UBC Undergraduate Research

The Design of a Portable Biodiesel Plant Bhachu, Umeet; Chow, Norman; Christensen, Andreas; Drew, Amanda; Ishkintana, Linda; Lu, Jerry; Poon, Conrad; Villamayor, Crissa; Setiaputra, Ayrien; Yau, Tony 2005

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DEPARTMENT OF CHEMICAL & BIOLOGICAL ENGINEERING  The Design of a Portable Biodiesel Plant  CHBE 452/453/454  TM  Submitted to: Dr. Jim Lim Date: April 12, 2005 Prepared by: CHBE 452/453/454 Design Group 3  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA  DEPARTMENT OF CHEMICAL & BIOLOGICAL ENGINEERING  UBC  ©  BioDiesel IN MOTION  CHBE 452/453/454 FOURTH YEAR DESIGN PROJECT FINAL REPORT  THE DESIGN OF A PORTABLE BIODIESEL PLANT  Umeet Bhachu  Norman Chow  Andreas Christensen  Amanda Drew  Linda Ishkintana  Jerry Lu  Conrad Poon  Crissa Villamayor  Ayrien Setiaputra  Tony Yau  CHBE 452/453/454 Design Group 3  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA  B I O D I E S E L ~IN MOTION  FINAL REPORT  Executive Summary The main goal of this project is to design a mobile biodiesel production plant, which is capable of producing 3000 L of biodiesel per week. The design constraints specify that the biodiesel production plant must be sized to fit into a standard truck-trailer with dimensions 8 feet wide by 40 feet long by 9.5 feet tall. The plant is to be self sufficient in one form of energy (provided by the client), adaptable to different grades of waste vegetable oil (WVO), environmentally friendly, and economically feasible. This report presents the final design of the mobile plant in two-dimensional Process Flow Diagrams (PFD’s) and three-dimensional AutoCAD renderings. The main reaction, the pre-treatment, and the purification stages are described in detail and the proposed process, including equipment design specifications, is introduced. The feasibility of this design was evaluated through an environmental impact assessment and economic analysis. Although the contents of wastewater are unsuitable for discharge, the economic analysis, including wastewater disposal costs, proves the design to be economically feasible. With the production rate of 156,000 L biodiesel annually, a profit of $20563 each year is realized. For the continuation of this project, future groups are encouraged to collect data specific to biodiesel and determine the demand for a such a mobile plant.  iii  B I O D I E S E L ~IN MOTION  FINAL REPORT  Table of Contents Executive Summary ........................................................................................................ iii Table of Contents ............................................................................................................ iv List of Tables.................................................................................................................... vi List of Figures ................................................................................................................ viii 1.0 Introduction ................................................................................................................. 1 2.0 Concept ....................................................................................................................... 2 2.1 Choice of Reaction .............................................................................................. 2 2.1.1 Enzymatic Catalyzed Reaction ............................................................ 2 2.1.2 Acid-Catalyzed Esterification Reaction............................................... 2 2.1.3 Transesterification Reaction ................................................................. 3 2.2 Narrowing Down of Pre-treatment Reaction.................................................... 3 2.3 Narrowing Down of Post-Treatment Reaction................................................. 5 3.0 Process ....................................................................................................................... 7 3.1 Process Flow Diagram ........................................................................................ 7 3.2 Piping and Instrumentation Diagram .............................................................. 11 3.3 Start-up, Shutdown and Emergency Procedures ......................................... 13 3.4 Mass Balance ..................................................................................................... 14 3.5 Energy Balance, Heat Integration and Pinch Analysis ................................ 16 4.0 Equipment Design and Specifications.................................................................. 18 4.1 Storage Tanks .................................................................................................... 18 4.2 Reactors .............................................................................................................. 19 4.3 Packed Distillation Tower ................................................................................. 20 4.4 Heat Exchangers ............................................................................................... 21 4.5 Hydrocyclones .................................................................................................... 22 4.6 Counter-Current Liquid-Liquid Extraction Column........................................ 23 4.7 Pumps.................................................................................................................. 24 4.8 Piping ................................................................................................................... 25 4.9 Plant Layout ........................................................................................................ 26 5.0 Environmental Assessment ................................................................................... 28 5.1 Environmental Assessment of Wastewater ................................................... 28 5.2 Environmental Assessment of Glycerol ......................................................... 29 5.3 Environmental Assessment of Secondary Effects........................................ 29 5.4 HAZOPs .............................................................................................................. 30 6.0 Economic Assessment ........................................................................................... 31 6.1 Cost Implementation ......................................................................................... 31 6.2 Production Cost.................................................................................................. 31 7.0 Conclusions and Recommendations.................................................................... 34 8.0 Nomenclature ........................................................................................................... 35 9.0 References ............................................................................................................... 36  iv  B I O D I E S E L ~IN MOTION  FINAL REPORT  Appendix A: Concept ..................................................................................................... 38 Appendix B: Process Flow Diagrams and Piping and Instrumentation Diagrams39 Appendix C: Process ..................................................................................................... 51 Appendix C.1: Start-up, Shutdown and Emergency Procedures .......... 51 Appendix C.2: Aspen Simulation Results.................................................. 54 Appendix C.3: Heat Integration Tables and Pinch Analysis Equations 62 Appendix D: Equipment Design and Specifications ................................................. 68 Appendix D.1: Tables and Figures ............................................................. 68 Appendix D.2: Sample Calculations........................................................... 75 Appendix D.3: Pump Specifications ........................................................... 86 Appendix D.4: Piping Data and Specifications ......................................... 88 Appendix D.5: Plant Layout ......................................................................... 91 Appendix E: Environmental Assessment ................................................................... 94 Appendix F: Economic Analysis................................................................................. 128  v  B I O D I E S E L ~IN MOTION  FINAL REPORT  List of Tables Table C.1-1. Start-up Procedures................................................................................ 51 Table C.1-2. Shutdown Procedures ............................................................................ 52 Table C.1-3. Emergency Procedures.......................................................................... 52 Table C.1-4. Trip Matrix................................................................................................. 53 Table C.2-2. Second Treatment Aspen Simulation Results for D101 ................... 56 Table C.2-3. Aspen Simulation Results for D301 ..................................................... 58 Table C.2-4. Aspen Simulation Results for D302 ..................................................... 58 Table C.2-4. Aspen Simulation Results for D302 ..................................................... 59 Table C.2-5. Aspen Simulation Results for D401 ..................................................... 61 Table C.3-1. Heat Exchanger Stream Data ............................................................... 62 Table C.3-2. Shifted Temperatures and Ranks......................................................... 63 Table C.3-3. Temperature Interval Heat Balance ..................................................... 64 Table C.3-4. Energy Flow Between Intervals ............................................................ 65 Table D.1-1. Tank Design Specifications ................................................................... 73 Table D.1-2. Reactor Design Specifications .............................................................. 73 Table D.1-3. Reactor Impeller Design Specifications............................................... 73 Table D.1-4. Physical Properties of Glycerol and Biodiesel.................................... 74 Table D.3-1. Centrifugal Pump Specifications........................................................... 86 Table D.3-2. Pump Design Parameters...................................................................... 86 Table D.3-3. Metering Pump Specifications............................................................... 87 Table D.4-1. Pipe Material and Size Specifications.................................................. 90 Table E-1. Wastewater Composition........................................................................... 94 Table E.2. Related Sewer Use Bylaw Specifications for Sewer Discharge.......... 94 Table E.3. HAZOPs for Stream 007............................................................................ 95 Table E.4. HAZOPs for Stream 008............................................................................ 99 Table E.5. HAZOPs for Stream 108.......................................................................... 102 Table E.6. HAZOPs for Stream 201.......................................................................... 105 Table E.7. HAZOPs for Stream 201S ....................................................................... 108 Table E.8. HAZOPs for Stream 201WC ................................................................... 109 Table E.9. HAZOPs for Stream 201WH ................................................................... 110 Table E.10. HAZOPs for Stream 202........................................................................ 111 Table E.11. HAZOPs for Stream 202S ..................................................................... 114 Table E.12. HAZOPs for Stream 203........................................................................ 115 Table E.13. HAZOPs for Stream 204........................................................................ 118 Table E.14. HAZOPs for Stream 205........................................................................ 121 Table E.15. HAZOPs for Reactor 201....................................................................... 124 Table E.16. HAZOPs for Storage Tank 201............................................................. 127  vi  B I O D I E S E L ~IN MOTION  FINAL REPORT  Table F-1. Hydrocyclone Capital Cost ...................................................................... 128 Table F-2. Tank Capital Cost ..................................................................................... 128 Table F-3. Heat Exchanger Capital Cost.................................................................. 128 Table F-4. Reactor Capital Cost ................................................................................ 128 Table F-6. Pumps Capital Cost.................................................................................. 129 Table F-7. Distillation and Extraction Column Capital Cost .................................. 129 Table F-8. Direct and Indirect Cost Summary ......................................................... 129 Table F-9. Total Capital Investment Summary........................................................ 129  vii  B I O D I E S E L ~IN MOTION  FINAL REPORT  List of Figures Figure A-1. Esterification reaction. Triacylglycerols (TAG) reacts with methanol to produce fatty acid methyl esters (FAME, or biodiesel)..................................... 38 Figure C.2-1. First Treatment Aspen Distillation Column Unit D101 ..................... 54 Figure C.2-2. Second Treatment Aspen Distillation Column Unit D101Table C.21. First Treatment Aspen Simulation Results for D101.................................... 54 Table C.2-1. First Treatment Aspen Simulation Results for D101 ......................... 55 Figure C.2-3. Aspen Distillation Column Unit D301.................................................. 57 Figure C.2-4. Aspen Distillation Column Unit D302.................................................. 57 Figure C.2-5. Aspen Distillation Column Unit D401.................................................. 60 Figure C.3-1. Heat Exchanger Network...................................................................... 66 Figure D.1-1. Mobile Biodiesel Production Plant....................................................... 68 Figure D.1-2. Schematic of Waste Vegetable Oil Storage Tank T001 .................. 68 Figure D.1-3. Schematic Diagram of Transesterification Reactor R201 ............... 69 Figure D.1-4. Schematic of Methanol-Water Distillation Tower D401 ................... 69 Figure D.1-5. Berl Packing............................................................................................ 70 Figure D.1-6. Trough Type Distributor ........................................................................ 70 Figure D.1-7. Hydrocyclone Correlations Between Separation Characteristics, Cyclone Diameter and Cyclone Throughput if a Gas Core is Present .......... 70 Figure D.1-8. Schematic Diagram of a Hydrocyclone .............................................. 71 Figure D.1-9. Schematic Diagram of Extraction Column E301............................... 71 Figure D.1-10. Water-Ethanol-Ester Mixture Ternary Diagram .............................. 72 Figure D.1-11. HETS as a Function of Diameter vs. Interfacial Tension .............. 72 Figure D.5-1. Plant contained in a 40 ft. trailer.......................................................... 91 Figure D.5-2. Isometric view of plant........................................................................... 92 Figure D.5-3. View of plant from driver's side of truck.............................................. 92 Figure D.5-4. View of plant from passenger side of truck........................................ 93 Figure D.5-5. Top view of plant.................................................................................... 93  viii  B I O D I E S E L ~IN MOTION  FINAL REPORT  1.0 Introduction The purpose of this project is to design an economically feasible mobile biodiesel plant capable of processing different grades of waste vegetable oil (WVO) to produce 3000 L of biodiesel per week. The mobile biodiesel production unit will travel to locations such as cruise ship ports and small communities, where the clients are participating in the Biodiesel~In Motion program. The clients are provided with two tanks, one for WVO collection and storage and the other for the biodiesel product. It is desired that the mobile plant operate to meet the production requirements of 3000 L of biodiesel per week at the end of a 40-hour work week, such that the plant requires two full-time operators. The biodiesel produced can then be sold back to the client to fuel their diesel-engined machinery. In addition, the only client requirements are that they must provide electrical energy, water, and steam for the mobile plant process. This final report details the plans and decisions that were made leading up to the completion of the design of the mobile plant. Section 2.0 will present the main reaction that was chosen to convert WVO to biodiesel, including the rationale and consequences for this choice. The process which takes WVO through pre-treatment, reaction, and finally, purification is described in Section 3.0 and illustrated in Process Flow Diagrams and Piping and Instrumentation Diagrams attached in Appendix B. The equipment that this process requires is sized and shown in Section 4.0. Section 5.0 discusses the environmental impacts of this mobile plant. Finally, based on equipment cost estimates, the feasibility of this mobile plant is evaluated in an economic analysis in Section 6.0. Finally, recommendations have been proposed for the continuation of this project.  1  B I O D I E S E L ~IN MOTION  FINAL REPORT  2.0 Concept 2.1 Choice of Reaction The most common method to produce biodiesel is by an esterification reaction of vegetable oils. Esterification refers to the catalyzed chemical reaction of vegetable oil and alcohol to form fatty acid methyl esters (FAME, or biodiesel) and glycerol. The catalyst can be either enzymes, acids, or bases. In this project, waste vegetable oil (WVO) is considered to be the primary reactant. The main components of WVO is triacylglycerol (TAG), which consists of three long fatty acid chains esterified to a glycerol backbone27. When TAG reacts with an alcohol, the fatty acid chains are released from the glycerol backbone to yield fatty acid methyl esters. Figure A-1, in Appendix A, shows how the TAG’s in vegetable oil react with methanol to produce biodiesel and glycerol. 2.1.1 Enzymatic Catalyzed Reaction Enzyme-catalyzed esterification is a promising alternative to traditional esterification methods. It uses little organic solvents, and requires little downstream treatment. The most common enzyme for the esterification reaction is lipase. A methanol to WVO molar ratio of 4:1 and 30 wt% of lipase6, results in an acceptable conversion of 85% TAG to FAME. The major disadvantages of enzyme-catalyzed esterification however, include the high cost of lipase, and the slow reaction rates, making this method unfavourable for this project.  2.1.2 Acid-Catalyzed Esterification Reaction Acid catalysts such as sulphuric acid are used to esterify WVO to biodiesel. A molar ratio of methanol to WVO of 30:1 to convert 90% of TAG is required. At 65ºC the reaction time is approximately 69 hours27. The advantage of the acid-catalyzed esterification is that the reaction is insensitive to the free fatty acid (FFA) content in the WVO; therefore no FFA pre-treatment is required. Nonetheless, since the methanol requirement is very high, larger reactors and downstream separation units would be necessary. In effect, the  2  B I O D I E S E L ~IN MOTION  FINAL REPORT  sizing requirements and process time constraints of the mobile unit operation does not justify this method for optimal biodiesel production.  2.1.3 Transesterification Reaction Alkali-catalyzed transesterification (also known as alcoholysis) uses an alkali such as NaOH or KOH as catalyst to convert TAG into biodiesel. The preferred methanol to WVO molar ratio is 6:1. At 65ºC, a 93-98% conversion of the TAG is achieved within one hour26. In comparison to both the enzyme- and acid-catalyzed esterification reactions, the high yield in a relatively short reaction time makes the transesterification reaction the method of choice in this project. Methanol and NaOH are suggested as reactant and catalyst, respectively, because of their relatively low cost. In addition, no significant process enhancement has been reported in literature by use of heavier alcohols. Methanol to WVO molar ratio of 6:1 and 0.5% w/w NaOH is chosen in agreement with literature suggestions. The transesterification reaction requires a low water (<0.06% w/w) and FFA content (<0.5% w/w)17 in the WVO. Thus, pre-treatment of the crude WVO must be implemented. Employing a WVO pre-treatment section inherits the benefit of making the mobile biodiesel unit more flexible toward varying grades of WVO, thereby maximizing the client-base. Finally, due to the presence of excess methanol and glycerol by-product, post-treatment of the biodiesel mixture is required. The method of choice of WVO pre-treatment and biodiesel purification will be addressed in the following sections. 