UBC Undergraduate Research

The Design of a Portable Biodiesel Plant Bhachu, Umeet 2010

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DEPARTMENT OF CHEMICAL & BIOLOGICAL ENGINEERING  T H E  U N I V E R S I T Y  O F  B R I T I S H  C O L U M B I A  The Design of a Portable Biodiesel Plant  CHBE 452/453/454      Submitted to: Dr. Jim Lim Date: April 12, 2005 Prepared by: CHBE 452/453/454 Design Group 3   TM DEPARTMENT OF CHEMICAL & BIOLOGICAL ENGINEERING  T H E  U N I V E R S I T Y  O F  B R I T I S H  C O L U M B I A     CHBE 452/453/454 FOURTH YEAR DESIGN PROJECT FINAL REPORT    THE DESIGN OF A PORTABLE BIODIESEL PLANT       Umeet Bhachu  Norman Chow  Andreas Christensen  Amanda Drew  Linda Ishkintana     Jerry Lu  Conrad Poon  Crissa Villamayor  Ayrien Setiaputra  Tony Yau    B i oD i e s e l I N  M O T I O N U B C ©  CHBE 452/453/454 Design Group 3 B I OD I E S E L  ~IN MOTION  FINAL REPORT  iii Executive Summary The main goal of this project is to design a mobile biodiesel production plant, which is capable of producing 3000 L of biodiesel per week.  The design constraints specify that the biodiesel production plant must be sized to fit into a standard truck-trailer with dimensions 8 feet wide by 40 feet long by 9.5 feet tall.  The plant is to be self sufficient in one form of energy (provided by the client), adaptable to different grades of waste vegetable oil (WVO), environmentally friendly, and economically feasible.  This report presents the final design of the mobile plant in two-dimensional Process Flow Diagrams (PFD’s) and three-dimensional AutoCAD renderings. The main reaction, the pre-treatment, and the purification stages are described in detail and the proposed process, including equipment design specifications, is introduced. The feasibility of this design was evaluated through an environmental impact assessment and economic analysis. Although the contents of wastewater are unsuitable for discharge, the economic analysis, including wastewater disposal costs, proves the design to be economically feasible. With the production rate of 156,000 L biodiesel annually, a profit of $20563 each year is realized.  For the continuation of this project, future groups are encouraged to collect data specific to biodiesel and determine the demand for a such a mobile plant.      B I OD I E S E L  ~IN MOTION  FINAL REPORT  iv Table of Contents Executive Summary ........................................................................................................ iii Table of Contents ............................................................................................................ iv List of Tables.................................................................................................................... vi List of Figures ................................................................................................................ viii 1.0 Introduction ................................................................................................................. 1 2.0 Concept ....................................................................................................................... 2 2.1 Choice of Reaction .............................................................................................. 2 2.1.1 Enzymatic Catalyzed Reaction ............................................................ 2 2.1.2 Acid-Catalyzed Esterification Reaction............................................... 2 2.1.3 Transesterification Reaction ................................................................. 3 2.2 Narrowing Down of Pre-treatment Reaction.................................................... 3 2.3 Narrowing Down of Post-Treatment Reaction................................................. 5 3.0 Process ....................................................................................................................... 7 3.1 Process Flow Diagram ........................................................................................ 7 3.2 Piping and Instrumentation Diagram .............................................................. 11 3.3 Start-up, Shutdown and Emergency Procedures ......................................... 13 3.4 Mass Balance ..................................................................................................... 14 3.5 Energy Balance, Heat Integration and Pinch Analysis ................................ 16 4.0 Equipment Design and Specifications.................................................................. 18 4.1 Storage Tanks .................................................................................................... 18 4.2 Reactors .............................................................................................................. 19 4.3 Packed Distillation Tower ................................................................................. 20 4.4 Heat Exchangers ............................................................................................... 21 4.5 Hydrocyclones .................................................................................................... 22 4.6 Counter-Current Liquid-Liquid Extraction Column........................................ 23 4.7 Pumps.................................................................................................................. 24 4.8 Piping ................................................................................................................... 25 4.9 Plant Layout ........................................................................................................ 26 5.0 Environmental Assessment ................................................................................... 28 5.1 Environmental Assessment of Wastewater ................................................... 28 5.2 Environmental Assessment of Glycerol ......................................................... 29 5.3 Environmental Assessment of Secondary Effects........................................ 29 5.4 HAZOPs .............................................................................................................. 30 6.0 Economic Assessment ........................................................................................... 31 6.1 Cost Implementation ......................................................................................... 31 6.2 Production Cost.................................................................................................. 31 7.0 Conclusions and Recommendations .................................................................... 34 8.0 Nomenclature ........................................................................................................... 35 9.0 References ............................................................................................................... 36 B I OD I E S E L  ~IN MOTION  FINAL REPORT  v Appendix A: Concept ..................................................................................................... 38 Appendix B: Process Flow Diagrams and Piping and Instrumentation Diagrams39 Appendix C: Process ..................................................................................................... 51 Appendix C.1: Start-up, Shutdown and Emergency Procedures .......... 51 Appendix C.2: Aspen Simulation Results.................................................. 54 Appendix C.3: Heat Integration Tables and Pinch Analysis Equations 62 Appendix D: Equipment Design and Specifications ................................................. 68 Appendix D.1: Tables and Figures ............................................................. 68 Appendix D.2: Sample Calculations........................................................... 75 Appendix D.3: Pump Specifications ........................................................... 86 Appendix D.4: Piping Data and Specifications ......................................... 88 Appendix D.5: Plant Layout ......................................................................... 91 Appendix E: Environmental Assessment ................................................................... 