UBC Undergraduate Research

Food Services Compost Social Marketing Plan Brown, Shawn; Cha, Deborah; Cheng, Chris; Rameshni, Farnaz; So, Cheryl; Zhang, Kim 2007

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 UBC Social, Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report            Food Services Compost Social Marketing Plan Shawn Brown, Deborah Cha, Chris Cheng, Farnaz Rameshni, Cheryl So & Kim Zhang University of British Columbia COMM 468          Disclaimer: “UBC SEEDS provides students with the opportunity to share the findings of their studies, as well as their opinions, conclusions and recommendations with the UBC community. The reader should bear in mind that this is a student project/report and is not an official document of UBC. Furthermore readers should bear in mind that these reports may not reflect the current status of activities at UBC. We urge you to contact the research persons mentioned in a report or the SEEDS Coordinator about the current status of the subject matter of a project/report.” Executive Summary  The UBC Composting Program has been in place for four years.  However, it exhibits a surprisingly low level of awareness as well as an extremely low level of participation by students in properly separating and depositing their trash into the appropriate bins. Resultantly, items such a glass and plastic wrap end up in the “Organic Trash Only” bins and later jam the machine that converts organic trash into soil used to nourish the grounds at UBC.  UBC Food Services would like to know how to successfully market the program so that students become aware of, and motivated to engage in, the desired behaviors.  Given that price and product are not particularly relevant in this specific case, this marketing plan focuses on exploring and recommending the promotional components that will facilitate the success of the program.  Chiefly, we will discuss message content and communication channel strategies.          2 Table of Contents  1.0 Problem....................................................................................................................3 2.0 Objectives.................................................................................................................3 3.0 SWOT Analysis........................................................................................................3 4.0 Competition .............................................................................................................4 5.0 Customer Analysis...................................................................................................5 6.0 Focus Group Sessions ..............................................................................................6 7.0 Evaluation of Messaging Content and Communication Channel Alternatives.....9 8.0 Recommendations.................................................................................................. 14 9.0 Appendix................................................................................................................ 23              3           1.0 Problem The UBC Composting Program has been in place for four years and functions to transform various sorts of trash to fertilizer used on UBC's campus.   Unfortunately, there exists an extremely low level of awareness of the program and as a result a low level of participation by students.  This results in the contamination of composting bins and causes UBC Waste Management staff to expend extra time and risk in manually separating the trash.  2.0 Objectives This report endeavors to address the above problem by exploring students’ attitudes towards the current program and designing an effective communication plan based on our findings. The primary goal of our communication plan is to explore and develop a marketing message content mix that will be most effective at raising awareness of the  4 program and motivating students to participate.  This report will also recommend the mix of advertising mediums that will most successfully communicate this content cost- effectively.   In order to make well-researched recommendations, focus group sessions were carried out to collect qualitative data followed by surveys to collect quantitative data.  We also assessed the results of the current marketing mix.  3.0 SWOT Analysis Strengths of the Composting Program Valuable information has been collected through surveys and research projects conducted by the agricultural sciences classes at UBC on the sustainability program. Also, various marketing collateral already exists for the Composting Program that can be modified to be more effective. Weaknesses of the Composting Program The awareness of the Composting Program is low.  This is the result of a lack of marketing planning and of understanding the target market. Opportunities for the Composting Program With UBC’s abundant resources and sustainability initiatives, there exists an opportunity to develop an effective marketing plan to educate students about an impressive program where consumer knowledge is presently low. Threats to the Composting Program There appears to be a general resistance among students to adopt this new idea. Also, due to the large number of print ads at UBC’s campus, it will be challenging to attract the attention of students to print collateral about composting.  5  4.0 Competition Because the UBC Food Services Composting Program is neither a product nor a service available for sale, it is not subject to competing for a portion of students’ limited financial resources.   However, the Composting Program is competing with other programs and initiatives for a portion of students' limited attention.  Time-constrained students can allocate only a certain amount of their mental energy to learning about new programs or initiatives and modifying their behavior if necessary.  