2.2 Narrowing Down of Pre-treatment Reaction The FFA contained in WVO is mostly oleic acid. Used frying oil from restaurants and food service establishments usually contain 1.5-5.4 wt% FFA, whereas combined mixed greases such as frying oil, acidulated soap stock, tallow, yellow grease, animal/vegetable blended grease may contain up to 16.9 wt% FFA18. The FFA content should be below 3  B I O D I E S E L ~IN MOTION  FINAL REPORT  0.5 wt% for the alkali transesterification process to be efficient since the presence of FFA competes with the transesterification reaction by consuming alkali to produce soaps and water, which subsequently causes emulsion formation2. The presence of emulsions will then create problems in the downstream processing and purification of biodiesel. Several options are available to treat FFA contained in the WVO. These include: caustic stripping, steam stripping, solvent extraction, grease hydrolization to 100% FFA, and conversion of FFA into methyl esters. Caustic stripping uses centrifugation with the addition of NaOH to remove FFA. However, this method is only suitable for WVO with a lower percentage of FFA (<10 wt%) since clean oil would be significantly lost above this percentage19. Grease containing 10 wt% FFA might lose 30% of its clean oil to the conversion of FFA to soap. Steam stripping can remove up to 95% FFA24, but this process has four basic steps: degumming, bleaching, deacidification, and thermal quenching before proceeding to FFA esterification. The steam stripping process is very energy intensive18 and is not suitable for a mobile unit. Another alternative is to use isopropanol solvent extraction, which separates TAG from other contaminants such as FFA, but the solvent can be very costly and the vapour is very toxic. Hydrolyzing grease to 100% FFA and then proceeding with acid esterification might be cost effective but long reaction times are expected. A more efficient approach is to convert FFA into methyl ester by means of an esterification reaction, therefore reducing FFA content to below the suggested limit of 0.5 wt%2, and then proceeding to the alkali-catalyzed transesterification reaction. In the FFA pre-treatment reactor, methanol and sulphuric acid are added to the WVO depending on the FFA content. Yellow grease (<15 wt% FFA) is treated with 20:1 methanol to FFA molar ratio and 5 wt% H2SO42. Brown grease (>15 wt% FFA) requires a methanol to FFA molar ratio of 40:1 and 15 wt% acid catalyst2. Due to the different acid catalyst dosages, a titration step will need to be included prior to FFA pre-treatment to determine FFA content and the degree to which pre-treatment is required.  4  B I O D I E S E L ~IN MOTION  FINAL REPORT  The sulphuric acid catalyst and methanol added to the reactor converts FFA into methyl esters. After a one-hour reaction time, only about 2.5 wt% FFA should remain. To further reduce FFA content, water produced from the esterification must be removed along with excess methanol. Another dosage of fresh sulphuric acid and methanol must again be added to the reactor for the second esterification reaction. After another hour of treatment time, the pre-treated WVO should contain less than 0.5% FFA2. The pre-treated WVO will then be pumped to a distillation column to remove water and excess methanol prior to being pumped to the main reactor. The water and methanol produced from the two-step esterification reactions are then distilled to recover methanol for recycling back through the process, while the water is pumped to a wastewater reservoir. Three batch reactors are used to remove the FFA content in the WVO. The reason for implementing this strategy is to ensure that the distillation column is run continuously, and to produce two batches simultaneously. 2.3 Narrowing Down of Post-Treatment Reaction The unrefined biodiesel, along with excess reactants and by-products, are pumped to a reservoir from the main reactor. From the reservoir, the raw biodiesel is pumped into a separator, in which glycerol is separated out from the raw biodiesel. The first separation technique, separation by gravity settling, will employ either a drum or a vertical gravity separator. The relatively cheap and mechanically simple drum can be easily maintained, although maintenance includes monthly manual cleanings. Since the drum operates by gravity, the biodiesel must be allowed to settle for at least one hour before it can be extracted; the settling time can be improved by a greater surface area or by adding additional drums. The second separation operation, the vertical gravity separator, also depends on gravity for separation. The vertical gravity separator is more advantageous because it is capable of varying the temperature, pressure, and flow rate to enhance the settling time. However, for this portable plant, its size and energy requirements are areas of concern.  5  B I O D I E S E L ~IN MOTION  FINAL REPORT  The third separation option is a hydrocyclone. The design of a hydrocyclone for the separation of two immiscible liquids (glycerol and biodiesel) using a standard cyclone is more flexible in terms of size, cost, and ease of maintenance compared with the first two separation methods. The liquid-liquid hydrocyclone operates by separating the heavy component and the light component based on the density difference. In this case, biodiesel is lighter than water so it is possible for the hydrocyclone to perform the separation. The hydrocyclone will garner energy considerations because it requires a pump to perform separations; however, it contains no moving parts which greatly simplifies the maintenance. The biodiesel, coming out as the continuous phase from the hydrocyclone, will be sent to a distillation column to separate out methanol. The methanol separated here will be pumped into the methanol purification unit and be recycled through the process. After methanol separation the biodiesel continues to flow into a neutralization reactor where sulphuric acid is added to neutralize the caustic biodiesel. The reactor will be equipped with an impeller and baffles to ensure complete mixing. The treated and purified biodiesel is now ready to be pumped to storage tanks. The extraction column appears immediately after the neutralization reactor The feed stream entering the extraction column is composed of biodiesel, salt and soap. Since the concentration of salt and soap in the feed stream is less than 1 %, as determined by the mass balance, this system is dilute. Water sprayed from the top of the column will be used as the solvent to remove the salt and soap contaminants from the biodiesel. The extraction column will be operated in counter-current mode. An 85 mol% biodiesel stream will exit the top of the column, while water, soap, and salt will exit the bottom as a wastewater stream.  6  B I O D I E S E L ~IN MOTION  FINAL REPORT  3.0 Process 3.1 Process Flow Diagram The biodiesel production plant is separated into five sections as follows: Section 000: Reactant Preparation, Section 100: Pre-treatment, Section 200: Transesterification Reaction, Section 300: Purification, and, Section 400: Solvent Recovery and Product Storage. The corresponding Process Flow Diagrams (PFD’s) are presented in Appendix B. Section 000 is concerned with the storage, heating, and distribution of chemicals required for the other sections of the plant and consists of six unit operations: three storage tanks, T001, T002, and T003, one mixer, M001, and two filter screens, F002 and F003. The WVO is stored in storage tank T001 at the client’s location and has a capacity of approximately 5000 L. In order for the WVO to flow easily prior to being pumped to Section 100 for pre-treatment, a heating coil through which electrical energy is supplied is installed to heat the WVO to approximately 65ºC. Two filter screens on tank T001 are required, one 1 cm mesh screen (F001) at the top of the tank to filter large debris present in the WVO and one 20 µm mesh screen (F004) at the tank outlet to further filter any remaining smaller particles in the WVO prior to being sent to the pre-treatment section. Sulphuric acid, stored in tank T002 with a capacity of 4 L, is pumped and heated by heater H001 to either Section 100 or Section 300. Methanol, supplied by a manufacturer or distilled and recycled by the distillation column in Section 400, is stored in tank T003 with a capacity of approximately 4700 L and then heated to 40ºC prior to being sent to Section 100 or Section 200. In addition, solid sodium hydroxide is solubilized in methanol in mixer, M001, which is then pumped and heated prior to being sent to the transesterification reactor in Section 200. The solubility of sodium hydroxide in methanol is 1 g NaOH in 4.2 mL CH3OH. Finally, water, supplied by the client, is passed through one of two filters in order to remove ions that would interfere in the biodiesel production process, and is pumped and heated to the extraction column in Section 300.  7  B I O D I E S E L ~IN MOTION  FINAL REPORT  Section 100 is the part of the process where WVO is treated in two one-hour reaction steps in order to reduce the free-fatty acid (FFA) content of the WVO to 0.5 wt% or less since the presence of FFA in WVO inhibits the transesterification reaction. This section consists of five unit operations: three reactors, R101, R102, and R103, a distillation column, D101, operating at 61oC and 0.1 atm, and one storage tank, T101, for the treated WVO. The final design for the pre-treatment section was based on the continuous operation of the distillation column and minimizing the number of reactors required. The pretreatment sequencing is broken down into the hour into the operation. Reactors R101, R102, and R103 (each approximately 1200L capacity) are sealed and steam is injected into the heating jackets outside each vessel early in the batch run to pre-heat the reactants and to obtain the optimal temperature for the esterification reaction to occur. At the beginning of the first hour, R101 and R102 are filled with the appropriate amounts of WVO, methanol, and sulphuric acid for the first FFA treatment step (20:1 molar ratio of methanol to WVO and 5 wt% sulphuric acid) leaving R103 empty at this time. During the first hour, both reactors R101 and R102 are undergoing the first FFA treatment step at 60oC and 1 atm. During the second hour, the WVO, water, FFA, along with the methanol and sulphuric acid in R101 is distilled through the distillation column and discharged into empty reactor R103. At the beginning of the third hour, the appropriate amount of methanol and acid for the second FFA treatment step (40:1 molar ratio of methanol to WVO and 5 wt% sulphuric acid) is added to R103. During the third hour, R103 is now undergoing the second FFA treatment for one hour while the contents of reactor R102 is distilled through the distillation column into reactor R101. At the beginning of the fourth hour, the appropriate amounts of methanol and acid for the second FFA treatment step for R101 are added (40:1 molar ratio of methanol to WVO and 5 wt% sulphuric acid). During the fourth hour, the contents of R103 is distilled and directed into the holding tank, T101, with a capacity of 500 L. The WVO is now fully treated and is ready to be pumped into the reaction stage, Section 200, of the plant. Meanwhile, the contents of R101 are undergoing the second stage of FFA treatment. During the fifth hour, the contents of R101 are now distilled through the distillation column into the holding tank,  8  B I O D I E S E L ~IN MOTION  FINAL REPORT  T101. Following this step, 600 L of treated WVO is available, enough for supplying Section 200 for the rest of the day. It is desired to operate the FFA pre-treatment unit for a second time at the end of the working day in order to prepare the WVO for the transesterification reaction step to operate at the beginning of the next working day. The treated WVO will be stored overnight in tank T101 and will be heated to 60oC at the beginning of the working day to allow easy pumping into the main reactors. Section 200 is the part of the process where the treated WVO from the pre-treatment section along with methanol and sodium hydroxide catalyst react to form the main product, biodiesel, and by-product, glycerol, by means of a transesterification reaction. The main unit operations in this section include the reaction vessel, R201, and the biodiesel storage tank, T201. The reactants entering the reaction vessel, R201, include the sodium hydroxide in methanol mixture from mixer M001, methanol from tank T003, both from Section 000, and the treated WVO from T101 in Section 100. Reactor R201 has a capacity of 320 L and is equipped with heating jackets where steam and cooling water are applied to maintain a reaction temperature of 65oC. The biodiesel, produced by the transesterification reaction, is pumped to the storage tank, T201 (with a capacity of 270 L), which acts as a reservoir for the next continuous separation process in the subsequent section. Section 300 is concerned with the product purification of biodiesel from by-products and excess reactants. This section consists of six unit operations: two hydrocyclones, HC301 and HC302, two distillation columns, D301 and D302, one reactor, R301, and one extraction column, E301. The basic biodiesel/glycerol/methanol/soaps mixture at 65°C from the transesterification reactor is pumped into two hydrocyclones in series, HC301 and HC302, where the  9  B I O D I E S E L ~IN MOTION  FINAL REPORT  glycerol is separated as the bottoms product and sent to tank T403 for storage. The light component from the hydrocyclones, which contains the biodiesel, methanol, and soaps, is sent to a distillation column, D301, operating at 85oC and 1 atm, where methanol is boiled off and sent to Section 400 for further treatment. The basic bottoms stream from the distillation column consisting of biodiesel and trace amounts of soap, is pumped continuously into a continuous stirred tank reactor, R301, where it is rapidly neutralized with the addition of sulphuric acid. To remove the salt and soap produced from the neutralization reaction, the mixture is then pumped into the bottom inlet of the countercurrent liquid-liquid extraction column, E301, operating at 73oC and 1 atm. When the salt content of the biodiesel is low enough as determined from its conductivity, the washed biodiesel is sent to distillation column, D302, operating at 215.1°C and 1 atm, to remove entrained water, then condensed and sent to the wastewater storage tank T402 with a capacity of 6964 L. The purified biodiesel is pumped and stored in storage tank T404 in the subsequent section. Section 400 is the storage system network to store spent reactants, glycerol, wastewater, and the purified biodiesel product. This section consists of five unit operations: four storage tanks, T401, T402, T403, and T404, and one distillation column, D401. The wastes that are produced during the biodiesel production process are glycerol, methanol (contaminated with water), and wastewater (containing sodium sulphate, sulphuric acid, methanol, and soap). Tank T401, with a capacity of 1203 L, is a spent methanol storage tank which supplies a distillation column, D401, at a constant flowrate to distil the methanol, then condensed in condenser C401 and is either refluxed back into distillation column D401 or recycled to tank T003 to be reused in the process. The bottoms from the distillation column is mostly water, and is either reboiled and returned back into the bottom of the column, or is disposed of into the wastewater tank T402. Wastewater from the extraction column, E301, and distillation column, D302, in Section 300 are also sent to tank T402 for storage. Glycerol from the hydrocyclones is stored in tank T403 and the purified biodiesel is stored in storage tank T404.  10  B I O D I E S E L ~IN MOTION  FINAL REPORT  3.2 Piping and Instrumentation Diagram The Piping and Instrumentation Diagrams (PID’s) are based on the PFD’s and presented in Appendix B. The governing controller for our entire plant is a Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) that controls all pumps and valves to direct the flow of various reactants and products throughout the plant. The localized transmitters and controllers are implemented to maintain level, temperature, and pressure set-points, as well as to monitor viscosity (as a measure of purity), pH, and salt content of various unit operations. A detailed description of these localized transmitters and controllers is discussed in this section. To prevent restating recurring features in the PID drawings, features that are general to all sections are summarized. Level transmitters, level alarms, and pressure relief valves are installed on all tanks, reactors, and distillation columns. Level transmitters and controllers are installed to monitor and adjust the liquid level in a vessel. all tanks and reactors are equipped with a temperature sensor and controller, with the exception of T003 and M001 and the tanks in Section 400, to control the steam in/condensate out streams into and out of a heated jacket fitted around the vessels to maintain the vessels at the set-point temperature. For streams that carry condensate from a heating jacket or heat exchanger, steam traps are installed to prevent heat and energy losses from expelling steam. The valve fail-safe positions have been included and placed underneath the valve designation. The temperature of the sulphuric acid stream 003 is measured using transmitter TT0304. The controller, TC0304, is used to control the flow of steam passing through the heat exchanger. A simple feedback control loop is used to control the flow rates of streams 003 and 004. The stream of methanol that leaves T003 and enters M001 is controlled by a feedback loop to ensure that the NaOH is fully solubilized by the methanol. The temperatures of all of the exiting methanol streams (006 through 008) are controlled using feedback loops to adjust the flow rates of steam through the heat exchangers (H002  11  B I O D I E S E L ~IN MOTION  FINAL REPORT  to H004). The water passes through one of two filters. Pressure transmitters are located on the filters for early detection of clogging. In the event that a filter is clogged or requires cleaning or maintenance, the flow controller will manipulate the three-way valve to direct the water to the other filter. A feed forward controller is then used to vary the steam flow rate through the heat exchanger, H005, based on the flow rate of water. Metering pumps P001, P002, and P003 pump a fixed volume of reactants to Section 100. The valves that control the supply of reactants into the three reactors R101, R102, and R103, are shown as “XV” to designate that these valves are simply on/off valves and are only required to either be open or closed at specified times. No-flow transmitters are needed for the reactant streams from Section 000 since the metering pumps in Section 000 supply the required volumes and ratios of reactants for pre-treatment. The extent of WVO transesterification to biodiesel in Section 200 is determined by monitoring the viscosity of the biodiesel product using an on-line viscometer implemented on R201. Once the viscosity reaches the set-point value, valve V202 opens and the contents of R201 are directed into Section 300. There are two safety controls loops using flow transmitters and controllers. The flow transmitters, FT2105 and FT2107 detect any flows in streams 201 and 202, respectively, and sends signals to the flow controllers FC2105 and FC2107, which shut off valves V203 and V204, respectively. These safety control systems prevent any biodiesel in the storage tank from flowing in and out at the same time. The third flow control loop is designed for the outlet biodiesel stream 205 going to the hydrocyclones in Section 300. This control loop prevents an overflow of biodiesel in the storage tank by controlling the valve V205 to allow a certain flow rate of biodiesel in the stream entering the hydrocyclone, HC301, in Section 300. A viscometer is implemented on the bottoms streams for the two distillation columns D301 and D302 to ensure the separation is satisfactory before moving on to the following step in the process. The viscometer controller takes the input from the viscometer transmitter and controls a three-way valve that sends the bottoms stream back into the column if the mixture is not pure enough. Because of this feature, in contrast to the other  12  B I O D I E S E L ~IN MOTION  FINAL REPORT  distillation columns in the plant, the pump for the bottom stream is placed before the reboiler to prevent pump cavitation. For the mixer R301, a pH meter continuously measures the pH of the mixture in the vessel. If the pH is above the set-point, the flow controller will open valve V308 to allow more sulphuric acid into the reactor. Stream 310 acts only as a overflow prevention valve that allows the biodiesel in the extraction column to flow back to stream 322 and does not have anything to do with the pH setpoint. A conductivity meter CT3607 measures the salt content in the wastewater stream 316 and compares it to the salt content in the wash water stream entering the extraction column, E301. If the difference in salt concentration is above the set point, valve V312 will direct the flow to stream 314 where the biodiesel is washed again in the extraction column. When the correct salt concentration difference has been reached, valve V312 will direct flow via stream 315 into distillation column D302. To ensure a steady flow rate into distillation column D401, the flow into D401 is controlled with a feedback control loop which controls valve V404. The instrumentation for D401 follows the same principles as that for D101. The level transmitters that are installed on the tanks in this section are for monitoring purposes only and are not connected to any controllers. 