully exploited by the rooftop gardeners and the functional operations of the garden.  5.2 Operations of Rooftop Garden Our recommendation for the rooftop space (given 30,000 sq ft) is based upon the allocation of 75% crop area and 25% lounge area. The actual space used for crop production will be less than 22,500 sq ft (1/2 an acre) due to open spaces and other features (see layout section for details). As a result, the time requirement for cultivating crops is highly dependent on knowing the actual design of the rooftop. Some other factors that influence the rooftop garden operations are the crops being produced, the time of 51  year, the skills of the workers, and the number of volunteers. Once a rooftop design is adopted, we recommend following up with the LFS Orchard Garden, UBC Spouts, and UBC Farm to obtain information regarding their capacity to participate in the rooftop garden operations. In any situation, our recommendation would still require an experienced gardener to oversee the rooftop garden year-round.  Summer is the best time for crop production; therefore, the food grown in the summer could be stored, preserved, or sold at a later date. An example would be to make tomato, raspberry, and blueberry jams. The year-round gardener’s duties will include summer maintenance when students are away. Depending on the season and the amount of produce being grown, the hours can range from casual maintenance during the winter months to full-time hours during the summer months.  Half an acre of year-round vegetable production requires about one to one and half full-time staff. Food and Beverage Department (FBD) Manager, Nancy Toogood, plans on opening a position for a staff person to maintain the rooftop garden. Both FBD and Sprouts envision their collaboration on managing the rooftop garden to be split seasonally. During the summer months, FBD will take on a greater role, while in the winter months, Sprouts will mainly be in charge. In theory, AMS only needs to hire one gardener because any extra labour hours can be supplied by Sprouts. Students were also keen to volunteer for the rooftop garden according to the AMS survey.  5.3 Management Team The management for the rooftop garden would be undertaken by a sub-division of the AMS Food and Beverage Department or even a separate entity within the AMS. Since survey results and many UBC students felt strongly about the implementation of a rooftop garden, we suggest keeping the ownership within the student body; hence, our proposal does not explore the possibility of hiring independent contractors to maintain the rooftop garden. Even though the rooftop garden would be officially owned and operated by the AMS FBD, stakeholders such as Sprouts would be of key importance throughout the annual maintenance of the rooftop garden. Of course, our suggestions for the management plan are solely at AMS Counsel’s discretion.  The advantage of having a paid coordinator supervising as the AMS liaison is that it would help streamline the flow of information between the AMS FBD and the AMS Counsel. Also, the AMS liaison would be responsible in co-managing the rooftop garden operations on behalf of the AMS.  Partners of the Management Team  52  The Sprouts plans on designating a volunteer coordinator. These will be semester-to-year-long positions that require a fair amount of responsibility for such a sensitive crop production area. They will be trusted individuals who will ensure the safety of the crops. Sprouts will be the main gateway through which volunteers gain access to the garden.  The ‘what if’s’ are important when reducing the risk of internal conflict. Should another organization wish to directly partake in the decision-making process, the group can put forth a proposal through the AMS counsel. For example, should Food and Beverage have a problem with Sprouts they can file a complaint with the Counsel and vice versa. However, there should be a sense of ownership over the garden. It cannot be subject to the yearly whims of fickle political parties. Sprouts and AMS Beverage should be seen as the key collaborators and owners of the roof-top garden. Management conflicts will be dealt with through the AMS counsel.  To ensure that Sprouts participates in the planning process, it is recommended that they request to join the Sustainability Advisory Committee (SAC). This can be done through contacting Jensen of the SUB Renewal Committee. The SAC will be responsible for developing and administering overall sustainability objectives for the new SUB.  5.4 Bridging the Rooftop with Learning Opportunities In terms of academic opportunities, the New SUB project outlines a need for a Professional Advisory Component (PAC). In order to manage the garden proficiently it is recommended that the LFS Teaching Team helps create the PAC to advise SAC. It has not yet been established and may require the collaboration of different faculties. Some professors and groups have already expressed interest in studying the roof-top, however small the plot scale.  