Currently, many other clubs, events, and initiatives exist on campus that are attempting to communicate information to students.  Also, Food Services executes other programs that require resources.   Therefore, the Composting Program is competing with other programs and initiatives for Food Services' resources.  5.0 Customer Analysis There does not seem to be any difference in the way males and females view composting. As such, the market will not be segmented on this set of demographics.  Because the majority of students at UBC do not live on campus and those who live on campus have already been exposed to the Composting Program in their residences, we will be focusing primarily on students living off campus.  Based on our research, we have segmented this group into three subgroups: Segment 1: Unaware of the program but willing to compost if properly educated This segment of students is unfamiliar with the Composting Program and in some cases with the concept of composting. However, they are civilized citizens who, with proper  6 instruction and education, are willing to compost.  Thus, message content targeting this group should focus on raising awareness and educating students about composting. Convenience is another factor that affects the behavior of this segment.  Therefore, composting bins should be placed near visible areas and exhibit clear and concise instructions. Segment 2:  Environmentally conscious students This segment is characterized by students who are more concerned than average about the state of and the threats to our environment.  For this segment, most efforts should be allocated to raising awareness of the Composting Program and reinforcing these students to continue their environmentally beneficial behaviors. Segment 3: Students who view composting as irrelevant or unnecessary This segment is the largest and requires the greatest amount of focus.  This group of students perceives the act of composting as personally irrelevant and is thus indifferent. To successfully reach this group, messaging content should focus on establishing a connection between these students and the Composting Program.  Convenience of the bins and clear, concise instructions are also very important.  6.0 Focus Group Sessions Two focus group sessions were conducted to help us to gain insight into the perceptions of the Composting Program.  A total of 21 participants (nine in the first session and twelve in the second session) participated. These participants were carefully selected to be representative of the population at UBC. Each session explored the following:  7 1. We measured students' current awareness of the Composting Program, as well as their attitudes toward it and to composting in general. 2. We presented students with the current marketing collateral and asked them to evaluate it. 3. We showed participants potential marketing message alternatives and asked them to assess the effectiveness of each message. 4. We explored possible communication channels.  Awareness of the Composting Program Among participants, only two claimed to be familiar with the concept and benefits of composting.  Few claimed to have seen the composting bins and posters on campus even after we showed them to participants.  Of those who had seen them, almost no students were aware that the bins were specific to composting.  Instead, they thought they were simply garbage bins.  Needless to say, these comments demonstrate a low level of awareness. As well, approximately one quarter of participants were confused by the concept of composting as opposed to recycling because composting was a foreign concept not practiced in their culture.  Current Marketing Collateral The current posters received poor ratings in both focus group sessions. Participants agreed that the posters were confusing, poorly designed, and did not provide clear instructions as to what can and cannot be composted.  Participants also complained that there were too many words and that graphics were difficult to understand at a glance.  8 Also, fonts and colors were distracting and hard to read.  More importantly, message content was weak.  Participants claimed that the posters did little to educate them about the concept of composting, resulting in little motivation to engage in desired behaviors. Finally, many participants questioned the appropriateness of the monkey logo as they did not perceive a link between it, composting, and the target audience.  Marketing Message Content Various message content alternatives were explored.  Central themes included: • Peer pressure/Ignorance • Accomplishments/Statistics • Social responsibility • Fear • Punishment  Various tag lines and corresponding graphics were developed to stimulate valuable opinions from students concerning these alternatives.  Students were asked to evaluate them with respect to their effectiveness in raising awareness and at motivating desired behaviors.  Various results are mentioned in appropriate sections of this report.  Detailed information and results are presented in Appendix A and B.  Follow Up Survey Because of the small sample size of the focus groups, we conducted a follow up survey to verify some of the important findings from our focus group sessions.  39 randomly  9 selected participants were asked to fill out a survey which was divided into two parts. Participants were asked to evaluate three of the most effective messaging contents as rated by our focus group participants.  Then, participants were asked to rank the communication channels suggested by our focus group participants in the order that they would most likely read information about composting.  The most salient results are presented in appropriate sections of this report.  