UBC Undergraduate Research

Lug A Mug Marketing Campaign Dong, Sami; Eng, Steven; Gozali, Stephanie; Ong, Yulichia; Pan, Randy; Teh, Jasmine; Wong, Willson 2007

You don't seem to have a PDF reader installed, try download the pdf

Item Metadata

Download

Media
[if-you-see-this-DO-NOT-CLICK]
[if-you-see-this-DO-NOT-CLICK]
Lug A Mug Marketing Campaign.pdf [ 686.23kB ]
[if-you-see-this-DO-NOT-CLICK]
Metadata
JSON: 1.0108135.json
JSON-LD: 1.0108135+ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 1.0108135.xml
RDF/JSON: 1.0108135+rdf.json
Turtle: 1.0108135+rdf-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 1.0108135+rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 1.0108135 +original-record.json
Full Text
1.0108135.txt
Citation
1.0108135.ris

Full Text

Lug A Mug Marketing Campaign – One Less Cup  Page 1 of 54  COMM 468-202 Marketing Applications  Lug A Mug Marketing Campaign  Jasmine Teh Randy Pan Sami Dong Stephanie Gozali Steven Eng Willson Wong Yulichia Ong  Lug A Mug Marketing Campaign – One Less Cup  Page 2 of 54  EXECUTIVE SUMMARY  5  PART I : AMS LUG A MUG PROGRAM OVERVIEW  6  PROBLEM  6  COMPANY ANALYSIS  6  UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA (UBC)  6  AMS FOOD AND BEVERAGE  7  BLUE CHIP COOKIES  7  CATEGORY ANALYSIS  8  COMPETITOR ANALYSIS  9  CUSTOMER ANALYSIS  9  CUSTOMER RESEARCH  9  CUSTOMER DESIRES  9  SAVING MONEY  9  A SUSTAINABLE WAY OF LIFE  9  LIMITING ASPECTS OF CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR  9  TARGET MARKET ANALYSIS CHANNEL ANALYSIS NETWORK OF VENDORS SWOT ANALYSIS  9 9 9 9  STRENGTHS OF THE MARKETING CAMPAIGN  9  WEAKNESSES OF THE MARKETING CAMPAIGN  9  OPPORTUNITIES OF THE MARKETING CAMPAIGN  9  THREATS TO THE MARKETING CAMPAIGN  9  CAMPAIGN OBJECTIVES  9  EVALUATION OF OBJECTIVES  9  ALTERNATIVE #1: COMBINED MESSAGE THROUGH AMS CHANNELS, WITH MUG DEVELOPMENT  9  ALTERNATIVE #2: COMBINED MESSAGE THROUGH AMS CHANNELS, WITHOUT MUG DEVELOPMENT  9  ALTERNATIVE #3: COMBINED MESSAGE THROUGH SUB CHANNELS, WITH MUG DEVELOPMENT  9  ALTERNATIVE #4: COMBINED MESSAGE THROUGH SUB CHANNELS, WITHOUT MUG DEVELOPMENT  9  RECOMMENDATION  9  Lug A Mug Marketing Campaign – One Less Cup  Page 3 of 54  PART 2: AMS LUG A MUG COMMUNICATION PLAN: THE MARKETING STRATEGY  9  OBJECTIVE FORMULATION  9  STRATEGIC MARKETING ISSUES  9  TARGET AUDIENCE  9  COMMUNICATION OBJECTIVE  9  ACTION OBJECTIVE  9  TARGET MARKET RESPONSE  9  CREATIVE IDEAS  9  POSTER #1: THE PAPER CUP TREE  9  POSTER #2: THE PERFECT GIRLFRIEND  9  Poster#3: WHICH WORLD WOULD YOU WANT TO LIVE IN?  9  RECOMMENDATION  9  SUPPORTING MARKETING ACTIVITIES  9  UBC MUG DAY  9  LUG A MUG PROGRAM COORDINATOR  9  CONTEST: MY DREAM MUG. DESIGN YOUR OWN MUG  9  MEDIA PLANNING MEDIA SELECTION  9 9  PRIMARY MEDIUM  9  SECONDARY MEDIUM  9  REACH PATTERN WEDGE PATTERN  9 9  FINANCIAL CONSIDERATIONS  9  MONITOR AND CONTROLS  9  AWARENESS SURVEY / AD RECOGNITION SURVEY  9  DATA FROM RETAIL SITES  9  CONSIDERATIONS  9  FOLLOW UP ACTIONS  9  TIMELINE  9  2007  9  2008  9  FUTURE OF AMS LUG A MUG  9  TIME EXTENSION  9  INTEGRATE WITH OTHER SUSTAINABILITY PROGRAMS  9  Lug A Mug Marketing Campaign – One Less Cup  Page 4 of 54  APPENDICES  9  APPENDIX 1 – LUG A MUG PROGRAM CONSUMER SURVEY  9  APPENDIX 2: ALTERNATIVE ANALYSIS  9  APPENDIX 3 – LUG A MUG PROGRAM POSTER SURVEY  9  APPENDIX 4 – IN DEPTH INTERVIEW  9  APPENDIX 5 – MJAT CHART  9  APPENDIX 6 – RESULTS OF THE POSTER SURVEY  9  APPENDIX 7 – PIN DESIGNS  9  APPENDIX 8 – FINANCIAL CONSIDERATIONS  9  REFERENCES  9  Lug A Mug Marketing Campaign – One Less Cup  Page 5 of 54  EXECUTIVE SUMMARY The current AMS Lug A Mug program has reached a plateau. The sales receipts at Blue Chip Cookies reveal that the program has achieved and maintained a 15 percent adoption rate among coffee consumers. The purpose of this marketing plan is to increase the adoption rate of the Lug A Mug program and increase mug usage across the UBC campus.  Customer research revealed that awareness of the Lug A Mug program is the primary issue. The research also revealed that our participants responded favourably to a sustained marketing effort promoting the price discount and its link to sustainability, as it was noted as important to the sample. Channel analysis revealed that a limited channel effort would severely hinder the reach of the Lug A Mug program. Our recommendation is that the Lug A Mug campaign should promote the price discount and the sustainability message together, without the retailing of a mug, and across all SUB vendors to maximize the effect of the campaign.  Furthermore, we developed three ideas to promote the Lug A Mug project: The paper cup tree, the human embodiment of a mug, and the contrast between worlds. Surveys, in-depth interviews, and a MJAT test were conducted to test each idea in relation to the Lug A Mug campaign. From the results of these tests, we recommend that AMS Lug A Mug employ the human embodiment of a mug idea as their campaign strategy.  We recommend that posters and the website be used as the primary mediums to promote awareness of the Lug A Mug campaign. Pins and table tents are recommended as the secondary medium to supplement the primary methods.  Lug A Mug Marketing Campaign – One Less Cup  Page 6 of 54  PART I : AMS LUG A MUG PROGRAM OVERVIEW  PROBLEM The AMS Lug a Mug Program has been in place for many years and it aims to encourage the usage of re-usable mugs. So far, the program has been carried out at AMS’ Blue Chips outlet and has been successful in reaching a 15% reusable rate1. Unfortunately, the 15% reusable rate has been stagnant ever since. As a result, more labor cost is incurred to empty garbage cans which are often filled with disposable cups. Furthermore, the cost of composting the disposable cups increases as fewer mugs are used. A survey2 has been conducted to explore the level of awareness of the Lug a Mug Program. The results show that the level of awareness of the program is low among students. Another problem from the pervious campaign was it operated as a silo project, creating incoherent messages with other sustainability projects on campus.  COMPANY ANALYSIS UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA (UBC) UBC is among hundreds of leading educational institutions that signed 1990's Talloires Declaration. These institutions pledged to make sustainability the foundation for campus operations, research, and teaching. They're encouraging their faculty, staff, and students to factor ecological, social, and economic consequences into all of their personal and professional decisions. 1 Out of all the customers who visited Blue Chip Cookies to buy hot drinks, only 15% of the customers brought with them a reusable mug. 2 See Appendix 1 for survey questions and results.  Lug A Mug Marketing Campaign – One Less Cup  Page 7 of 54  UBC is leading in a variety of ways, including:  y  In 1997 UBC became Canada's first university to adopt a sustainable development policy.  y  A year later, UBC became the country's first university to open a campus Sustainability Office.  y  In 2002, UBC discovered that our more than a dozen unique initiatives had made UBC Canada's leader in campus sustainability.  y  In 2003 and again in 2005, UBC was Canada's first and only university to receive Green Campus Recognition from the U.S.-based National Wildlife Federation.  y  UBC offers more than 300 sustainability-related courses.  AMS FOOD AND BEVERAGE y  Through the AMS, UBC students own and operate several businesses which provide employment for over 400 students and pay approximately $2 million in student wages. Some of these businesses include those that cater to your munchies needs.  BLUE CHIP COOKIES Blue Chip Cookies' disposable cups are made completely from paper and that the insulating foam on the outside is actually just paper injected with air. These cups are fully compostable. However, paper or styrofoam, it's still better to use a non-  Lug A Mug Marketing Campaign – One Less Cup  Page 8 of 54  disposable cup. Students are encouraged to bring their own mug in order to save 25 cents on their coffee.  