94 Appendix F: Economic Analysis................................................................................. 128    B I OD I E S E L  ~IN MOTION  FINAL REPORT  vi List of Tables Table C.1-1. Start-up Procedures................................................................................ 51 Table C.1-2. Shutdown Procedures ............................................................................ 52 Table C.1-3. Emergency Procedures.......................................................................... 52 Table C.1-4. Trip Matrix................................................................................................. 53 Table C.2-2. Second Treatment Aspen Simulation Results for D101 ................... 56 Table C.2-3. Aspen Simulation Results for D301 ..................................................... 58 Table C.2-4. Aspen Simulation Results for D302 ..................................................... 58 Table C.2-4. Aspen Simulation Results for D302 ..................................................... 59 Table C.2-5. Aspen Simulation Results for D401 ..................................................... 61 Table C.3-1. Heat Exchanger Stream Data ............................................................... 62 Table C.3-2. Shifted Temperatures and Ranks......................................................... 63 Table C.3-3. Temperature Interval Heat Balance ..................................................... 64 Table C.3-4. Energy Flow Between Intervals ............................................................ 65 Table D.1-1. Tank Design Specifications ................................................................... 73 Table D.1-2. Reactor Design Specifications .............................................................. 73 Table D.1-3. Reactor Impeller Design Specifications............................................... 73 Table D.1-4. Physical Properties of Glycerol and Biodiesel .................................... 74 Table D.3-1. Centrifugal Pump Specifications........................................................... 86 Table D.3-2. Pump Design Parameters...................................................................... 86 Table D.3-3. Metering Pump Specifications............................................................... 87 Table D.4-1. Pipe Material and Size Specifications.................................................. 90 Table E-1. Wastewater Composition........................................................................... 94 Table E.2. Related Sewer Use Bylaw Specifications for Sewer Discharge .......... 94 Table E.3. HAZOPs for Stream 007 ............................................................................ 95 Table E.4. HAZOPs for Stream 008 ............................................................................ 99 Table E.5. HAZOPs for Stream 108 .......................................................................... 102 Table E.6. HAZOPs for Stream 201 .......................................................................... 105 Table E.7. HAZOPs for Stream 201S ....................................................................... 108 Table E.8. HAZOPs for Stream 201WC ................................................................... 109 Table E.9. HAZOPs for Stream 201WH ................................................................... 110 Table E.10. HAZOPs for Stream 202........................................................................ 111 Table E.11. HAZOPs for Stream 202S ..................................................................... 114 Table E.12. HAZOPs for Stream 203........................................................................ 115 Table E.13. HAZOPs for Stream 204........................................................................ 118 Table E.14. HAZOPs for Stream 205........................................................................ 121 Table E.15. HAZOPs for Reactor 201....................................................................... 124 Table E.16. HAZOPs for Storage Tank 201............................................................. 127 B I OD I E S E L  ~IN MOTION  FINAL REPORT  vii Table F-1. Hydrocyclone Capital Cost ...................................................................... 128 Table F-2. Tank Capital Cost ..................................................................................... 128 Table F-3. Heat Exchanger Capital Cost.................................................................. 128 Table F-4. Reactor Capital Cost ................................................................................ 128 Table F-6. Pumps Capital Cost .................................................................................. 129 Table F-7. Distillation and Extraction Column Capital Cost .................................. 129 Table F-8. Direct and Indirect Cost Summary ......................................................... 129 Table F-9. Total Capital Investment Summary ........................................................ 129  B I OD I E S E L  ~IN MOTION  FINAL REPORT  viii List of Figures Figure A-1. Esterification reaction. Triacylglycerols (TAG) reacts with methanol to produce fatty acid methyl esters (FAME, or biodiesel)..................................... 38 Figure C.2-1. First Treatment Aspen Distillation Column Unit D101 ..................... 54 Figure C.2-2. Second Treatment Aspen Distillation Column Unit D101Table C.2- 1. First Treatment Aspen Simulation Results for D101 .................................... 54 Table C.2-1. First Treatment Aspen Simulation Results for D101 ......................... 55 Figure C.2-3. Aspen Distillation Column Unit D301.................................................. 57 Figure C.2-4. Aspen Distillation Column Unit D302.................................................. 57 Figure C.2-5. Aspen Distillation Column Unit D401.................................................. 60 Figure C.3-1. Heat Exchanger Network...................................................................... 66 Figure D.1-1. Mobile Biodiesel Production Plant....................................................... 68 Figure D.1-2. Schematic of Waste Vegetable Oil Storage Tank T001 .................. 68 Figure D.1-3. Schematic Diagram of Transesterification Reactor R201 ............... 69 Figure D.1-4. Schematic of Methanol-Water Distillation Tower D401 ................... 69 Figure D.1-5. Berl Packing............................................................................................ 70 Figure D.1-6. Trough Type Distributor ........................................................................ 70 Figure D.1-7. Hydrocyclone Correlations Between Separation Characteristics, Cyclone Diameter and Cyclone Throughput if a Gas Core is Present .......... 70 Figure D.1-8. Schematic Diagram of a Hydrocyclone .............................................. 71 Figure D.1-9. Schematic Diagram of Extraction Column E301............................... 71 Figure D.1-10. Water-Ethanol-Ester Mixture Ternary Diagram .............................. 72 Figure D.1-11. HETS as a Function of Diameter vs. Interfacial Tension .............. 72 Figure D.5-1. Plant contained in a 40 ft. trailer .......................................................... 91 Figure D.5-2. Isometric view of plant........................................................................... 92 Figure D.5-3. View of plant from driver's side of truck.............................................. 92 Figure D.5-4. View of plant from passenger side of truck........................................ 93 Figure D.5-5. Top view of plant .................................................................................... 93 B I OD I E S E L  ~IN MOTION  FINAL REPORT  1 1.0 Introduction The purpose of this project is to design an economically feasible mobile biodiesel plant capable of processing different grades of waste vegetable oil (WVO) to produce 3000 L of biodiesel per week. The mobile biodiesel production unit will travel to locations such as cruise ship ports and small communities, where the clients are participating in the Biodiesel~In Motion program.  