Detailed information and results are presented in Appendix C and D.  7.0 Evaluation of Messaging Content and Communication Channel Alternatives   6.1 Evaluation of Alternatives  1) Status Quo The primary advantage of not changing direction is that no further planning or strategizing is required.  However, the current marketing has proven to be ineffective as the level of awareness is low and feedback from focus group participants was negative. 2) Fear/ Environmental Consequences Messaging Content Alternatives Criteria for evaluation 1. Status quo 2. Fear /Environmental Effects 3. Accomplishments /Statistics 4. Emotional/Social Responsibility 5. Peer pressure 6. Punishment 7. Humor  1. Focus group/survey results 2. Persuasiveness/motivation 3. Sense of urgency 4. Relevancy to the target 5. Raising awareness 6. Likelihood of recall   10 Based on our focus group and survey findings, message content conveying the negative consequence of students’ inaction will be an effective approach to raising awareness and motivating students to compost.  67% of the survey respondents rated this message content as the most motivating.  It conveys a strong sense of urgency and is highly relevant and persuasive.  However, poorly designed graphics can threaten the effectiveness of the message as well as the relevance to students (i.e. the individual in the advertisement must appeal to the target). 3) Accomplishment / Statistics Students in the focus group session indicated that the use of appropriate statistics will motivate them to compost.  Cost and benefit information can be highly relevant and very persuasive.  However, this approach does not necessarily stimulate immediate motivation in everyone because the statistics are based on aggregate behaviors over an extended period of time and some students may feel that their contributions contribute so little that it is not worth the effort. 4) Emotional / Social Responsibility This approach was rated favorably by both the focus group and survey respondents.  It creates a strong connection between the composting program and the individual because it demonstrates implications for the future.  However, it might not be applicable to those young adults who are not yet particularly concerned about future conditions in general. Instead, this group tends to be more focused on the specifics of their own futures (i.e. careers, relationships, etc.). 5) Peer Pressure  11 The use of peer influence increases the perception of relevancy in the lives of the target. In addition, the image of an attractive peer can be powerful and persuasive.  However, this approach may not be suitable in this situation because it is hard to communicate social implications to students who do not compost when the majority of other students are also not composting. 6) Punishment The use of punishment may create immediate motivation to change behaviors in some students.  And, the message attracts attention.  However, our focus session participants communicated that they do not think it is feasible and that it is unfair to enforce such threats.  Also, punishment is not likely to result in long term behavioral change. 7) Humor Humor is an effective way to attract attention and engage the audience.  However, participants in the focus groups felt that the use of humor is inconsistent with the seriousness of the issue and will unlikely result in behavioral change.  6.2 Communication Channel Evaluation Communication Channel Alternatives Criteria for Evaluation 1. Posters near cash registers 2. Posters on composting bins 3. Tent cards on food outlet tables 4. Ad at the UBC bus loop 5. Posters inside the SUB 6. Ads on product packages 7. Ads in bathroom stalls 8. Email, newspaper, radio ads 1. Results of focus group and survey 2. Cost 3. Potential reach 4. Ability of to attract attention 5. Amount of information provided 6. Context of the medium  1) Posters near food outlet cash registers  12 76% of survey respondents rated this channel as the first and second most likely place they would read information about composting.  Context is high as the cash registers are located inside the food outlets where composting behaviors would occur.  More importantly, the cost of using posters is relatively low.  However, there exists a significant time gap between reading the posters and depositing trash.  Thus, the level of motivation may decrease by the time trash deposition occurs.  Also, other information near the cash register such as the information on menu boards also compete for students’ attention and therefore may diminish the level of attention students pay to composting posters. 2) Posters on composting bins Located at eye level on the composting bins, these posters are highly visible and provide valuable instructions to students as to what can and cannot be composted.  The context of this medium is very high as this is where students deposit their garbage.  In addition, cost of producing the posters is low.  However, most students spend minimal time depositing trash at the garbage bin and may not pay much attention to the posters. 3) Tent Cards on food outlet tables This innovative idea will likely attract a lot of attention from students who are eating at food outlets.  By displaying tent cards on food outlet tables, students will be constantly reminded of the Composting Program in a high context location.  Unfortunately, the cost of printing these tent cards is higher than for posters.  Also, after reading a tent card for the first time, students may simply block out the information. 4) Ads at the Bus Loop  13 Nearly 80% of students rated the bus loop as the first and second most likely place they would read information about composting.  Time spent reading the message is likely to be high due to the boredom that many experience while waiting for the bus.  However, because the medium exhibits low context, immediate changes in behavior will not be observed and students may forget about the information when the appropriate time comes. The cost of renting a billboard space at bus loop is also very high.  