CATEGORY ANALYSIS The AMS Lug-a-Mug campaign is in the category of marketing messages that promotes sustainability via reducing the consumption of paper cups on the UBC campus. UBC food services and Starbucks are other members of this category as each offer a variety of hot drinks or coffee as well as a price discount if a customer supplies their own mug. The category members involve the majority of vendors that sell coffee and hot drinks on campus and consist of the majority of sales for these beverages. There are plenty of substitutes available on campus ranging from other hot drink vendors to other types of beverages such as water and soft drinks. The category market size remains relatively constant as the influx of new students offsets the students leaving the campus in the same year. Category sales correspond to the quantity of students on campus during each semester as well as cyclical seasonal shifts in climate. The highest number of sales is associated with term one of the winter semester as the student population is the greatest and the weather is the coldest. Based on sales figures, Blue Chip’s total sales during October 2006 were 21750 cups of coffee and total sales during February 2007 were 18850. The most appropriate time for the category to actively promote a marketing message that encourages the use of mugs is clearly during the winter semester.  Lug A Mug Marketing Campaign – One Less Cup  Page 9 of 54  COMPETITOR ANALYSIS The AMS lug-a-mug campaign is about marketing an altruistic message about preserving the environment and promoting a sustainable lifestyle through reducing paper cup usage. As such, competitors in the traditional product, distribution, or channel oriented sense do not exist. Other vendors that offer coffee or hot drinks are only competitors to Blue Chips in the sense if they promote their own price discount if a customer provides their own mug at the point of purchase. One can take the case of UBC food services campaign for example. UBC food services is promoting that a price discount is available if a customer supplies their own mug when they purchase a hot drink or coffee from their own vendors. UBC food services’ message may assume the role of a competitor in the minds of consumers if the consumer is influenced significantly by price. Multiple messages communicating the same promotion can create the impression that different vendors are in competition with one another to provide the best price discount and acquire you as a customer. Essentially, different vendors offering the same price discount message as the primary strategy to reduce paper cup usage will lead to confusion and the creation of a competitive environment in the minds of consumers. Effectively, the real message about promoting sustainability becomes lost as the focus is on drawing customers on price. If this orientation is taken, then possible competitors that offer a rivaling price discount to entice the practice of using a mug would be all of the UBC food services vendors where coffee or hot drinks are available and Starbucks.  Lug A Mug Marketing Campaign – One Less Cup  Page 10 of 54  CUSTOMER ANALYSIS CUSTOMER RESEARCH A survey was designed, tested, and executed among 30 UBC students in the Sauder School of Business building. The survey was conducted using convenient sampling because of time and budget considerations. The results from the survey illustrate that the awareness level of AMS’s existing Lug-a-mug campaign are very low (Appendix 1). Only 10% of the respondents acknowledged that they have heard of the previous Lug-a-mug program before. This provides evidence that the previous attempts at promoting the Lug-a-mug message was poor and that students may not have noticed it to begin with or the campaign was not sustained and the students forgot about it. Additionally, about half of the sample (46.66%) is aware of any price discount available at any vendor on campus for bringing their own mug. These poor awareness results suggest that existing vendors have promoted their price discount inadequately. Awareness of available price discounts for bringing their own mug is a critical issue. 83.33% of respondents replied that they do own a mug. This provides support that deciding to sell a mug as part of the marketing communication strategy may not be a useful or effective medium to increase awareness of the sustainability message. Only 16% of these respondents replied that they bring their mug to UBC every day. The majority of the respondents that own a mug rarely or never bring their mug to UBC. However, 73.33% of respondents also replied that they would be willing to bring their mug if a price discount was given to each and every cup of coffee they purchased. This result shows that there is an incredible opportunity to significantly  Lug A Mug Marketing Campaign – One Less Cup  Page 11 of 54  increase the percentage of students that use their mug on campus. Any marketing campaign promoting a sustainable lifestyle by reducing the quantity of paper cup waste can potentially be successful if the message mentions the availability of a price discount due to the price elasticity of students. Therefore, the new Lug-a-mug campaign can have a substantial impact on the reduction on the quantity of paper cups being used on campus if problems with consumer awareness are solved and a price savings message is part of the communications. CUSTOMER DESIRES SAVING MONEY B2C: According to our consumer research, because most students already possess their own mug, the cost of mug is a sunk cost for them. Therefore, the 100% percent of the savings from each cup of coffee is pure profit for these consumers. In the long run, the aggregate saving across time can be a significant number. For example, if a full time student who is a heavy coffee drinker consumes 2 cups of coffee each day, he can potentially save up to $75 throughout an academic year, from September to April. B2B: Other beverage vendors save more than just the cost of a paper cup. They also have to consider the savings in inventory costs, disposal costs and labor costs. In this case, there can be significant savings for all participating vendors in the long run. A SUSTAINABLE WAY OF LIFE  Lug A Mug Marketing Campaign – One Less Cup  Page 12 of 54  Sustainability has become a trend that more and more consumers, particularly the more affluent and well educated, are becoming aware of. Several surveys and studies have been recently conducted and they showed favourable sentiment to the sustainability movement. Since the issue of the environment is on the forefront of many educational and political agendas, UBC is motivated to be a pioneer in the pursuit of a sustainable lifestyle. Students in this university are highly aware of this issue. A cup of coffee is a familiar and sometimes necessary part of a student’s life, and it provides an opportunity to encourage people to participate in a sustainable lifestyle. What better way than to start the day with having a cup of coffee and doing your part to save the world. More and more food and beverage vendors are becoming aware that if they promote that they are socially responsible they will be more popular and more attractive among young consumers. For example, Starbucks has recently started their own green coffee program a couple years ago to encourage consumers to bring their own mug instead of using paper cups. It is not advertised or promoted heavily, but if you use your own mug you will receive a price discount. LIMITING ASPECTS OF CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR The majority of coffee consumption happens in the early morning. This period also coincides with the highest student population during a typical day. To most coffee vendors, this morning rush is the busiest period and drives the majority of their revenue. Coffee consumption is partly seasonal as well. Late fall until early spring are the coldest days of the year where coffee consumption is the greatest.  Lug A Mug Marketing Campaign – One Less Cup  Page 13 of 54  Consequently, this period offers the greatest opportunity for a marketing message about sustainability to be utilized. In order to promote our sustainability message most effectively, the reason why students choose to use paper cups instead of mugs should be examined. The attitude towards the use of paper cups is largely a result of the convenience it provides the consumer. With a paper cup, they do not need to carry around a mug for the entire day. To some students, the thought about purchasing a coffee mug may also be a barrier due to the immediate financial cost. Our research has also shown that awareness is one of the largest barriers facing the lug-a-mug program. The majority of consumers are not aware of the AMS program, and the majority is also not aware that a price discount is available at certain vendors. The social norm is also an underlying motive behind the decisions of many students. Reaching the ‘tipping point’ where carrying a mug becomes accepted as a social norm and becomes emulated by others would remove this barrier for many students. As a result, the campaign may be somewhat limited until the ‘tipping point’ is reached and carrying a mug is acknowledged as the thing to do. Where the ‘tipping point’ lies in this case may be cause for further market research.  