6.0 RESOURCES 6.1 Resources Needed for Rooftop Foundation It is important to make sure that the rooftop has a suitable foundation before a rooftop garden can be implemented. There are few to no modifications to the roof needed for container gardening as long as the roof already takes into account added snow load. The weight of a container garden can be comparable to a snow load.  53  An extensive green roof (in relation to the grass area on the outdoor lounge) requires the structural loading of roof to be between 10 and 35 pounds/sq ft (72.6-169.4 kg/sq m). The soil depth for an extensive garden is usually 2-6" (5-10 cm) in depth (Design Guidelines for Green Roof).  6.2 Maintenance Needed for Container Gardens  For harsh winters, terracotta pots can crack, thus wood, plastic or metal containers generally survive winter better and can hold more moisture so moisture loss should be regularly monitored for each container. Extreme hot weather and the smaller soil volume can cause soil dry-out and may need daily watering. A mulch cover like straw, wood chips or a sub-soil layer of newspapers and compost can help slow evaporation and shade soil. See more information in 6.3.  6.3 Resources and Maintenance of Garden Features  Rooftop Garden Feature  Resources Needed  Maintenance Required  - Seating and tables - Restroom (toilet, sink, paper, lighting) - Elevator  - Daily maintenance (cleaning/repairs)  LOUNGE AREA  Indoor Lounge Area  - Lighting - Windows Indoor Green Wall (Naturaire Indoor Air Biofilter or “living walls”)  - Hydroponic growing medium - Water pump - Fan system - Crawling medium for plants Source: Manhattan Plant Experts  - Pruning and trimming of plant (weekly). - Maintenance of plant health and replanting if necessary - Checking proper function of fan and water pump  Outdoor Green Wall (Living Wall Panels)  - Plants: dicentra formosa (Pacific bleeding heart), Dryopteris expansa (spiny wood fern), Fragaria vesca (woodland strawberry), - Pruning and trimming plants. Gaultheria procumbens (wintergreen), - Check irrigation system for clogs weekly. Polypodium glycyrrhiza (licorice fern), Tellima grandiflora (fringecup), Tiarella trifoliata (foamflower) and Vaccinium ovatum (evergreen huckleberry). 54  - Drip irrigation system connected to rainwater runoff. Randy Sparks Stainless steel panels Source: Gsky and True Arts  - Specialized growth medium, filter or cloth to contain roots and medium but allow water penetration, specialized drainage layer with Outdoor Lounge Area reservoir, waterproof membrane, strong roof structure and specially selected plants (extensive) appropriate to climate and design.  - Pruning and trimming of plants - Maintain health of plants with weekly weeding. - Keeping doorways clear from obstruction - Plants may initially need fertilization and watering until greenery established. - After the first year, weed for invasive species twice a year.  Source: Design Guidelines for Green Roof Source Green Roof Proposal and Guide - Kitchen utensils - Stovetop - Fridge - Cabinets - Table tops - Range hood - Fire extinguisher - Dishwasher - Large kitchen sink  - Daily maintenance (cleaning/repairs)  Composting Area  - Vermicomposting (about 1 sf each pound of waste generated each week). - Requires special earthworms (e.g. -Tiger Worms, Red Wrigglers, and Indian Blues) and other decomposer organisms and grey water system  - Keep vermicomposting bins at temps between 55 and 77 F (13-25°C) - Provide a bedding mix that is not as fresh as the main food source to ensure worm breeding and check pH (acidity) 2 times/week  Beehives  -Adequate housing for bees  -Maintained by the bee keeper  Community Kitchen and Market Area  ROOFTOP GARDEN AREA  55  Greenhouse  - Construction materials (wood, nails, etc) - Fiberglass reinforced panels - Ducts, tubes for channeling building heat - Fans - Proper lighting - Dainage, filter, root-resistant layer - Drip irrigation equipment - Nets  Garden Research Area - Dependent on researcher and study  - See maintenance required for crop area - Cleaning of cover material when needed temperature, humidity, and general climate check (3 times/week)  - Dependent on researcher and study  Water Reservoir System - Drip irrigation for green walls - Rain water reservoirs - Rain barrels Gardener care - Post planting (immediate watering after planting for first growing season and then 3 times/week for 13 weeks)  Crop Space - Container Garden - Drip Irrigation System  - Container gardening  - Weeding (3 times/wk after planting for 3 wks and then once a week for rest of season)  - Maintain health and grooming of plants - Drip irrigation system that contains a filter and allows for fertilizer solution attachment to - Erosion control (check areas susceptible distribute the water to each container to wind and water monthly) Long term care - Biweekly monitoring program assessing condition of garden and plants - Supplemental planting - Perennial division program (perennials need to be divided for better growth— opportunity for flower sale)  56  - Pruning and trimming - Tree root pruning - Pest control - Mechanical equipment safety checks - Drainage (monthly checking for overflows, keeping drains clear from obstruction) - Check and maintain irrigation system  Source: City of Chicago  Extensive Garden  - Specialized growth medium, filter or cloth to contain roots and medium but allow water penetration, specialized drainage layer with reservoir, waterproof membrane, strong roof structure and specially selected plants appropriate to climate and design. Likely need irrigation system.  - low maintenance  Shed  - Construction materials (wood, roofing, nails)  Daily maintenance (cleaning/repairs)  Other Miscellaneous Materials  - Garden tools (i.e. hose, equipment, shovel)  Daily maintenance (cleaning/repairs)  Table 3: Resource and maintenance needs of each garden feature.  References —6.3— City of Chicago. www.cityofchicago.org Design Guidelines for Green Roof. http://www.cmhcschl.gc.ca/en/inpr/bude/himu/coedar/loader.cfm?url=/commonspot/security/getfile.c fm&PageID=70146 Green Roof Proposal and Guide. http://www.rivercenter.uga.edu/education/upper_altamaha/pdf/greenroof_acc_spring2007.pdf Green Wall Panels (Gsky). http://www.greenrooftops.com/GreenWallPanels.aspx 57  Green Wall Panels (True Art). http://www.livingwallart.com/living-walls/green-wall-panels/ Manhattan Plant Experts Inc. http://www.manhattanplant.com/livingwall.htm Urban agriculture on the rooftop. Cornell University. Ublvd Design Guidelines. http://www.planning.ubc.ca/campus_design__public_places/current_projects/amenities/articles281.ph p  7.0 Organic Discards 7.1 Waste Management  Types of Waste Management Vermicomposting (composting with worms)  Advantages - Grows better vegetables  Disadvantages  - Worms apparently do not breed in organic - Works at moderate/ambient waste and will move temperatures; rapids away from the food to composting (ready in one breed (therefore, it is month) important to provide a - Requires special earthworms bedding mix that is not as fresh as the main food (e.g. -Tiger Worms, Red source) Wrigglers, and Indian Blues) and other decomposer - Requires lime to organisms stabilize the pH (acidity)  - Is a form of composting which uses - Aids soil aeration and worms to break down organic waste in drainage; develops and a container. maintains a culture of effective aerobic bacteria by culling pathogens, fungi and anaerobic bacteria  Suggestions - Keep vermicomposting bins at temperatures between 55 and 77 F (13-25°C)  - Vermicomposting bin size depends on the amount of organic waste produced by garden. The general rule of thumb is one square foot of surface area for each pound of waste - Worms need consistent generated per week. care, food, heat and moisture  Greywater treatment: 58  - Constructed wetland can be used for greywater treatment (floating aquatic plant system)  - Reduce the need for fresh water – indoor greywater can be used for toilet, or exterior washing  - Constructed reed beds as an example - Reduce strain on sewers are used as a method of removing system – greywater makes up pollutants from greywater. the majority of the household wastewater stream, so diverting it from the sewers extends the life and capacity of the system  - The potential for pollution and undesirable health and environmental effects; cost of a greywater system and plumbing requirements; ongoing maintenance.  - Groundwater recharge – greywater treatment for garden irrigation replenishes groundwater - Maintain soil fertility – the nutrients in the greywater are broken down by bacteria in the soil and made available to plants. Table 4: Recommended types of Waste Management  References —7.1— Composting Techniques. http://www.compostsantacruzcounty.org/Home_Composting/Backyard_Composting/by_techniques.htm Greywater. http://www.greywater.com/ Home Gardening. http://www.calrecycle.ca.gov/organics/gardening/ Wastewater Gardens. http://www.carpathians.pl/gardens/budowa.html Wastewater Re-use. http://www.yourhome.gov.au/technical/fs74.html Waste Water. http://www.waitakere.govt.nz/AbtCit/ec/bldsus/pdf/water/wastewtr.pdfhttp://www.recycle.ubc.ca/  59  8.0 Budget 1 8.1 Estimated UBC Rooftop Garden  An exact budget for the rooftop garden is not given due to the high probability of inaccurate calculations. However, some references and case studies of existing rooftop gardens in North America and their budgets have been provided. The following are estimated costs of a rooftop garden for the New SUB rooftop garden project. Values were derived from the Design Guidelines for Green Roofs. In addition, a USD price chart is included in Figure 14 because the scales of those projects reflect the same magnitude as that desired for the New SUB rooftop garden. As a result, a more accurate estimate of costs and price fluctuations can be determined. Below is an estimate for the proposed rooftop garden.  8.1.1 Estimated Cost for Extensive Garden (Upper Lounge Area) The upper tier of the lounge area has been proposed to be an extensive rooftop garden and the estimate is based on the approximate 4000 sq ft area.  