Moreover, other ads at the bus loop also compete for students’ attention. 5) Posters on bulletin boards inside the SUB The cost of developing these posters is low. Also, many students eat at the SUB so the degree of context is significant.  Nevertheless, 76% of students surveyed rated this channel as the least likely situation where they would read about composting. Because students are bombarded with substantial amounts of information on bulletin boards, attention and time spent reading the composting posters will almost certainly be low. 6) Ads on product packages Ads on product packages such as coffee cups will reach the target market easily.  The context is very high as it reminds students what to do after eating the food.  However, the cost of printing an ad on every package is likely to be prohibitively expensive. 7) Ads in Bathroom Stalls Time spent reading the message will likely be long implying students will absorb the information particularly well.  In addition, undivided attention would be paid to the ads as few distractions exist, almost probably zero competition.  However, students from the focus group session asserted that the ads will be out of context and will not result in an increase in the desired behavior.  14 8) Email, Newspaper and Radio Advertisements These mediums can potentially reach a large number of students.  However, students from the focus group sessions indicated that they rarely read newspapers or listen to the campus radio station.  Students will likely perceive emails about composting as junk mail and resultantly few will read.  With the exception of email, cost is high.  8.0 Recommendations  Brand Strategy It is clear from our research that the Composting Program brand and its components are not perceived by students as appropriate.  Fortunately, because little equity exists in the current brand, little loss will result from changing it.  We recommend that the UBC Composting Program be branded as an extension of the UBC Food Services brand, with minor modifications.  As the possible designs below demonstrate, the Composting Program logo will actually include the Food Services logo. However, in addition to the Food Services logo the Composting Program logo adds a contemporary flower graphic that will symbolize and specify the Composting Program. Further, immediately next to the logo should be the phrase "Composting Program" (not included in the examples).   Both the logo and the phrase should employ a color scheme that is consistent with composting and appropriate for the target audience.  Students have suggested earthier tones such as browns and greens.   15    Marketing Collateral: "Three Steps to Success" Based on our analysis of the problem and feedback from our research, we have come to the conclusion that three essential objectives must be achieved by our communication plan: 1) Raise the current awareness of the Composting Program. 2) Educate students about the benefits of composting and instruct students to properly compost. 3) Reinforce and motivate students to compost.  Cossette Communications, a highly respected international advertising agency, frequently employs the following rule of thumb: Hit your target with your message in three distinct ways at three distinct times.  We recommend capitalizing on this proven strategy by executing the following three step marketing strategy:  1) First Hit – Raise awareness using posters near food outlet cash registers Two distinct messages are recommended for the purpose of raising awareness of composting and are based on insight gained from our survey project and focus group sessions.  First, the fear and environmental consequences message demonstrates that there are real outcomes that result when humans produce excess  16 trash.  As previously mentioned, 80% of students surveyed ranked this message as the most motivating. Second, the emotional and social responsibility approach demonstrates that composting, or lack thereof, has implications for future generations.  Both of these messages will help to change students’ attitudes towards composting as well as motivate them to compost.  These particular messages will primarily target consumers in the first and last segments who are essentially unaware of, or indifferent to, the program.  Graphical examples of each message are included below.   “Fear and Environmental Consequences”   17  “Emotional/Social Responsibility”   2) Second Hit – Educate and instruct students using posters at eye level on the composting bins Clear and precise composting bin posters should be employed to efficiently and effectively communicate to students what pieces of garbage are designated to which of the three bins. These posters should be modified according to the findings from the focus group sessions and should be consistent with the re- branding strategy.  This particular message will target all consumer segments.  3) Third Hit – Positive reinforcement using large posters at food outlet exits Exit posters should be located at primary exits of each food services outlet to reinforce and promote composting.  They should be large and highly visible.  An image of a possible poster stand in included in Appendix F.  As demonstrated  18 below, these posters will thank students for composting and positively reinforce these behaviors by reporting on the successes and accomplishments of the program thus far using specific achievements of the program.  This particular message will be aimed at all consumer segments to ensure every student continues engaging in the desired behaviors and feels proud of UBC’s involvement in the sustainability program.  An graphical representation of this message is below.  “Accomplishments of the Program Communicated using Statistics”    Other Marketing Collateral  Tent Cards Re-branded tent cards exhibiting the same construction, shape and size as the present ones should be located on every table of every UBC Food Services outlet on campus.   The new tent cards should present the same messages, graphics, color scheme, and logo as the "Three Steps to Success" posters.  19  Bus Loop Sign Because nearly 80% of survey respondents indicated that they would be most likely to read an advertisement about composting while waiting at the bus loop, we recommend developing a large banner raising awareness of the Composting Program for this location. This banner would face the bus loop and be attached to the fence that surrounds the Student Recreation Building’s playing field.  Because the fence belongs to the university the cost of the space will be minimal, if any.  Furthermore, little to no advertising competition exists on this fence, implying fewer distractions as students pass by.  While the banner would be out of context, we feel that because of the high traffic and the research results that this would offer a rare and valuable opportunity to raise general awareness substantially.  Composting Bins Students indicated in the focus sessions that the Composting Program will demonstrate greater success if convenience becomes a greater priority.   Students have communicated that a larger number of bins should be installed in order to increase the ease of composting and therefore the frequency that students engage in it.   Moreover, if feasible economically focus session participants recommended that bin design should be modified to use a large, hinged push door on the front to deposit trash (i.e. McDonald’s) rather than the small opening on top.   The door will increase the usability of the bins while containing more of the odors trapped inside.  Students also indicated that bins should be emptied more frequently.  20  To further "brand" composting bins, we recommend incorporating a physical manifestation of the flower graphic onto the bins themselves.   This "physical" logo should be identical in appearance to the graphical one and should be prominently and permanently displayed on top of the bin.  One possibility may be to glue an identical clear vase to the back corner of each bin with a copy of the flower glued inside each one.   This would substantially increase the likelihood that students will notice and remember the composting bins, the Composting Program and other Composting Program marketing collateral.  Students also indicated that current composting bins should feature bodies completely color coded rather than exhibiting a color coded top only.   This would more clearly and efficiently communicate to students that each bin is reserved for a different category of trash.  In addition, composting posters must be displayed at eye level.  Promotional Events We recommend that the following promotional events be considered to further raise awareness of composing and more specifically of the UBC Food Services Composting Program.  Grand "Re-opening" Launch Event a) Expand the "Garbage Heap" Promotion  21 Our team recently observed an enormous amount of garbage piled near the Student Union Building as part of a promotion.  We think that this is an effective way to promote the Composting Program and should be expanded upon to include a location immediately adjacent to the walkway between the Student Recreation Centre and the large playing field immediately beside it.   This location exhibits immensely high traffic because the walkway is the primary route that students take when going to or coming from the bus loop.  b) “Get Caught Composting” Blitz Immediately after unveiling the new marketing collateral engage in a one week blitz of the Get Caught Composting initiative.  This will serve to further bring attention to the program.  c) Giant Signature Boards Located at the major food services outlets on campus, these boards or large branded sheets of paper provide a place for students to sign their names as a way of demonstrating their commitment to composting and caring for our environment. The cost of implementing this promotional tool is extremely low.  The boards serve to build morale, spirit, and enthusiasm for the program and should be located in plain view of as many tables as possible.  Further, every month one of the names may be selected for a $25 gift certificate to any food services outlet.  In order to find out if they have won, students must check the UBC Food Services  22 website.  This will increase traffic on the website and as a result we recommend that Food Services provides further information about the program on it.  New Student Orientation Day Ensure that all new students are educated about the Composting Program by their orientation leader and that each new student receives a piece of marketing collateral that will clarify instructions, benefits, and successes of the program.  UBC Food Services Fair UBC Food Services should develop a display featuring a “Worm Tank” for the UBC Food Services Fair.  Here, a glass tank is filled with both garbage and worms and it is explained to students that the worms break down the garbage and transform it to usable soil.  Adjacent to the tank will be a planter featuring fresh, black soil and a live, growing bouquet of flowers.  Of course, Composting Program collateral is distributed.  Internal Marketing UBC Food Services must invest some time in training all food service employees about the Composting Program and its benefits.  We recommend that every Food Services employee participate in a composting tour as part of a work shift.  Food outlet managers should also be encouraged to solicit suggestions from employees about more effectively executing the Composting Program.  