TARGET MARKET ANALYSIS AMS food and beverage can potentially have three groups of customers for their luga-mug sustainability campaign. y  B2C: University Students who are concerned about cost and/or the environment  Lug A Mug Marketing Campaign – One Less Cup  y  B2B: UBC food services  y  B2B: Independent food and beverage vendors on campus  Page 14 of 54  The campaign will primarily be used in a business to consumer (B2C) capacity to target the student population and encourage a step towards sustainable behaviour. Changing the behaviour of students at UBC is the ultimate goal and success will be measured only through their behaviour. The campaign can also be adjusted and promoted in a business to business (B2B) capacity to the other vendors on the UBC campus such as UBC food services and independent contractors in the SUB. The AMS outlets are relatively limited and their market only represents a small fraction of the entire student market. Creating buy-in from all or the majority of the vendors in the SUB will create a strong, consistent anchor for the campaign and a larger portion of the student population will be exposed to the sustainability campaign in more locations, increasing awareness. We further divide students into sub-categories in terms of their degree of concern about saving money and the environment. Across all segments, we are assuming that only students who consume coffee are included in the segments below. They are segmented as follows: y  Segment 1: students who are concerned about the environment and concerned about saving money  y  Segment 2: students who are concerned about the environment but not concerned about saving money  Lug A Mug Marketing Campaign – One Less Cup  y  Page 15 of 54  Segment 3: students who are not concerned about the environment but concerned about saving money  y  Segment 4: students who are not concerned about the environment and not concerned about saving money  The previous Lug a Mug program had attracted only a part of market segments one and two due to the limited marketing and channel effort. Our market research showed that there is still a huge potential to attract additional students. The new campaign should focus on targeting segments one, two and three. The best way to attract market segments one and two is to build a high level of awareness of the program. A combined cost savings message and a sustainability message would be appropriate elements to attract these consumers. Market segment three is also a target since they are highly concerned about their expenses, actively search for ways to save money, and most likely be interested in saving money on their coffee.  CHANNEL ANALYSIS The channels currently available to the Lug-A-Mug program are limited to the locations which AMS has access to.  The main channel is Blue Chip Cookies.  Nevertheless, it is possible to coordinate with other SUB vendors and various groups on campus to implement the marketing plan.  Our objective is to spread the  sustainability message around campus with wider channels.  Lug A Mug Marketing Campaign – One Less Cup  Page 16 of 54  NETWORK OF VENDORS With relationships already established, advantages can be taken from the WasteFree UBC network. WasteFree UBC is a collaboration among the Alma Mater Society, the Graduate Student Society, Housing, UBC Food Services, Waste Management, student groups and the Campus Sustainability Office. The goal is to reduce non-biodegradable waste and to develop campus-wide respect for the benefits of reducing, reusing and recycling. Since all these groups has common goal with AMS in achieving sustainability and longevity of the campus community, they should be willing to cooperate with this campaign.  SWOT ANALYSIS STRENGTHS OF THE MARKETING CAMPAIGN y  Currently, a measurable criterion (percentage of mugs out of total drink sales at Blue Chip Cookies) for the program is in place.  y  According to the U-PASS which focus on cost saving. It is clear that cost saving can be an effective focus to promote this program.  WEAKNESSES OF THE MARKETING CAMPAIGN y  Limited budget  y  Current low awareness of the program  y  Considering the total population of the target customer, the current reach is too small.  Lug A Mug Marketing Campaign – One Less Cup  y  Page 17 of 54  Whether the 15% of blue chip customers who use a mug to purchase coffee is significant in relation to the entire UBC market  y  AMS is a limited organization in terms of the number of food and drink channels they have to promote the message  OPPORTUNITIES OF THE MARKETING CAMPAIGN y  Students have exhibited concerns for environmental issues  y  Saving money is an important concern for almost all students  y  Huge potential to increase awareness if the reach of the campaign can be extended past its current state  y  Possible interactions with other organizations based on the success of upcoming marketing program.  THREATS TO THE MARKETING CAMPAIGN y  Mixed messages may cause confusion and inefficiency. (UBC food services and Starbucks running their own programs and promoting separately)  y  Students may feel that the initial cost of purchasing a mug is too high  CAMPAIGN OBJECTIVES After examining the problems facing the Lug a Mug Program, we have decided to focus on designing a communication plan aiming to increase the program’s awareness level as our primary goal. First, various alternatives will be analyzed to decide on the best approach to launch the communication plan. Second, various types of marketing message content will be explored to identify the most effective message which will  Lug A Mug Marketing Campaign – One Less Cup  Page 18 of 54  raise the program’s awareness level. Furthermore, as part of the communication plan, promotion and advertising mediums will be recommended. The long term goal of the Lug a Mug Program’s communication plan is to increase AMS’ environmental sustainability efforts following the success of the U-PASS program. The communication plan will commence in September 2007 and will be implemented throughout the 2007-2008 academic year.  EVALUATION OF OBJECTIVES Four alternatives have been identified to launch the communication plan. The alternatives are evaluated on the basis of the ability to generate awareness, cost, time, and be extended into a campaign (Appendix 2). For all four alternatives, the Lug a Mug Program will be promoted using a combined message content which encourages students to use mugs through an economic incentive and a sustainability incentive. Although the economic incentive is the bigger drive that encourages students to use mugs, focusing on promoting the program using the economic incentive only might lead to the loss of the sustainability message of saving more resources. This would be unacceptable as sustainability is the core purpose behind encouraging students to use mugs. ALTERNATIVE #1: COMBINED MESSAGE THROUGH AMS CHANNELS, WITH MUG DEVELOPMENT Pros: Since the marketing budget is focused on promoting only through AMS channels, the cost will be substantially lower as compared to other alternatives. Furthermore, less time is required to plan for the promotion of the program. Cons: The ability to create awareness for the program and to reach out to more students will be lower if the program is promoted through AMS channels only as  Lug A Mug Marketing Campaign – One Less Cup  Page 19 of 54  there are many other beverage services within the SUB which sells hot drinks. As such, the ability to leverage other sustainability campaigns in UBC will be lower since the program concentrates on AMS channels only. ALTERNATIVE #2: COMBINED MESSAGE THROUGH AMS CHANNELS, WITHOUT MUG DEVELOPMENT Pro: In addition to the benefits of promoting only through AMS channels, a communication plan that does not require mugs to promote the program enjoys a further cost advantage; incorporating the mug into the program would probably result in a loss as most students already owned mugs. More time is saved in terms of planning and implementing the program as this alternative does not have to go through the product development process for an appropriate mug. Cons: Same as Cons for Alternative #1. ALTERNATIVE #3: COMBINED MESSAGE THROUGH SUB CHANNELS, WITH MUG DEVELOPMENT Pros: By expanding the promotion of the program to incorporate other channels in the SUB, the ability to create awareness for the program is much higher than Alternatives #1 and #2. Students will be consistently exposed to the program whenever they are in the SUB. Moreover, by collaborating with other hot beverage services in SUB (UBC Food Services), this creates a more unified sustainability message and therefore the program becomes more campaignable as well. Cons: Although the ability to create awareness and the ability to leverage other sustainability campaigns in UBC is higher than Alternatives #1 and #2, this alternative requires the most marketing budget and the most planning and implementation time. Not only does this alternative requires more time to collaborate with other hot  Lug A Mug Marketing Campaign – One Less Cup  Page 20 of 54  beverage services in SUB, but more financial investment has to be made to identify and develop the type of mugs which appeals to students. ALTERNATIVE #4: COMBINED MESSAGE THROUGH SUB CHANNELS, WITHOUT MUG DEVELOPMENT Pros: Same as Pros for Alternative #3. Furthermore, this alternative is better than Alternative #3 as the cost and time required for product development of the mug is saved. Cons: As compared to Alternatives #1 and #2, this alternative requires a greater marketing budget as well as planning and implementation time because the promotion of the program is expanded to include other hot beverages services in the SUB.  