3.3 Start-up, Shutdown and Emergency Procedures The start-up sequence takes place as six consecutive steps. The detailed start-up outline is presented in Table C.1-1. The start-up procedure for the mobile biodiesel plant is based on “back-to-front” principles. It should be noted that this procedure relies on the fact that an appropriate amount of liquid volume remains within the unit operation after shut-down the previous day thereby streams are present and available to proceed at start-up. The first step of the start-up procedure is to turn on utilities such as electricity, cooling water to condensers as well as water for the extraction column, E301, and steam to the reboilers. A start-up program startupBiodiesel.exe is initiated to connect and receive online data from all controllers and alarms. This program allows for initial conditions different from operating conditions to occur without tripping any alarms. For example no-  13  B I O D I E S E L ~IN MOTION  FINAL REPORT  flow alarms may be temporarily deactivated during the start-up procedure. The second step includes start-up of effluent streams and unit operations. Reboiler H401 is started to bring the distillation column D401 to the set-point temperature at which point the feed to D401 may commence. The third step is to start the purification section. Start-up of condenser C302 and reboiler H302 precedes start-up of condenser C301 and reboiler H301. Reactor R301, extraction column E301, followed by distillation columns D302 and D301 are started respectively. The tanks and mixer M001 of the reactant feed section is started as the fourth step of the start-up procedure. Fifth step is the start-up of condenser C101, reboiler H101, and distillation column D101 in the pre-treatment section. Pretreated WVO storage tank T101 is made accessible. Finally, the pre-treatment reactor sequencing R101/R102/R103 is activated via the startupBiodiesel.exe start-up program and start-up of reactors R201 and tank T201 is initiated. The step-wise shut-down procedure (Table C.1-2) is essentially the reverse of the start-up procedure and will therefore not be commented on further. As during start-up, a program shutdownBiodiesel.exe is activated and ensures proper shut-down sequencing. Emergency shut-down is accommodated by the installation of an emergency shut-down button. In case of emergency, the technician enforces shut-down by pushing the emergency shut-down button. This will stop all pumps and force all valves to fail close/open according to definitions before shut-down electricity is effectuated. The emergency procedures are detailed in Table C.1-3 (please refer to Table C.1-4 for the trip matrix). It is emphasized that all cooling water valves fail open. After activation the technician must contact the fire department. 3.4 Mass Balance The mass balances for each species have been derived for the individual unit operations per batch. In order to achieve the required total weekly production of 3000L biodiesel, an output of 150 L/batch biodiesel and a total number of 20 batches/week is defined.  14  B I O D I E S E L ~IN MOTION  FINAL REPORT  The principles of the design of the WVO pre-treatment operation are presented in Section 2.2. As a consequence of the choice of process design, the batch size in the pre-treatment section is defined to be the double of the batch size in the transesterification reaction section. This mass ratio ensures a continuous succession of the transesterification reactions, which ultimately results in a constant continuous flow into the purification section after the initial downtime required for processing the first batch of pre-treated WVO. Therefore, stream 107B, the amount of pre-treated WVO per batch accumulated in tank T101, is equivalent to two times stream 108, the amount of pre-treated WVO used for each batch in the transesterification reaction. The pre-treatment section reduces the FFA content to 0.5 wt% and the water content to 0.0 wt%, thereby meeting the requirements for assuring an optimal conversion of TAG to methyl esters in the transesterification process27. To account for the individual streams within each pre-treatment cycle, labelling of [A] and [B] referring to the 1st and the 2nd cycle, respectively, has been applied as a suffix to the relevant stream numbers. For instance stream 101A refers to stream 101 of the esterified WVO mixture leaving reactor R101 in the first pre-treatment cycle, whereas stream 101B refers to the exit stream 101 from reactor R101 after the second pre-treatment cycle. A 6:1 molar ratio methanol to TAG is defined for the transesterification reaction1 as described in Section 2.1.3. Effectively, after post-treatment, a product yield of 135.94 kg/batch biodiesel is produced and an equivalent total formation of 12.4 kg/batch glycerol by-product is realized. In general, various assumptions have been refined in agreement with computational simulations and rules of thumb; in particular the distillation processes have been correlated to results obtained using ASPEN® (refer to Appendix C.2). The degree of conversion of WVO to biodiesel in the transesterification reaction operating at 60°C and 1 atm with rapid stirring is 85%.  15  B I O D I E S E L ~IN MOTION  FINAL REPORT  3.5 Energy Balance, Heat Integration and Pinch Analysis The energy balance of the entire biodiesel plant is carried out by calculating enthalpies for all the streams present in the process. This is achieved by simulating each of the streams in ASPEN®. TAG was modeled as triolein (C57H104O6), biodiesel was modeled as methyl oleate (C19H36O2), and FFA was modeled as trioleic acid (C18H34O2). Meanwhile, soap is modeled with its molecular structure C18H33O2Na. From the mass balance, three streams are identified to be the cold streams that require heating. These streams come from the holding tank in Section 000 containing methanol (stream 006), methanol/sodium hydroxide mixture (stream 008), and water (stream 010). These streams are assumed to have initial temperatures of 18oC, which is the average outside temperature, and need to be heated to 40oC. The final temperature of 40oC is chosen so as to prevent boiling of methanol (boiling point of methanol is 65oC) when those streams come into contact with methanol in the reactors. Please refer to Appendix C.3 for the heat integration tables. Six streams are identified to be able to give off heat even though they are not required to be cooled down. Stream 402 containing methanol/water from the distillation column, D401, can be cooled to 20oC, stream 403 containing 98.5% methanol can also be cooled to 20oC. Stream 204 containing biodiesel/glycerol mixture can be cooled only to 30oC, to ensure that glycerol will flow easily. Glycerol in stream 305 can also be cooled to 30oC as it goes to the waste tank; however, it will not be used again in the process. Stream 323 contains water at 100oC and is available to give off heat to the cold streams. Stream 326 containing the final biodiesel product coming from distillation column D402 can be cooled as low as 20oC; however, this is not crucial since it is only being stored in the end. Two streams are identified to be hot streams that require cooling. Stream 110A which contains the waste vegetable oil after the first cycle’s distillation has a temperature of 101oC which requires cooling to a temperature of 65oC before entering the pre-treatment reactor for the second cycle in order to prevent methanol vaporization. Stream 322 contains biodiesel from distillation column D401, going to the neutralization reactor  16  B I O D I E S E L ~IN MOTION  FINAL REPORT  R301 and has a temperature of 130oC. This stream requires cooling to below 100oC in order to prevent evaporation of water in the liquid-liquid extraction step. A pinch analysis was conducted for the biodiesel production plant. A minimum temperature approach of 10oC was assumed for this process and the value of mCp (mass times heat capacity) for all of the streams are assumed to be constant over the range of initial and final temperatures. Since there are two cycles for stream 006 at different times, the cycle with a higher mCp value is used to ensure enough heat is supplied into the stream. Since there are two cycles for stream 110 at different times, the cycle with a lower mCp value is used to ensure enough heat is available to be exchanged. Please refer to Appendix C.3 for the Pinch Analysis tables and equations. The pinch point is found to be at 40oC. Heat exchangers between streams 403 and 006A, 403 and 008, 403 and 010, 402 and 006A, 402 and 008, and between streams 402 and 010 are needed to heat up the three cold streams. Utilities have to be used to cool down the hot stream 403. The finalized pinch analysis is presented in Figure C.3-1. Based on the result, a heat exchanger network involving six heat exchangers and one cooler can be implemented to satisfy all the heating requirements. With this network, approximately 3.17 kW of energy will be conserved and around 3.43 kW of cooling energy is required. From the point of view of conservation of energy, heat integration will maximize heat recovery and minimize utility consumption18. The energy possessed by the hot streams will not only dissipate into the atmosphere, but also be utilized to heat the cold streams. In this case, the biodiesel production plant will be built on skid, so the inclusion of six heat exchangers will occupy a tremendous amount of space compared to if electrical heaters are used. It was decided to opt for electrical heaters based on the space limitation argument.  17  B I O D I E S E L ~IN MOTION  FINAL REPORT  4.0 Equipment Design and Specifications There are six main pieces of equipment in the biodiesel production plant: storage tank, reactor, packed distillation tower, heat exchanger, hydrocyclone, and extraction column. One common design constraint is that the mobile biodiesel plant will be installed and housed in the back of a 40 ft. trailer (Figure D.1-1). This trailer has a containing height of 2.896 m. Thus the heights of the equipment were designed to meet this constraint. 4.1 Storage Tanks The volumes of the tanks were determined based on the mass balances. Some of the tanks are meant to hold a week’s worth of reactants, products, or wastes. Tanks T101, and T201 are meant to act as equalization basins, and therefore, are sized to hold one batch of mixture which leaves reactors R101, (R102, or R103) and R201, respectively. The tanks for WVO (T001), H2SO4 (T002), wastewater (T402), glycerol (T403), and biodiesel (T404) are sized to hold a week’s worth of volume. The energy required to heat up the waste vegetable oil from ambient temperature of 18oC to 65oC is calculated to be 571.2 MJ. A helical heating coil with a diameter of 0.05 m and a total length of 65.4 m constructed from carbon steel along with impellers to improve heat transfer are implemented. The impeller is necessary since the WVO solidifies upon cooling. Figure D.1-2 shows a schematic diagram of the WVO storage tank T001. It will take about 2.6 hours to heat 6604.71kg of WVO with a power of 158.67 kWh. In order to save time, it is advised that the client heat the storage tank prior to the arrival of the biodiesel trailer. The waste methanol tank however, is sized to hold one batch of pre-treatment waste, and two batches of post-treatment waste. The distillate from D401 is recycled back to the pure methanol storage tank, T003. Detailed sample calculations regarding the design of storage tanks are found in Appendix D.2-1. The storage tank heights and diameters were determined using equations (1) and (2). The ratio of the height to diameter was varied to ensure that the heights of the tanks were below 9 feet. Refer to Table D.1-1 for the dimension specifications and materials of construction for each of the storage tanks. 18  B I O D I E S E L ~IN MOTION  FINAL REPORT  4.2 Reactors To design the reactor for this process, the volumes were first determined using the mass balance. The volumes of all of the components entering the reactor were added together to give the total liquid volume of the reactor (equivalent to one batch). To prevent the chance of overflow, the reactors were designed to 70% fill capacity; therefore, the reactor sizes are 1.43 times greater than the liquid volume. Detailed sample calculation regarding the design of reactors can be found in Appendix D.2-2. Please refer to Table D.1-2 for the dimension specifications and materials of construction for each of the reactors.  Since the pre-treatment reactors (R101, R102, and R103) contain corrosive sulphuric acid, stainless steel was chosen as the material of construction. Stainless steel was also chosen for the transesterification reactor, R201, because of the corrosive caustic being used as a catalyst. For the neutralization reactor, R301, carbon steel was chosen as the material of construction because the corrosive components will quickly be neutralized to prevent corrosion. Figure D.1-3 shows a schematic diagram of the transesterification reactor.  To mix the components in the reactors, Rushton turbines were chosen as impellers. The diameter of the impeller, by convention, is 1/3 the tank diameter, and the impeller width is 0.2 times the impeller diameter. The length of each blade is 0.25 the impeller diameter. The impeller is placed two impeller diameters above the bottom of the tank. Three impellers were used, each spaced a distance equivalent to one impeller diameter apart. To promote mixing within the reactor, four baffles (of width 0.1 times the tank diameter) were added to each reactor. The power requirement to drive the impeller is 5 Hp/1000 Gallons22 for the mixing of immiscible liquids for liquid-liquid reactions. Refer to Table D.1-3 for the impeller specifications for each of the reactors.  Based on thermodynamic analysis, the temperature in the main reactor R201 will increase by 3.39oC due to the exothermic effect of the transesterification reaction. This means that 19  B I O D I E S E L ~IN MOTION  FINAL REPORT  the maximum energy that should be supplied by the steam through the jacket is 992.7 kJ. Meanwhile, the temperature in the FFA pre-treatment reactors, R101, R102, and R103, will increase by 3.12oC due to the exothermic effect of the esterification reaction, which means that it will require at most 652.2 kJ of energy to maintain the optimum temperature in the reactor of 60oC.  4.3 Packed Distillation Tower D401 purifies the methanol that is used during the process. The feed to D401 consists of methanol, water, and a trace amount of sodium hydroxide and soap. Since carbon steel (CS) is compatible with all of these substances4, CS is the material of construction chosen for this unit operation. With the tower operating at 70% flooding, the flooding velocity is found to be 2.13 m/s and the tower diameter is calculated to be 0.25 m. Since the tower diameter is less than 0.67 m, packings will be more economical to use compared to plates20. From simulating the distillation procedure using ASPEN®, 98.5% pure methanol can be produced with three theoretical stages. Based on mass transfer calculation, the packed height of the column is found to be 2.01 m. This packing height is supported by a 0.10 m thick support plate. A schematic of the distillation tower is shown in Figure D.1-4. The packing chosen is polypropylene Berl saddle with a nominal diameter of 1 inch, as shown in Figure D.1-5. The Berl saddle is chosen based on two main considerations; one is due to its simple design that will prevent plugging due to foaming that might occur because of the presence of soap, and two is due to economical reasons compared to other types of packings20. The packing’s nominal diameter is dictated based on the small diameter of the tower. With a 10 to 1 ratio of tower diameter to nominal diameter of the packing, surface area for mass transfer can be maximized. The trough type liquid distributor, as shown in Figure D.1-6 is used to distribute the feed evenly onto the packing. This distributor was chosen mainly because of its common use in the industry. 20  B I O D I E S E L ~IN MOTION  FINAL REPORT  4.4 Heat Exchangers Shell-&-tube heat exchangers are chosen as type of heat exchangers for condensers and reboilers in Sections 100 through 400. Shell-&-tube heat exchangers are convenient when dealing with potentially fouling material such as biodiesel and WVO. The plate heat exchangers for pure reactants in Section 000 are chosen, as these require minimum space requirements. The material of construction for all heat exchanger units were chosen to be carbon steel 304 as recommended in literature. The fluid properties were obtained from literature and ASPEN® simulations. A cooling water temperature of 10.0°C was assumed. The heat duty, Q, was determined from ASPEN® simulations. In cases where an ASPEN® simulation was not available and no phase changes occur, the heat exchanger duties were determined using Equation 14. Sample calculations are presented in Appendix D.2-3 for the design of the condenser C401. The tube-side fluid is steam; the shell-side fluids are WVO and biodiesel. The overall heat transfer coefficients, U, for all the heat exchangers were found in literature. The process flowrates were found from the mass balances. The cooling water and superheated vapour mass flowrates were determined from energy balances. Allowable pressure drops were determined according to rules of thumb. It should be noted that superheated vapour was assumed to be the source of heat. However, the high temperatures required particularly in the reboilers, H101A, H101B, and H302, such that electrical heating should be considered as an alternative. The condensation inside the tubes was assumed to be vertical upflow. This geometry was suggested as method of condensation in literature as the preferred arrangement for refluxing hot condensate. Standard reflux condensers typically vary between 2 to 3 m in length. For the mobile unit, a horizontal arrangement with only a slight vertical gradient was assumed for installing the condensers. The vertical gradient will ensure that the condensate is returned to the distillation column by gravity. In addition, the nearhorizontal arrangement minimizes the overall heights of the distillation unit.  21  B I O D I E S E L ~IN MOTION  FINAL REPORT  Kettle reboilers were chosen over horizontal shell side thermosiphons, vertical thermosiphons, and forced circulation reboilers. Kettle reboilers, in general, require less temperature difference as the driving force of heat transfer and generate larger vapour fractions relative to the other reboiler types. 4.5 Hydrocyclones The design of a hydrocyclone for the separation of two immiscible liquids (glycerol and biodiesel) using a standard cyclone was analyzed. Such a separation system requires two liquid-liquid hydrocyclones to achieve an approximate efficiency of 99%. As a result of the internal geometry of the cyclone and with the assumption of pressure settings, it is possible to bring about an axial reversal of the central oil core. The glycerol droplet diameter is the main factor for the design of hydrocyclone. It was assumed that the diameter of glycerol droplet is between 100 µm (1x10-6m) to 1 mm (1x10-3m). The pressure drop over the hydrocyclone was assumed to be 100 Pa. Consequently, the high density FAME can be removed from the centre of the hydrocyclone head, as the continuous phase, while the bulk of the liquid including glycerol, plus residual contaminants, flows out of the tail section at the underflow, as the reject phase. The probability of removing an oil droplet in the feed depends mainly upon the defined glycerol droplet diameter, dp,50* and the differential density between the two liquids. The physical properties of glycerol and biodiesel are listed in Table D.1-4. Using the hydrocyclone correlations between separation characteristics shown in Figure D.1-721, the resulting average diameter and height of the hydrocyclone was determined to be 1.25 m and 2.14 m, respectively. Other dimensions of the hydrocyclone were  *  The term dp,50 refers to the particle size at which the hydro-cyclone is 50% efficient. It is stressed that the cut point size does not refer to overflow products as this is dependant on the feed solids particle size analysis  22  B I O D I E S E L ~IN MOTION  FINAL REPORT  calculated using geometric ratios (Figure D.1-821) and shown in the sample calculations in Appendix D.2-4.  Stainless steel is the most appropriate material for the hydrocyclone design as it resists higher degrees of corrosion. 4.6 Counter-Current Liquid-Liquid Extraction Column The purpose of the extraction column (E301) is to remove the salts and soaps produced in the process. The extraction column appears immediately after the neutralization reactor (R301). Refer to PFD Section 300 in Appendix B. A schematic is shown in Figure D.1-9. The feed stream entering the extraction column is composed of biodiesel, salt and soap. Since the concentration of salt and soap in the feed stream is less than 1 %, as determined by the mass balance, this system is dilute. Water sprayed from the top of the column will be used as the solvent to remove the salt and soap contaminants from the biodiesel. The extraction column will be operated in counter-current mode. An 85 mol% biodiesel stream will exit the top of the column, while water, soap and salt will exit the bottom as a wastewater stream. The factors taken into account during the extraction column design process include: the flowrates of the streams entering the column, the operating temperature and pressure, the density difference between two phases, the phase viscosities, and the interfacial tension. These considerations are discussed in detail in Appendix D.2-5. Based on the properties of these two components, the biodiesel stream was chosen as the continuous phase, while the water was chosen as the dispersed phase. In column extractors, the phase with the lower viscosity (lower flow resistance) is generally chosen as the continuous phase. Also, the phase with the higher flowrate can be dispersed to create more interfacial area and turbulence. In addition, the height of the extraction column cannot exceed the height of the trailer, 2.75 m.  23  B I O D I E S E L ~IN MOTION  FINAL REPORT  An ethanol-water-ester mixture ternary phase diagram was used to model the biodieselwater equilibrium. Using the phase diagram in Figure D.1-10, it was determined that there is one equilibrium stage. Detailed calculations for the determination of column height and diameter are presented in Appendix D.2-5. These calculations assume column operation at 50% flooding velocity to ensure maximum performance. The height of the extraction column was determined to be 2.53 m. The diameter of the column was determined to be 0.21 m. This is within the design constraint of 2.75 ft. The material of construction selected for the extraction column is stainless steel 304, which is compatible with all the components in the column. 