Lastly, if possible, we recommend instituting a requirement whereby franchises on campus must display Composting Program marketing material in addition to reserving a spot for composting bins.  23  Contingency Plan Because the marketing plan incorporates many individual components that work together to communicate a highly integrated strategy, we are confident that synergistic effects will be observed.   However, if certain components are not working or prove to be more costly than anticipated, they can be eliminated from the strategy without destroying the effectiveness of the plan.  However, an exception must be noted.  The components of the Three Steps to Success were developed based on substantial market research and consumer analysis.  Each component works to target a specific type of consumer. Therefore, effectiveness will be seriously hindered if any component of the Three Steps to Success is eliminated.  Budget A detailed breakdown of costs is included in Appendix E.  Timeline A detailed timeline is included in Appendix G.  9.0 Appendix Appendix A:  Focus Group Session Powerpoint Slides  <A-1> Current Garbage Bins at UBC Student Union Building From left: non-recyclables, organic waste recycling, and can & bottles recycling  24    <A-2> Current Posters (Posters A to D)  Current Poster A:  Current Poster B:  Current Poster C: Current Poster D:   25     <A-3> Potential Marketing Message & Image Alternatives (Posters A to K)  Potential Poster A:  Potential Poster B:   Potential Poster C: Potential Poster D:  Potential Poster E:  Potential Poster F:   26  Potential Poster G: Potential Poster H:   Potential Poster I: Potential Poster J:     Appendix B: Focus Group Results  <B-1> Current Posters – Focus Group Session 1 and 2  <B-1-1> Mean, Median, and Mode by Attribute (using SPSS)  Poster  Persuasiveness Clarity Design Mean 3.16 3.16 2.89 Median 3 3 3 A Mode 4 3 4  27 Mean 2.79 2.32 2.84 Median 3 2 3 B Mode 3 2 2 Mean 3.21 3.47 3.11 Median 3 3 3 C Mode 3 3 3 Mean 3.05 2.74 2.74 Median 3 2 3 D Mode 3 2 3    <B-1-2> Additional Responses  A -no connection between the monkey logo and composting -pictures are eye-catching; thus grab attention -insufficient amount of information about composting; confusing B -confusing to distinguish between compostable versus non- compostable -strong effect and immediate attention of “STOP” sign -color: yellow makes green less visible -fonts are confusing C -no relevancy to flower in this case -no connection between the monkey logo and composting -too many ideas & poor design confusing D -too many words are used and in too small of font size -confusing in terms of which is “YES” and which is “NO”    <B-2> Potential Posters – Session 1 <B-2-1> Mean, Median, and Mode by Attribute (using SPSS)  Poster  Persuasiveness Clarity Design Feeling A Mean 3.44 3.78 2.56 2.89  Median 4 4 3 2  Mode 4 4 3 2  28 B Mean 2.44 3.44 2.33 2.56  Median 2 4 3 3  Mode 2 4 3 3 C Mean 3.00 2.89 3.11 2.89  Median 3 3 2 3  Mode 3 3 3 3 D Mean 3.22 3.11 3.33 3.44  Median 4 3 5 3  Mode 3 3 3 3 E Mean 2.78 2.89 2.89 2.89  Median 3 4 3 3  Mode 3 3 3 3 F Mean 2.44 3.89 2.33 2.11  Median 2 5 2 3  Mode 2 4 2 2 G Mean 2.78 3.22 3.00 2.78  Median 4 3 3 2  Mode 3 3 3 3 H Mean 4.56 4.78 4.00 3.67  Median 5 5 4 4  Mode 5 5 4 4 I Mean 3.00 3.22 3.00 3.44  Median 4 3 3 3  Mode 3 3 3 3 J Mean 3.89 4.11 4.44 4.22  Median 4 4 5 5  Mode 4 4 5 5  Poster H had the highest mean for persuasiveness and clarity while Poster J showed the highest mean for design and feeling.  <B-2-2> Favorite and most Convincing Posters   29 Most Favorite Poster 0 2 4 6 Poster C o u n t H G K  The majority of the participants liked Poster H the most. Comments on each poster:  Poster H: realistic, clear, well-designed, strong words, effective reason  Poster G: funny  Poster K: effect on future generation, positive motivation, emotionally challenging    Most Convincing Posters 0 2 4 6 8 Poste C o u n t H F G  A large number of participants were convinced by Poster H. Comments on each poster:  Poster H: clear reason to change, remind about the environment  Poster G: getting fined help people compost  Poster K: funny  <B-3> Potential Posters – Session 2 <B-3-1> Mean, Median, and Mode by Attribute (using SPSS) *Note: Due to a time constraint, Poster D and E were not used in this session.   30 Poster  Persuasiveness Clarity Design Feeling A Mean 3.2 3.6 2.3 2.2  Median 4 4 3 3  Mode 3 4 3 2 B Mean 2.9 3.4 2.5 3.1  Median 3 4 2 3  Mode 3 3.5 2 3 C Mean 2.80 2.70 2.78 2.50  Median 3 2 2 2  Mode 3 2 3 2.5 F Mean 2 2.5 1.6 1.6  Median 2 2 1 1  Mode 2 2 1.5 1 G Mean 2.4 2.6 2.5 2.8  Median 2 2 3 2  Mode 2 2.5 3 2.5 H Mean 4.4 4.4 3.9 3.5  Median 5 4 4 3  Mode 4.5 4 4 3 I Mean 3.8 3.7 3.4 4.4  Median 4 4 4 4  Mode 4 4 3.5 4 J Mean 4.3 4 3.9 4  Median 4 4 5 5  Mode 4 4 4 4.5    <B-3-2> Most Favorite and Motivating Posters  31 Most Favorite Post 0 2 4 6 8 Poster C o u n t I G J   Majority of the participants liked Poster I the most. Comments on each poster:  Poster I: showing of reality, good connection with the picture, feeling of risk of not composting, strong message, consequence of not composting, stunning visual effect  Poster G: nice picture, relevancy to UBC and the benefits of composting  Poster J: nice picture, effect: end product (soil), effect messages    Most Convincing Poste 0 2 4 6 8 Poster C o u n t H I J   A significantly high number of participants were convinced by Poster H. Comments on each poster:  Poster H: shows reality, motivate to make a difference, has no negative effect, makes to see the larger picture and believe our actions can influence future outcome, feel guilty not to compost  Poster I: ideal environment I would like to live in, feel like should save the world from contamination  Poster J: tells benefits of composting, positive messaging    32    Appendix C: Survey Questions – Conducted November 2006 The purpose of this survey is to explore students’ reactions to different marketing messages relating to composting and more specifically UBC’s own Composting Program. For those not familiar with composting, it is nature’s way of recycling organic wastes into compost (such as nutrient rich soil).  