RECOMMENDATION Based on our analysis, our team recommends that the Lug A Mug program should include a combined message in the marketing campaign throughout SUB channels, but without developing and selling the mug. The reason for this because based on the criteria for the alternative analysis chart (Appendix 2), alternative #4 has ranked the highest in terms of campaignability and effectiveness of increasing brand awareness level even though it costs more and requires more time to implement. Not requiring a mug is the best option because as mentioned before in the customer analysis, 25/30 or 83.33% of respondents replied that they do own a mug. This provides support that selling a mug as part of the marketing communication strategy may not be a useful or effective medium to increase awareness of the sustainability message. Therefore, instead of using the money to purchase mugs, it would be better to use the money to do more promotion in order to reach more students around UBC.  Lug A Mug Marketing Campaign – One Less Cup  Page 21 of 54  Another reason for choosing this alternative is the fact that previous marketing has failed to increase the mug usage to beyond 15% because they treated it as a silo project rather than incorporate the messages from another sustainability projects. As a result, people were confused with the incoherent messages from other vendors such as UBC food services. In addition, the previous program had attracted only students who care about environment due to the limited marketing and channel effort. As a result, there was low awareness level among the other students. Therefore, by channeling it through the SUB and cooperating with UBC Food Services, it will allow the campaign to read a larger audience more frequently.  PART 2: AMS LUG A MUG COMMUNICATION PLAN: THE MARKETING STRATEGY  OBJECTIVE FORMULATION The primary objective is to develop marketing strategies to increase the current 15% usage rate of mugs at the Blue Chip coffee bar in the SUB. The secondary objective is to develop marketing strategies that increase the awareness level of the Lug A Mug program. Contribution to Sustainability at UBC: Reducing materials usage, garbage disposal costs and resulting adverse environmental impacts such as deforestation and GHG emissions.  STRATEGIC MARKETING ISSUES  Lug A Mug Marketing Campaign – One Less Cup  Page 22 of 54  TARGET AUDIENCE Primary target: hot liquid drinkers who may or may not bring mugs to school. Secondary target: hot liquid drinkers who do not bring mugs to school. COMMUNICATION OBJECTIVE y  Increase the awareness level of the Lug A Mug Program  y  Increase the awareness level of the existing price discounts available at AMS food and beverage services and UBC food services.  y  Create a unified message as a part of UBC sustainability program.  ACTION OBJECTIVE y  Encouraging hot beverage drinkers to think positively and be excited about bringing a mug as a part of a healthier, sustainable lifestyle and simultaneously saving money.  TARGET MARKET RESPONSE Elicit a positive emotional response through generating a feeling of concern about the environment and creating the desire to take ownership of the problem and do their part to solve the problem.  CREATIVE IDEAS After brainstorming all the posters and visual materials, we conducted a consumer survey and an in-depth interview to test the posters. During the survey (Appendix 3), we asked the opinions of 40 participants in terms of: y  The attention attracting ability of each poster  Lug A Mug Marketing Campaign – One Less Cup  y  The persuasiveness of the image and message of each poster  y  The relevance of each poster to students  y  The clarity of each message  Page 23 of 54  An In-depth interview consisting of 5 students from U.B.C. was also conducted to gauge student reaction to the preliminary graphic representations of the three proposed campaign ideas (Appendix 4). The 5 students were selected through the process of convenient sampling. However, we qualified each participant to ensure that they consume coffee and do not use a mug regularly so the results would be more relevant to the target market. The in depth interview measure was used as a complementary method to the survey to explore responses in the level of detail that cannot be assessed through a survey. The purpose of the in depth interview was to assess the effectiveness of each idea by: y  Inquiring further insight into the attention and interest commanding capabilities of each idea  y  Exploring the relevancy of each idea in relation to sustainability  y  Revealing emotional responses to each campaign idea  In addition, we ran the MJAT4 tests in order to choose the best poster that can deliver the combined messages of saving money and sustainability effectively. POSTER #1: THE PAPER CUP TREE The purpose of this poster is to show the negative effect of using paper cups and the consequences of damaging the environment. It evokes a negative feeling because many trees have been cut down for this and it evokes positive feeling of bringing their  Lug A Mug Marketing Campaign – One Less Cup  Page 24 of 54  own mugs to save the trees. It is a simple and easy to understand concept. The image of having a paper-cup tree creates enough originality that is interesting enough to attract students’ attention. However, no mug was directly shown in this creative, which makes the poster lack a strong association with the product that we are trying to achieve the sustainability goal through. In general, this poster is suitable to any demographic audience. POSTER #2: THE PERFECT GIRLFRIEND The use of sex appeal in this poster is to create a memorable campaign. Several research studies have found that sex appeal in advertising is attention-grabbing, likable, and arousing. It usually evokes positive feelings such as excitement and desire. It is also effective in eliciting fantasy. Also, it is easy for our target customers to link the poster to lug-a-mug program when they see a woman-shaped mug on the poster.  4  MJAT (Management Judgment ad Test): Fully structured pre-test in which 7 of us systematically evaluate rough ads for the campaign, including rough versions of promotions and other marketing communications material. An MJAT pre-test should be used prior to every campaign. See Appendix 5 for MJAT results.  However, since we do not have a “Perfect Boyfriend” version, some girls felt offended when they saw this poster. Therefore, we can only give a 2 out of 10 in the MJAT test (Appendix 5) for the target market resonance evaluation category since we think it will only have a significant impact on male target customers. This problem can somewhat be alleviated with a follow-up poster featuring the “perfect boyfriend.” Poster#3: WHICH WORLD WOULD YOU WANT TO LIVE IN?  Lug A Mug Marketing Campaign – One Less Cup  Page 25 of 54  The purpose of this poster is to show the negative effect of using paper cups and consequently damaging the environment. The bright green color of the tree on the grassland inside the frame would certainly attract viewer’s attentions since the color stands out from the background of the monochrome landfill. This is the part which shows the positive effect of bringing mugs and so achieving sustainability of the environment. Such strong contrast on the poster reflects the huge impact students can accomplish if they participate in the Lug-A-Mug program. By showing the two contrasting worlds and questioning our audience, “Which world you want to live?”, we are creating a sense of fear of living in such a world. However, the message we are sending out via the poster is not interesting and innovative enough; it looks very similar to other sustainable messages. Therefore, it is not easy to attract people’s attention. Also, the mug is not directly showed on the poster, so people may not be able to associate this poster to lug-a-mug program.  