4.7 Pumps The various pumps in all sections have been sized according to Sulzer Pump Selector. The selector requires various input parameters, such as the composition of the fluid, piping sizes, surface pressures of the tanks that are at the suction and discharge side of the pump, the elevation head both at the suction and discharge side, etc. See Appendix D.3 for complete pump specifications. The fluid used in this case is ethanol because it has a very similar density as biodiesel and was easier to model on the pump selector. The temperature of the process fluid used to size the pump was taken to be 60 °C. The inlet piping size was taken as 50 mm whereas the outlet piping size was taken to be 25 mm. It was observed that while sizing, the best possible configuration was obtained when we considered the outlet pipe to be smaller than the inlet piping. The tank surface pressure at both the suction and discharge was assumed to be 1 atm. This results in a large Net Positive Suction Head (NPSH) available and a small NPSH required. Due to this, the efficiency of the pump decreased. Nonetheless, the size of the pumps were sufficient for the required flow rates and applications.  24  B I O D I E S E L ~IN MOTION  FINAL REPORT  The mass flow rates of the individual streams were converted to the volumetric flow rates by dividing the stream with the density of the most abundant material in the stream. The density of ethanol was used to model biodiesel because of the ease of modeling and availability of the necessary data. Some of the volumetric flow rates obtained were very small, especially for Section 300. These flow rates were not sufficient for pump usage. Therefore, it has been suggested to disregard the entire set of initially present pumps, which have a very small volumetric flow rate at the suction side. Upon further research it was also found that it would not be efficient to include pumps in lines which have a very small volumetric flow rate. This would lead to cavitation which would ultimately damage the pump and would lead to expensive overhauling and maintenance costs. A secondary tank after each unit having a small flow rate can be added to store all the fluid. This will develop a sufficient volumetric flow rate to justify the inclusion of pumps in these lines. The electric motor chosen was a High Torque – HT type induction motor that is energy efficient. It is manufactured by Crompton Greaves Ltd.5 A standard motor that is sized for one pump can be used for all pumps because of close proximity in the flow rates and the head developed. The same motor has a specific operating range and hence can be used for all the pumps. The metering pumps were selected from LMI catalogue.5 The pumps have a maximum flow output capacity of 10 GPM. 4.8 Piping The goal of this section is to select the most appropriate size and material of piping for the main streams in the mobile biodiesel plant. Four piping materials were considered: PVC (Poly Vinyl Chloride), CPVC (Chlorinated PVC), Carbon Steel, and Stainless Steel 304. Appendix D.4 describes each piping material. The costs for different materials of construction of piping vary widely from different sources depending on the supplier, and the additional cost of fittings, welding, and installation can easily be more than ten times the basic cost for the pipe. The factors considered when choosing the piping material  25  B I O D I E S E L ~IN MOTION  FINAL REPORT  were based on the material’s collective ability to handle the process conditions, such as temperature and pressure, as well as chemical compatibility. The pipes were sized according to the maximum flow rate that occurs in their respective streams. A basic 1" inner diameter schedule 40 pipe can handle the volumetric flow rate and pressure stresses for all streams, and thus it is suitable for most circumstances in this plant. Because of its strength, a schedule 10 will suffice for stainless steel 304. The complete pipe material and size selection for all streams in the process is shown in Table D.4-1.  4.9 Plant Layout The biodiesel production plant is contained in a 40 foot Hicube trailer7, mounted on the back of a flat bed 18-wheeler truck. The trailer’s external dimensions are 12.192 m long, 2.438 m wide, and 2.896 m high; the internal dimensions are 12.024 m long, 2.353 m wide, 2.692 m high. Figure D.5-1 in Appendix D.5 shows a diagram of the plant contained inside the trailer. The front end (1.5 m in length) of the trailer will serve as the control room. This section is separated from the rest of the trailer. Entrance to the control room is via a side door located on the driver’s side of the truck.  The remaining 10.692 m length of the trailer houses the biodiesel plant .The equipment is arranged such that the reactant and product tanks are located at the rear end of the truck, for ease of filling/emptying. The rear panel of the trailer opens outward as a set of doors. The trailer is roughly divided into four sections: pre-treatment, main reaction, purification, and reactant and product storage. The equipment is arranged sequentially to follow the flow of the biodiesel production process. The entrance to the plant is on the passenger side of the truck, midway down the length of the trailer.  26  B I O D I E S E L ~IN MOTION  FINAL REPORT  Since the plant is constrained to a restricted space, the equipment is arranged 40 cm apart. The current trailer design presents limitations in manoeuvrability around the plant. To maximize space, equipment was stacked where possible. For each distillation column, its respective pump, reboiler, and condenser were stacked directly adjacent to it. The pumps for each of the storage tanks, mixers, and reactors were placed directly beneath each respective unit.  To contain any spills or leaks, catch basins were placed beneath each major piece of equipment. Four safety vents were placed on the upper perimeter of the trailer to release any hazardous methanol fumes should a leak occur. Refer to Figure D.5-2 through D.5.5 for different views of the complete plant layout.  27  B I O D I E S E L ~IN MOTION  FINAL REPORT  5.0 Environmental Assessment The environmental impact assessment is concerned with the necessary actions required to minimize the environmental impact of the waste streams from the biodiesel production process. The biodiesel production process creates two waste streams: glycerol, and wastewater (containing large quantities of methanol, soap, and sodium sulphate, and trace amounts of sodium hydroxide). The compositions of the waste streams were examined and compared to environmental regulations to determine the appropriate actions required for disposal. This section will also include the secondary effects due to the biodiesel plant being mobile, and the HAZOPs study which was performed for Section 200 of the process. 5.1 Environmental Assessment of Wastewater The wastewater from the biodiesel production facility originates from the washing of the biodiesel in the extraction column and from the methanol distillation column (D401). The composition of the wastewater is summarized in Table E.1. According to the Sewer Use Bylaw No.164 for the GVRD, several specifications are required to be met prior to discharging the wastewater. The specifications are summarized and compared to the wastewater values in Table E.2. To discharge the wastewater, the sulphate, soap, and methanol concentration must be reduced, along with the pH. To reduce sulphate concentrations, (which exceeds the maximum level specified by the GVRD by 359 mg/L), the sulphate may be treated by either precipitating with barium ions (at a low pH), or through anaerobic digestion. The pH can be reduced through the addition of an acid, such as HCl. Methanol, which is flammable, odourous, and poisonous, is present in the wastewater at approximately 42% by weight and therefore must be treated prior to discharge as it is a “prohibited waste”. The methanol concentration could be reduced to approximately 5% by weight, if the bottoms from D401 were recycled back to the waste methanol tank; however, the methanol would still need to be removed from the wastewater to meet discharge regulations. Methanol can be removed by anaerobic digestion, where bacteria consume methanol as a substrate. The BOD of this soap, which is soluble in water, is unknown, 28  B I O D I E S E L ~IN MOTION  FINAL REPORT  and would need to be determined by means of experimental methods. Since the concentration of soap would be 7820 mg/L, the BOD will be very high, and would need to be reduced. BOD reduction can be accomplished by anaerobic digestion. For sewer discharge, the most efficient treatment method would be anaerobic digestion, which would remove the sulphates, methanol, soap, and BOD in the wastewater. For anaerobic digestion, the pH would first need to be neutralized, through the addition of an acid. Anaerobic digestion would require another reactor, and a clarifier to gravitationally separate the sludge from the effluent. As the biodiesel plant is skid-mounted, the treatment of the wastewater by anaerobic digestion would not be feasible due to space limitations. The wastewater will therefore have to be collected over the duration of the week, and will disposed of at a treatment facility capable of processing it. Likely, there will be a cost for disposal. 5.2 Environmental Assessment of Glycerol Glycerol is produced as a by-product in the main transesterification reaction. Approximately 248 kg of glycerol is produced in one week, which will contain amounts of biodiesel, unreacted methanol, sodium hydroxide, and soap, (which are not included in the mass balance). The impurities will likely be present after the hydrocyclones, since the separation is not 100% efficient. The glycerol would have to be purified to greater than 90% for pharmaceutical use. This would involve a neutralization step, and the separation of excess methanol, and salts through a washing step. Due to space limitations of our facility, it was decided that the glycerol by-product will not be purified, instead, the glycerol will be sent, at a cost, to a specialty waste facility for proper purification. 5.3 Environmental Assessment of Secondary Effects The biodiesel production process is based on the concept of bringing the mobile plant to the source of the waste vegetable oil. The negative environmental impact of gasoline consumption, exhaust, and road erosion (to a lesser effect) are consequently unavoidable, but can be minimized through proper logistical route planning. Optimizing the  29  B I O D I E S E L ~IN MOTION  FINAL REPORT  accessibility (and cost) of the reactants will most likely help to determine the best logistical plan. The locations of processing will typically be next to the source of WVO (restaurants, cruise ships, etc.), therefore the mobile biodiesel manufacturing facility is not expected to cause any additional damage to the property, natural environment, or wild life. Due to the possible methanol vapour emissions into the environment, the locations of nearby air intake systems should be identified prior to process start up. Noise pollution may restrict the operation of the facility at certain times. In the case that noise abatement is recommended, installation of attachable sound barriers may be considered. 5.4 HAZOPs Section 200, the main transesterification reaction section, was chosen as the subject of the HAZOPs study because of its importance to the biodiesel plant. To perform the hazard analysis, a “hazard matrix” was constructed for each stream, and each unit operation. For each stream or unit operation, the process parameters such as flows, pressures, and temperatures were examined to determine possible deviations which could lead to ultimate hazards. For each deviation, the HAZOPs study identified all the possible causes for that deviation. The consequences for each deviation were then listed, and recommendations were made to minimize the effect or to prevent the consequence. Common recommendations from the HAZOPs study included the installation of high and low alarms (to warn the operator of minor deviations), and high-high and low-low alarms, (to respond to a significant deviation which would result in a health or safety hazard). The causes, consequences, and recommendations for streams and unit operations are presented in Appendix E.  30  B I O D I E S E L ~IN MOTION  FINAL REPORT  6.0 Economic Assessment 6.1 Cost Implementation An estimate of the implementation cost was obtained by calculating the sum of all materials and labour expenses. For the estimate to hold true, the working environment must first be safe in order to operate. Safety devices such as ventilation items are not included in the economical analysis. The total equipment capital cost is $141,941. Installation cost is assumed to be 35% of the capital cost, except for pumps as it is assumed to be 20% of the capital cost due to easier installation based on industrial approximations. The trailer cost is assumed to be $25000 ($18000 for the trailer plus $7000 for customized modifications). Piping cost is estimated to be 10% of the capital cost as this is a mobile plant and pipe length would be minimal as compared to industrial sized plants. Instrumentation cost is estimated to be 20% of the capital cost as there are some complex automated sequencing requirements in the pre-treatment section, which would require extra costs to implement not to mention programming requirements as well. The Total Capital Investment (TCI) is estimated to be $296,417, which is the start-up cost of the Biodiesel In Motion production plant. This amount includes all proper over-run costs, such as the 5% contingency fund, and a 10% working capital. 6.2 Production Cost Based on Weekly production rate of 3000L of biodiesel per week. The raw materials used in the production stage include: methanol, sulphuric acid, and sodium hydroxide, with methanol being the primary reactant. Although the purification stage does extract and return a major portion of used methanol, some methanol is lost. The average tranesterification reaction consumption rate of methanol is 20% by volume of biodiesel produced, this equates to 30L per batch. With additional methanol lost in the glycerol and waste streams, an additional 5% by volume is adjusted. This equates to 53.3 L of methanol per batch or 1066L per week of methanol. Three litres of sulphuric acid  31  B I O D I E S E L ~IN MOTION  FINAL REPORT  and 9.3 kg of sodium hydroxide are required per week; therefore, the average weekly cost of raw materials used is approximately $378.55. Utility cost is estimated to be 62.4 kWh per batch which results in a weekly power consumption of 1284 kWh. At the current BC Hydro rate of 0.067$/kWh, the total utilities cost is 86$ per week. Labour costs for two operators working 40 hours per week each at $20/hr is $1600 per week. There are estimates for a weekly maintenance cost of $200 and $100 for miscellaneous supplies required on a weekly basis. This brings the total production cost for the week to $2365. The production rate of biodiesel is 3000L per week, and according to the current diesel price of $0.92/L, a weekly revenue of $2760 is realized. This provides a net profit of $395 per week and is estimated to be a profit of 13 cents per litre of biodiesel produced. With the production rate of 156,000L biodiesel annually, a profit of $20563 each year is realized. By considering the initial Total Capital Investment of $296,417, this equates to a Return on Investment (ROI) of 6.94%, and the biodiesel production plant will break even at approximately 14.4 years. The resulting Return on Investment of 14.4 years seems quite high for such a mobile plant. The exploration of cost cutting on Total Capital Investment results in few recommendations. The implementation of a glycerol purification process at an off-site location to purify the glycerol by-product could result in additional revenue for the production process. The implementation of an additional wastewater process would also reduce our wastewater disposal costs. As the major portion of our expenses for the plant is based on high equipment capital costs, there is the possibility of reducing the capital cost by employing used equipment for the biodiesel production plant. By conducting a complete analysis through further investigation of these alternatives, the Return On Investment could be significantly reduced; however, it will require additional ground site disposal facilities as the space of the mobile plant does not allow for such a facility.  32  B I O D I E S E L ~IN MOTION  FINAL REPORT  Please refer to Appendix F, Tables F-1 to F-9 for a break-down of the equipment costs and a summary of the total capital investment required.  33  B I O D I E S E L ~IN MOTION  FINAL REPORT  7.0 Conclusions and Recommendations The final design of the mobile biodiesel plant encompasses many elements ranging from the principles of Chemical Engineering to the basics of economics. The Chemical Engineering aspect of this design chose the transesterification reaction, the pre-treatment and the purification processes, while the economic element determined the feasibility of this design. Based on the economic analysis, this design will breakeven in 14.4 years; however, this may be reduced if alternative means of revenue were pursued, such as the purification and selling of the by-product, glycerol. Nonetheless, this design is profitable, with a profit of $20563 each year for a production rate of 156,000 L biodiesel annually. The following proposes several recommendations for groups who wish to continue this project. Since many communities and government agencies have shown keen interest in biodiesel, it would be beneficial to assess the demand for a mobile unit in comparison to a permanent plant. Although all necessary equipment has been fitted into the 40 foot trailer, there is minimal space for maintenance and repairs. Continuation of the project may focus on resizing the equipment so as to allow less head space and perform experiments to collect data that is specific to biodiesel, transesterification, and other species involved. From an economic stand-point, additional revenue may be generated by purifying and selling the glycerol by-product or enhancing the methanol recovery to lower operational costs. Capital cost may be reduced with used equipment and obtaining government funding. With greater exposure, this mobile plant will surely be a leap towards a feasible alternative fuel.  34  B I O D I E S E L ~IN MOTION  FINAL REPORT  8.0 Nomenclature Ac C CD CPVC CS °C D Di DP,50 DT FAME φD g H η HETS k2 Mc MD µc µD Ni P PLC PVC ρ ρc ρD ρM SS σavg σc σD TAG uc uD uo ur Uc UD WVO V  column cross sectional area capacity parameter drag coefficient chlorinated polyvinyl chloride carbon steel degrees Celsius tank diameter impeller diameter droplet diameter column diameter Fatty acid methyl esters volume fraction of dispersed liquid phase in column acceleration due to gravity tank height viscosity height equivalent to theoretical stage proportionality constant mass flow rate of continuous phase mass flow rate of dispersed phase viscosity of continuous phase viscosity of dispersed phase impeller speed power requirement Programmable Logic Controller Polyvinyl chloride density density of continuous phase density of dispersed phase density (volumetric mean) stainless steel interfacial tension average interfacial tension of continuous phase interfacial tension of dispersed phase triacylglycerol actual average velocity of the continuous liquid phase actual average velocity of the dispersed (droplet) liquid phase characteristic rise velocity for a single droplet average droplet rise velocity relative to the continuous phase superficial velocity of the continuous liquid phase superficial velocity of the dispersed liquid phase Waste Vegetable Oil volume  35  B I O D I E S E L ~IN MOTION  FINAL REPORT  9.0 References 1. Branan, C.: “Rules of Thumbs for Chemical Engineers”, Gulf Publishing Company, 1998, 2nd ed. 2. Canakci, M. and Gerpen J., “Biodiesel Production from Oils and Fats with High Free Fatty Acids”, Amer. Soc. of Agr. Eng., 44 (6): 1429-1436. 3. Chancellor college Biodiesel Research-Biodiesel Properties <http://www.chanco.unima.mw/physics/biodieselanaly.html>. 4. Chemical/material compatibility matrix <http://enviro.nfesc.navy.mil/ps/spillprev/appx_e_chem.pdf> January 26, 2005. 5. Cromption Greaves Ltd. <http://www.cglonline.com/products/industrial/htmotors_profile.htm>. 