The clients are provided with two tanks, one for WVO collection and storage and the other for the biodiesel product.  It is desired that the mobile plant operate to meet the production requirements of 3000 L of biodiesel per week at the end of a 40-hour work week, such that the plant requires two full-time operators.  The biodiesel produced can then be sold back to the client to fuel their diesel-engined machinery.  In addition, the only client requirements are that they must provide electrical energy, water, and steam for the mobile plant process.  This final report details the plans and decisions that were made leading up to the completion of the design of the mobile plant. Section 2.0 will present the main reaction that was chosen to convert WVO to biodiesel, including the rationale and consequences for this choice. The process which takes WVO through pre-treatment, reaction, and finally, purification is described in Section 3.0 and illustrated in Process Flow Diagrams and Piping and Instrumentation Diagrams attached in Appendix B. The equipment that this process requires is sized and shown in Section 4.0. Section 5.0 discusses the environmental impacts of this mobile plant. Finally, based on equipment cost estimates, the feasibility of this mobile plant is evaluated in an economic analysis in Section 6.0. Finally, recommendations have been proposed for the continuation of this project. B I OD I E S E L  ~IN MOTION  FINAL REPORT  2 2.0 Concept 2.1 Choice of Reaction The most common method to produce biodiesel is by an esterification reaction of vegetable oils. Esterification refers to the catalyzed chemical reaction of vegetable oil and alcohol to form fatty acid methyl esters (FAME, or biodiesel) and glycerol. The catalyst can be either enzymes, acids, or bases. In this project, waste vegetable oil (WVO) is considered to be the primary reactant.  The main components of WVO is triacylglycerol (TAG), which consists of three long fatty acid chains esterified to a glycerol backbone27. When TAG reacts with an alcohol, the fatty acid chains are released from the glycerol backbone to yield fatty acid methyl esters. Figure A-1, in Appendix A, shows how the TAG’s in vegetable oil react with methanol to produce biodiesel and glycerol.  2.1.1 Enzymatic Catalyzed Reaction Enzyme-catalyzed esterification is a promising alternative to traditional esterification methods. It uses little organic solvents, and requires little downstream treatment. The most common enzyme for the esterification reaction is lipase. A methanol to WVO molar ratio of 4:1 and 30 wt% of lipase6, results in an acceptable conversion of 85% TAG to FAME. The major disadvantages of enzyme-catalyzed esterification however, include the high cost of lipase, and the slow reaction rates, making this method unfavourable for this project.  2.1.2 Acid-Catalyzed Esterification Reaction Acid catalysts such as sulphuric acid are used to esterify WVO to biodiesel. A molar ratio of methanol to WVO of 30:1 to convert 90% of TAG is required. At 65ºC the reaction time is approximately 69 hours27. The advantage of the acid-catalyzed esterification is that the reaction is insensitive to the free fatty acid (FFA) content in the WVO; therefore no FFA pre-treatment is required. Nonetheless, since the methanol requirement is very high, larger reactors and downstream separation units would be necessary. In effect, the B I OD I E S E L  ~IN MOTION  FINAL REPORT  3 sizing requirements and process time constraints of the mobile unit operation does not justify this method for optimal biodiesel production.  2.1.3 Transesterification Reaction Alkali-catalyzed transesterification (also known as alcoholysis) uses an alkali such as NaOH or KOH as catalyst to convert TAG into biodiesel. The preferred methanol to WVO molar ratio is 6:1. At 65ºC, a 93-98% conversion of the TAG is achieved within one hour26. In comparison to both the enzyme- and acid-catalyzed esterification reactions, the high yield in a relatively short reaction time makes the transesterification reaction the method of choice in this project.  Methanol and NaOH are suggested as reactant and catalyst, respectively, because of their relatively low cost. In addition, no significant process enhancement has been reported in literature by use of heavier alcohols. Methanol to WVO molar ratio of 6:1 and 0.5% w/w NaOH is chosen in agreement with literature suggestions.  The transesterification reaction requires a low water (<0.06% w/w) and FFA content (<0.5% w/w)17 in the WVO. Thus, pre-treatment of the crude WVO must be implemented. Employing a WVO pre-treatment section inherits the benefit of making the mobile biodiesel unit more flexible toward varying grades of WVO, thereby maximizing the client-base.  Finally, due to the presence of excess methanol and glycerol by-product, post-treatment of the biodiesel mixture is required. The method of choice of WVO pre-treatment and biodiesel purification will be addressed in the following sections.  2.2 Narrowing Down of Pre-treatment Reaction The FFA contained in WVO is mostly oleic acid. Used frying oil from restaurants and food service establishments usually contain 1.5-5.4 wt% FFA, whereas combined mixed greases such as frying oil, acidulated soap stock, tallow, yellow grease, animal/vegetable blended grease may contain up to 16.9 wt% FFA18.  The FFA content should be below B I OD I E S E L  ~IN MOTION  FINAL REPORT  4 0.5 wt% for the alkali transesterification process to be efficient since the presence of FFA competes with the transesterification reaction by consuming alkali to produce soaps and water, which subsequently causes emulsion formation2. The presence of emulsions will then create problems in the downstream processing and purification of biodiesel.  Several options are available to treat FFA contained in the WVO. These include: caustic stripping, steam stripping, solvent extraction, grease hydrolization to 100% FFA, and conversion of FFA into methyl esters. Caustic stripping uses centrifugation with the addition of NaOH to remove FFA. However, this method is only suitable for WVO with a lower percentage of FFA (<10 wt%) since clean oil would be significantly lost above this percentage19. Grease containing 10 wt% FFA might lose 30% of its clean oil to the conversion of FFA to soap. Steam stripping can remove up to 95% FFA24, but this process has four basic steps: degumming, bleaching, deacidification, and thermal quenching before proceeding to FFA esterification. The steam stripping process is very energy intensive18 and is not suitable for a mobile unit. Another alternative is to use isopropanol solvent extraction, which separates TAG from other contaminants such as FFA, but the solvent can be very costly and the vapour is very toxic. Hydrolyzing grease to 100% FFA and then proceeding with acid esterification might be cost effective but long reaction times are expected. A more efficient approach is to convert FFA into methyl ester by means of an esterification reaction, therefore reducing FFA content to below the suggested limit of 0.5 wt%2, and then proceeding to the alkali-catalyzed transesterification reaction.  In the FFA pre-treatment reactor, methanol and sulphuric acid are added to the WVO depending on the FFA content. Yellow grease (<15 wt% FFA) is treated with 20:1 methanol to FFA molar ratio and 5 wt% H2SO42. Brown grease (>15 wt% FFA) requires a methanol to FFA molar ratio of 40:1 and 15 wt% acid catalyst2. Due to the different acid catalyst dosages, a titration step will need to be included prior to FFA pre-treatment to determine FFA content and the degree to which pre-treatment is required.  B I OD I E S E L  ~IN MOTION  FINAL REPORT  5 The sulphuric acid catalyst and methanol added to the reactor converts FFA into methyl esters. After a one-hour reaction time, only about 2.5 wt% FFA should remain. To further reduce FFA content, water produced from the esterification must be removed along with excess methanol. Another dosage of fresh sulphuric acid and methanol must again be added to the reactor for the second esterification reaction. After another hour of treatment time, the pre-treated WVO should contain less than 0.5% FFA2. The pre-treated WVO will then be pumped to a distillation column to remove water and excess methanol prior to being pumped to the main reactor.  