RECOMMENDATION Based on results of the survey (Appendix 6), poster #3 was rated highest in attracting attention, relevance to the sustainability movement, and clarity when rated individually. Poster #2 rated highest in the persuasiveness of its message and it was rated second in every other category when rated individually. Poster #1 rated lowest in all categories when rated individually. However, when the respondents were asked to rank each poster against the other, different results were obtained. When the three posters were ranked in terms of their  Lug A Mug Marketing Campaign – One Less Cup  Page 26 of 54  attention attracting capabilities, poster #2 was ranked first and poster #3 was ranked second. This shows that although poster #3 was rated highest in its ability to attract attention when it’s by itself, it may get lost or dominated on a bulletin board covered with other posters promoting other messages. When the posters were ranked on how well each poster motivates the participant to you a mug, poster #2 was ranked first and poster #1 was ranked second. A reason why poster #2 was rated best at motivating consumers to use a mug may be because it was the only poster that showed a mug. The other two posters may be initially confused with other environmental campaigns. When the posters were ranked on how well each poster promotes sustainability, poster #3 was ranked first by a very large margin. This result supports poster #3’s poor ranking in its motivating abilities to encourage mug use. Poster #3’s message may be very strongly associated with promoting sustainability in general, but it shows a tremendous weakness in its ability to promote sustainability through the use of mugs. According to our testimony from the in-depth interviews (Appendix 4), poster #2 would definitely create a lot of buzz and discussion among students due to its touchy content. This could increase the awareness level significantly but a great deal of care must be used to ensure that the message is not overly offensive. Participants agreed that posters #1 and #3 were highly related to sustainability. However, because no mug is shown on these posters, the message about promoting sustainability through  Lug A Mug Marketing Campaign – One Less Cup  Page 27 of 54  the use of mugs is not very strong or effective. In addition, poster #2 ranked the highest in the MJAT test which supports the effectiveness of the idea. In order to keep the poster consistent and interesting, there would be 4 different executions of the idea that would be advertised around the SUB throughout the year.  SUPPORTING MARKETING ACTIVITIES UBC MUG DAY A date should be set as the Mug Day to celebrate the use of mugs as a means to help save the environment. This special day will serve to remind students the importance of reducing the usage of disposable cups. This special day can be incorporated during the UBC sustainability month, which is in October. We plan to set up a booth for the Lug a Mug program in the AMS hallway for 1 or 2 weeks. The kiosk can serve several purposes: y  Build additional awareness: larger version of posters and banners can be shown at the kiosk. Volunteers can actively talk to students and staff about the program.  y  Providing information: Providing people who are interested in this program with specific information such as where you can get a discount if they bring their mugs. Additional information including how using a mug can help reduce the amount of garbage and prevent trees from being cut down can be communicated.  y  Gift handout: Stickers and pins can be handed out to people who bring their own mug to campus to further encourage them to do so.  LUG A MUG PROGRAM COORDINATOR  Lug A Mug Marketing Campaign – One Less Cup  Page 28 of 54  If the marketing budget is sufficient, we suggest that a student worker be hired as the Lug a Mug Program Coordinator. The coordinator will work under the supervision of the AMS Associate VP, University Affairs or other AMS Executives. The main responsibilities of the coordinator include overseeing the planning, management and implementation of the Lug a Mug Program: y  Work collaboratively with other AMS units (such as AMS Food and Beverage Services, AMS Communication Services and Student Environment Centre) to advertise and promote Lug a Mug.  y  Act as a liaison for AMS and work closely with other sustainability related units on campus (such as the UBC Sustainability Office, UBC Waste Management and UBC Food Services) to actively promote Lug a Mug.  y  Supervise and monitor the promotion and advertising efforts for program.  y  Recruit volunteers to be ambassadors for the Lug a Mug Program.  CONTEST: MY DREAM MUG. DESIGN YOUR OWN MUG This activity is suggested to start at the beginning of fall semester. The content is to have students design a graphic of their dream mug. The specific rules, time, location shall be posted online and be provided during the kiosk setup period. There are two phases of this contest. The first half of the contest is to find people to join the contest and obtain graphics from them after 1 or 2 months. The second phase is to post these graphics online or throughout the SUB building to allow people to vote on them. Voters will be recorded by student number and we will randomly draw a few student numbers to create hype for the contest winner. Of course, the winner of the graphic  Lug A Mug Marketing Campaign – One Less Cup  Page 29 of 54  will also receive a reward. The winning graphic can be either used as a new poster or be modified into an actual mug that can be promoted in future Lug a Mug executions.  MEDIA PLANNING MEDIA SELECTION PRIMARY MEDIUM y  Print ads  y  AMS website  A primary medium is one that is able to deliver all of the communication objectives of the advertising campaign. We have chosen more than one primary medium because we think it is more applicable to reach all of our target audiences. Our environmental message is a low involvement and informational message. In order to increase its awareness, brand recognition needs to be achieved during the early stage of our marketing campaign (September to October), while brand recall should be retained during the late stage of our marketing campaign (January to February). When brand recognition is an objective, it requires visual capacity. Pint ads are proven to be the one that has the highest exposure on campus. In addition, print ads are considered to be our first primary medium as it can reach as many target users as possible at a low cost. Posters will be placed in various locations to increase the awareness of the Lug-AMug program. Firstly, they should be placed near food outlet cash registers so that the message will reach most of the food customers who are most likely to use paper  Lug A Mug Marketing Campaign – One Less Cup  Page 30 of 54  cups. Secondly, the posters can be placed near the paper cups stack and on the composting bins. The context of this will certainly be high since these places are where students get their paper cups and deposit them afterwards. Thirdly, the posters should also be placed at the bus loop, as this is the most likely location students would read information while waiting for buses. Furthermore, they should be posted on bulletin boards inside the SUB because many students eat the SUB. With posters placed in multiple locations, awareness of the Lug-A-Mug program will certainly be increased. After the program, it is important to follow up with our channel partners to determine what worked best and what needs to be revised, as well as to brainstorm ideas for adding more excitement to the next program. The AMS website is regarded to be our another primary medium since it can be used to reinforce our communication message when students go online and look for further information on our marketing campaign. Also, other environmental related projects can be displayed on the website so students have access to other related environmental information. The website would be designed to be more interactive because one of the objectives of this marketing campaign is to make the sustainability lifestyle more interesting and appealing. SECONDARY MEDIUM y  Pins  A secondary medium is used for boosting a particular communication effect that is an objective of the campaign. After brand awareness been increased by our primary  Lug A Mug Marketing Campaign – One Less Cup  Page 31 of 54  media, we need to stimulate usage intentions. This can be done by reaching our target users in the places where hot beverage can be purchased. Pins can be considered to be given out when students bring their own mug to purchase hot beverages. Pins have high visual capacity and low cost. Pins will be given at certain time throughout the marketing campaign. The pins will be given one by one and a campaign can be created out of this. For example, during the first week we can give out pins with the word “one,” then over next three weeks we can give the pins with the word “less.” The purpose for this is to keep the interest level of the audiences high and to send continuous messages periodically (See appendix 7). y  Table tents  The graphic of the poster can be edited and printed into tent cards to be placed at SUB tables and dinning hall tables during our promotion periods. Several tent cards should be placed at the counter of Blue-Chip and other beverage counter in AMS building if the vendor has no objection.  