6. Du, W., Xu, Y. and Liu, W. “Lipase-catalyzed transesterification of soya bean oil for biodiesel production during continuous batch operation”, Journal of Biotechnology and Applied Biochemistry, (2003) 38: 103-106. 7. Export 911 Shipping Department <http://www.export911.com/e911/ship/dimen.htm#xDimension>. 8. Fabco Plastics Inc. <www.fabcoplastics.com> 9. Felder, M. R., and Rousseau, R. W.: ”Elementary Principles of Chemical Processes”, John Wiley & Co., 2000, 3rd ed. 10. Harvel Plastics Inc. <www.harvel.com> 11. Haynes, C. CHBE 481: Advanced Topics in Biological Engineering, Course Notes. University of British Columbia, Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering. 2004. 12. Ince, Erol, and S S. Kırbaslar. "Liquid–Liquid Equilibria of Water+Ethanol+Dibasic Esters Mixture (Dimethyl Adipate+Dimethyl Glutarate+Dimethyl Succinate)Ternary System." Separation Science and Technology 39 (2004): 3151-3162. 13.Lindley NL, Floyd JC. Piping Systems: How Installation Costs Stack Up. Chemical Engineering, January 1993, page 94-100.  36  B I O D I E S E L ~IN MOTION  FINAL REPORT  14. Liquid-liquid Extraction. <http://vienna.che.uic.edu/teaching/che396/sepProj/Snrtem~1.pdf>. 15. LMI Chemical and Metering Pumps & Accessories <http://www.lmi-pumps.com/pumps-abc.htm>. 16.Luyben, William L. "Plantwide Dynamic Simulators in Chemical Processing and Control." New York, Marcel Dekker, Inc. 2002. 17. Ma, F. and Hanna, M. A., “Biodiesel production: A review” Bioresource Technology, (1999) 70: 1-15. 18. Mohseni, Madjid. “Energy Balance and Integration” CHBE 452/3/4 Lecture. November 9, 2004. 19.Patzer, R. and Norris, M., “Evaluate Biodiesel Made from Waste Fats and Oils”, 2002, Agricultural Utilization Research Institute, <http://www.mda.state.mn.us/ams/wastefatsauri.pdf> 20. Perry, R.H and Green, D.W. "Perry's Chemical Engineers' Handbook." 7th edition. USA, McGraw Hill, 1997. 21.Rietema, K. “Performance and Deisgn of Hydrocyclones” Chemical Engineering Science 15, 320,1961. 22. Seider, Seader, and Lewin. "Product and Process Design Principles." Second edition. USA, John Wiley and Sons, Inc. 2004. 23. Texloc Inc. <www.texloc.com>. 24. Tyson, K. “Brown Grease Feedstocks for Biodiesel”, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, 2002 Uni-Bell PVC Pipe Association <www.uni-bell.org> 25. Walas, S. M.: “Chemical Process Equipment. Selection and Design”, ButterworthHeinemann, 1990, 1st ed. 26. Walas, S. M.: “Rules of Thumb. Selecting and Designing Equipment”, Chemical Engineering, March 1987. 27. Zhang, Y., et al. “Biodiesel production from waste cooking oil: 1. Process design and technological assessment”, Bioresource Technology (2003) 89: 1-16.  37  B I O D I E S E L ~IN MOTION  FINAL REPORT  Appendix A: Concept  Figure A-1. Esterification reaction. Triacylglycerols (TAG) reacts with methanol to produce fatty acid methyl esters (FAME, or biodiesel)  38  B I O D I E S E L ~IN MOTION  FINAL REPORT  Appendix B: Process Flow Diagrams and Piping and Instrumentation Diagrams  39  cover  40  000  41  000  42  100  43  100  44  200  45  200  46  300  47  300  48  400  49  400  50  B I O D I E S E L ~IN MOTION  FINAL REPORT  Appendix C: Process Appendix C.1: Start-up, Shutdown and Emergency Procedures Table C.1-1. Start-up Procedures 1  2  3  4  5  6  Utilities 1) electricity 2) open cooling water 3) start computer start-up program: startupBiodiesel.exe 4) open water stream to extraction column E401 5) open steam to reboilers Section 400: Solvent Recovery and Product Storage 1) start condenser C401 and reboiler H401 2) open product storage tanks 3) start distillation column D401 Section 300: Purification 1) start reboiler H302 and condenser C302 - check online 2) start R301 impeller 3) start extraction column E301 (feed) 4) start reboiler H301 and condenser C301 - check online 5) start distillation column D301 (feed) 6) start distillation column D302 (feed) Section 000: Reactant Preparations 1) start mixer M001 2) start inventory tanks Section 100: Pre-treatment 1) start reboiler H101 and condenser C101 - check online 2) start distillation column D101 (feed) 3) open tank T101 4) open pretreatment reactor sequencing R101/R102/R103 (feed from T001) Section 200: Transesterification Reaction 1) start inventory in reactor R201 and tank T201 2) open tank T201 3) feed reactor R201  51  B I O D I E S E L ~IN MOTION  FINAL REPORT  Table C.1-2. Shutdown Procedures 1  2  3  4  5  6  Section 200: Transesterification Reaction 1) stop inventory in reactor R201 and tank T201 2) close tank T201 3) stop inventory in reactor R201 and tank T201 Section 100 Pre-treatment 1) close pretreatment reactor sequencing R101/R102/R103 (feed from T001) 2) close tank T101 3) shut-down distillation column D101 (feed) 4) shut-down reboiler H101 and condenser C101 - check online Section 000: Reactant Preparations 1) shut-down inventory tanks 2) shut-down mixer M001 Section 300: Purification 1) shut-down distillation column D302 (feed) 2) shut-down distillation column D301 (feed) 3) shut-down reboiler H301 and condenser C301 - check online 4) shut-down extraction column E301 (feed) 5) shut-down R301 impeller 6) shut-down reboiler H302 and condenser C302 - check online Section 400: Solvent Recovery and Product Storage 1) shut-down distillation column 2) close product storage tanks 3) shut-down condenser and reboiler Utilities 1) close steam to reboilers 2) close water stream to extraction column E401 3) shut-down computer shut-down-up program: shut-downBiodiesel.exe 4) close cooling water 5) electricity  Table C.1-3. Emergency Procedures Case  Case  Methanol Spill 1A) methanol flow HHA/LLA triggers: shut-down electricity - see Trip Matrix 1B) visual inspection: manual electrical shut-down button - see Trip Matrix Explosion 1) shut-down electricity - see Trip Matrix 2) call Fire Department  52  B I O D I E S E L ~IN MOTION  FINAL REPORT  Table C.1-4. Trip Matrix  53  B I O D I E S E L ~IN MOTION  FINAL REPORT  Appendix C.2: Aspen Simulation Results 112A  D101 101A  110A  Figure C.2-1. First Treatment Aspen Distillation Column Unit D101  112B  D101 103B  110B  Figure C.2-2. Second Treatment Aspen Distillation Column Unit D101  54  B I O D I E S E L ~IN MOTION  FINAL REPORT  Table C.2-1. First Treatment Aspen Simulation Results for D101 Design Stream ID  101A  From To  D101  Phase  LIQUID  112A  110A  D101  D101  VAPOR  LIQUID  Substream: MIXED Mole Flow  kmol/hr  TRIOL-01  .3170148  5.09512E-6  .3170097  METHA-01  6.233285  6.230409  2.87527E-3  1.42647E-3  8.4645E-16  1.42647E-3  .1069740  7.4210E-16  .1069740  SULFU-01 METHY-01 WATER  1.023440  .9891443  .0342953  9.93747E-3  8.1934E-19  9.93747E-3  TRIOL-01  280.7005  4.51147E-3  280.6960  METHA-01  199.7279  199.6358  .0921297  SULFU-01  .1399076  8.3020E-14  .1399076  METHY-01  31.71712  2.2003E-13  31.71712  WATER  18.43755  17.81971  .6178406  OLEIC-01  2.807005  2.3144E-16  2.807005  TRIOL-01  .5261195  2.07462E-5  .8880818  METHA-01  .3743518  .9180345  2.91485E-4  2.62230E-4  3.8177E-16  4.42647E-4  METHY-01  .0594476  1.0118E-15  .1003484  WATER  .0345576  .0819447  1.95476E-3  5.26120E-3  1.0643E-18  8.88096E-3  OLEIC-01 Mass Flow  kg/hr  Mass Frac  SULFU-01  OLEIC-01 Total Flow  kmol/hr  7.692077  7.219559  .4725183  Total Flow  kg/hr  533.5300  217.4600  316.0700  Total Flow  cum/hr  .8783212  1749.580  .4263466  Temperature  K  Pressure  N/sqm  333.1500  295.3334  374.1280  1.01325E+5  10132.50  10132.50  Vapor Frac  0.0  1.000000  0.0  Liquid Frac  1.000000  0.0  1.000000  0.0  0.0  0.0  Solid Frac Enthalpy  J/kmol  -3.1418E+8  -2.0666E+8  -1.3740E+9  Enthalpy  J/kg  -4.5296E+6  -6.8610E+6  -2.0541E+6  Enthalpy  Watt  -6.7130E+5  -4.1444E+5  -1.8034E+5  Entropy  J/kmol-K  -2.8610E+6  -95844.25  -4.3149E+7  Entropy  J/kg-K  -41247.50  -3181.979  -64506.49  Density  kmol/cum  8.757704  4.12645E-3  1.108296  Density  kg/cum  Average MW Liq Vol 60F  cum/hr  607.4429  .1242927  741.3452  69.36098  30.12095  668.9053  .6183614  .2691601  .3492013  55  B I O D I E S E L ~IN MOTION  FINAL REPORT  Table C.2-2. Second Treatment Aspen Simulation Results for D101 Design Stream ID  103B  From To  D101  Phase  LIQUID  112B  110B  D101  D101  VAPOR  LIQUID  Substream: MIXED Mole Flow  kmol/hr  TRIOL-01  .3170091  4.86042E-6  .3170042  METHA-01  12.67822  12.66793  .0102808  SULFU-01  4.75008E-3  4.1193E-16  4.75008E-3  METHY-01  .1119426  6.5848E-17  .1119426  WATER  .0392760  .0381743  1.10172E-3  4.96864E-3  2.7756E-20  4.96864E-3  TRIOL-01  280.6954  4.30366E-3  280.6911  METHA-01  406.2374  405.9080  .3294192  SULFU-01  .4658857  4.0402E-14  .4658857  METHY-01  33.19027  1.9524E-14  33.19027  WATER  .7075696  .6877217  .0198478  OLEIC-01  1.403477  7.8402E-18  1.403477  .3883982  1.05845E-5  .8879820  OLEIC-01 Mass Flow  kg/hr  Mass Frac TRIOL-01 METHA-01 SULFU-01 METHY-01  .5621107  .9982980  1.04214E-3  6.44646E-4  9.9365E-17  1.47386E-3  .0459253  4.8017E-17  .1049993  WATER  9.79064E-4  1.69140E-3  6.27897E-5  OLEIC-01  1.94199E-3  1.9282E-20  4.43998E-3  Total Flow  kmol/hr  13.15616  12.70611  .4500481  Total Flow  kg/hr  722.7000  406.6000  316.1000  Total Flow  cum/hr  1.143051  3012.871  .4152808  Temperature  K  Pressure  N/sqm  333.1500  288.9729  378.7986  1.01325E+5  10132.50  10132.50  Vapor Frac  0.0  1.000000  0.0  Liquid Frac  1.000000  0.0  1.000000  0.0  0.0  0.0  Solid Frac Enthalpy  J/kmol  -2.7760E+8  -2.0146E+8  -1.4243E+9  Enthalpy  J/kg  -5.0535E+6  -6.2957E+6  -2.0279E+6  Enthalpy  Watt  -1.0145E+6  -7.1106E+5  -1.7806E+5  Entropy  J/kmol-K  -1.7746E+6  -1.1135E+5  -4.5284E+7  Entropy  J/kg-K  -32305.40  -3479.708  -64472.67  Density  kmol/cum  11.50969  4.21728E-3  1.083720  Density  kg/cum  632.2551  .1349543  761.1717  54.93244  32.00034  702.3694  .8608280  .5116498  .3491782  Average MW Liq Vol 60F  cum/hr  56  B I O D I E S E L ~IN MOTION  FINAL REPORT  NaOH was not taken into account NaOH is present in such small amount. Also soap was not taken into account since Aspen in missing the component sodium oleate. Both NaOH and soap were simlated as water 302  306  D301  The distillate rate was reduced from 25.69 kg/hr to 23 kg/hr to achieve a bottoms temperature of 65.3 C 322  Figure C.2-3. Aspen Distillation Column Unit D301  Assume that the temperature of cooling water is 40 C. Temperature from bottoms of D310 is 105 C. Temperature of H2SO4 is 40 C. Assume temperature in Neutralization reactor is 107 C. (stream heats up a little due to exothermic reaction.). Assume that in E301 that the temperature reached inside is the average of 40 and 107 C, which is 74 C. This will be the inlet temperature of the biodiesel entering D302 315  323  D302  326  Figure C.2-4. Aspen Distillation Column Unit D302  57  B I O D I E S E L ~IN MOTION  FINAL REPORT  Table C.2-3. Aspen Simulation Results for D301  Substream: MIXED Mole Flow kmol/hr TRIOLEIN METHANOL H2SO4 M-OLEATE WATER SALT GLYCEROL SOAP NAOH Mole Frac TRIOLEIN METHANOL H2SO4 M-OLEATE WATER SALT GLYCEROL SOAP NAOH Mass Flow kg/hr TRIOLEIN METHANOL H2SO4 M-OLEATE WATER SALT GLYCEROL SOAP NAOH Mass Frac TRIOLEIN METHANOL H2SO4 M-OLEATE WATER SALT GLYCEROL SOAP NAOH Total Flow kmol/hr Total Flow kg/hr Total Flow cum/sec Temperature C Pressure atm Vapor Frac Liquid Frac Solid Frac Enthalpy J/kmol Enthalpy J/kg Enthalpy Watt Entropy J/kmol-K Entropy J/kg-K Density kmol/cum Density kg/cum Average MW Liq Vol 60F cum/sec *** ALL PHASES *** H J/kmol TRIOLEIN METHANOL H2SO4 M-OLEATE WATER SALT GLYCEROL SOAP NAOH CP J/kmol-K TRIOLEIN METHANOL H2SO4 M-OLEATE  302 (FEED) 0.02377532 0.86383158 0 0.46014918 0.00776408 0.00237519 8.08E-05 0.04198377 0.00977553  306 (TOPS) 2.18E-08 0.70935607 0 6.00E-13 0.00195982 1.59E-35 4.59E-14 0.01059764 0.00246756  322 (BOTTOMS) 0.0237753 0.15447551 0 0.46014918 0.00580425 0.00237519 8.08E-05 0.03138613 0.00730796  0.01686509 0.61276146 0 0.32640817 0.00550747 0.00168485 5.73E-05 0.02978131 0.0069343  3.01E-08 0.97925808 0 8.28E-13 0.00270552 2.20E-35 6.33E-14 0.01462992 0.00340644  0.03469052 0.22539509 0 0.67140328 0.00846898 0.00346564 0.00011794 0.04579547 0.01066305  21.0518392 27.6790296 0 136.431305 0.13987212 0.33738057 0.00744451 0.75634945 0.17610893  1.93E-05 22.7293005 0 1.78E-10 0.03530684 2.26E-35 4.22E-12 0.19091949 0.04445382  21.0518199 4.94972912 0 136.431305 0.10456528 0.33738057 0.00744451 0.56542996 0.1316551  0.1128305 0.14834993 0 0.73122411 0.00074966 0.00180824 3.99E-05 0.00405376 0.00094388 1.4097355 186.579329 6.64E-05 55 1 0 1 0 -421066059 -3181444.4 -164886.6 -1818178.7 -13737.594 5.89624559 780.3716 132.350593 6.00E-05  8.40E-07 0.98823046 0 7.73E-12 0.00153508 9.82E-35 1.84E-13 0.00830084 0.00193277 0.72438112 23 0.00558859 65.3253369 1 1 0 0 -199967326 -6297937.2 -40236.821 -121065.56 -3812.9395 0.03600495 1.14320217 31.7512417 8.02E-06  0.12869487 0.03025889 0 0.83403756 0.00063923 0.00206248 4.55E-05 0.00345661 0.00080483 0.68535438 163.579329 5.99E-05 104.09236 1 0 1 0 -592259137 -2481410.1 -112752.05 -3437339.6 -14401.549 3.17960439 758.903084 238.678461 5.20E-05  -1.83E+09 -1.79E+09 -1.75E+09 -235373915 -199109678 -229484688 -709929681 -283542452 -1.33E+09 -661765373 -283542452 -283542452  -607189404 -680532419 -240455988 -279747049 -1.32E+09 -573060320 -651387060 -240455988 -279747049 -240455988 -279747049  1453055.1 1472628.82 1619855.79 111287.641 46843.6189 129971.756 566650.942  58  490308.83 630875.267  B I O D I E S E L ~IN MOTION  FINAL REPORT  Table C.2-4. Aspen Simulation Results for D302 Substream: MIXED Mole Flow kmol/hr TRIOLEIN M-OLEATE WATER GLYCEROL Mole Frac TRIOLEIN M-OLEATE WATER GLYCEROL Mass Flow kg/hr TRIOLEIN M-OLEATE WATER GLYCEROL Mass Frac TRIOLEIN M-OLEATE WATER GLYCEROL Total Flow kmol/hr Total Flow kg/hr Total Flow cum/sec Temperature C Pressure atm Vapor Frac Liquid Frac Solid Frac Enthalpy J/kmol Enthalpy J/kg Enthalpy Watt Entropy J/kmol-K Entropy J/kg-K Density kmol/cum Density kg/cum Average MW Liq Vol 60F cum/sec *** ALL PHASES *** H J/kmol TRIOLEIN M-OLEATE WATER GLYCEROL CP J/kmol-K TRIOLEIN M-OLEATE WATER GLYCEROL Enthalpy J/kmol Enthalpy J/kg Enthalpy Watt Entropy J/kmol-K Entropy J/kg-K Density kmol/cum Density kg/cum Average MW Liq Vol 60F cum/sec *** ALL PHASES *** H J/kmol TRIOLEIN METHANOL H2SO4 M-OLEATE WATER SALT GLYCEROL SOAP NAOH CP J/kmol-K TRIOLEIN METHANOL H2SO4 M-OLEATE  315 (FEED) 0.02377529 0.45794778 0.00754462 8.08E-05  323 (TOPS) 1.33E-08 1.21E-09 0.0063807 7.39E-12  326 (BOTTOMS) 0.02377528 0.45794777 0.00116392 8.08E-05  0.04858561 2.08E-06 0.04922747 9.36E-01 1.90E-07 9.48E-01 0.01541768 0.99999773 0.00240993 0.00016518 1.16E-09 0.00016737 21.0518171 135.778603 0.13591847 0.00744451  1.18E-05 3.60E-07 0.1149501 6.81E-10  21.0518054 135.778602 0.02096836 0.00744451  0.1341104 8.65E-01 0.00086586 4.74E-05 0.48934853 156.973783 5.59E-05 74 1 0 1 0 -745968135 -2325473.7 -101399.56 -4788612.2 -14927.973 2.43315708 780.510922 320.781148 4.98E-05  1.02E-04 3.13E-06 0.99989462 5.92E-09 0.00638071 1.15E-01 5.43E-05 100.228053 1.00E+00 1 0.00E+00 0.00E+00 -239275792 -13280455 -424.09739 -3.69E+04 -2047.3237 0.03263928 5.88E-01 18.0171377 3.20E-08  0.13420862 0.86561025 0.00013367 4.75E-05 0.48296781 156.85882 7.02E-05 330.211392 1 0 1 0 -545114404 -1678405.5 -73131.31 -4412288.4 -13585.422 1.91038179 620.45591 324.781105 4.98E-05  -1.80E+09 -1.73E+09 -1.31E+09 -698926718 -589359337 -506130168 -282121041 -239272616 -251662580 -6.58E+08 -568551614 -5.93E+08 1518891.83 591568.173 76291.5605 209515.905 -421066059 -3181444.4 -164886.6 -1818178.7 -13737.594 5.89624559 780.3716 132.350593 6.00E-05  1592418.24 531208.01 34030.3895 133518.413 -199967326 -6297937.2 -40236.821 -121065.56 -3812.9395 0.03600495 1.14320217 31.7512417 8.02E-06  2255138.93 912463.45 221341.472 300906.419 -592259137 -2481410.1 -112752.05 -3437339.6 -14401.549 3.17960439 758.903084 238.678461 5.20E-05  -1.83E+09 -1.79E+09 -1.75E+09 -235373915 -199109678 -229484688 -709929681 -283542452 -1.33E+09 -661765373 -283542452 -283542452  -607189404 -680532419 -240455988 -279747049 -1.32E+09 -573060320 -651387060 -240455988 -279747049 -240455988 -279747049  1453055.1 1472628.82 1619855.79 111287.641 46843.6189 129971.756 566650.942  59  490308.83 630875.267  B I O D I E S E L ~IN MOTION  FINAL REPORT  403  D401  401  402  Figure C.2-5. Aspen Distillation Column Unit D401  60  B I O D I E S E L ~IN MOTION  FINAL REPORT  Table C.2-5. Aspen Simulation Results for D401 Heat and Material Balance Table Stream ID  401  From To  D401  Phase  LIQUID  402  403  D401  D401  LIQUID  LIQUID  Substream: MIXED Mole Flow  kmol/hr  METHANOL  10.99551  1.933650  WATER  .5578598  .3153802  .2424796  8.66330E-4  8.66330E-4  4.1321E-15  H2SO4  0.0  0.0  0.0  WVO  0.0  0.0  0.0  0.0  0.0  0.0  352.3200  61.95834  290.3617  SOAP  NAOH Mass Flow  9.061863  kg/hr  METHANOL WATER  10.05000  5.681662  4.368338  SOAP  .2100000  .2100000  1.0016E-12  0.0  0.0  0.0  H2SO4 WVO  0.0  0.0  0.0  NAOH  0.0  0.0  0.0  METHANOL  .9717028  .9131664  .9851785  WATER  .0277180  .0837385  .0148214  5.79183E-4  3.09506E-3  3.3985E-15  0.0  0.0  0.0  Mass Frac  SOAP H2SO4 WVO  0.0  0.0  0.0  NAOH  0.0  0.0  0.0  Total Flow  kmol/hr  11.55424  2.249897  9.304343  Total Flow  kg/hr  362.5800  67.85000  294.7300  Total Flow  l/min  8.019761  1.502700  6.588709  Temperature  C  60.00000  66.72768  64.93227  Pressure  atm  1.000000  1.000000  1.000000  Vapor Frac  0.0  0.0  0.0  Liquid Frac  1.000000  1.000000  1.000000  0.0  0.0  0.0  Solid Frac Enthalpy  J/kmol  -2.3726E+8  -2.4126E+8  -2.3556E+8  Enthalpy  J/kg  -7.5606E+6  -8.0001E+6  -7.4362E+6  Enthalpy  Watt  -7.6148E+5  -1.5078E+5  -6.0880E+5  Entropy  J/kmol-K  -2.2471E+5  -2.1507E+5  -2.2514E+5  Entropy  J/kg-K  -7160.823  -7131.704  -7107.356  Density  kmol/cum  24.01202  24.95394  23.53608  Density  kg/cum  753.5137  752.5345  745.5431  31.38069  30.15694  31.67661  7.563701  1.398978  6.164723  Average MW Liq Vol 60F  l/min  61  B I O D I E S E L ~IN MOTION  FINAL REPORT  Appendix C.3: Heat Integration Tables and Pinch Analysis Equations Table C.3-1. Heat Exchanger Stream Data Main Component  Stream mass balance  Ti  Tf  (oC)  (oC)  mCp kW/K  Q KW  Ti* (oC)  Tf* (oC)  MeOH  C1A  006A  18.00  40  0.1323  2.9106  23  35  MeOH/NaOH Water Glycerol/BioD Glycerol Methanol Methanol/Water WVO Biodiesel Water Biodiesel  C1Bx C3 C4 H1 H2 H3 H4 H5 H6 H7 H8  006B 008 010 204 305 403 402 110A 322 323 326  18.00 18.00 18.00 60.00 55.00 67.00 65.00 100.85 130.00 100.25 323.98  40 40 40 30 25 20 20 65 40 15 20  0.2633 0.0007 0.1559 0.0848 0.0069 0.0258 0.1093 0.0003 0.0782 0.0001 0.0907  5.7922 0.0156 3.4299 2.5432 0.2073 1.2124 4.9203 0.0092 7.0355 0.0120 27.5762  23 23 23 55 50 62 60 96 125 95 319  35 35 35 35 30 25 25 70 45 20 25  *NOTE: Dark font signifies cold streams, gray font signifies hot streams  62  B I O D I E S E L ~IN MOTION  FINAL REPORT  Table C.3-2. Shifted Temperatures and Ranks Stream  Main Component MeOH  mass balance  C1A  Ti  Tf  Ti*  Tf*  o  o  o  o  ( C)  006A  ( C)  ( C)  18.00  ( C)  23 40  MeOH/NaOH  C3  008  23 40  Water  C4  010  35  18.00  23 40  Glycerol/BioD  H1  204  35  60.00  55 30  Glycerol  H2  305  55  Water  H3  402  67  35 50  25  30 62  20 Methanol/Water  H4  403  25  65  60 20  WVO  H5  110A  100.85  Biodiesel  H6  322  130.00  25 96  65  70 125  40 Water  H7  323  45  100.25  95 15  Biodiesel  H8  326  323.98  20 319  20 Stream mass balance  C1Bx  006B  Ti (oC)  Tf (oC)  25  Ti* (oC)  18  Rank ordered  Tf* (oC) 23  40  35  kW/K  18 10 19 11 20 12 7 13 8 14 5 17 6 15 2 4 1 9 3 21 0 16  35  18.00  mCp  Rank ordered  12 6  0.1323 0.132301 0.00071 0.00071 0.155907 0.155907 0.084774 0.084774 0.006911 0.006911 0.025796 0.025796 0.109339 0.109339 0.0003 0.0003 0.0782 0.0782 0.0001 0.0001 0.0907 0.0907 mCp kW/K  0.263283 0.263283  *NOTE: Since there are two cycles for stream 005 at different times, the cycle with higher mCp value is used to ensure enough heat is supplied into the stream  63  B I O D I E S E L ~IN MOTION  FINAL REPORT  Table C.3-3. Temperature Interval Heat Balance Ranks 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21  Tintervals (oC) 319 125 96 95 70 62 60 55 50 45 35 35 35 35 30 25 25 25 23 23 23 20  CP  deltaTintervals (oC)  0.0907 0.0782 0.0003 0.0001 0.0003 0.0258 0.1093 0.0848 0.0069 0.0782 0.1323 0.0007 0.1559 0.0848 0.00691065 0.10933904 0.0907 0.02579604 0.1323 0.00071024 0.15590682 0.0001  193.98 29.15 0.6 25.25 8 2 5 5 5 10 0 0 0 5 5 0 0 2 0 0 3  64  CPH-CPC kW/K 0.0907 0.1689 0.1692 0.1693 0.1690 0.1948 0.3042 0.3889 0.3959 0.3177 0.1316 -0.1552 0.0711 0.0222 -0.0629 0.0186 0.0649 -0.2888 0.1316 -0.1552 0.0001  deltaHint kW 17.5940 4.9234 0.1015 4.2748 1.3520 0.3896 1.5208 1.9447 1.9793 3.1768 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.1108 -0.3146 0.0000 0.0000 -0.5776 0.0000 0.0000 0.0004  B I O D I E S E L ~IN MOTION  FINAL REPORT  Table C.3-4. Energy Flow Between Intervals Temperature delta H Initial Pass o ( C) kW Q (kW) 319 0 125 17.5940 -17.5940 96 4.9234 -22.5174 95 0.1015 -22.6189 70 4.2748 -26.8938 62 1.3520 -28.2458 60 0.3896 -28.6354 55 1.5208 -30.1562 50 1.9447 -32.1009 45 1.9793 -34.0801 35 3.1768 -37.2569 30 0.1108 -37.3677 25 -0.3146 -37.0531 23 -0.5776 -36.4755 20 0.0004 -36.4760  Final Pass Q (kW) 37.3677 19.7737 14.8503 14.7488 10.4739 9.1219 8.7324 7.2115 5.2668 3.2876 0.1108 0.0000 0.3146 0.8922 0.8918  Assumptions: 1.Heat capacity is constant over the range of initial and final temperatures 2. deltaTmin = 10 oC  65  ← PINCH  B I O D I E S E L ~IN MOTION  FINAL REPORT  Figure C.3-1. Heat Exchanger Network  66  B I O D I E S E L ~IN MOTION  Equations for Heat Integration and Pinch Analysis  ∆Tmin 2 ∆T T f*,coldstream = T f − min 2 ∆T Ti *,hotstream = Ti − min 2 ∆T T f*,chotstream = T f + min 2 C p = m& C p Ti *,coldstream = Ti +  ∆Tint = T j − T j +1 CPC − C PH = C p , j − C p , j +1 ∆H int = (C PC − C PH ) * ∆Tint Q = H T j − H T j +1  67  