The water and methanol produced from the two-step esterification reactions are then distilled to recover methanol for recycling back through the process, while the water is pumped to a wastewater reservoir. Three batch reactors are used to remove the FFA content in the WVO. The reason for implementing this strategy is to ensure that the distillation column is run continuously, and to produce two batches simultaneously.  2.3 Narrowing Down of Post-Treatment Reaction The unrefined biodiesel, along with excess reactants and by-products, are pumped to a reservoir from the main reactor. From the reservoir, the raw biodiesel is pumped into a separator, in which glycerol is separated out from the raw biodiesel.  The first separation technique, separation by gravity settling, will employ either a drum or a vertical gravity separator. The relatively cheap and mechanically simple drum can be easily maintained, although maintenance includes monthly manual cleanings. Since the drum operates by gravity, the biodiesel must be allowed to settle for at least one hour before it can be extracted; the settling time can be improved by a greater surface area or by adding additional drums.  The second separation operation, the vertical gravity separator, also depends on gravity for separation. The vertical gravity separator is more advantageous because it is capable of varying the temperature, pressure, and flow rate to enhance the settling time. However, for this portable plant, its size and energy requirements are areas of concern. B I OD I E S E L  ~IN MOTION  FINAL REPORT  6  The third separation option is a hydrocyclone. The design of a hydrocyclone for the separation of two immiscible liquids (glycerol and biodiesel) using a standard cyclone is more flexible in terms of size, cost, and ease of maintenance compared with the first two separation methods. The liquid-liquid hydrocyclone operates by separating the heavy component and the light component based on the density difference. In this case, biodiesel is lighter than water so it is possible for the hydrocyclone to perform the separation. The hydrocyclone will garner energy considerations because it requires a pump to perform separations; however, it contains no moving parts which greatly simplifies the maintenance.  The biodiesel, coming out as the continuous phase from the hydrocyclone, will be sent to a distillation column to separate out methanol. The methanol separated here will be pumped into the methanol purification unit and be recycled through the process.  After methanol separation the biodiesel continues to flow into a neutralization reactor where sulphuric acid is added to neutralize the caustic biodiesel. The reactor will be equipped with an impeller and baffles to ensure complete mixing. The treated and purified biodiesel is now ready to be pumped to storage tanks.  The extraction column appears immediately after the neutralization reactor The feed stream entering the extraction column is composed of biodiesel, salt and soap. Since the concentration of salt and soap in the feed stream is less than 1 %, as determined by the mass balance, this system is dilute. Water sprayed from the top of the column will be used as the solvent to remove the salt and soap contaminants from the biodiesel. The extraction column will be operated in counter-current mode. An 85 mol% biodiesel stream will exit the top of the column, while water, soap, and salt will exit the bottom as a wastewater stream. B I OD I E S E L  ~IN MOTION  FINAL REPORT  7 3.0 Process 3.1 Process Flow Diagram The biodiesel production plant is separated into five sections as follows: Section 000: Reactant Preparation, Section 100: Pre-treatment, Section 200: Transesterification Reaction, Section 300: Purification, and, Section 400: Solvent Recovery and Product Storage. The corresponding Process Flow Diagrams (PFD’s) are presented in Appendix B.  Section 000 is concerned with the storage, heating, and distribution of chemicals required for the other sections of the plant and consists of six unit operations: three storage tanks, T001, T002, and T003, one mixer, M001, and two filter screens, F002 and F003.  The WVO is stored in storage tank T001 at the client’s location and has a capacity of approximately 5000 L. In order for the WVO to flow easily prior to being pumped to Section 100 for pre-treatment, a heating coil through which electrical energy is supplied is installed to heat the WVO to approximately 65ºC.  Two filter screens on tank T001 are required, one 1 cm mesh screen (F001) at the top of the tank to filter large debris present in the WVO and one 20 µm mesh screen (F004) at the tank outlet to further filter any remaining smaller particles in the WVO prior to being sent to the pre-treatment section. Sulphuric acid, stored in tank T002 with a capacity of 4 L, is pumped and heated by heater H001 to either Section 100 or Section 300. Methanol, supplied by a manufacturer or distilled and recycled by the distillation column in Section 400, is stored in tank T003 with a capacity of approximately 4700 L and then heated to 40ºC prior to being sent to Section 100 or Section 200. In addition, solid sodium hydroxide is solubilized in methanol in mixer, M001, which is then pumped and heated prior to being sent to the transesterification reactor in Section 200. The solubility of sodium hydroxide in methanol is 1 g NaOH in 4.2 mL CH3OH. Finally, water, supplied by the client, is passed through one of two filters in order to remove ions that would interfere in the biodiesel production process, and is pumped and heated to the extraction column in Section 300.  B I OD I E S E L  ~IN MOTION  FINAL REPORT  8 Section 100 is the part of the process where WVO is treated in two one-hour reaction steps in order to reduce the free-fatty acid (FFA) content of the WVO to 0.5 wt% or less since the presence of FFA in WVO inhibits the transesterification reaction. This section consists of five unit operations: three reactors, R101, R102, and R103, a distillation column, D101, operating at 61oC and 0.1 atm, and one storage tank, T101, for the treated WVO.  The final design for the pre-treatment section was based on the continuous operation of the distillation column and minimizing the number of reactors required. The pre- treatment sequencing is broken down into the hour into the operation. Reactors R101, R102, and R103 (each approximately 1200L capacity) are sealed and steam is injected into the heating jackets outside each vessel early in the batch run to pre-heat the reactants and to obtain the optimal temperature for the esterification reaction to occur. At the beginning of the first hour, R101 and R102 are filled with the appropriate amounts of WVO, methanol, and sulphuric acid for the first FFA treatment step (20:1 molar ratio of methanol to WVO and 5 wt% sulphuric acid) leaving R103 empty at this time. During the first hour, both reactors R101 and R102 are undergoing the first FFA treatment step at 60oC and 1 atm. During the second hour, the WVO, water, FFA, along with the methanol and sulphuric acid in R101 is distilled through the distillation column and discharged into empty reactor R103. At the beginning of the third hour, the appropriate amount of methanol and acid for the second FFA treatment step (40:1 molar ratio of methanol to WVO and 5 wt% sulphuric acid) is added to R103. During the third hour, R103 is now undergoing the second FFA treatment for one hour while the contents of reactor R102 is distilled through the distillation column into reactor R101. At the beginning of the fourth hour, the appropriate amounts of methanol and acid for the second FFA treatment step for R101 are added (40:1 molar ratio of methanol to WVO and 5 wt% sulphuric acid). During the fourth hour, the contents of R103 is distilled and directed into the holding tank, T101, with a capacity of 500 L. The WVO is now fully treated and is ready to be pumped into the reaction stage, Section 200, of the plant. Meanwhile, the contents of R101 are undergoing the second stage of FFA treatment. During the fifth hour, the contents of R101 are now distilled through the distillation column into the holding tank, B I OD I E S E L  ~IN MOTION  FINAL REPORT  9 T101. Following this step, 600 L of treated WVO is available, enough for supplying Section 200 for the rest of the day.  