REACH PATTERN WEDGE PATTERN In this reach pattern, we will spend more budgets at the beginning of our campaign (September to October). Our communication message requires repeating usage, so high frequency is needed initially to create awareness and to enable prospective users to learn the benefits of our message. However, in the late cycle of our marketing  Lug A Mug Marketing Campaign – One Less Cup  Page 32 of 54  campaign, less frequency is needed to maintain the communication effects if the use of mugs have already been established in the early stage of our campaign.  FINANCIAL CONSIDERATIONS (See Appendix 8)  MONITOR AND CONTROLS AWARENESS SURVEY / AD RECOGNITION SURVEY Time: 1 month after the first advertising and event period, November Purpose: Exam the effectiveness of building consumer awareness. This measure includes brand recognition, brand perception, attitude towards the Mug program and attitude towards environmental issues. DATA FROM RETAIL SITES The purchase data from the coffee store such as the Blue Chip show the change of % of consumers using mug, which is the change of market share. It is a direct measure of the effectiveness of the campaign. However, it does not explain the relationship between awareness level and a change in consumer behavior. Time: Analyze the sales data every month and observe possible trends. CONSIDERATIONS If the awareness is low, according to the survey the promotion channel is not effective or the creative idea doesn’t grab enough attention. If the awareness is high but the  Lug A Mug Marketing Campaign – One Less Cup  Page 33 of 54  change in consumer behavior is low, the creative may not have delivered a clear message, the incentive to change such behavior is low, or maybe the wrong message was delivered. FOLLOW UP ACTIONS The consumer survey results and monitoring data allows the campaign manager to keep track of the consumer awareness and attitudes towards the program. As a result, the manager can modify the program to what suits the situation best. The controlling actions that can be applied are as follows: y  Change the content/ time/ location of the event  y  Alter the location of the posters/banners  y  Change the message or redesign the poster using if possible  y  Second round of promotion can focus on attracting untouched unfavorable brand switchers.  TIMELINE 2007 August 31st: y  Printing materials including posters, stickers, pins and banners all ready  Sept 10th y  Execution one of the ‘Perfect girl/boy friend’ posters start to be posted at various location in AMS building  y  Volunteers recruited.  Oct 1st till Oct 22nd  Lug A Mug Marketing Campaign – One Less Cup  y  Page 34 of 54  Campus sustainable month, counter set up inside or around AMS building 3 days every week. Hand our pins/stickers.  y  Information of My Dream Mug contest released, accept applications.  November 12th till 17th y  Consumer tracking survey conducted and data gathered  y  Execution two of the ‘Perfect girl/boy friend’ posters start to be posted at various location in AMS building  November 18th till December 18th y  My Dream Mug contest design phase 1 due date, all the competing graphics collected  y  Consumer data analyzed. Adjustment to the second semester plan made.  2008 Jan 7th y  Execution three of the ‘Perfect girl/boy friend’ posters start to be posted at various location in AMS building  y  Voting of the My Dream Mug contest begins  Jan 14th till Jan 28th y  Counter set up around AMS building 2 days every week.  y  Winner and lucky voter of My Dream Mug contest announced, reward hand out.  End of March y  Wrap up tracking data and conclude the effectiveness of the project.  Lug A Mug Marketing Campaign – One Less Cup  Page 35 of 54  FUTURE OF AMS LUG A MUG TIME EXTENSION Building awareness and changing consumer behavior has to be sustained for a couple of years to obtain a truly measurable effect. The reason is to keep building awareness over years to form social norms and allow time for consumers to prime such behavior. Thus, the same logo and same theme may have to be run for a couple of years, since most students stay around UBC for 2-4 years. This is why campaignability in the idea is incredibly important. INTEGRATE WITH OTHER SUSTAINABILITY PROGRAMS Other current or up coming UBC sustainability programs may help us perform better. The data and evidence from the composting project can help our program to increase the awareness of the recycling issue. The Lug a Mug program is serving the purpose of promoting a sustainable environment around the UBC community. This goal is shared amidst the other sustainability projects. The experience gained from this program can help future projects perform better in many aspects. For example, we can figure out what kind of approach is the most effective to attract students’ attention. Multiple sustainable programs can be promoted during the same time period under a general theme and controlled by a general system such as the UBC sustainability system to truly promote a unified sustainability message.  Lug A Mug Marketing Campaign – One Less Cup  Page 36 of 54  APPENDICES  APPENDIX 1 – LUG A MUG PROGRAM CONSUMER SURVEY Consumer Survey We did a small scale survey on 30 UBC students about the Lug a Mug program. The questions that we asked were as following: 1. Have you heard about Lug a Mug Program? Yes: 3/30  (10%)  No: 27/30  (90%)  ÎOnly 10% of the students are aware of the Lug a Mug Program. 2. Do you have your own Mug?  Lug A Mug Marketing Campaign – One Less Cup  Yes: 25/30  (83.33%)  No: 5/30  Page 37 of 54  (26.67%)  ÎApproximately 83% of students already owned a mug. 3. If you have your own Mug, do you bring your own mug to school regularly? Everyday: 4/25 (16%) Once or Twice a Week: 5/25 (20%) Rarely/Never: 16/25 (64%) Î 64% of the students you have their own mugs do not use the regularly. 4. If there is a price discount on every cup of coffee that you purchase, would you consider using a mug more often? Yes: 22/30  (73.33%)  No: 8/30  (26.67%)  Î Approximately 73% of the students are interested in using mugs more regularly if there is a price incentive.  Lug A Mug Marketing Campaign – One Less Cup  Page 38 of 54  APPENDIX 2: ALTERNATIVE ANALYSIS Criteria Ability to create awareness- to reach more students (1 denotes low ability)  A1 3  A2 3  A3 8  A4 8  Cost (1 denotes high cost)  7  8  5  6  Time required (1 denotes a lot of time required)  5  7  3  5  Campaignable (1 denotes low ability) Note: The ability of the alternative to be leveraged on other sustainability campaigns.  3  3  8  8  Total Score  18  21  24  27  Justifications By focusing only on AMS channels such as Blue Chips to promote the Lug a Mug program (A1 & A2), fewer students can be reached. By expanding the program to incorporate other channels in the Student Union Building, this will allow the program to reach more students. If the marketing budget is focused on promoting the program only through AMS channels, the cost will be lower as compared to promoting the program through SUB channels. Incorporating the mug into the program would probably result on losses as most students already owned mugs. Promoting the program through various SUB channels (A3 & A4) would mean more effort and therefore more time is required (for negotiation etc). If a mug is used as a main medium to promote the program, more time will be required for product development- decide on what type of mugs typically sell best etc. By working with other units (ie: Pacific Spirit Place- UBC Food Services) at the SUB, this creates a more unified sustainability message and therefore is more campaignable. Students will be consistently being exposed to the Lug a Mug Program whenever they are in the SUB, therefore, the alternatives which promote the program throughout SUB channels will have higher ability to be leveraged on to other sustainability efforts.  