Component Design and Specification Project Administration and Site Review Re-roofing with root-repelling membrane Green Roof System (curbing, drainage layer, filter cloth, and growing medium) Plants Installation / Labour Maintenance (for first 2 years) Irrigation System TOTAL  Estimated Cost 5 - 10% of total roofing 2.5-5% of total roofing project cost ~$50, 000 ~$30, 000 ~$6, 000 ~$22, 000 ~$6, 000 ~$12, 000 ~$126,000 minimum (does not include design/specification or project administration)  Table 5: Estimated costs for outdoor lounge components. (The table where the values were derived from to estimate the budget for the UBC rooftop garden can be 1 budgetC) was not analyzed due to the complexity of such calculations. Thus we have provided foundAn inexact Appendix some references and case studies of existing rooftop garden budgets in North America.  8.1.2 Estimated Cost for Container Rooftop Gardening  60  The lounge area takes up less than 1/3 of the rooftop space, the remaining area has been proposed as green/rooftop garden space. There is approximately at least 6500 sq ft of space proposed for container gardening, this area excludes the greenhouse, shed, beehives, composting, and other non-vegetative areas. There is estimate for this container garden since the pricing can be very variable. Containers can be purchased or even be homemade and the type of container that will be ideal for our use needs to be further researched.  A general estimated has been provided is based on the case study at the University of Toronto (U of T). The numbers is derived from the idea that the UBC rooftop garden is approximate 15 times larger than the U of T rooftop.  Component Containers (materials and maintenance) Drip Lines Timer Pump Garden Hose Fertilizer/soil (material and maintenance) Seeds Tools Pest Control TOTAL  Estimated Cost ~$25, 500 ~$2, 750 ~$ 15, 000 ~$ 150 ~$ 150 ~$ 33, 750 ~$ 6750 ~$ 4, 500 ~$ 2,700 ~$ 91, 250 minimum estimated cost  Table 6: Estimated Costs for Container Gardening.  8.2 Other Estimated Budget According to University of Toronto Case Study This case study is based on the proposed rooftop garden on the U of T (downtown) campus. It has been included in the proposal because it was an extensive garden with containers, which is similar to the rooftop garden proposed here. The plot was estimated to be about 431 sq ft.  61  Figure 13: Estimated costs for other things according to the U of T case study.  8.3 Other Estimated Budget According to Athens-Clarke County City Hall Case Study This table is included for the purpose of comparing the USD pricing difference with the pricing table used in section 8.1.1. The Athens-Clarke County City Hall was written with the intentions of development of large scale rooftop gardens (such as UBC rooftop garden). Their prices may be more representative of the true cost, but it should be noted that the prices are in USD and based upon US distributors.  62  Figure 14:  63  64  References —8.1— Design Guidelines for Green Roof. http://energy.probeinternational.org/conservation/perversions/designguidelines-green-roofs —8.2— University of Toronto Report on the Environmental Benefits and Costs of Green Roof Technology. www.toronto.ca/greenroofs/pdf/fullreport103105.pdf University of Toronto Campus Agriculture Report University of Toronto. www.harthouse.utoronto.ca/.../UofTCampusAgricultureProject2009.pdf —8.3— UGA River Basin Center. http://www.rivercenter.uga.edu/search/search_results.htm?q=Green+roof+proposal+and+guide&cx=0 04441298977981780311%3Audoadkygwmq&cof=FORID%3A11&sa.x=0&sa.y=0#802  9.0 Educational Opportunities 9.1 Education Framework  Being one of the leading universities in the world, UBC envisions to “create an exceptional learning environment that fosters global citizenship, advances a civil and sustainable society, and supports outstanding research to serve the people of British Columbia, Canada and the world (UBC Plan, 2010)”. According to UBC mandate, there are nine commitment areas the university as a whole is striving for: student learning, research excellence, community engagement, aboriginal engagement, alumni engagement, intercultural understanding, international engagement, outstanding work environment, and sustainability (UBC Mid-Level Plans, 2010). These areas are not completely distinct and mutually exclusive. Instead, these aspects are interconnected with each other with relationship ranging from simple to complex. One important approach to embody of this ultimate vision is to regard UBC as a community and then to turn the campus itself into a “living laboratory” (UBC Sustainability Academic Strategies, 2010). At UBC, the most updated information and knowledge are disseminated and shared, and UBC is also a place to practice what is taught in lectures  Having UBC Farm, LFS Orchard Garden, and Hawthorn Place Community Garden as successful examples of urban farming, the rooftop garden should incorporate an educational component and 65  contribute towards making UBC campus a living laboratory. According to previous experience of UBC Farm, the involvement of students and faculty members differed, depending on their disciplines and purposes. In 2007/2008, 26 faculties and schools were involved, including Faculty of Applied Science, Faculty of Arts, Faculty of Education, Faculty of Forestry, Faculty of Land and Food Systems, School of Architecture and Landscape Architecture, Sauder School of Business, School of Journalism, and many more (Riseman, A., personal communication, March 16, 2010). There is great potential in using the rooftop garden as a teaching and learning tool is great, and numbers of exciting opportunities are waiting to be explored.  