It is desired to operate the FFA pre-treatment unit for a second time at the end of the working day in order to prepare the WVO for the transesterification reaction step to operate at the beginning of the next working day. The treated WVO will be stored overnight in tank T101 and will be heated to 60oC at the beginning of the working day to allow easy pumping into the main reactors.  Section 200 is the part of the process where the treated WVO from the pre-treatment section along with methanol and sodium hydroxide catalyst react to form the main product, biodiesel, and by-product, glycerol, by means of a transesterification reaction. The main unit operations in this section include the reaction vessel, R201, and the biodiesel storage tank, T201.  The reactants entering the reaction vessel, R201, include the sodium hydroxide in methanol mixture from mixer M001, methanol from tank T003, both from Section 000, and the treated WVO from T101 in Section 100. Reactor R201 has a capacity of 320 L and is equipped with heating jackets where steam and cooling water are applied to maintain a reaction temperature of 65oC. The biodiesel, produced by the transesterification reaction, is pumped to the storage tank, T201 (with a capacity of 270 L), which acts as a reservoir for the next continuous separation process in the subsequent section.  Section 300 is concerned with the product purification of biodiesel from by-products and excess reactants. This section consists of six unit operations: two hydrocyclones, HC301 and HC302, two distillation columns, D301 and D302, one reactor, R301, and one extraction column, E301.  The basic biodiesel/glycerol/methanol/soaps mixture at 65°C from the transesterification reactor is pumped into two hydrocyclones in series, HC301 and HC302, where the B I OD I E S E L  ~IN MOTION  FINAL REPORT  10 glycerol is separated as the bottoms product and sent to tank T403 for storage. The light component from the hydrocyclones, which contains the biodiesel, methanol, and soaps, is sent to a distillation column, D301, operating at 85oC and 1 atm, where methanol is boiled off and sent to Section 400 for further treatment. The basic bottoms stream from the distillation column consisting of biodiesel and trace amounts of soap, is pumped continuously into a continuous stirred tank reactor, R301, where it is rapidly neutralized with the addition of sulphuric acid. To remove the salt and soap produced from the neutralization reaction, the mixture is then pumped into the bottom inlet of the counter- current liquid-liquid extraction column, E301, operating at 73oC and 1 atm. When the salt content of the biodiesel is low enough as determined from its conductivity, the washed biodiesel is sent to distillation column, D302, operating at 215.1°C and 1 atm, to remove entrained water, then condensed and sent to the wastewater storage tank T402 with a capacity of 6964 L. The purified biodiesel is pumped and stored in storage tank T404 in the subsequent section.  Section 400 is the storage system network to store spent reactants, glycerol, wastewater, and the purified biodiesel product. This section consists of five unit operations: four storage tanks, T401, T402, T403, and T404, and one distillation column, D401.  The wastes that are produced during the biodiesel production process are glycerol, methanol (contaminated with water), and wastewater (containing sodium sulphate, sulphuric acid, methanol, and soap). Tank T401, with a capacity of 1203 L, is a spent methanol storage tank which supplies a distillation column, D401, at a constant flowrate to distil the methanol, then condensed in condenser C401 and is either refluxed back into distillation column D401 or recycled to tank T003 to be reused in the process. The bottoms from the distillation column is mostly water, and is either reboiled and returned back into the bottom of the column, or is disposed of into the wastewater tank T402. Wastewater from the extraction column, E301, and distillation column, D302, in Section 300 are also sent to tank T402 for storage. Glycerol from the hydrocyclones is stored in tank T403 and the purified biodiesel is stored in storage tank T404. B I OD I E S E L  ~IN MOTION  FINAL REPORT  11 3.2 Piping and Instrumentation Diagram The Piping and Instrumentation Diagrams (PID’s) are based on the PFD’s and presented in Appendix B.  The governing controller for our entire plant is a Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) that controls all pumps and valves to direct the flow of various reactants and products throughout the plant.  The localized transmitters and controllers are implemented to maintain level, temperature, and pressure set-points, as well as to monitor viscosity (as a measure of purity), pH, and salt content of various unit operations. A detailed description of these localized transmitters and controllers is discussed in this section.  To prevent restating recurring features in the PID drawings, features that are general to all sections are summarized. Level transmitters, level alarms, and pressure relief valves are installed on all tanks, reactors, and distillation columns. Level transmitters and controllers are installed to monitor and adjust the liquid level in a vessel. all tanks and reactors are equipped with a temperature sensor and controller, with the exception of T003 and M001 and the tanks in Section 400, to control the steam in/condensate out streams into and out of a heated jacket fitted around the vessels to maintain the vessels at the set-point temperature. For streams that carry condensate from a heating jacket or heat exchanger, steam traps are installed to prevent heat and energy losses from expelling steam. The valve fail-safe positions have been included and placed underneath the valve designation.  The temperature of the sulphuric acid stream 003 is measured using transmitter TT0304. The controller, TC0304, is used to control the flow of steam passing through the heat exchanger. A simple feedback control loop is used to control the flow rates of streams 003 and 004. The stream of methanol that leaves T003 and enters M001 is controlled by a feedback loop to ensure that the NaOH is fully solubilized by the methanol. The temperatures of all of the exiting methanol streams (006 through 008) are controlled using feedback loops to adjust the flow rates of steam through the heat exchangers (H002 B I OD I E S E L  ~IN MOTION  FINAL REPORT  12 to H004). The water passes through one of two filters. Pressure transmitters are located on the filters for early detection of clogging. In the event that a filter is clogged or requires cleaning or maintenance, the flow controller will manipulate the three-way valve to direct the water to the other filter. A feed forward controller is then used to vary the steam flow rate through the heat exchanger, H005, based on the flow rate of water. Metering pumps P001, P002, and P003 pump a fixed volume of reactants to Section 100.  The valves that control the supply of reactants into the three reactors R101, R102, and R103, are shown as “XV” to designate that these valves are simply on/off valves and are only required to either be open or closed at specified times. No-flow transmitters are needed for the reactant streams from Section 000 since the metering pumps in Section 000 supply the required volumes and ratios of reactants for pre-treatment.  