B I O D I E S E L ~IN MOTION  FINAL REPORT  Appendix D: Equipment Design and Specifications Appendix D.1: Tables and Figures  Figure D.1-1. Mobile Biodiesel Production Plant  Figure D.1-2. Schematic of Waste Vegetable Oil Storage Tank T001  68  B I O D I E S E L ~IN MOTION  FINAL REPORT  Figure D.1-3. Schematic Diagram of Transesterification Reactor R201 9.84''  4''  14'' 4''  8’8” 6’8”  DISTRIBUTOR  SUPPORT PLATE  4''  Figure D.1-4. Schematic of Methanol-Water Distillation Tower D401  69  B I O D I E S E L ~IN MOTION  FINAL REPORT  Figure D.1-5. Berl Packing1  Figure D.1-6. Trough Type Distributor  Figure D.1-7. Hydrocyclone Correlations Between Separation Characteristics, Cyclone Diameter and Cyclone Throughput if a Gas Core is Present  1  http://www.chinachemicalonline.com/packing/grainde_packing3.asp  70  B I O D I E S E L ~IN MOTION  FINAL REPORT  Figure D.1-8. Schematic Diagram of a Hydrocyclone Water  Pure Biodiesel  Biodiesel + Salts  Water  + Soap  + Soap + Salts  Figure D.1-9. Schematic Diagram of Extraction Column E301  71  B I O D I E S E L ~IN MOTION  FINAL REPORT  Figure D.1-10. Water-Ethanol-Ester Mixture Ternary Diagram  Figure D.1-11. HETS as a Function of Diameter vs. Interfacial Tension  72  B I O D I E S E L ~IN MOTION  FINAL REPORT  Table D.1-1. Tank Design Specifications Tank # T001 T002 T003 T101 T201 T401 T402 T403 T404  Liquid Volume (L) 3583 3 3281 346 188 482 4875 197 3586  Tank H:D ratio 1 2 1.1 2 2 1 1 2 1  Percent Fill (%) 70 70 70 70 70 70 70 70 70  Tank Volume (m3) 5.12 0.004 5.21 0.49 0.27 1.32 4.56 0.28 5.12  Tank Diameter (m) 1.9 0.1 1.8 0.7 0.6 1.2 1.8 0.6 1.9  Tank Height (m) 1.9 0.3 2.0 1.4 1.1 1.2 1.8 1.1 1.9  Vessel Material of Construction Carbon Steel AISI 1020 Stainless Steel AISI 316 Carbon Steel AISI 1020 Stainless Steel AISI 304 Stainless Steel AISI 304 Carbon Steel AISI 1020 Polyethylene ― Carbon Steel AISI 1020 Carbon Steel AISI 1020  Table D.1-2. Reactor Design Specifications  Reactor # R101 R102 R103 R201 R301 M001  Liquid Volume (L) 860 860 860 224 207 43  Tank H:D ratio 2 2 2 2 2 2  Percent Fill (%) 70 70 70 70 70 70  Tank Diameter (m) 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.6 0.6 0.34  Tank Volume (m3) 1.23 1.23 1.23 0.32 0.30 0.06  Tank Height (m) 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.2 1.1 0.68  Vessel Material of Construction Stainless Steel AISI 304 Stainless Steel AISI 304 Stainless Steel AISI 304 Stainless Steel AISI 304 Carbon Steel AISI 1020 Stainless Steel AISI 316  Table D.1-3. Reactor Impeller Design Specifications  Reactor # R101 R102 R103 R201 R301  Type of Impeller Rushton Turbine Rushton Turbine Rushton Turbine Rushton Turbine Rushton Turbine  Width of Impeller (m)  Length of Blade (m)  Impeller Placement (above bottom of tank) (m)  Width of Baffles (m)  Power required for turbine (W)  Density of fluid (kg/m3)  Rotational Speed of Impeller (rpm)  0.31  0.06  0.08  0.61  0.09  847  840  237  0.31  0.06  0.08  0.61  0.09  847  840  237  0.31  0.06  0.08  0.61  0.09  847  840  237  0.20  0.04  0.05  0.39  0.06  221  885  314  0.19  0.04  0.05  0.38  0.06  204  875  321  Diameter of Impeller (m)  73  B I O D I E S E L ~IN MOTION  FINAL REPORT  Table D.1-4. Physical Properties of Glycerol and Biodiesel  Glycerol: Viscosity (kg/m.s), η 3  Density (kg/m ), ρ dp,50 , Diameter (m) Mass flow rate (kg/hr) Pressure Drop (Pa)  2  1.49  Biodiesel: Density (kg/m3), ρ  879  1.26E-03  Viscosity (kg/m.s),η  4.40E-03  1.00E-04 to Kinematic viscosity2 (avg) (m2/s) 5.00E-06 1.00E-03 198.81 100  Chancellor college Biodiesel Research-Biodiesel Properties < http://www.chanco.unima.mw/physics/biodieselanaly.html>  74  B I O D I E S E L ~IN MOTION  FINAL REPORT  Appendix D.2: Sample Calculations Appendix D.2-1 Reactor and Storage Tank Design Calculations For the reactors, the height to diameter ratio was chosen as 2:1. Therefore, the diameters and heights were determined using the following equations: D=3  4V πR  (1)  where D is the diameter (m), V is the tank volume (m3), and R is the H/D factor. The height H is given by:  H = D× R  (2)  The power requirement in Watts was found by the following equation:  P=  5Hp × V × 0.26417Gal / L × 1000W / kW = (0.985W / L)V 1000Gal × 1.341Hp / kW  (3)  where V is the volume in liters. Given the power requirements, the impeller speed (Ni in rpm) was found using the correlation given by Haynes (2004):  Ni = 3  P 5 k 2 ρDi  (4)  where k2 is a proportionality constant (5 for Rushton turbines), ρ is the average fluid density, and Di is the impeller diameter.  75  B I O D I E S E L ~IN MOTION  FINAL REPORT  Appendix D.2-2 Distillation Column D401 Design Calculations EQUATIONS FOR PACKED TOWER DESIGN  ρ H O (l ) ⎤ ⎡ 1 U f = ⎢Y ∗ g ∗ 2 ⎥ ρ G FP ∗ f ( ρ L ) ∗ f ( µ L ) ⎦ ⎣  0.5  (5)  [  Y = exp − 3.7121 − 1.0371 ∗ (ln FLG ) − 0.1501 ∗ (ln FLG ) − 0.007544 ∗ (ln FLG ) FLG  L ⎛ρ = ∗ ⎜⎜ G G ⎝ ρL  2  ⎞ ⎟⎟ ⎠  3  (7) (8)  ρ H O( L) ⎡ ρ H O( L) ⎤ f ( ρ L ) = −0.8787 + 2.6776 ∗ − 0.6313 ∗ ⎢ ⎥ ρL ⎣ ρL ⎦ 2  f ( µ L ) = 0.96 ∗ µ L  2  (9)  2  0.19  ⎡ ⎤ 4∗G DT = ⎢ ⎥ ⎢⎣ f ∗ U f ∗ Π ∗ ρ G ∗ 3600 ⎥⎦ DT ≥ 10 ∗ DP − 30 ∗ DP  (10)  1/ 2  (11) (12)  V PMethanol V Pwater  Packedheight =  (6)  0.5  FP = Table14.11  α=  ]  N T ⋅ HETP Eo  (13)  76  B I O D I E S E L ~IN MOTION  FINAL REPORT  SAMPLE CALCULATIONS  ⎤ ⎡ 1 ⎛ 59.34134 ⎞ U f = ⎢0.0831 ∗ 32.2 ∗ ⎜ ⎟ ⎥ ⎝ 0.07 ⎠ 39.3 ∗ 1.50465 ∗ 0.7851⎦ ⎣  [  0.5  = 6.99 ft / s  ]  Y = exp − 3.7121 − 1.0371 ∗ (ln 0.00891) − 0.1501 ∗ (ln 0.00891) − 0.007544 ∗ (ln 0.00891) = 0.255 2  3  0.5  ⎛ 149.5837 ⎞⎛ 0.07 ⎞ FLG = ⎜ ⎟ = 0.00891 ⎟⎜ ⎝ 649.768 ⎠⎝ 46.69033 ⎠ FP = 54 ft −1 ( polypropylenepallring ) = 39.3 ft −1 ( polypropylene int aloxsaddle) 5 2  59.34134 ⎡ 59.34134 ⎤ − 0.6313 ∗ ⎢ = 1.50465 f ( ρ L ) = −0.8787 + 2.6776 ∗ 46.69033 ⎣ 46.69033 ⎥⎦ f ( µ L ) = 0.96 ∗ 0.346976 0.19 = 0.7851 4 ∗ 649.768 ⎡ ⎤ DT = ⎢ ⎣ 0.7 ∗ 6.99 ∗ Π ∗ 0.07 ∗ 3600 ⎥⎦ HETP = 1.0 ft  0.5  = 0.82 ft  14.967 = 4.123 3.63 3 ∗ 1.0 Packedheight = = 6.0 ft 0.5  α=  Calculating the height of packing (HETP) in the distillation column D401 Since the two major species to be separated is methanol and water, the calculation is performed assuming a binary distillation between methanol (A), and water (B). The Schmidt number of each of the species ScL,A =  ScL,B = ScL =  µ L, A ρ L , A ∗ D AB , L µ L,B ρ L , B ∗ D AB , L  Sc L , A + Sc L , B 2  =  355 ∗ 10 −6 Pa.s = 2174 (756kg / m 3 ) ∗ (2.16 ∗ 10 −10 m 2 / s )  =  0.4668 ∗ 10 −6 Pa.s = 2.19 (983.2kg / m 3 ) ∗ (2.16 ∗ 10 −10 m 2 / s )  =  2174 + 2.19 = 1088 2  77  B I O D I E S E L ~IN MOTION  FINAL REPORT  In the enriching section L’ =  4L 4 kg 1hr kg = 67.64 ∗ ∗ = 0.383 2 L 2 2 hr 3600s π (0.25m) π ( Dc ) m s  The correlation for 1 in berl saddle ⎛ L' HtL = 0.00129 ∗ ⎜⎜ ⎝ µL  ⎞ ⎟⎟ ⎠  0.28  ⎛ 0.383kg / m 2 s ⎞ ⎟⎟ ∗ Sc L = 0.00129 ∗ ⎜⎜ −4 ⎝ 3.44 x10 Pa.s ⎠  0.28  ∗ 1088 0.5 = 0.303m  In the exhausting section L' =  4L 4 kg 1hr kg = 134.5 ∗ ∗ = 0.76 2 2 2 hr 3600s π (0.25m) π ( Dc ) m s  The correlation for 1 in berl saddle H tL  ⎛ L' = 0.00129 ∗ ⎜⎜ ⎝ µL  ⎞ ⎟⎟ ⎠  0.28  ⎛ 0.99kg / m 2 s ⎞ ⎟⎟ ∗ Sc L = 0.00129 ∗ ⎜⎜ −4 ⎝ 3.44 x10 Pa.s ⎠  0.28  ∗ 1088 0.5 = 0.368m  The height of the packing in the tower Z = Z enriching + Z exhausting = NtL ∗ ( H tL + H tL ) = 3 ∗ (0.303 + 0.368) = 2.01m  78  B I O D I E S E L ~IN MOTION  FINAL REPORT  Appendix D.2-3 Heat Exchanger Design Calculations The following sample calculations are for the shell and tube heat exchanger of condenser C401. The heat exchanger duty Q is estimated on the basis of:  Q = AUF (∆T )lmtd = m Ac p‚ A ∆TA = − mB c p‚ B ∆TB  (14)  Correction factor F for the mean logarithmic temperature difference (∆T)lmtd: P=  Tw‚2 − Tw‚1 Tm‚1 − Tw‚1  (15)  45 − 10 = = 0.63 65.3 − 10  R=  m m c p‚ m m w c p‚ w  (16)  599 ⋅ 1.42 = = 0.01 2304 ⋅ 4.19 Thus, F = F (P‚R ) = 0.98 for a 1-2 S&T heat exchanger.  (∆T )1 = 65.3 − 45.0 = 20.3⎫ (∆T )2 = 65.3 − 10.0 = 55.3⎬⎭ (∆T )lmtd  =  (∆T )2 − (∆T )1 ln  [(( )) ] ∆T ∆T  2  (17)  1  55.3 − 20.3 = = 34.92°C .3 ] ln[55 20.3  Wall material: Carbon Steel 304, 1 h w = 1.76 ⋅10 −4  m2K W  . From references it is found:  1 1 1 1 = + f1 + + f2 + U h1 hwall h2 1 1 = + 0.0002 + 1.76 ⋅ 10 − 4 + 0.0002 + = 0.00185 mW2 K 6000 3500 Thus, U = 540 mW2 K  79  (18)  B I O D I E S E L ~IN MOTION  FINAL REPORT  Table 1: Summary of Heat Transfer and Fouling Coefficients Heat Transfer Coefficient h  Fouling Coefficient f  [W/(m2K)]  [(m2K)/W]  1. H2O (liq)  6000  0.0002  2. Light Organics (cond.)  3500  0.0002  [unit]  Required heat exchanger area A: A= =  Q UF (∆T )lmtd  (19)  − 93.78 ⋅ 10 3 540 ⋅ 0.98 ⋅ 35.92  = 4.93m 2 = 53.07 sqft  Selected: O.D. =1.0in = 0.083 ft outer diameter tubing, which is equivalent to the total  tube length  Lt  A πD 53.07 = = 203.5 ft 0.083π  Lt =  (20)  Selected: two tube pass, triangular geometry: L = 6 ft  Shell I .D. = 10in = 0.83 ft  No. of tubes = 32  Thus, verifying acceptable ratio: L D = 6 ft 0.83 ft = 7.2 , which is acceptable. Determining the pressure drop: P  D h = 1.1028 Dt − D t  Hydraulic diameter for square pitch  B = 0.83 ft  Distance between baffles  t  ft  E = 0.25in ⋅ 0.083 in = 0.0208 ft  Distance between tubes  D s = 10in = 0.83 ft  Shell diameter  As =  D s BC Pt  Flow area  Gs =  mÝ As  Flow velocity  s = 1.0  Specific gravity  N = 16  Number of baffles where: (L N ) D s = (6 ft 16) 0.83 = 0.45 ∈ [0.2,1.0] - ok!  Re =  DhGs  Reynolds number  µ  80  B I O D I E S E L ~IN MOTION  FINAL REPORT  f = 0.0121Re−0.19 , 300 < Re < 10 6  ∆P =  Friction factor  fG s2 D s (N + 1)  Pressure drop. 25% segment baffles.  5.22 ⋅1010 sD h  Insertion of know values in design equations yields: Re =  0.0828 ⋅ 24390 = 829 < 2300 2.424 −0.19  f = 0.0121⋅ (829)  = 0.00337 2  ∆P =  0.00337 ⋅ (24390) (0.83)(17) 5.22 ⋅1010 ⋅1.0 ⋅ 0.0824  = 0.0066 psi = 0.046kPa  The pressure loss is acceptable.  81  B I O D I E S E L ~IN MOTION  FINAL REPORT  Appendix D.2-4 Hydrocyclone Design Calculations Design Equations used for Standard Liquid-Liquid Hydrocyclones: ⎛ d 502 ∆ρ ⎞ ⎛ (∆p )t ⎟ × ⎜⎜ Y = ⎜⎜ ⎟ η ⎠ ⎝ η ⎝  ⎛ρ⎞ ⎛ X = D × ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ × ⎜ ⎝ η ⎠ ⎜⎝  ⎞ ⎟⎟ ⎠  (∆p )t ρ  (21) ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠  (22)  Assumptions: L/D ≅ 5 b / D = 0.28 e / D = 0.34 I = D ≅ 0.4  Sample Calculations: For Glycerol droplet diameter 50%, dp,50 = 0.001 m: ⎛ d 2 ∆ρ ⎞ ⎛ (∆p )t ⎞ ⎛ 0.001m × (879 − 1.26 E − 3)kg / m 3 ⎞ ⎛ 100kg / m.s 2 ⎞ ⎟⎟ × ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ = 4545.44 ⎟⎟ = ⎜⎜ Y = ⎜⎜ 50 ⎟⎟ × ⎜⎜ 0.0044kg / m.s ⎠ ⎝ 0.0044kg / m.s ⎠ ⎝ η ⎠ ⎝ η ⎠ ⎝ The value Y is corresponding to about X=1.6E+05  ⎛ 879kg / m 3 ⎞ ⎛ 100 Pa ⎟⎟ × ⎜ X = 1.6 E 5 = D × ⎜⎜ 3 ⎜ Hence, ⎝ 0.0044kg / m.s ⎠ ⎝ 879kg / m ⇒ D = 2.37m = 7.79 ft L = D × 5 = 2.37 × 5 = 11.87 m  b = D × 0.28 = 2.37 × 0.28 = 0.66m e = D × 0.34 = 2.37 × 0.34 = 0.81m I = D × 0.4 = 2.37 × 0.4 = 0.95m  82  ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠  B I O D I E S E L ~IN MOTION  FINAL REPORT  Appendix D.2-5 Extraction Column Design Calculations Design Considerations  The operating temperature is not critical in the extraction process. It is only dependent upon the streams entering the extraction column. The biodiesel feed stream enters the column at 85 °C; the water enters the column at 40 °C. The extraction column is assumed to operate isothermally at an average of these two inlet stream temperatures, at 63 °C. The operating pressure is assumed at isobaric at 1 atm. This is well below the vapour pressure of the solution, ensuring that the vapour phase will not appear and interrupt liquid equilibrium. Isobaric conditions are beneficial to the phase stability of the system. The density difference between the water and biodiesel is large enough such that the water (heavier solvent) will flow downward, and the biodiesel (lighter component) will flow to the top of the column. The concentration gradient, coupled with the higher affinity that the solutes have for water over biodiesel, drives the mass transfer, allowing the solutes to be extracted from the biodiesel and dissolved into the water, leaving the biodiesel relatively solute free. The density difference aids in the complete separation between water and biodiesel.  Viscosity is also valuable in the determination of what type of system to use for extraction. Components having a high viscosity cannot be used in packed columns. Since biodiesel has a high viscosity of 880 Pa⋅s (water has a viscosity of 1.129 Pa⋅s at 63 °C), a packed column was not used.  83  B I O D I E S E L ~IN MOTION  FINAL REPORT  Design Conditions Dispersed (light) Phase: Water Continuous (heavy) Phase: Biodiesel Flow rates determined from mass balance: UD = 41.75 m/s = 136.9688 ft/s UC = 43.77 m/s = 143.6041 ft/s MD = 0.0420 kg/s = 151.0484 kg/h MC = 0.0503 kg/s = 181.1195 kg/h Fluid properties obtained from Perry’s Handbook: ρD = 995 kg/m3 = 0.995 g/cm3 ρC = 870 kg/m3 = 0.870 g/cm3 µD = 0.000384 Pa = 8.0156 x 10-6 lbfs/ft2 µC = 0.004882 Pa = 0.0001020 lbfs/ft2 Surface tension: σD = 63.375 mN/m = 0.004342 lbf/ft  http://hyperphysics.py-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/surten.html#c3  σC = 31.33 mN/m = 0.002147 lbf/ft  Lange’s Handbook, at 25°C  σavg = 47.3525 mN/m = 0.003245 lbf/ft  the average surface tension between the dispersed and continuous phase was used in place of interfacial tension due to the lack of data  At σavg, using Figure D.1-, HETS as a function of diameter was determined by assuming a linear relationship and calculating the equation of the line. 3.4 − 0.6 = 0.16 0 − 30 y = mx + b → b = y − mx = 3.4 − (0.16 ⋅ 10) = 1.8 y = 0.16 x + 1.8 = 0.16 ⋅ 47.35 + 1.8 = 9.38 = HETS  m=  84  DT1 / 3  B I O D I E S E L ~IN MOTION  FINAL REPORT  Determining the total capacity of the column U uD = D  φD  Phase flow ratio g kg 0.87 3 U D M D ρC h × cm = 0.729 = × = kg g UC M C ρD 181.1195 0.995 3 h cm Using Figure 9 and the phase flow ratio (U C + U D ) f = 0.3 uO  (23)  151.0484  Determing characteristic rise velocity lb f g ⋅ (0.995 − 0.87) 3 0.01 ⋅ 0.002147 0.01 ⋅ σ C ⋅ ∆ρ ft ft cm = = 0.06119 uO = lb f s µC ⋅ ρC s g 0.0001020 2 ⋅ 0.87 3 ft cm Determining superficial flooding velocity ft ft = 0.01837 s s Superficial velocity at 50% flooding  (U D + U C ) f = 0.3 × 0.06619  (U D + U C ) 50% flooding velocity =  ft s ft 1 ⋅ 0.01837 × 3600 = 33.0423 s h h 2  (24)  (25)  (26)  (27)  (28)  Total volumetric flowrate kg kg ⎞ ⎛ 151.0484 181.1195 ⎟ ⎜ ⎛ MD MC ⎞ ft 3 ft 3 h h ⎜ ⎟ ⎟= + + Qtotal = ⎜⎜ × 35.3146 3 = 12.7129 kg ⎟ ρ C ⎟⎠ ⎜ 995 kg h m ⎝ ρD 87 3 ⎜ ⎟ 3 m m ⎝ ⎠ Determining cross sectional area AC =  Qtotal (U D + U C ) 50% flooding velocity  ft 3 h = 0.3847 ft 2 = ft 3 33.0423 h  (29)  12.7129  (30)  Determining diameter D=  4 AC  π  =  4 ⋅ 0.3847 ft 2  π  (31)  = 0.6999 ft //  Determining height of column from Figure 10 using the average interfacial tension HETS = 9.3764 ⇒ HETS = 9.3764 × 3 0.6999 ft = 8.3250 ft // 3 D 85  (32)  B I O D I E S E L ~IN MOTION  FINAL REPORT  Appendix D.3: Pump Specifications Table D.3-1. Centrifugal Pump Specifications  Pump ID P201 P104 P101 P103 P401 P403  Speed Type of Density @ 20C (rpm) Liquid (kg/cub.m) 1120 1120 840 840 840 840  Ethanol Ethanol Ethanol Ethanol Ethanol Ethanol  789 789 789 789 789 789  Vol Flow Rate (cub.m/hr) 1.52 12 0.67 0.61 0.5 0.8  NPSHa NPSHr (m) (m) 23.1 23.1 23.1 24.1 24.1 23.1  2.88 1.5 1.67 1.67 1.67 1.67  Total Head (m)  Type/Size  8.55 6.08 5.08 5 5 5.08  APP-C 11-32 283902 APP-C 11-40 283903 APP-O 22-32 288449 APP-O 22-32 288449 APP-O 22-32 288449 APP-O 22-32 288449  Power Diameter Efficiency (kw) (mm) 205 185 215 215 215 215  16.7 58.9 6.1 5.5 5.5 6.1  0.157 0.254 0.114 0.113 0.113 0.114  *NOTE: All pumps in Table are single-stage centrifugal pumps. Material of Construction: Stainless Steel Schedule 40. Suction and Discharge pressures were assumed at 1 atm. Pump manufacturer: Sulzer Pumps.  Table D.3-2. Pump Design Parameters Pump ID P201 P104 P101 P103 P401 P403  Shut-off head Shut-off (m) dp (kpa) 6.73 20.5 5.1 5.1 5.1 5.1  0.497 1.52 0.377 0.377 0.377 0.377  BEP  Max Power (kW)  60.9% @16.1 cum/hr 0.342 @ 22 cum/hr 65.1% @ 24.1 cum/hr 1.51 @ 31.4cum/hr 33.2% @ 7.28 cum/hr 0.344@ 11.1 cum/hr 33.2%@ 7.28 cum/hr 0.201 @ 9.1cum/hr 33.2% @ 7.28 cum/hr 0.344@ 11.1 cum/hr 33.2% @ 7.28 cum/hr 0.344@ 11.1 cum/hr  Test Speed Min 400 400 400 400 400 400  Max 3490 3600 3540 3540 3540 3540  * NOTE: Pumps P102, P301, P302, P303, P304, and P402 were not sized since the volumetric flowrates were too small to achieve an efficient pump sizing.  86  B I O D I E S E L ~IN MOTION  FINAL REPORT  Table D.3-3. Metering Pump Specifications Pump ID P001 P002 P003  Flow rate  Manufacturer  GPM 1.58 0.0003351 0.0007881  LMI LMI LMI  Type Mseries - 13 Mseries - 13 Mseries - 13  Max Output Flow Rate GPM 10 10 10  Max Output Pressure Psi 120 120 120  Stroke/Min  Max Current  120 120 120  Amps 3.05 3.05 3.05  The motor sized can be applied to both the centrifugal and metering pumps since the flowrates of the pumps are quite similar: Manufacturer: Compton Greaves – Htmotor Supply Voltage: up to 6600 V Ouput: 100 – 1250 kW IEC Frame Size: 315 – 450 Supply Frequency: 50 & 60 Hz Number of poles: 4 Type: Squirrel Cage Mounting: Horizontal Foot Mounted  87  B I O D I E S E L ~IN MOTION  FINAL REPORT  Appendix D.4: Piping Data and Specifications PVC (Poly Vinyl Chloride) 1120, Type I Density: 1.039 g/m3 Temperature Limits: -18 to 60 C Pressure Limits (1" ID): 30.6 atm @ 23 C, 6.7 atm @ 60 C for schedule 40 42.8 atm @ 23 C, 9.4 atm @ 60 C for schedule 80 Cost Estimates: ~$0.50 / foot from Fabco for basic 1" inner diameter pipe $7002 (56% carbon steel) - 2" ID 400 ft complex system installation $5875 (86% carbon steel) - 2" ID 500 ft straight run installation Suppliers: Fabco Plastics, Surrey, BC (604-882-1564) Harvel Plastics, Inc Chemical Corrosion: - Not recommended for high concentrations of sulphuric acid (98% at 50 C) or sodium hydroxide (50%) - Not recommended for sulphur salts - May be damaged by ketones, aromatics, and some chlorinated hydrocarbons CPVC (Chlorinated PVC) 4120, Type IV, Grade I Density: 1.52 g/m3 Temperature Limits: -18 to 99 C Pressure Limits (1" ID): 30.6 atm @ 23 C, 6.12 atm @ 60 C for schedule 40 42.8 atm @ 23 C, 8.58 atm @ 60 C for schedule 80 Cost Estimates: ~$1.02 / foot from Fabco for basic 1" inner diameter pipe $7822 (63% carbon steel) - 2" ID 400 ft complex system installation $6638 (97% carbon steel) - 2" ID 500 ft straight run installation Suppliers: Fabco Plastics, Surrey, BC (604-882-1564) Harvel Plastics Chemical Corrosion: - Not recommended to handle vegetable oils or diesel fuels - May be damaged by ketones, aromatics, and some chlorinated hydrocarbons  88  B I O D I E S E L ~IN MOTION  FINAL REPORT  Carbon Steel, schedule 40 Density: Temperature Limits: Pressure Limits: Cost Estimates: Suppliers:  7.84 g/m3 Not a factor Not a factor $12480 - 2" ID 400 ft complex system installation $6853 - 2" ID 500 ft straight run installation Bartle and Gibson Inc, Port Coquitlam, BC (604-941-7318)  Chemical corrosion: - May embrittle when handling alkaline or strong caustic fluids - May be damaged when exposed to high aqueous acid solutions under extreme T-P conditions - May deteriorate when piping material is exposed to hydrogen sulfide Stainless Steel 304, schedule 10 Density: Temperature Limits: Pressure Limits: Cost Estimates: installation Suppliers:  8.03 g/m3 Not a factor Not a factor $14140 (113% carbon steel) - 2" ID 400 ft complex system $8153 (119% carbon steel) - 2" ID 500 ft straight run installation May be up to 1.6 times that of carbon steel Bartle and Gibson Inc, Port Coquitlam, BC (604-941-7318)  Chemical corrosion: - Although it resists all rusting, it will tarnish when it comes into contact with oxidizing acids - Improper selection or application of thermal insulation may result in stress-corrosion cracking when exposed to media such as chlorides and other halides  89  B I O D I E S E L ~IN MOTION  FINAL REPORT  Table D.4-1. Pipe Material and Size Specifications Stream* 001 001S 002S 002 005 011 008 009 103B 104B 109B 108 203 305 307 318 316 317 306 405 402 403  Flow Rate US gal/min 1.58 N/A N/A minute 2.26 minute minute 0.668 3.786 4.977 2.027 0.762 1.822 0.0433 1.917 1.84 0.702 minute 0.128 3.598 0.371 1.636  Major Components vol% 85% TAG, 10% FFA, 5% Water 100% Steam/Water 100% Steam/Water 100% H2SO4 100% Methanol 100% NaOH 90% Methanol, 10% NaOH 100% Water 60% Methanol, 36% TAG 99.9% Methanol 88% TAG, 11% BioD 88% TAG, 11% BioD 69% BioD, 16% MeOH, 10% TAG 100% Glycerol 84% BioD, 12% TAG 87% BioD, 12.8% TAG 95% Water, 4% Methanol 99.9% Water 99% Methanol 98% Methanol, 1% Water 92.9% Methanol, 6.8% Water 99% Methanol, 1.2% Water  Temp C 65 ~100 50-90 18 18 18 18 18 60 65 202 65 60 55 104 330 70 100 65 65 67 65  Recommended Pipe Material and Size CS 1" S40 CS 1" S40 CS 1" S40 CPVC 1/8" to 1" S40 PVC 1" S40 CPVC 1/8" to 1" S40 CPVC 1/8" to 1" S40 PVC 1/2" to 1" S40 SS 1.25" to 1.5" S10 CS 1.5" S40 CS 1" S40 CS 1" S40 CS 1" S40 CPVC 1/8" to 1" S40 CS 1" S40 CS 1" S40 CS 1" S40 CS 1/8" to 1" S40 CPVC 1/8" to 1" S40 CPVC 1.25" to 1.5" S40 CPVC 1/2" to 1" S40 CPVC 1" S40  90  Rationale PVC/CPVC not recommended since temp > 60C, organic material CPVC not recommended since temp may be > 100C CPVC not recommended since temp may be > 100C CS not recommended since 100% Acid, SS also appropriate CS not recommended since 100% Base, SS also appropriate PVC is a little riskier, high concs of acid due to accident a concern No problem for all materials CS may work, but high concs of acid due to accident is a concern CPVC possible, but temp may go above 100 C from a distill column CS ok as long as acid concentration is low PVC/CPVC not recommended since temp > 60C, organic material  CPVC ok as long as long as no biodiesel goes in this pipe CPVC not recommended since temp is > 100C  B I O D I E S E L ~IN MOTION  FINAL REPORT  Appendix D.5: Plant Layout The plant was drawn to scale using AutoCAD. The pipes have been removed from the views of the plant layout for ease in visibility.  