A1: Alternative 1, A2: Alternative 2, A3: Alternative 3, A4: Alternative 4 Each alternative will be evaluated within a score of 1- 10. 1 denotes the worst alternative while 10 denotes the best alternative. Alternative 4 is the best alternative because it has a score of 27 out of 40, the highest as compared to other alternatives.  Lug A Mug Marketing Campaign – One Less Cup  Page 39 of 54  APPENDIX 3 – LUG A MUG PROGRAM POSTER SURVEY  COMM 468- Marketing Applications AMS Sustainability- Lug a Mug Program Poster Survey The purpose of this survey is to measure the effectiveness of various marketing messages in terms of motivating students to bring their own mugs, thus reducing the usage of disposable paper cups. Please review the each poster carefully. Examine the image and message content and answer the subsequent questions. Poster #1:  COMM 468 Marketing Applications  Note: 1 denotes low, 5 denotes high A. Please rank, on a scale of 1 to 5, how likely you would be to stop and take a closer look at this poster if you were walking through the SUB and saw this poster posted. (please circle one) 1 2 3 4 5 B. Please rank, on a scale of 1 to 5, how motivated you would feel to use a mug after viewing this poster. 1 2 3 4 5 C. Please rank, on a scale of 1 to 5, how well you can relate to the message? 1 2 3 4 5 D. Please rank, on a scale of 1 to 5, how strongly do you perceive this poster to be associated with the issue of sustainability? 1 2 3 4 5  Lug A Mug Marketing Campaign – One Less Cup  Page 40 of 54  Poster #2:  Note: 1 denotes low, 5 denotes high A. Please rank, on a scale of 1 to 5, how likely you would be to stop and take a closer look at this poster if you were walking through the SUB and saw this poster posted. (please circle one) 1 2 3 4 5 B. Please rank, on a scale of 1 to 5, how motivated you would feel to use a mug after viewing this poster. 1 2 3 4 5 C. Please rank, on a scale of 1 to 5, how well you can relate to the message? 1 2 3 4 5 D. Please rank, on a scale of 1 to 5, how strongly do you perceive this poster to be associated with the issue of sustainability? 1 2 3 4 5  Lug A Mug Marketing Campaign – One Less Cup  Page 41 of 54  Poster #3:  Note: 1 denotes low, 5 denotes high A. Please rank, on a scale of 1 to 5, how likely you would be to stop and take a closer look at this poster if you were walking through the SUB and saw this poster posted. (please circle one) 1 2 3 4 5 B. Please rank, on a scale of 1 to 5, how motivated you would feel to use a mug after viewing this poster. 1 2 3 4 5 C. Please rank, on a scale of 1 to 5, how well you can relate to the message? 1 2 3 4 5 D. Please rank, on a scale of 1 to 5, how strongly do you perceive this poster to be associated with the issue of sustainability? 1 2 3 4 5  Lug A Mug Marketing Campaign – One Less Cup  Page 42 of 54  4. Please rank the three posters above, on a scale of 1 to 3, in terms of how well they attract your attention. (1 = best, 3 = worst) Poster #1 _____ Poster #2 _____ Poster #3 _____  5. Please rank the three posters above, on a scale of 1 to 3, in terms of how well they motivate you to use a mug. (1 = best, 3 = worst) Poster #1 _____ Poster #2 _____ Poster #3 _____ 6. Please rank the three posters above, on a scale of 1 to 3, in terms of how well they promote the importance of sustainability. (1 = best, 3 = worst) Poster #1 _____ Poster #2 _____ Poster #3 _____  Thanks for taking the time to fill out this survey!  Lug A Mug Marketing Campaign – One Less Cup  Page 43 of 54  APPENDIX 4 – IN DEPTH INTERVIEW IDEA #1: THE PAPER CUP TREE Most of the participants are able to describe the image exactly the way we want them to perceive; the tree is made of paper cups. Many of them have no strong feelings about the tree. The only obvious reaction is that the tree abnormal and different from the normal trees seen in daily lives. In terms of attractiveness, some people think it is boring and lack of creativity because they have seen similar designs at various media. Some participants also think that there is nothing really catchy about the poster; they wouldn’t have paid attention to it if they are in a hurry. Nevertheless, there are some participants who think that it is interesting, strange and unexpected so they will stop and check it out of their curiosity. In terms of the meaning of the picture, more than half of the participants are able to figure out that this is environment protection related advertising, since the logic is easy to see: the tree grows paper cup because paper is made out of wood. As we are using paper cups, trees are being cut down. Some people also make the link to recycling and composting. Some participants actually perceive it as a poster related to coffee or other kinds of drinking party. After we show the participants the poster with words on it, many of them think that the image properly conveyed the message of using less cups saves more tree. In this case, the environmental sustainability message is well communicated. Many people however, think that the implication to use mugs more often is uncertain since there are other reusable containers. Furthermore, some participants believe that the “save money” message is not necessary in this poster, since the important message of the poster is about sustainability. Some suggestions of improvement of this poster are: put more than one tree, may be a forester on the picture, as well as some logged paper cup tree, to make people more concern about the factor we are destroying the environment by using these paper products. Maybe some people who are using mug can be added to the picture to show the solution of preventing trees being cut down. It  Lug A Mug Marketing Campaign – One Less Cup  Page 44 of 54  might also be helpful to emphasize on having trees is much better than cutting them down. Some graphic improvement can be made to make the tree more real and increase viewer’s empathy. IDEA #2: THE PERFECT GIRLFRIEND Most participants think that the idea of having a woman-shaped mug in the poster is original and therefore it is able to grab people’s attention right away; they are willing to stop to take a closer look at this poster as they walk by. When we only show them the pure picture without any words on it, many of them think it is a promotion for a mug company. However, when we show them again the complete poster (picture and words), we have found that most participants are able to receive the message, which is that having a mug on hand is the same as having a perfect girlfriend. Also, most of the male participants say that it is very likely for them to start using a mug after seeing this poster. For most of the female participants however, they do not think the poster is effective in communicating the sustainability message. Several female participants are offended with some messages on the poster, especially with “low maintenance” and “will never cheat on you”; it seems to imply that women are high maintenance and always cheats on a relationship. Some participants are able to associate the perfect girl to a mug. Therefore they are able to get the message of being environmental sustainable. Some participants however, do not think that the message of saving money is necessary to be put on this poster, since the poster is mostly about sustainability. We also receive a lot of suggestions from our participants to make the poster better; more improvements on the graphics can be done, since some participants say that it is not too clear that the mug has a woman body shape if they do not take a close look at the picture. Also, some other participants suggest moving the title to top of the poster, and the mug picture can be moved to the  Lug A Mug Marketing Campaign – One Less Cup  Page 45 of 54  left hand side of the poster, leaving the right hand side for words. The background can be changed to white to make it more readable. In addition, some female participants would like to change the statement on the poster since they think it is a little bit offending. IDEA #3: WHICH WORLD DO YOU WANT TO LIVE IN? The responses from the participants are split in terms of their opinion of the attractiveness of the poster. The participants who are attracted to the poster think that the image is attractive; they like the contrast of the colour scheme and the “life” versus “death” comparison. The participants who mention that the image does not capture their attention think that the poster is not attractive in terms of design as the colours are not particularly vibrant. Also, they have largely become desensitized to the image because they have been accustomed to such images being used for socially responsible marketing messages. The participants think that the image portrayed on the poster is relevant as a sustainability message. They can easily understand that the devastated environment conveys the consequence of continuing to use paper cups to consume coffee whereas the healthy tree conveys the result of using a mug. The life and death, heaven or hell associations are all evaluated as being useful metaphors for our marketing message. The majority of the emotional responses that this poster produced consisted of feelings of sadness, confusion, shock, anguish, despair and disbelief. Some participants revealed that they felt angry and questions were raised such as who was responsible, how did this happen, and could the consumption of paper cups actually create so much devastation. The emotions of sadness are largely expected as the poster is designed to generate these feelings.  