The extent of WVO transesterification to biodiesel in Section 200 is determined by monitoring the viscosity of the biodiesel product using an on-line viscometer implemented on R201. Once the viscosity reaches the set-point value, valve V202 opens and the contents of R201 are directed into Section 300. There are two safety controls loops using flow transmitters and controllers. The flow transmitters, FT2105 and FT2107 detect any flows in streams 201 and 202, respectively, and sends signals to the flow controllers FC2105 and FC2107, which shut off valves V203 and V204, respectively. These safety control systems prevent any biodiesel in the storage tank from flowing in and out at the same time. The third flow control loop is designed for the outlet biodiesel stream 205 going to the hydrocyclones in Section 300. This control loop prevents an overflow of biodiesel in the storage tank by controlling the valve V205 to allow a certain flow rate of biodiesel in the stream entering the hydrocyclone, HC301, in Section 300.  A viscometer is implemented on the bottoms streams for the two distillation columns D301 and D302 to ensure the separation is satisfactory before moving on to the following step in the process. The viscometer controller takes the input from the viscometer transmitter and controls a three-way valve that sends the bottoms stream back into the column if the mixture is not pure enough. Because of this feature, in contrast to the other B I OD I E S E L  ~IN MOTION  FINAL REPORT  13 distillation columns in the plant, the pump for the bottom stream is placed before the reboiler to prevent pump cavitation. For the mixer R301, a pH meter continuously measures the pH of the mixture in the vessel. If the pH is above the set-point, the flow controller will open valve V308 to allow more sulphuric acid into the reactor. Stream 310 acts only as a overflow prevention valve that allows the biodiesel in the extraction column to flow back to stream 322 and does not have anything to do with the pH set- point. A conductivity meter CT3607 measures the salt content in the wastewater stream 316 and compares it to the salt content in the wash water stream entering the extraction column, E301. If the difference in salt concentration is above the set point, valve V312 will direct the flow to stream 314 where the biodiesel is washed again in the extraction column. When the correct salt concentration difference has been reached, valve V312 will direct flow via stream 315 into distillation column D302.  To ensure a steady flow rate into distillation column D401, the flow into D401 is controlled with a feedback control loop which controls valve V404. The instrumentation for D401 follows the same principles as that for D101. The level transmitters that are installed on the tanks in this section are for monitoring purposes only and are not connected to any controllers.  3.3 Start-up, Shutdown and Emergency Procedures The start-up sequence takes place as six consecutive steps. The detailed start-up outline is presented in Table C.1-1. The start-up procedure for the mobile biodiesel plant is based on “back-to-front” principles. It should be noted that this procedure relies on the fact that an appropriate amount of liquid volume remains within the unit operation after shut-down the previous day thereby streams are present and available to proceed at start-up.  The first step of the start-up procedure is to turn on utilities such as electricity, cooling water to condensers as well as water for the extraction column, E301, and steam to the reboilers. A start-up program startupBiodiesel.exe is initiated to connect and receive on- line data from all controllers and alarms. This program allows for initial conditions different from operating conditions to occur without tripping any alarms. For example no- B I OD I E S E L  ~IN MOTION  FINAL REPORT  14 flow alarms may be temporarily deactivated during the start-up procedure. The second step includes start-up of effluent streams and unit operations. Reboiler H401 is started to bring the distillation column D401 to the set-point temperature at which point the feed to D401 may commence. The third step is to start the purification section. Start-up of condenser C302 and reboiler H302 precedes start-up of condenser C301 and reboiler H301. Reactor R301, extraction column E301, followed by distillation columns D302 and D301 are started respectively. The tanks and mixer M001 of the reactant feed section is started as the fourth step of the start-up procedure. Fifth step is the start-up of condenser C101, reboiler H101, and distillation column D101 in the pre-treatment section. Pre- treated WVO storage tank T101 is made accessible. Finally, the pre-treatment reactor sequencing R101/R102/R103 is activated via the startupBiodiesel.exe start-up program and start-up of reactors R201 and tank T201 is initiated.  The step-wise shut-down procedure (Table C.1-2) is essentially the reverse of the start-up procedure and will therefore not be commented on further. As during start-up, a program shutdownBiodiesel.exe is activated and ensures proper shut-down sequencing.  Emergency shut-down is accommodated by the installation of an emergency shut-down button. In case of emergency, the technician enforces shut-down by pushing the emergency shut-down button. This will stop all pumps and force all valves to fail close/open according to definitions before shut-down electricity is effectuated. The emergency procedures are detailed in Table C.1-3 (please refer to Table C.1-4 for the trip matrix). It is emphasized that all cooling water valves fail open. After activation the technician must contact the fire department.  3.4 Mass Balance The mass balances for each species have been derived for the individual unit operations per batch. In order to achieve the required total weekly production of 3000L biodiesel, an output of 150 L/batch biodiesel and a total number of 20 batches/week is defined.  B I OD I E S E L  ~IN MOTION  FINAL REPORT  15 The principles of the design of the WVO pre-treatment operation are presented in Section 2.2. As a consequence of the choice of process design, the batch size in the pre-treatment section is defined to be the double of the batch size in the transesterification reaction section. This mass ratio ensures a continuous succession of the transesterification reactions, which ultimately results in a constant continuous flow into the purification section after the initial downtime required for processing the first batch of pre-treated WVO. Therefore, stream 107B, the amount of pre-treated WVO per batch accumulated in tank T101, is equivalent to two times stream 108, the amount of pre-treated WVO used for each batch in the transesterification reaction.  The pre-treatment section reduces the FFA content to 0.5 wt% and the water content to 0.0 wt%, thereby meeting the requirements for assuring an optimal conversion of TAG to methyl esters in the transesterification process27. To account for the individual streams within each pre-treatment cycle, labelling of [A] and [B] referring to the 1st and the 2nd cycle, respectively, has been applied as a suffix to the relevant stream numbers. For instance stream 101A refers to stream 101 of the esterified WVO mixture leaving reactor R101 in the first pre-treatment cycle, whereas stream 101B refers to the exit stream 101 from reactor R101 after the second pre-treatment cycle.  A 6:1 molar ratio methanol to TAG is defined for the transesterification reaction1 as described in Section 2.1.3.  Effectively, after post-treatment, a product yield of 135.94 kg/batch biodiesel is produced and an equivalent total formation of 12.4 kg/batch glycerol by-product is realized.  In general, various assumptions have been refined in agreement with computational simulations and rules of thumb; in particular the distillation processes have been correlated to results obtained using ASPEN® (refer to Appendix C.2). The degree of conversion of WVO to biodiesel in the transesterification reaction operating at 60°C and 1 atm with rapid stirring is 85%.  B I OD I E S E L  ~IN MOTION  FINAL REPORT  16 3.5 Energy Balance, Heat Integration and Pinch Analysis The energy balance of the entire biodiesel plant is carried out by calculating enthalpies for all the streams present in the process. This is achieved by simulating each of the streams in ASPEN®. TAG was modeled as triolein (C57H104O6), biodiesel was modeled as methyl oleate (C19H36O2), and FFA was modeled as trioleic acid (C18H34O2). Meanwhile, soap is modeled with its molecular structure C18H33O2Na.  