This compost can then be used in a variety of ways such as providing nutrients for plants and flowers.  UBC presently has 17 composting bins in which organic waste is to be disposed; however they are not being used nearly as often as they could be.    UBC Composting Program Marketing Message Survey  We would like your help in identifying the best approach to raising awareness about UBC’s Composting Program on campus.  As such, we would be grateful if you would be willing to spend five minutes completing this survey.  1. Do you live on campus? (please circle)    Yes           No  2. Rank the situations below from 1 – 4 in the order of when you would most likely read an advertisement (poster, tent card or flyers) about composting.  a. When standing in line to order or pay for your food in a cafeteria or restaurant on campus. (poster) b. Eating lunch at a table in the UBC cafeteria or restaurant. (tent card) c. Waiting at the bus loop. (poster) d. Walking around the SUB. (bulletin board posters)  a. ______ b. ______ c. ______ d. ______   3. Please read the following posters carefully and answer subsequent questions.  Do not focus your attention of the design and layout of the mock up posters.  Rather, focus on the messaging content.   33    a. On a scale of 1 – 10, how likely are you going to compost after seeing this poster?        1 2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9  10  b. On a scale of 1 – 10, how relevant do you perceive this message to your own life?        1 2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9  10  c. On a scale of 1 – 10, how urgent do you feel that the issue of composting must be addressed based on this message?        1    2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9  10      34 “So far, your peels, cores, and paper plates have been transformed into 400 tons, or 200,000 lbs, of fertilizer used to make our campus gorgeous. ”  d. On a scale of 1 – 10, how likely are you going to compost after seeing this poster?        1 2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9  10  e. On a scale of 1 – 10, how relevant do you perceive this message to your own life?        1 2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9  10  f. On a scale of 1 – 10, how urgent do you feel that the issue of composting must be addressed based on this message?        1    2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9  10        35    g. On a scale of 1 – 10, how likely are you going to compost after seeing this poster?        1 2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9  10  h. On a scale of 1 – 10, how relevant do you perceive this message to your own life?        1 2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9  10  i. On a scale of 1 – 10, how urgent do you feel that the issue of composting must be addressed based on this message?        1    2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9  10    4. Pease rank the above three messages from 1 – 3 in the order of their effectiveness in motivating you to compost more frequently.  I.   ___  II.  ___  III. ___  5. Please rank the above three messages from 1 – 3 in the order of their effectiveness in raising awareness about composting.  I.   ___  II.  ___  III. ___    36 Appendix D: Survey Results  <D-1> On and Off Campus Residency of the Respondents  On and Off Campus Respon On Campu 13% Off campu 87%  This ratio is fairly representative of the overall UBC population.  <D-2> Percentage of Ratings (1 – 4) Allocated to each Communication Channel Situation.  (Question was: In what situation would you be most likely to read information about composting?)   Percentage Situation                                                      Ranking 1 2 3 4 a. When standing in line to order or pay for food in a cafeteria or restaurant on campus (poster) 34% 42% 13% 11% b. Eating lunch at a table in a UBC food outlet (tent card) 13% 8% 39% 39% c. Waiting at the bus loop (poster) 45% 34% 11% 11% d. Walking around the SUB (bulleting board posters) 8% 16% 37% 39%  The percentages are significantly higher for both Situation (a) and (c).  Putting posters at the bus loop should definitely be taken into consideration, as well as near purchasing points in cafeterias.   37  <D-3> Average Scale of Response on Persuasiveness, Relevancy, and Urgency   Persuasiveness Relevancy Urgency Poster I 7 6 7 Poster II 5 6 5 Poster III 5 6 5  With exception of Poster I, Poster II and III both fall into a neutral response for each attribute.    <D-4> Motivating to Compost   Rank  1 2 3 Poster I 67% 18% 15% Poster II 23% 31% 46% Poster III 10% 51% 38%  Poster I is the poster that is most likely to motivate students to compost, followed by Poster III and then poster II.   <D-5> Raising Awareness   Rank  1 2 3 Poster I 64% 23% 13% Poster II 21% 44% 36% Poster III 15% 33% 51%  Poster I is most likely to be most effective at raising awareness, followed by Poster II and then poster III.  Appendix E: Budget Allocation  Contemporary flower graphic $2,000 Poster Stand 1,600 Marketing Collateral: “Three Hits” 1,300 Bus loop sign 1,000  38 Tent Cards 750 Expansion of “Garbage Heap” Promotion 250 UBC Food Services Fair 250 Grand “Re-Opening” Launch Event 200 Giant Signature Boards 150 Total $7,500  These are annual costs, with exception of the bus loop banner, poster stands and flower logo physical manifestation.  Rather, these are considered as one-time costs.   Appendix F:  Evaluation of Alternatives  <F-1> Posters near Cash Registers  Pros Cons  76% of survey respondents rated this channel as the first or second most likely place they would read an advertisement about composting.  Low cost.  Students are likely to spend time reading the posters as they wait in line.  