As a research team, we have generated some ideas in terms of incorporating education with the rooftop garden. Several faculty members as well as on-campus/off-campus and student-based/nonstudent-based initiatives were approached to see if they are interested in the project. However, concrete examples of how and in what form the connection will be are yet to be discussed. The following table is a brief summary, and specifics will be described later.  9.1.1 Educators Potential Participant  Work/Field of Relevance/Person Contacted (if applicable)  Interest and Potential Opportunities  UBC SEEDS  - Social, ecological, economic, development studies  - Liska Richer, the coordinator of SEEDS program has shown interest in giving seminars to students about sustainability once the rooftop garden is completed  - Liska Richer (program coordinator)  - Research and studies that are part of SEEDS can be conducted at the garden Dr. Andrew Riseman  - Professor in Faculty of Land and Food Systems- plant science  - Interested in conducting directed studies project using the rooftop garden as a living laboratory  Dr. James Vercammen  - Professor in Faculty of Commerce and Faculty of Land and Food Systems  - Interested in using real life situations from the garden as case studies and using the garden in directed studies  - Research area: agricultural marketing, agriculture policy analysis agriculture risk and insurance, and environmental 66  markets Dr. Daniel Roehr  - Professor in School of Architecture-landscape architecture  - Interested in incorporating the rooftop garden as an educational tool, but specifics are not yet determined  - Specialized in green roofs and green buildings Allen Garr  - Passionate expert in bee management and its incorporation into urban agriculture setting  - Interested in giving seminars to students about bee keeping in an urban setting  - Currently manages the bees on the rooftops of Vancouver convention centre and Vancouver Public Library (Central Branch), and bees on the UBC farm.  - Interested in assisting the management of bees if they are incorporated into the rooftop garden  John Terezakis  - Building manager of District Main which has a operating rooftop garden owned by the residents of the building  - Interested in giving seminars to students about how to grow their own food, compost organic waste, and keep a healthy garden.  UBC-Department of Family Practice Research  - Debra Hanberg (research assistant)  - Studies in creating healthy workplace by incorporating rooftop and balcony garden full of medical plants - Interested in incorporating the rooftop garden into this research.  UBC Farm- Urban Aboriginal Community Kitchen Garden Project  - Vancouver Native Health Society - Sandra Bodenhamer (program coordinator/dietician)  - The project currently involves UBC Farm where a plot is allocated for Aboriginal people from downtown east side to grow their own food and cook in the kitchen at UBC Farm - Interested in incorporating the rooftop garden into the project - Foresee this as an opportunity of mutual learning between Aboriginals and UBC students 67  Table 7: Various Education Opportunities  9.2 Other Suggestions for the Educational Opportunities at the Rooftop Garden: Rooftop Garden Club  A rooftop garden club could be created by a group of UBC students and faculty members who are interested in urban farming. Regular and occasional events and activities such as lunch/dinner gathering at the rooftop garden, visits to other urban gardens, organizing sustainability workshops, planning special festivals, and promoting the rooftop garden, etc. This is a good opportunity for practicing leadership and teamwork as well as for advocating sustainability on campus.  Integration of Elementary and Secondary Schools in the Community  By collaborating with elementary and secondary schools in the community or in close proximity, field trips could be arranged to the garden. The concept of sustainability could be introduced in earlier stage of education. This might raise the awareness and therefore increase the possibility of these children to live a more sustainable lifestyle in the future. Here is also an opportunity for the involvement of Faculty of Education and Faculty of Land and Food Systems in terms of delivering mini-classes to the students. Furthermore, volunteering opportunities could be offered to high school students for their community service hours..  