From the mass balance, three streams are identified to be the cold streams that require heating. These streams come from the holding tank in Section 000 containing methanol (stream 006), methanol/sodium hydroxide mixture (stream 008), and water (stream 010). These streams are assumed to have initial temperatures of 18oC, which is the average outside temperature, and need to be heated to 40oC. The final temperature of 40oC is chosen so as to prevent boiling of methanol (boiling point of methanol is 65oC) when those streams come into contact with methanol in the reactors. Please refer to Appendix C.3 for the heat integration tables.  Six streams are identified to be able to give off heat even though they are not required to be cooled down. Stream 402 containing methanol/water from the distillation column, D401, can be cooled to 20oC, stream 403 containing 98.5% methanol can also be cooled to 20oC. Stream 204 containing biodiesel/glycerol mixture can be cooled only to 30oC, to ensure that glycerol will flow easily. Glycerol in stream 305 can also be cooled to 30oC as it goes to the waste tank; however, it will not be used again in the process. Stream 323 contains water at 100oC and is available to give off heat to the cold streams. Stream 326 containing the final biodiesel product coming from distillation column D402 can be cooled as low as 20oC; however, this is not crucial since it is only being stored in the end.  Two streams are identified to be hot streams that require cooling. Stream 110A which contains the waste vegetable oil after the first cycle’s distillation has a temperature of 101oC which requires cooling to a temperature of 65oC before entering the pre-treatment reactor for the second cycle in order to prevent methanol vaporization. Stream 322 contains biodiesel from distillation column D401, going to the neutralization reactor B I OD I E S E L  ~IN MOTION  FINAL REPORT  17 R301 and has a temperature of 130oC. This stream requires cooling to below 100oC in order to prevent evaporation of water in the liquid-liquid extraction step.  A pinch analysis was conducted for the biodiesel production plant. A minimum temperature approach of 10oC was assumed for this process and the value of mCp (mass times heat capacity) for all of the streams are assumed to be constant over the range of initial and final temperatures. Since there are two cycles for stream 006 at different times, the cycle with a higher mCp value is used to ensure enough heat is supplied into the stream. Since there are two cycles for stream 110 at different times, the cycle with a lower mCp value is used to ensure enough heat is available to be exchanged. Please refer to Appendix C.3 for the Pinch Analysis tables and equations.  The pinch point is found to be at 40oC. Heat exchangers between streams 403 and 006A, 403 and 008, 403 and 010, 402 and 006A, 402 and 008, and between streams 402 and 010 are needed to heat up the three cold streams. Utilities have to be used to cool down the hot stream 403. The finalized pinch analysis is presented in Figure C.3-1. Based on the result, a heat exchanger network involving six heat exchangers and one cooler can be implemented to satisfy all the heating requirements. With this network, approximately 3.17 kW of energy will be conserved and around 3.43 kW of cooling energy is required. From the point of view of conservation of energy, heat integration will maximize heat recovery and minimize utility consumption18. The energy possessed by the hot streams will not only dissipate into the atmosphere, but also be utilized to heat the cold streams. In this case, the biodiesel production plant will be built on skid, so the inclusion of six heat exchangers will occupy a tremendous amount of space compared to if electrical heaters are used. It was decided to opt for electrical heaters based on the space limitation argument.  B I OD I E S E L  ~IN MOTION  FINAL REPORT  18 4.0 Equipment Design and Specifications There are six main pieces of equipment in the biodiesel production plant: storage tank, reactor, packed distillation tower, heat exchanger, hydrocyclone, and extraction column. One common design constraint is that the mobile biodiesel plant will be installed and housed in the back of a 40 ft. trailer (Figure D.1-1). This trailer has a containing height of 2.896 m. Thus the heights of the equipment were designed to meet this constraint.  4.1 Storage Tanks The volumes of the tanks were determined based on the mass balances. Some of the tanks are meant to hold a week’s worth of reactants, products, or wastes.  Tanks T101, and T201 are meant to act as equalization basins, and therefore, are sized to hold one batch of mixture which leaves reactors R101, (R102, or R103) and R201, respectively.  The tanks for WVO (T001), H2SO4 (T002), wastewater (T402), glycerol (T403), and biodiesel (T404) are sized to hold a week’s worth of volume.  The energy required to heat up the waste vegetable oil from ambient temperature of 18oC to 65oC is calculated to be 571.2 MJ. A helical heating coil with a diameter of 0.05 m and a total length of 65.4 m constructed from carbon steel along with impellers to improve heat transfer are implemented. The impeller is necessary since the WVO solidifies upon cooling. Figure D.1-2 shows a schematic diagram of the WVO storage tank T001. It will take about 2.6 hours to heat 6604.71kg of WVO with a power of 158.67 kWh. In order to save time, it is advised that the client heat the storage tank prior to the arrival of the biodiesel trailer.  The waste methanol tank however, is sized to hold one batch of pre-treatment waste, and two batches of post-treatment waste.  The distillate from D401 is recycled back to the pure methanol storage tank, T003. Detailed sample calculations regarding the design of storage tanks are found in Appendix D.2-1. The storage tank heights and diameters were determined using equations (1) and (2). The ratio of the height to diameter was varied to ensure that the heights of the tanks were below 9 feet. Refer to Table D.1-1 for the dimension specifications and materials of construction for each of the storage tanks. B I OD I E S E L  ~IN MOTION  FINAL REPORT  19  4.2 Reactors To design the reactor for this process, the volumes were first determined using the mass balance.  The volumes of all of the components entering the reactor were added together to give the total liquid volume of the reactor (equivalent to one batch).  To prevent the chance of overflow, the reactors were designed to 70% fill capacity; therefore, the reactor sizes are 1.43 times greater than the liquid volume. Detailed sample calculation regarding the design of reactors can be found in Appendix D.2-2. Please refer to Table D.1-2 for the dimension specifications and materials of construction for each of the reactors.  Since the pre-treatment reactors (R101, R102, and R103) contain corrosive sulphuric acid, stainless steel was chosen as the material of construction.  Stainless steel was also chosen for the transesterification reactor, R201, because of the corrosive caustic being used as a catalyst.  For the neutralization reactor, R301, carbon steel was chosen as the material of construction because the corrosive components will quickly be neutralized to prevent corrosion. Figure D.1-3 shows a schematic diagram of the transesterification reactor.  To mix the components in the reactors, Rushton turbines were chosen as impellers.  The diameter of the impeller, by convention, is 1/3 the tank diameter, and the impeller width is 0.2 times the impeller diameter.  The length of each blade is 0.25 the impeller diameter. The impeller is placed two impeller diameters above the bottom of the tank. Three impellers were used, each spaced a distance equivalent to one impeller diameter apart. To promote mixing within the reactor, four baffles (of width 0.1 times the tank diameter) were added to each reactor. The power requirement to drive the impeller is 5 Hp/1000 Gallons22 for the mixing of immiscible liquids for liquid-liquid reactions. Refer to Table D.1-3 for the impeller specifications for each of the reactors.  