Figure D.5-1. Plant contained in a 40 ft. trailer  91  B I O D I E S E L ~IN MOTION  FINAL REPORT  Figure D.5-2. Isometric view of plant  Figure D.5-3. View of plant from driver's side of truck  92  B I O D I E S E L ~IN MOTION  FINAL REPORT  Figure D.5-4. View of plant from passenger side of truck  Figure D.5-5. Top view of plant  93  B I O D I E S E L ~IN MOTION  FINAL REPORT  Appendix E: Environmental Assessment Table E-1. Wastewater Composition Mass Mass (kg) Fraction Component Water 3134.8 0.6952 Methanol 1339 0.2969 Sodium Hydroxide 1 0.0002 Sodium Sulfate 9 0.0020 Soap 25.6 0.0057 Total 4509.4 1.00000 Table E.2. Related Sewer Use Bylaw Specifications for Sewer Discharge3 Biodiesel Wastewater  For Sewer Discharge  Sulfate Concentration (mg/L) pH  1859 11.9  Wt% Methanol  42  Soap Concentration (mg/L) BOD (mg/L)  7820 unknown  1500 5.5-10.5 no flammables, no odours, no poisons no specification 500  3  Greater Vancouver Sewerage and Drainage District: Sewer Use Bylaw No. 164. Bylaw introduced July 31, 1991, and last amended July 28, 2000. http://www.gvrd.bc.ca/sewerage/pdf/SewerUseBylaw164.pdf  94  B I O D I E S E L ~IN MOTION  FINAL REPORT  Table E.3. HAZOPs for Stream 007 PROJECT NAME:  BIODIESEL IN MOTION  DATE:  FEBRUARY 8, 2005  SECTION:  TRANSESTERIFICATION REACTION SECTION 200  REFERENCE DRAWING:  P&ID SECTION 200  Deviations  Consequences  Action required  Stream  Process Parameters  007  Flow  Possible Causes More  Valve failure/fully open  Possible upset in downstream  Turn off pump P004  Flow control failure  Pressure buildup in R201  Install HA  Flow control sensor failure  R201 overflow  Regular maintenance and calibration  Operator failure  High pH in R201  Operator training  Pressure buildup in M001  Longer draining time of R201  Check differential pressure across valve during routine maintenance  Increase solution volume in R201  Fail-closed mechanism  Reverse flow 008, 108, and 007 Reduced stirring rate Increased reaction rate Higher solution temperature. R201 temperature too high Pipe damage Stream 007  Process Parameters  Deviations Flow  Possible Causes Less  Consequences  Action required  Valve failure/closed  R201 pH not reached  Install LA  Flow control failure  Reaction rate reduced  Regular maintenance  Flow control sensor failure  Downstream process backed-up  Operator training  Operator failure  Tank temperature reduced  Inspection prior to startup  Low pressure in M001  MeOH, NaOH spill  Ventilation installed  Plugged pipe  Health hazard  Implementation of absorbing material to avoid leaks to ground  95  B I O D I E S E L ~IN MOTION  FINAL REPORT  Plugged P004  Fire hazard  Pipe breakage  Corrosion of exterior surface Environment contamination  Stream  Process Parameters  007  Deviations Flow  Possible Causes No  Consequences  Action required  Valve closed  R201 pH not reached  Install check valve  Flow control failure  No reaction  Regular maintenance  Flow control sensor failure  Downstream process backed-up  Operator training  Operator failure  Tank temperature reduced  Empty M001  MeOH spill NaOH spill  Plugged pipe  Health hazard  Previous HAZOP address M001  Plugged P004  Fire hazard  Inspection prior to startup  Pipe breakage  Corrosion of surfaces  Ventilation and absorbing material installed  No reaction Pump cavitation Environment contamination Stream  Process Parameters  007  Stream 007  Deviations Flow  Process Parameters Pressure  Possible Causes  Reverse  Deviations  Pressure buildup in R201  Action required R201 pH not reached  Install LA  Plugged pipe  Reaction rate reduced  Regular maintenance. Inspection prior to startup  Operator failure  Downstream process backed-up  Operator training  Pump damage  Tank temperature reduced  Possible Causes High  Consequences  Consequences  Action required  Valve failure/fully open  Possible upset in downstream  Flow control failure  Pressure buildup in R201  Flow control sensor  Pipe breakage  96  Same precautions as for 007 flow deviations  B I O D I E S E L ~IN MOTION  FINAL REPORT  failure Operator failure  Pump damage  Pressure buildup in M001 Plugged pipe Stream 007  Process Parameters  Deviations  Pressure  Possible Causes Low  Consequences  Action required  Valve failure/fully open  Possible upset in downstream  Operator failure  MeOH may partial vaporized  Leak in pipe  Pipe breakage  Plugged pipe  Pump cavitation  Same precautions as for 007 flow deviations  Pumps fails Stream 007  Stream 007  Process Parameters  Deviations  Temperature  Process Parameters Temperature  Possible Causes High  Deviations  Consequences  Excessive heating  Increase pressure  Install HA + thermo couples  Weather  Pipe melt  Ventilation installed  Operator failure  MeOH boil  Operator training  Temperature control failure in H004  Pump damage  Regular maintenance  Temperature sensor failure in H004  Viscosity decrease  Install throttle  Valve V014 fails and open  Higher temperature in R201  Possible Causes Low  Action required  Consequences  Not sufficient heating  Action required Reduced pressure  Install LA + thermo couples installed  Weather  Regular maintenance  Operator failure  Operator training  Temperature control failure in H004 Temperature sensor  Viscosity increase  97  B I O D I E S E L ~IN MOTION  FINAL REPORT  failure in H004 Valve V014 fails and close Stream 007 Stream 007  Process Parameters Concentration Process Parameters Concentration  Deviations  Possible Causes  Reduced temperature in R201 Consequences  Action required  More base Deviations Less base  Not applicable (operation at maximum solubility) Possible Causes No supply of base to M001  Consequences  Action required  See less NaOH concentration R201  Maintain adequate supply Operator training  Stream 007  Process Parameters Concentration  Deviations No base  Possible Causes No supply of base to M001  Consequences  Action required  See no NaOH concentration R201  Maintain adequate supply Operator training  Stream 007  Process Parameters Concentration  Deviations Additional component  Possible Causes  Consequences  Additional component(s) supplied in M001  Action required See R201  Operator failure  See M001 Operator training  98  B I O D I E S E L ~IN MOTION  FINAL REPORT  Table E.4. HAZOPs for Stream 008 PROJECT NAME:  BIODIESEL IN MOTION  DATE:  FEBRUARY 8, 2005  SECTION:  TRANSESTERIFICATION REACTION SECTION 200  REFERENCE DRAWING:  P&ID SECTION 200  Deviations  Consequences  Action required  Stream  Process Parameters  008  Flow  Possible Causes More  Valve failure/fully open  Possible upset in downstream  Turn off pump P003  Flow control failure  Pressure buildup in R201  Install HA Fail-closed mechanism  Flow control sensor failure  R201 overflow  Regular maintenance and calibration.  Operator failure  Methanol vaporize  Operator training  Longer draining time of R201  Install high flow alarm  Increase solution volume in R201  Check differential pressure across valve during routine maintenance  Reverse flow 008, 108, and 007 Reduced stirring rate Increased reaction rate Higher solution temperature. R201 temperature too high Pipe damage Stream 008  Process Parameters  Deviations Flow  Possible Causes Less  Consequences  Action required  Valve failure/closed  Reaction rate reduced  Install LA  Flow control failure  Downstream process backup  Regular maintenance  Flow control sensor failure  Tank temperature reduced  Operator training  Operator failure  MeOH spill  Inspection prior to startup  Plugged pipe  Health hazard  Ventilation installed  Plugged P003  Fire hazard  Implementation of absorbing material to avoid leaks to ground  99  B I O D I E S E L ~IN MOTION  FINAL REPORT  Pipe breakage Stream  Process Parameters  008  Deviations Flow  Possible Causes No  Methanol vaporize Consequences  Valve closed  Action required No reaction/little reaction  Install check valve  Flow control failure  Stream  Process Parameters  008  Deviations Flow  Flow control sensor failure  Downstream process backup  Operator failure  Tank temperature reduced  Empty T004/T003  MeOH spill/Vaporize  Refer to Hazop for T003/T004  Plugged pipe  Health hazard  Inspection prior to startup Ventilation and absorbing material installed  Plugged P003  Fire hazard  Pipe breakage  Explosion  Pump failure  Cavitation  Possible Causes  Reverse  Regular maintenance  Consequences  Operator training  Action required  Pressure buildup in R201  Reaction rate reduced  Install LA  Plugged pipe  Downstream process backup  Regular maintenance and inspection prior to startup  Pump damage  Tank temperature reduced  Operator training  Operator failure Stream 008  Process Parameters Pressure  Deviations  Possible Causes High  Consequences  Action required  Valve failure/fully open  Possible upset in downstream  Flow control failure  Pressure buildup in R201  Flow control sensor failure  Pipe breakage  Operator failure  Pump damage  Pressure buildup in T003  100  Same precautions as for 008 flow deviations  B I O D I E S E L ~IN MOTION  FINAL REPORT  Plugged pipe Stream 008  Process Parameters  Deviations  Pressure  Possible Causes Low  Consequences  Action required  Valve failure/fully open  Possible upset in downstream  Operator failure  MeOH may be partially vaporized  Leak in pipe  Pipe breakage  Plugged pipe  Pump cavitation  Same precautions as for 008 flow deviations  Pumps fails Stream 008  Stream 008  Process Parameters  Deviations  Temperature  Process Parameters Temperature  Possible Causes High  Deviations  Consequences  Excessive heating  Increase pressure  Install HA + thermo couples  Weather  Pipe melt  Ventilation installed  Operator failure  MeOH vaporize  Operator training  Temperature control failure in H003  Pump damage  Regular maintenance  Temperature sensor failure in H003  Viscosity decrease  Install throttle  Valve V013 fails and open  Higher temperature in R201  Possible Causes Low  Action required  Consequences  Action required  Not sufficient heating  Reduced pressure  Install LA + thermo couples installed. Install throttle control?  Weather  Viscosity increase  Regular maintenance  Operator failure  Reduced temperature in R201  Operator training  Temperature control failure in H003  Reaction rate decreased  Temperature sensor failure in H003 Valve V013 fails and close  101  B I O D I E S E L ~IN MOTION  FINAL REPORT  Table E.5. HAZOPs for Stream 108 PROJECT NAME:  BIODIESEL IN MOTION  DATE:  FEBRUARY 8, 2005  SECTION:  TRANSESTERIFICATION REACTION SECTION 200  REFERENCE DRAWING:  P&ID SECTION 200  Deviations  Consequences  Action required  Stream  Process Parameters  108  Flow  Possible Causes More  V113 failure/fully open  Possible upset in downstream  Turn off pump Install high flow alarm Check differential pressure across valve during routine maintenance  Flow control failure  Pressure buildup in R201  Install HA Fail-closed mechanism  Flow control sensor failure  R201 overflow  Regular maintenance/ calibration  Operator failure  Longer draining time of R201  Operator training  Increase solution volume in R201 Reverse flow 008, 108, and 007 Reduced stirring rate Increased reaction rate Higher solution temperature. R201 temperature too high. Pipe damage Increase in mass of unreacted treated WVO Stream 108  Process Parameters  Deviations Flow  Possible Causes Less  Consequences  Action required  V113 failure/closed  Reaction rate reduced  Install LA  Flow control failure  Downstream process backup  Regular maintenance  Flow control sensor failure  Tank temperature reduced  Operator training  Operator failure  Inspection prior to startup  102  B I O D I E S E L ~IN MOTION  FINAL REPORT  Plugged pipe  Ventilation installed  Plugged P003  Collection system  Pipe breakage  Stream  Process Parameters  108  Deviations Flow  Possible Causes No  Consequences  Action required  V113 closed  No reaction  Install check valve  Flow control failure  Downstream process backup  Regular maintenance  Flow control sensor failure  Tank temperature reduced  Operator training  Operator failure  Pump cavitation  Inspection prior to startup  Empty T101  Refer to previous HAZOP for T101  Plugged pipe  Ventilation  Pipe breakage  Stream  Process Parameters  108  Deviations Flow  Possible Causes  Reverse  Consequences  Action required  Pressure buildup in R201  Reaction rate reduced  Install LA  Plugged pipe  Downstream process backup  Regular maintenance and inspection prior to startup  Pump damage  Tank temperature reduced  Operator training  Operator failure Stream 108  Process Parameters Pressure  Deviations  Possible Causes High  Consequences  Action required  V113 failure/fully open  Possible upset in downstream  Flow control failure  Pressure buildup in R201  Flow control sensor failure  Pipe breakage  103  Same precautions as for 108 flow deviations  B I O D I E S E L ~IN MOTION  FINAL REPORT  Operator failure  Pump damage  Pressure buildup in T101 Plugged pipe Stream 108  Process Parameters  Deviations  Pressure  Possible Causes Low  Consequences  Action required  V113 failure/fully open  Possible upset in downstream  Operator failure  Pipe breakage  Leak in pipe  Pump cavitation  Same precautions as for 108 flow deviations  Plugged pipe Pumps fails Stream 108  Process Parameters  Deviations  Temperature  Possible Causes High  Consequences  Action required  Excessive heating in T101  Increase pressure  Install HA + thermo couples and install throttle  Weather  Pipe melt  Ventilation installed  Operator failure  Pump damage  Operator training  Viscosity decrease  Regular maintenance  Higher temperature in R201  Stream 108  Process Parameters Temperature  Deviations  Possible Causes Low  Consequences  Action required  Not sufficient heating in T101  Reduced pressure  Install LA + thermo couples installed. Install throttle control?  Weather  Viscosity increase  Regular maintenance  Operator failure  Reduced temperature in R201  Operator training  Reaction rate decreased  104  B I O D I E S E L ~IN MOTION  FINAL REPORT  Table E.6. HAZOPs for Stream 201 PROJECT NAME:  BIODIESEL IN MOTION  DATE:  FEBRUARY 8, 2005  SECTION:  TRANSESTERIFICATION REACTION SECTION 200  REFERENCE DRAWING:  P&ID SECTION 200  Deviations  Consequences  Action required  Stream  Process Parameters  201  Flow  Possible Causes More  Valve failure/fully open  T201 overflow  Check differential pressure across valve during routine maintenance  Flow control failure  Pipe damage  Regular maintenance/ calibration.  Flow control sensor failure  Operator training  Operator failure Pressure buildup in R201 Stream  Process Parameters  201  Deviations Flow  Possible Causes Less  Consequences  Action required  Valve failure/closed  Downstream process backup  Install LA  Operator failure  MeOH/biodiesel/glycerol leak  Regular maintenance  Low pressure in R201  Operator training  Plugged pipe  P201 cavitation  Pipe breakage  MeOH/biodiesel/glycerol leak  Inspection prior to startup  Health hazard  Ventilation installed and implementation of absorbing material  Fire hazard Corrosion of exterior environment Exterior ground contamination Stream 201  Process Parameters  Deviations Flow  Possible Causes No  Consequences  Action required  Valve closed  R201 pH not reached  Install check valve  Operator failure  Downstream process backup  Regular maintenance  105  B I O D I E S E L ~IN MOTION  FINAL REPORT  Empty R201  MeOH/biodiesel/glycerol leak  Operator training  Plugged pipe  Health hazard  Inspection prior to startup  Pipe breakage  Fire hazard  Ventilation and absorbing material installed  Corrosion of exterior environment Exterior ground contamination P201 cavitation Stream  Process Parameters  201  Deviations Flow  Possible Causes  Reverse  Consequences  Action required  Pressure buildup in T201  Downstream process backup  Install LA  Plugged pipe  R201 overflow  Regular maintenance and inspection prior to startup  Operator failure  Operator training  Pump P201 damage Stream 201  Stream 201  Process Parameters  Deviations  Pressure  Process Parameters Pressure  Possible Causes High  Deviations  Action required  Valve failure/fully open  Possible upset in downstream  Operator failure  T201 overflow  Pressure buildup in R201  Pipe breakage  Plugged pipe  Pump damage  Possible Causes Low  Consequences  Consequences  Action required  Valve failure/fully open  Possible upset in downstream  Operator failure  MeOH may partially vaporize  Leak in pipe  Pipe breakage  Plugged pipe  Pump cavitation MeOH/biodiesel/glycerol spill  106  Same precautions as for 201 high flow  Same precautions as for 201 less flow  B I O D I E S E L ~IN MOTION  FINAL REPORT  Health hazard Fire hazard Corrosion of exterior environment Stream 201  Stream 201  Process Parameters  Deviations  Temperature  Process Parameters Temperature  Possible Causes High  Deviations  Consequences  See HAZOPS for R201  P201 Cavitation  See HAZOPS for R201  Weather  Pipe melt  Ventilation installed  Operator failure  MeOH vapour  Operator training  Pump damage/cavitation  Regular maintenance  Possible Causes Low  Action required  Consequences  Action required  See HAZOPS for R201  Reduced pressure  Install LA + thermo couples installed. Install throttle control?  Weather  Viscosity increase  Regular maintenance  Operator failure  Pump damage (reduced efficiency)  Operator training  Pipe blockage Downstream process blockage  107  B I O D I E S E L ~IN MOTION  FINAL REPORT  Table E.7. HAZOPs for Stream 201S PROJECT NAME:  BIODIESEL IN MOTION  DATE:  FEBRUARY 8, 2005  SECTION:  TRANSESTERIFICATION REACTION SECTION 200  REFERENCE DRAWING:  P&ID SECTION 200  Deviations  Consequences  Action required  Stream  Process Parameters  201S  Flow  Possible Causes More  V206 fails and open  Higher solution temperature  Install HA  R201 temperature too high  See HAZOP for high temperature of R201  Explosion Stream  Process Parameters  201S  Stream 201S Stream 201S  Deviations Flow  Process Parameters  Less  Deviations  Temperature Process Parameters Temperature  Possible Causes  Deviations  Overnight product compromised (only during cold weather)  Insufficient supply of steam from boiler  Reduced reaction rate  Boiler malfunction Possible Causes  Low  Action required  V206 fails and close  Possible Causes High  Consequences  Boiler malfunction  Consequences  Install HA but no critical precautions necessary  Action required  See high temperature for R201 Consequences See high temperature for R201  Insufficient pipe insulation  108  See HAZOP for high temperature of R201 Action required See HAZOP for low temperature of R201  B I O D I E S E L ~IN MOTION  FINAL REPORT  Table E.8. HAZOPs for Stream 201WC PROJECT NAME:  BIODIESEL IN MOTION  DATE:  FEBRUARY 8, 2005  SECTION:  TRANSESTERIFICATION REACTION SECTION 200  REFERENCE DRAWING:  P&ID SECTION 200  Deviations  Consequences  Action required  Stream  Process Parameters  201WC  Stream  Flow Process Parameters  201WC  Possible Causes More  Deviations Flow  V206 fails and open  Possible Causes Low  Low reaction temperature (See low temperature for R201) Consequences  V207 fails and close  Install HA See HAZOP for low temperature of R201 Action required  See high temperature of R201  See HAZOP for high temperature of R201  Pipe clogged Filter clogged Stream 201WC  Process Parameters Temperature  Deviations  Possible Causes High  Consequences Weather  See high temperature for R201  Poor insulation  109  Action required See HAZOP for high temperature of R201  B I O D I E S E L ~IN MOTION  FINAL REPORT  Table E.9. HAZOPs for Stream 201WH PROJECT NAME:  BIODIESEL IN MOTION  DATE:  FEBRUARY 8, 2005  SECTION:  TRANSESTERIFICATION REACTION SECTION 200  REFERENCE DRAWING:  P&ID SECTION 200  Deviations  Consequences  Action required  Stream  Process Parameters  201WH  Stream  Flow Process Parameters  201WH  Possible Causes More  Deviations Flow  V206 fails and open  Possible Causes Low  High reaction temperature (See High temperature for R201) Consequences  V206 fails and close  Install HA Alarm See HAZOP for High temperature of R201 Action required  See Low temperature of R201  See HAZOP for Low temperature of R201  Plug in the pipe Filter clogged Stream 201WH  Process Parameters Temperature  Deviations  Possible Causes Low  Consequences Weather  See Low temperature for R201  110  Action required See HAZOP for low temperature of R201  B I O D I E S E L ~IN MOTION  FINAL REPORT  Table E.10. HAZOPs for Stream 202 PROJECT NAME:  BIODIESEL IN MOTION  DATE:  FEBRUARY 8, 2005  SECTION:  TRANSESTERIFICATION REACTION SECTION 200  REFERENCE DRAWING:  P&ID SECTION 200  Deviations  Consequences  Action required  Stream  Process Parameters  202  Flow  Possible Causes More  Valve failure/fully open  Possible upset in downstream  Check differential pressure across valve during routine maintenance  Flow control failure  Pipe damage  Regular maintenance/ calibration.  Flow control sensor failure  Operator training  Operator failure  Install HA  Pressure buildup in T201 Stream  Process Parameters  202  Deviations Flow  Possible Causes Less  Consequences  Action required  Valve failure/closed  Downstream process backup  Install LA.  Flow control failure  Pump damage/cavitation  Regular maintenance.  Flow control sensor failure  MeOH/biodiesel/glycerol spill  Operator training.  Operator failure  Health hazard  Inspection prior to startup  Low pressure in T201  Fire hazard  Ventilation installed. Implementation of absorbing material to avoid leaks to ground.  Plugged pipe  Corrosion of exterior environment.  