Lug A Mug Marketing Campaign – One Less Cup  Page 46 of 54  Some participants believe that as a bulletin board full of posters are all posturing for viewers’ attention, this poster may get dominated due to the lack of any vibrant colours or bold images. The background image may be too busy and the healthy, green tree may not stand out enough. Therefore, larger images may be more effective.  Lug A Mug Marketing Campaign – One Less Cup  Page 47 of 54  APPENDIX 5 – MJAT CHART Integrated Benefit Brand Resonate to Campaign Compelling Symbolism target SMILE Product Possibility Average Paper Cup Tree Perfect Girlfriend Which Future You Prefer  7  3  5  8  4  6  5.5  8  6  2  9.5  9  6  6.75  8  5  6  9  3  6  6.167  The measurement of the above MJAT test is rated using a scale from 1 to 10, 1 represents the worst degree in terms of the criteria; 10 represents the best degree. The detailed reasoning is written below. All three creative ideas have more than average quality based on our MJAT evaluation. The “Perfect Girlfriend” has the highest rating, which is 6.75, and “Which World Do You Want to Live In” is on the second position with a rating of 6.167. The “Tree With Paper Cups” is on the third place with a rating of 5.5, which is still an above average quality. All three creative works are able to convey the lug-a-mug’s benefits; nevertheless, some work is needed to make the campaign more effective. THE PAPER CUP TREE The poster shows that the benefit of using a mug is reducing tree logging and having a more sustainable environment in the future. It is simple and easy to understand. The image of having a paper-cup tree is interesting enough to attract students’ attention. However, no mugs are directly shown in this creative, which makes the poster lack association with the product we want to  Lug A Mug Marketing Campaign – One Less Cup  Page 48 of 54  promote. In general, this poster is a good creative work, and suitable to any demographic audience. THE PERFECT GIRLFRIEND This poster is simple, and the idea behind it is that having a mug is the same as having a perfect girlfriend. This idea is very easy to communicate to our target customers. By shaping a mug into a woman body on the poster, we are able to grab people’s attention immediately. Also, it is easy for our target customers to link the poster to the Lug a Mug Program when they see a womanshaped mug on the poster. However, since we do not have a “Perfect Boyfriend” version, some girls may feel offended when they see this poster. Therefore, we only give 2 out of 10 for the “resonate target” evaluation category, since we think it will only have a significant impact on male target customers, while little impact on female target customers. WHICH WORLD DO YOU WANT TO LIVE IN? This poster is very easy to understand. The idea behind it is very simple; the dead forestry on the background tells people that using fewer paper cups is basically saving more trees. However, the green tree in the middle of the poster represents an alternative world that we can live in if we choose to use fewer paper cups. Lug-a-mug program is under informational category for brand preference, which means people will accept our marketing ideas because of negative reasons. Therefore, by showing the two contrasting world, and questioning our audience, “Which World Do You Want to Live In”, we are creating a sense of fear of living in a world that has no trees so that our target customers are able to realize the importance of being sustainable. However, the message we are sending out via the poster is not interesting and innovative enough; it looks very similar to other sustainable messages. Therefore, it is not easy for people to pay attention to. Also,  Lug A Mug Marketing Campaign – One Less Cup  Page 49 of 54  the mug is not directly showed on the poster, so people may not be able to associate this poster to the Lug a Mug Program.  Page 50 of 54  Lug A Mug Marketing Campaign – One less Cup  APPENDIX 6 – RESULTS OF THE POSTER SURVEY Data Collection: *Conducted at the student Union Building. *40 students participated in the survey. *All survey participants were shown the colored version of the posters to assist them with answering the survey. Data Entry: For Questions 1,2,and 3 *Responses for each of the individual posters (1,2,3) were entered separately into 3 spreadsheets. *All 40 responses where used. For Questions 4, 5,and 6 *Responses for each questions were entered into one spreadsheet. (This helps to identify if the responses for each of the questions are related to each other.) *Only responses from 34 respondents were used because the rest misread the directions and did not answer the survey correctly. Specifically, they did not rank the posters but instead rated the posters for questions 4,5,and 6.  Question 1-3 Results shown against each other: Question 1-3 Results: 4.5 4 3.5 3 Poster 1  2.5  Poster 2 2  Poster 3  1.5 1 0.5 0 Attention  Persuasiveness  Relevance  Clarity  Page 51 of 54  Lug A Mug Marketing Campaign – One less Cup  Question 4 Results: (The lower score is better) Question 4: Attention attracting capabilities  3.00 2.50  2.26 1.91  1.82  2.00  Mean Standard deviation  1.50  Standard deviation 1.00  0.751  0.834  0.830  0.50 0.00 Poster #1  Poster #2  Poster #3  Question 5 Results: ( The lower score is better) Question 5: How related is the poster to a mug?  2.50 2.12 1.97  1.91  2.00  1.50  Mean 0.797  1.00  0.880  0.793  Standard deviation  0.50  0.00 Poster #1  Poster #2  Poster #3  Question 6 Results: (The lower score is better) Question 6: How well does each poster promote sustainability?  2.50  2.26  2.21  2.00 1.53 1.50  1.00  Mean 0.797  0.793  0.880  0.50  0.00 Poster #1  Poster #2  Poster #3  Standard deviation  Lug A Mug Marketing Campaign – One less Cup  APPENDIX 7 – PIN DESIGNS  Page 52 of 54  Page 53 of 54  Lug A Mug Marketing Campaign – One less Cup  APPENDIX 8 – FINANCIAL CONSIDERATIONS  Estimated Budget  $2500  List of financial expenditures: Poster displacement cost  $1000  Printing expenditures  $200  Cost of pings / stickers  $350  Kiosk setup cost  $150  Contest reward costs  $350  Contest / event setup costs  $300  Estimated total expenditure  $2350  Page 54 of 54  Lug A Mug Marketing Campaign – One less Cup  REFERENCES  Brown, Shawn. Cha, Deborah. Cheng, Chris. Rameshni, Farnaz. So, Cheryl. Zhang, Kim. “Compost Social Marketing Plan for UBC Food Services.” 6 Dec. 2006. 4 March. 2007 <http://www.sustain.ubc.ca/pdfs/seeds_06/marketingcomposting/Food%20Services% 20Compost%20Social%20Marketing%20Plan%20FINAL.pdf> Ching, Vinci. Gazzola, Paul. Juzkow, Karen. Kan, Kenrick. Lin, Tina. Wark, Caroline. Yeung, Eman. “UBC Food System Project: Food Waste Management – The Hot Beverage Cup” 3 April. 2002. 6 March. 2006 <http://www.landfood.ubc.ca/courses/agsc/450/project/files/studentreports2002/group  082002.htm> Rossiter, John R. Bellman, Steven “Marketing Communications.” 2005 The UBC Food Services Homepage. 9 March. 2007. The University of British Columbia Food Services Department. 13 March. 2007  <http://www.food.ubc.ca/>  The UBC Food Services Sustainability Page. 1 Feb. 2007. The University of British Columbia Food Services Department. 14 March. 2007 <http://www.food.ubc.ca/about/sustainability.html>  The UBC Food Services Sustainability Initiatives Page. 1 Jan. 2007. The University of British Columbia Food Services Department. 20 March. 2007 <http://www.food.ubc.ca/about/initiatives.html>  

Cite

Citation Scheme:

    

Usage Statistics

Country Views Downloads
Canada 6 0
United States 3 5
Singapore 1 0
United Kingdom 1 0
City Views Downloads
Richmond 3 0
Ashburn 2 0
Vancouver 2 0
Mississauga 1 0
Poole 1 0
Unknown 1 3
Redmond 1 4

{[{ mDataHeader[type] }]} {[{ month[type] }]} {[{ tData[type] }]}
Download Stats

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
http://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/dsp.18861.1-0108135/manifest

Comment

Related Items