High context; composting behaviors occur in the same room as the one in which cash registers are located.  The time gap between reading the posters and depositing trash is significant.  As a result, some students may forget what they read and/or experience diminished enthusiasm.  Competition exists with respect to catching students' attention while they wait in line.  For example, information about food specials may be more interesting than information about composting.   Therefore, attention paid to the posters is threatened.   <F-2> Posters at Eye Level on Composting Bins Pros Cons  Because students are in the process of throwing away their garbage, a poster informing them that their food remains may be composted is both extremely relevant and timely.  Hence, the context of this medium is very high, as is immediate motivation.  Visibility is high because competing information is non-existent on composting bins.  Time spent reading the posters is short because students are accustomed to expending mere seconds depositing trash.   <F-3> Tent Cards on Food Outlet Tables Pros Cons  Time spent reading this collateral varies.  For first timers, they will likely give a substantial amount of their attention read the tent card while  Higher printing costs than for posters.  39 they eat their lunch.   The information absorbed is particularly high in this case.  Moreover, many students eat alone on a fairly regular basis and may desire something to read while consuming their meal.  By displaying tent cards on all cafeteria tables, students are constantly reminded of the Composting Program in high context locations.   <F-4> Advertisements at the Bus Loop Pros Cons  Nearly 80% of students rated the bus loop as the first or second most likely place they would read an advertisement about composting.  Time spent reading the message is likely to be relatively high due to boredom experienced by students as they wait.  When students read the information, it is absorbed but behaviors are not required until much later.  This decreases the probability that students will remember the message when faced with the opportunity to compost.  Cost of renting billboard space at bus loop is prohibitively high.   <F-5> Posters on Bulletin Boards inside the Student Union Building Pros Cons  Low cost  Significant degree of context as most students at the SUB are buying and consuming food.  76% of students surveyed rated this channel alternative as the least or second least likely situation where they would read an advertisement about composting.  Because students are bombarded with information on bulletin boards, the time spent reading each advertisement is low, or simply does not occur.   <F-6> Advertisements on Product Packages (i.e. coffee cups) Pros Cons  Will reach target market easily because it will end up in the hands of its target.  The context of using ads on food product packages is high as the marketing piece is on the food package itself.  The cost of printing an advertisement on every product package is likely to be prohibitively expensive.   <F-7> Advertisements in Bathroom Stalls Pros Cons  40  Time spent reading the message is relatively high.  Few distractions.  Focus session participants agreed that composting advertisements in bathroom stalls are out of context which will decrease the probability that students will remember the message when faced with the opportunity to engage in the desired behaviors.  Time between reading information and facing the opportunity to compost may be long.   <F-8> Email, Newspaper and Radio Advertisements Pros Cons  Potentially high reach  The cost of using email is low.  Potential of enormous waste within the investment.  Out of context: A given student most likely will not remember seeing something about composting in one or more of these mediums when the time comes to compost.  Cost of using newspaper and radio is prohibitively high.  Email regarding composting will most likely be perceived as junk mail.    Appendix F:  Poster Stand    Appendix G:  Detailed Timeline  January 2006 – August 2007  41 • Continue the current composting program while starting on the initial process of re-branding the UBC Composting Program. o Redesign the logo, posters and tent cards o Redesign the composting bins o Obtain new marketing collaterals such as poster-stands, giant signature board, new banner for the bus loop, etc. • Prepare to launch new marketing campaigns o Coordinate with the people in charge of the “Garbage Heap” program, student orientations (AMS Firstweek), and Food Services Fair. • Prepare the internal marketing campaign.  September 2007- December 2007 • Grand Re-opening Launch Event of the new UBC Composting Program o Release the new UBC composing brand collateral. o New students will learn about UBC as a composting friendly University in the student orientation event. o Plants for sale using composted soil at the annual plant sale. o Execute the updated Garbage Heap promotion at the UBC REC playing field. o  Begin the “Petition to Compost” campaign (Signature Board promotion).  January 2008 – April 2008 • Secondary launch of the composting program. o Focus of the second launch is on reinforcement. o Theme: performance evaluation of the first semester. o Show the results of the first semester’s petition and start another petition campaign by setting a goal of double the signatures.  May 2008 – August 2008 • Garden campaigns o Have garden signs all over the UBC gardens. o Ex. “I got my soil from UBC’s Composting Program”…. to learn more about composting visit http://www.sustain.ubc.ca/seeds.html.  Long Run Goals • Once the UBC composting program is 100% functional in the UBC Food Services outlets, expand throughout the UBC campus. o Example:  Place composting bins in the CG lounge of the Henry Angus Building. 


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