Plugged P004  Exterior ground contamination  Pipe breakage  Stream 202  Process Parameters  Deviations Flow  Possible Causes No  Consequences  Action required  Valve closed  Downstream process backup  Regular maintenance  Flow control failure  Pump damage/cavitation  Operator training  111  B I O D I E S E L ~IN MOTION  FINAL REPORT  Flow control sensor failure  MeOH/biodiesel/glycerol spill  Inspection prior to startup  Operator failure  Health hazard  Ventilation and absorbing material installed  T201 empty  Fire hazard  Plugged pipe  Corrosion of exterior environment  Plugged P004  Exterior ground contamination  Pipe breakage Stream  Process Parameters  202  Deviations Flow  Possible Causes  Reverse  Consequences  Action required  Pressure buildup in T201  Downstream process backup  Install LA  Plugged pipe  T201 overflow  Regular maintenance. Inspection prior to startup  Operator failure  Operator training  Pump damage Stream 202  Process Parameters  Deviations  Pressure  Possible Causes High  Consequences  Action required  Valve failure/fully open  Possible upset in downstream  Flow control failure  Pipe breakage  Flow control sensor failure  Pump damage  Operator failure  MeOH/biodiesel/glycerol spill  Pressure buildup in T201  Health hazard  Plugged pipe  Fire hazard  Same precautions as for 202 flow deviation  Corrosion of exterior environment. Stream 202  Process Parameters Pressure  Deviations  Possible Causes Low  Consequences  Action required  Valve failure/fully open  Possible upset in downstream  Operator failure  MeOH may partial vaporized  Leak in pipe  Pipe damage  Plugged pipe  Pump cavitation  Pumps fails  MeOH/biodiesel/glycerol spill  112  Same precautions as for 202 flow deviation  B I O D I E S E L ~IN MOTION  FINAL REPORT  Health hazard Fire hazard Corrosion of exterior environment Stream 202  Process Parameters  Deviations  Temperature  Possible Causes High  Consequences  Action required  See HAZOPS for T201  Increase pressure  Install HA + thermocouples. Install throttle  Weather  Pipe melt  Ventilation installed  Operator failure  MeOH vaporize  Operator training  Pump cavitation  Regular maintenance Ensure Proper MOC of pipe  Stream 202  Process Parameters Temperature  Deviations  Possible Causes Low  Consequences  See HAZOPS for T201  Action required Reduced pressure  Install LA + thermocouples installed. Install throttle control  Weather  Viscosity increase  Regular maintenance  Operator failure  Pump damage (reduced efficiency)  Operator training  Pipe blockage Downstream process blockage  113  B I O D I E S E L ~IN MOTION  FINAL REPORT  Table E.11. HAZOPs for Stream 202S PROJECT NAME:  BIODIESEL IN MOTION  DATE:  FEBRUARY 8, 2005  SECTION:  TRANSESTERIFICATION REACTION SECTION 200  REFERENCE DRAWING:  P&ID SECTION 200  Deviations  Consequences  Action required  Stream  Process Parameters  202S  Flow  Possible Causes More  V210 fails and open  Higher solution temperature. T201 temperature too high  Install HA Alarm. See HAZOP for high temperature of R201  Explosion Stream  Process Parameters  202S  Stream 202S  Deviations Flow  Process Parameters  Possible Causes Less  Deviations  Temperature  Action required  V210 fails and close  Overnight product compromised (only during cold weather)  Insufficient supply of steam from boiler  Stored product has no further reaction  Possible Causes High  Consequences  Consequences  Boiler malfunction  Install HA Alarm. No critical precautions necessary.  Action required Explosion  See HAZOP for high temperature of R201  MeOH Vaporization Viscosity Decrease  Stream 202S  Process Parameters Temperature  Deviations  Possible Causes Low  Consequences  Boiler malfunction  Action required Viscosity Increase  Insufficient pipe insulation  114  N/A  B I O D I E S E L ~IN MOTION  FINAL REPORT  Table E.12. HAZOPs for Stream 203 PROJECT NAME:  BIODIESEL IN MOTION  DATE:  FEBRUARY 18, 2005  SECTION:  TRANSESTERIFICATION REACTION SECTION 200  REFERENCE DRAWING:  P&ID SECTION 200  Stream  Process Parameters  Deviations  Possible Causes  Consequences  Action required  203  Flow  More  Valve V202 or V203 failure  Overflow to T201  Turn off pump P201  Flow transmitter FT2105 or FT2107 failure  Overflow to hydrocyclones HC301 and HC302, causing incomplete separation of glycerol.  Close valve V202 and V203  Flow controller FC2105 or FC2107 failure  Backflow to R201 and/or T201  Install high flow alarm (HA)  Pressure buildup in R201 or T201  Damage / bursting of pipe and/or fittings  Regular maintenance/calibration  Consequences  Action required  Operator failure  Stream  Process Parameters  203  Stream 203  Deviations Flow  Process Parameters  Possible Causes Less  Deviations Flow  Valve V202 or V203 failure  Pump damage  Install LA  Flow transmitter FT2105 or FT2107 failure  Loss of product, insufficient flow to hydrocyclone reducing efficiency  Operator Training, emergency procedures  Flow controller FC2105 or FC2107 failure  Fire hazard  Regular maintenance of valves, pump, piping and fittings  Pipe streams 201, 202, or 203 plugged, leaking, or broken  Health hazard  Spill kits, spill equipment  Pump P201 failure, not calibrated  Corrosion of exterior environment  Possible Causes No  Consequences  Action required  Valve V202 and V203 closed  Pump P201 damage  Install LLA  Plugged or leaking pipe  Downstream process backup  Regular maintenance  115  B I O D I E S E L ~IN MOTION  Stream  Process Parameters  203  Stream 203  FINAL REPORT  Deviations Flow  Process Parameters  Hydrocyclone H301 damage  Operator Training  No product  Temporary pipe sealing material  Possible Causes  Reverse  Deviations  Pressure  Operator failure Damaged pump P201  Action required  Pressure buildup in T201 or HC301  Pressure buildup in R201, T201  Install LA  Plugged pipe  Downstream process backup  Regular maintenance  Operator failure  Overflow in T201  Operator training  Pump damaged  Hydrocyclone H301 damage  Possible Causes High  Consequences  Consequences  Action required  Valve V204 and V205 fail closed  Possible upset in hydrocyclones / downstream process  Valve V202 or V203 fail and open  Increased pressure to in H301  Flow control failure  Pump damage  Flow control sensor failure  Pipe / fitting breakage  Same precautions as flow deviation 203  Pressure buildup in T201 Plugged pipe Stream 203  Process Parameters  Deviations  Pressure  Possible Causes Low  Consequences  Action required  Valve V203 fails and opens  Downstream process upset  Operator failure  Pump P201 cavitation  Same precautions as low flow deviation 203  Leak in pipe Plugged pipe Pump fails Stream 203  Process Parameters Temperature  Deviations  Possible Causes High  Consequences  Excessive heating in R201 and/or T201  Action required Increase pressure  116  See HAZOP for low temperature of R201  B I O D I E S E L ~IN MOTION  Stream 203  Process Parameters Temperature  FINAL REPORT  Deviations  Weather  Viscosity decrease  Operator Failure  Higher temperature to HC301, causing change in separation efficiency  Temperature control/sensor failure in R201 and/or T201  Piping / fitting melt  Valve V206 fails and open  Pump damage  Possible Causes Low  Consequences  Action required  Insufficient heating in R201 and/or T201  Reduced pressure  Install LA and Thermocouples. Install throttle control  Weather  Viscosity increase  Regular maintenance  Operator failure  Reduced temperature in T201  Operator training  Temperature control/sensor failure in R201 and/or T201 Valves V206 fails and close  117  B I O D I E S E L ~IN MOTION  FINAL REPORT  Table E.13. HAZOPs for Stream 204 PROJECT NAME:  BIODIESEL IN MOTION  DATE:  FEBRUARY 18, 2005  SECTION:  TRANSESTERIFICATION REACTION SECTION 200  REFERENCE DRAWING:  P&ID SECTION 200  Deviations  Consequences  Action required  Stream  Process Parameters  204  Stream  Flow  Process Parameters  204  Stream 204  Possible Causes More  Deviations Flow  Process Parameters  Overflow to HC301  Turn off pump P201  Flow control fail  Back flow to R201  Install HA, alarm should recognize desired flow at time of operation  Flow control sensor failure  Increased volume to HC301  Regular maintenance/calibration  Pressure buildup in T201  Pipe damage  Possible Causes Less  Deviations Flow  V202/V204 fail and open  Action required  V204 fails and partially closed  Pump damage  Install LA, alarm should recognize desired flow at time of operation  Leak in pipe 204  Loss of product, insufficient flow to hydrocyclone reducing efficiency.  Operator Training  Flow control sensor failure  Fire hazard  Regular maintenance  Low pressure in T201  Health hazard  Pipe sealing equipment  Plugged pipe  Corrosion of exterior environment  Leaking pipe  Exterior ground contamination  Possible Causes No  Consequences  Consequences  Action required  V204 closed  Pump P201 damage  Install LLA, alarm should recognize desired flow at time of operation  Plugged/leaking pipe  Downstream process backup  Regular maintenance  Operator failure  HC301 efficiency affected  Operator Training  Damaged pump P201  Pipe sealing equipment  118  B I O D I E S E L ~IN MOTION  Stream  Process Parameters  204  FINAL REPORT  Deviations Flow  Possible Causes  Reverse  Consequences  Action required  Pressure buildup in P201  Pressure buildup in T201  Install LA, alarm should recognize desired flow at time of operation  Plugged pipe  Downstream process backup  Regular maintenance  Operator failure  Overflow in T201  Operator training  Pump damaged Stream 204  Stream 204  Process Parameters  Deviations  Pressure  Process Parameters  Possible Causes High  Deviations  Pressure  Consequences  Flow control failure  Possible upset in downstream process  Flow control sensor failure  Increased pressure to in HC301  Pressure buildup in T201  Pump damage  Plugged pipe  Pipe breakage  Possible Causes Low  Action required  Consequences  Same precautions as flow deviation 204  Action required  Valve V203 failed and open  Downstream process upset  Operator failure  Pump P201 cavitation  Same precautions as flow deviation 204  Leak in pipe Plugged pipe Pump fails Stream 204  Process Parameters Temperature  Deviations  Possible Causes High  Consequences  Action required  Excessive heating in T201  Increase pressure  See HAZOP for low temperature of R201 Check MOC of pipe  Weather  Viscosity decrease  Operator Failure  Higher temperature to H301  Temperature control failure in T201  Pipe melt  119  B I O D I E S E L ~IN MOTION  FINAL REPORT  V206 fails and open Stream 204  Process Parameters Temperature  Deviations  Possible Causes Low  Consequences  Insufficient heating in T201  Action required Reduced pressure  Install LA and Thermo couples. Install throttle control.  Weather  Regular maintenance  Operator failure  Operator training  Temperature control failure in T201 Temperature sensor failure T201  Viscosity increase  V206 fails and close  Reduced temperature in T201  120  B I O D I E S E L ~IN MOTION  FINAL REPORT  Table E.14. HAZOPs for Stream 205 PROJECT NAME:  BIODIESEL IN MOTION  DATE:  FEBRUARY 8, 2005  SECTION:  TRANSESTERIFICATION REACTION SECTION 200  REFERENCE DRAWING:  P&ID SECTION 200  Deviations  Consequences  Action required  Stream  Process Parameters  205  Stream  Flow  Process Parameters  205  Possible Causes More  Deviations Flow  V203 fails and open  Turn off pump P201  Flow control fail  Back flow to R201  Install high flow alarm (HA)  Flow control sensor failure  Increased volume to H301  Regular maintenance/calibration  Pressure buildup in T201  Pipe damage  Possible Causes Less  Overflow to H301  Consequences  V203 fails and close  Action required Pump damage  Install LA  Leak in pipe 205  Loss of product, insufficient flow to hydrocyclone reducing efficiency.  Operator Training  Flow control sensor failure  Fire hazard  Regular maintenance  Low pressure in T201  Health hazard  Plugged pipe  Corrosion of exterior environment  Pipe breakage  Exterior ground contamination  V204 fails and open  Stream  Process Parameters  205  Deviations Flow  Possible Causes No  Consequences  Action required  Valve closed  Pump P201 damage  Install LLA  Plugged pipe  Downstream process backup  Regular maintenance  Operator failure  Hydrocyclone H301 efficiency affected  Operator Training  Damaged pump P201 Stream 205  Process Parameters  Deviations Flow  Reverse  Possible Causes  Consequences  Pressure buildup in P201  Action required Pressure buildup in T201  121  Install LA  B I O D I E S E L ~IN MOTION  FINAL REPORT  Plugged pipe  Downstream process backup  Regular maintenance  Operator failure  Overflow in T201  Operator training  Pump damaged Stream 205  Process Parameters  Deviations  Pressure  Possible Causes High  Consequences  Action required  V204 fails and open  Possible upset in downstream process  Flow control failure  Increased pressure to in HC301  Flow control sensor failure  Pump damage  Pressure buildup in T201  Pipe breakage  Same precautions as high flow 205  Plugged pipe Stream 205  Process Parameters  Deviations  Pressure  Possible Causes Low  Consequences  Action required  V204 failed and open  Downstream process upset  Operator failure  Pump P201 cavitation  Same precautions as low flow 205  Leak in pipe Plugged pipe Pump fails Stream 205  Process Parameters  Deviations  Temperature  Possible Causes High  Consequences  Excessive heating in T201  Action required Increase pressure  Weather  Viscosity decrease  Operator Failure  Higher temperature to HC301  See HAZOP for low temperature of R201  Temperature control failure in T201 V210 fails and open Stream 205  Process Parameters Temperature  Deviations  Possible Causes Low  Consequences  Insufficient heating in T201  Action required Reduced pressure  122  Install LA and thermocouples. Install throttle control.  B I O D I E S E L ~IN MOTION  FINAL REPORT  Weather  Viscosity increase  Regular maintenance  Operator failure  Reduced temperature in T201  Operator training  Temperature control failure in T201 Temperature sensor failure T201 V210 fails and close  123  B I O D I E S E L ~IN MOTION  FINAL REPORT  Table E.15. HAZOPs for Reactor 201 PROJECT NAME:  BIODIESEL IN MOTION  DATE:  FEBRUARY 8, 2005  SECTION:  TRANSESTERIFICATION REACTION SECTION 200  REFERENCE DRAWING:  P&ID SECTION 200  Deviations  Consequences  Action required  Unit R201  Process Parameters Pressure  Possible Causes High  Malfunctioning of relief valve V202  Explosion  Install HHA  High flow 007, 008, 108  MeOH boils  See precautions for more flow of 007, 008, 108  Reaction rate decrease or increase  Install pressure sensor  Level increase Unit R201  Unit R201  Unit R201  Process Parameters Pressure  Process Parameters  Deviations Low/None  Deviations  Temperature  Process Parameters Volumetric Level  Possible Causes  Consequences  Malfunctioning of air intake valve  Possible Causes High  Deviations  Vacuum and consequently no downstream  Install LA  MeOH vaporization  Regular maintenance  Consequences  Action required  Weather  Explosion  V207 malfunctioning  Reaction rate changes  Regular maintenance  Temperature of 007, 008, 108 above design specifications  MeOH vaporizes  See HAZOP of high temperature of 007, 008, 108  V206 malfunction fail and open  Viscosity increase  Operator training  Install HA  Cooling water in 201WC is too warm  See HAZOP for high temperature 201WC  Flow of 201WC too low  See HAZOP of low flow 007, 008, 108  Possible Causes High  Action required  Consequences  Controller failure  Action required Overflow  124  Install HA  B I O D I E S E L ~IN MOTION  FINAL REPORT  More flow of 007, 008, 108  Higher pressure  Regular maintenance  V202 fails and close  Higher temperature  See HAZOP for high flow of 007, 008, and 108  Jacket and reactor vessels corrode  Reaction rate changes  Operator training  Contamination Unit R201  Process Parameters Concentration  Deviations Low MeOH  Possible Causes  Consequences  Action required  Low flow of 008  Reduced degree of conversion  V017 fail and close  Reduced reaction rate  See HAZOP for low flow for 008  Reduced purity of distillation product of D401 Unit R201  Unit R201  Process Parameters Concentration  Process Parameters Concentration  Deviations Low WVO  Deviations Low NaOH  Possible Causes  See HAZOP for D401  Consequences  Action required  Low flow of 108  Reduced degree of conversion  WVO Sources not consistent  Reduced reaction rate  Possible Causes  Consequences  Low flow of 007  See HAZOP for low flow for 108  Action required Reduced reaction rate  See HAZOP for low flow for 007  Mixer M001 failure  Unit R201  Process Parameters Concentration  Deviations High WVO  Degraded/impure NaOH  Operator to ensure it is fresh. NaOH solution must be prepared ASAP  Operator error  Operator training  Possible Causes  Consequences  Action required  High flow of 108  Reduced degree of conversion  WVO Sources not consistent  Reduced reaction rate  125  See HAZOP for high flow for 108  B I O D I E S E L ~IN MOTION  Unit R201  Process Parameters Reaction  FINAL REPORT  Deviations Incomplete  Possible Causes  Consequences  Action required  V202 fails and open  Lower degree of conversion  Impeller malfunctioning  Downstream processes contaminated  Preventative Emergency storage tank Operator to ensure it is fresh. NaOH solution must be prepared ASAP Operator training  126  B I O D I E S E L ~IN MOTION  FINAL REPORT  Table E.16. HAZOPs for Storage Tank 201 PROJECT NAME:  BIODIESEL IN MOTION  DATE:  FEBRUARY 8, 2005  SECTION:  TRANSESTERIFICATION REACTION SECTION 200  REFERENCE DRAWING:  P&ID SECTION 200  Deviations  Consequences  Action required  Unit T201  Process Parameters Pressure  Possible Causes High  Malfunctioning of relief valve V211  Overflow  Install HA  High flow 204  See HAZOP for more flow of 204 Install pressure sensor  Unit T201  Unit T201  Unit T201  Process Parameters Pressure  Process Parameters  Deviations Low/None  Deviations  Temperature  Process Parameters Volumetric Level  Possible Causes  Consequences  Malfunctioning of air intake valve  Possible Causes High  Deviations  Vacuum and consequently no downstream.  Install LA  MeOH vaporization  Regular maintenance  Consequences  Action required  Weather  Explosion  Install HA  V210 malfunctioning  Viscosity increase  Regular maintenance  Temperature of 204 above design specifications  MeOH vaporizes  See HAZOP of high temperature of 204 Operator training  Possible Causes High  Action required  Consequences  Action required  Controller failure  Overflow  Install HA  More flow of 204  Higher pressure  Regular maintenance  V203 fails and close  Higher temperature  See HAZOP for high flow of 204 Ventilation and collection system installed  127  B I O D I E S E L ~IN MOTION  FINAL REPORT  Appendix F: Economic Analysis Table F-1. Hydrocyclone Capital Cost Equipment Type Hydrocyclone Hydrocyclone Table F-2. Tank Capital Cost Equipment Type TANKS TANKS TANKS TANKS TANKS TANKS TANKS TANKS TANKS  Equipment ID HC 301 HC 302  Equipment ID T001 T002 T003 T101 T201 T401 T402 T403 T404  Table F-3. Heat Exchanger Capital Cost Equipment Type Equipment ID Condensers C101A Condensers C301 Condensers C302 Condensers C401 Reboilers H101A Reboilers H301 Reboilers H302 Reboilers H401 Totals  Flow Rate (USGPM) 8 8 Totals  Capital Cost ($) $1,240.00 $1,240.00 $2,480.00  Installation Cost ($) $434.00 $434.00 $868.00  Volume (m3) 5.12 0.004 5.21 0.49 0.27 1.32 4.56 0.28 5.12 Totals  Capital Cost ($) $2,515.12 $29.13 $2,546.87 $928.66 $604.64 $947.76 $2,313.87 $310.34 $2,515.12 $12,711.51  Installation Cost ($) $880.29 $10.20 $891.41 $325.03 $211.62 $331.72 $809.85 $108.62 $880.29 $4,449.03  Capital Cost ($) $8,050.00 $8,050.00 $8,050.00 $8,050.00 $9,300.00 $9,300.00 $9,300.00 $9,300.00 $69,400.00  Installation Cost ($) $2,817.50 $2,817.50 $2,817.50 $2,817.50 $3,255.00 $3,255.00 $3,255.00 $3,255.00 $24,290.00  Table F-4. Reactor Capital Cost Equipment Type Closed Vessel Reactor Closed Vessel Reactor Closed Vessel Reactor Closed Vessel Reactor Closed Vessel Reactor  Equipment ID R101 R102 R103 R201 R301  Volume 1.23 1.23 1.23 0.32 0.30 Totals  Capital Cost ($) $5,000.00 $5,000.00 $5,000.00 $2,500.00 $2,250.00 $19,750.00  Installation Cost ($) $1,750.00 $1,750.00 $1,750.00 $875.00 $787.50 $6,912.50  Table F-5. Mixer Capital Cost Equipment Type Mixer  Equipment ID M001  Volume 0.06  Capital Cost ($) $2,300.00  Installation Cost ($) $805.00  128  B I O D I E S E L ~IN MOTION  Table F-6. Pumps Capital Cost Equipment Type Single Stage - Centrifugal Pump Single Stage - Centrifugal Pump Single Stage - Centrifugal Pump Single Stage - Centrifugal Pump Single Stage - Centrifugal Pump Single Stage - Centrifugal Pump LMI - Mseries Metering Pump LMI - Mseries Metering Pump LMI - Mseries Metering Pump  FINAL REPORT  Equipment ID P101 P103 P104 P201 P401 P403 P001 P002 P003 Totals  Capital Cost ($) $1,700.00 $1,700.00 $1,700.00 $1,700.00 $1,700.00 $1,700.00 $2,300.00 $2,300.00 $2,300.00 $17,100.00  Installation Cost ($) $340.00 $340.00 $340.00 $340.00 $340.00 $340.00 $460.00 $460.00 $460.00 $3,420.00  Table F-7. Distillation and Extraction Column Capital Cost Equipment Type Equipment ID Capital Cost ($) Distillation Column D101 $4,200.00 Distillation Column D301 $4,200.00 Distillation Column D302 $4,200.00 Liq/Liq extraction column E301 $1,400.00 Distillation Column D401 $4,200.00 $18,200.00 Totals  Installation Cost ($) $1,470.00 $1,470.00 $1,470.00 $490.00 $1,470.00 $6,370.00  Table F-8. Direct and Indirect Cost Summary DIRECT COST Total Equiptment Capital Cost: $141,941.51 Total Installation Cost $47,114.53 Trailer Cost $25,000.00 Piping Cost $14,194.15 Instrumentation/Electrical Cost $28,388.30 Total Direct Cost $256,638.49 INDIRECT COST: Contingency $12,831.92  Table F-9. Total Capital Investment Summary FIXED CAPITAL INVESTMENT $269,470.41 Working Capital $26,947.04 TOTAL CAPITAL INVESTMENT $296,417.45  Start Up Cost  129  

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