The Lounge area  With the frequent usage of the lounge area as expected, it is an ideal location for disseminating information about the rooftop garden and advertising any sustainability related events taking place on campus. Examples of such information tool are posters, pamphlets, and magazines that can only be read at the lounge. Instead of printing out free copies of pamphlets and magazines, it is more sustainable to have the details available on-line that could be readily accessible for anyone interested.  UBC Student Involvement  68  The garden could be booked and used by UBC students from various faculties as a place to deliver workshops. The workshops should involve both individual and group learning experiences. Students from the LFS series (100, 250, 350 450) can volunteer in the garden as community service.  Collaboration with UBC Sustainability Academic Strategies (SAS)  SAS is a relatively new initiative formed to advocate sustainability learning and research. Two key components of SAS vision are to explore various aspects of sustainability through research, teaching, and leaning in various disciplines and to exemplify sustainability operations. The vision of SAS is in coherence with the creation of the SUB rooftop garden. Therefore, there is a great potential in the collaboration of SAS and the rooftop garden since the garden or even the entire New SUB will be an example of sustainability in practice. Therefore by working with SAS, more educational opportunities could be explored and incorporated into the rooftop garden as research, teaching, and learning.  References —9.1— Mid-Level Plans. http://strategicplan.ubc.ca/mid-level-plans/ UBC Plan. http://strategicplan.ubc.ca/the-plan/ UBC Sustainability Academic Strategies. http://www.sas.ubc.ca/themes/caall/  69  10.0 Conclusion 10.1 Recommendations  Upon completion of the New SUB rooftop garden, a number of exciting and futuristic changes will occur at UBC. The garden will directly support all seven sustainable visions that were collaboratively created by the project partners. The variety of produce, herbs and other plants will enhance diversity and the quality of our unique ecosystem at UBC. Foods from the garden will be incorporated into the vast majority of cultural and ethnic foods available across campus. We will be taking great strides towards lightening UBC and the AMSs’ carbon footprint, as well as creating awareness of these pressing issues. At the end of the day, cooking and eating is about health and overall well-being. The garden will serve as a peaceful and relaxing environment for student to gather, socialize, and enjoy the many benefits of urban agriculture. Being able to experience this first hand will hopefully create future movements towards daily green living in students and faculty alike. UBC has always been a leader in innovative ideas for the education community and this will be no exception.  70  11. Additional Information 11.1 Appendix Appendix A.  Advantage  Disadvantage  Wood  - Reused local wood - Low Carbon footprint - Incorporate local waste  - Labour intensive - More expensive (?) - Amount of wood may not be sufficient  Metal  - Long lasting - Sturdy - Preassembled  -High carbon footprint (production, transportation)  Glass  - Can be tempered -Transparent (aesthetically pleasing)  Polycarbonate (plastic)  - Cheap and strong - Easy to assemble  - Expensive - Hard to assemble - Need a sturdier framework - Decreased light transmission  FRAME  COVERING MATERIAL  Fiberglass Reinforced Panels Polyethylene  HEATING  Description - The “skeleton” of the greenhouse - Foundation and beams  - The walls of the greenhouse  - Durable - Panels need to be - Retains heat better than glass customized - Lightweight & flexible -Hard to assemble - Less structural support needed - Cheap -Chances of tearing - Easy to assemble (cover over -Lasts about 2 years greenhouse) - Algae buildup - Less structure support required - Heat loss through the structure is inevitable and a source is needed to maintain temp.  Building heat waste Electricity  VENTILATION  - In addition to windows and natural openings, proper ventilation needed for temperature  - Sustainable use of excess heat - No need for extra equipment - Cost effective - Reliable source  - Setting up through ducts and pipes  - Automated for consistent control  - Needs electricity  - Expensive  71  & humidity control  LIGHTING  - Light needed for photosynthesis during low sunlight  - Adequate growth of plants - Compensation during low sunlight  - More load on the structure - Use of electricity  *signifies suggested recommendations  References Hobby Greenhouse Construction. http://www.aces.edu/pubs/docs/A/ANR-1105/  72  Appendix B.  73  74  75  76  References Urban agriculture on the rooftop. Cornell University.  77  Appendix C.  The following is the table where the values were derived from to estimate the budget for the UBC rooftop garden (Design Guidelines for Green Roofs).  References  78  Design Guidelines for Green Roof. http://www.cmhcschl.gc.ca/en/inpr/bude/himu/coedar/loader.cfm?url=/commonspot/security/getfile.c fm&PageID=70146  79  

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