Based on thermodynamic analysis, the temperature in the main reactor R201 will increase by 3.39oC due to the exothermic effect of the transesterification reaction. This means that B I OD I E S E L  ~IN MOTION  FINAL REPORT  20 the maximum energy that should be supplied by the steam through the jacket is 992.7 kJ. Meanwhile, the temperature in the FFA pre-treatment reactors, R101, R102, and R103, will increase by 3.12oC due to the exothermic effect of the esterification reaction, which means that it will require at most 652.2 kJ of energy to maintain the optimum temperature in the reactor of 60oC.  4.3 Packed Distillation Tower D401 purifies the methanol that is used during the process. The feed to D401 consists of methanol, water, and a trace amount of sodium hydroxide and soap. Since carbon steel (CS) is compatible with all of these substances4, CS is the material of construction chosen for this unit operation. With the tower operating at 70% flooding, the flooding velocity is found to be 2.13 m/s and the tower diameter is calculated to be 0.25 m. Since the tower diameter is less than 0.67 m, packings will be more economical to use compared to plates20.  From simulating the distillation procedure using ASPEN®, 98.5% pure methanol can be produced with three theoretical stages. Based on mass transfer calculation, the packed height of the column is found to be 2.01 m. This packing height is supported by a 0.10 m thick support plate. A schematic of the distillation tower is shown in Figure D.1-4.  The packing chosen is polypropylene Berl saddle with a nominal diameter of 1 inch, as shown in Figure D.1-5. The Berl saddle is chosen based on two main considerations; one is due to its simple design that will prevent plugging due to foaming that might occur because of the presence of soap, and two is due to economical reasons compared to other types of packings20. The packing’s nominal diameter is dictated based on the small diameter of the tower. With a 10 to 1 ratio of tower diameter to nominal diameter of the packing, surface area for mass transfer can be maximized.  The trough type liquid distributor, as shown in Figure D.1-6 is used to distribute the feed evenly onto the packing. This distributor was chosen mainly because of its common use in the industry. B I OD I E S E L  ~IN MOTION  FINAL REPORT  21  4.4 Heat Exchangers Shell-&-tube heat exchangers are chosen as type of heat exchangers for condensers and reboilers in Sections 100 through 400. Shell-&-tube heat exchangers are convenient when dealing with potentially fouling material such as biodiesel and WVO. The plate heat exchangers for pure reactants in Section 000 are chosen, as these require minimum space requirements. The material of construction for all heat exchanger units were chosen to be carbon steel 304 as recommended in literature.  The fluid properties were obtained from literature and ASPEN® simulations. A cooling water temperature of 10.0°C was assumed. The heat duty, Q, was determined from ASPEN® simulations. In cases where an ASPEN® simulation was not available and no phase changes occur, the heat exchanger duties were determined using Equation 14. Sample calculations are presented in Appendix D.2-3 for the design of the condenser C401. The tube-side fluid is steam; the shell-side fluids are WVO and biodiesel.  The overall heat transfer coefficients, U, for all the heat exchangers were found in literature. The process flowrates were found from the mass balances. The cooling water and superheated vapour mass flowrates were determined from energy balances. Allowable pressure drops were determined according to rules of thumb. It should be noted that superheated vapour was assumed to be the source of heat. However, the high temperatures required particularly in the reboilers, H101A, H101B, and H302, such that electrical heating should be considered as an alternative.  The condensation inside the tubes was assumed to be vertical upflow. This geometry was suggested as method of condensation in literature as the preferred arrangement for refluxing hot condensate. Standard reflux condensers typically vary between 2 to 3 m in length. For the mobile unit, a horizontal arrangement with only a slight vertical gradient was assumed for installing the condensers. The vertical gradient will ensure that the condensate is returned to the distillation column by gravity. In addition, the near- horizontal arrangement minimizes the overall heights of the distillation unit. B I OD I E S E L  ~IN MOTION  FINAL REPORT  22  Kettle reboilers were chosen over horizontal shell side thermosiphons, vertical thermosiphons, and forced circulation reboilers. Kettle reboilers, in general, require less temperature difference as the driving force of heat transfer and generate larger vapour fractions relative to the other reboiler types.  4.5 Hydrocyclones The design of a hydrocyclone for the separation of two immiscible liquids (glycerol and biodiesel) using a standard cyclone was analyzed. Such a separation system requires two liquid-liquid hydrocyclones to achieve an approximate efficiency of 99%.  As a result of the internal geometry of the cyclone and with the assumption of pressure settings, it is possible to bring about an axial reversal of the central oil core. The glycerol droplet diameter is the main factor for the design of hydrocyclone. It was assumed that the diameter of glycerol droplet is between 100 µm (1x10-6m) to 1 mm (1x10-3m). The pressure drop over the hydrocyclone was assumed to be 100 Pa. Consequently, the high density FAME can be removed from the centre of the hydrocyclone head, as the continuous phase, while the bulk of the liquid including glycerol, plus residual contaminants, flows out of the tail section at the underflow, as the reject phase.  The probability of removing an oil droplet in the feed depends mainly upon the defined glycerol droplet diameter, dp,50* and the differential density between the two liquids. The physical properties of glycerol and biodiesel are listed in Table D.1-4.  Using the hydrocyclone correlations between separation characteristics shown in Figure D.1-721, the resulting average diameter and height of the hydrocyclone was determined to be 1.25 m and 2.14 m, respectively. Other dimensions of the hydrocyclone were  *The term dp,50 refers to the particle size at which the hydro-cyclone is 50% efficient. It is stressed that the cut point size does not refer to overflow products as this is dependant on the feed solids particle size analysis B I OD I E S E L  ~IN MOTION  FINAL REPORT  23 calculated using geometric ratios (Figure D.1-821) and shown in the sample calculations in Appendix D.2-4.  Stainless steel is the most appropriate material for the hydrocyclone design as it resists higher degrees of corrosion.  4.6 Counter-Current Liquid-Liquid Extraction Column The purpose of the extraction column (E301) is to remove the salts and soaps produced in the process. The extraction column appears immediately after the neutralization reactor (R301). Refer to PFD Section 300 in Appendix B. A schematic is shown in Figure D.1-9.  The feed stream entering the extraction column is composed of biodiesel, salt and soap. Since the concentration of salt and soap in the feed stream is less than 1 %, as determined by the mass balance, this system is dilute. Water sprayed from the top of the column will be used as the solvent to remove the salt and soap contaminants from the biodiesel. The extraction column will be operated in counter-current mode. An 85 mol% biodiesel stream will exit the top of the column, while water, soap and salt will exit the bottom as a wastewater stream.  The factors taken into account during the extraction column design process include: the flowrates of the streams entering the column, the operating temperature and pressure, the density difference between two phases, the phase viscosities, and the interfacial tension. These considerations are discussed in detail in Appendix D.2-5. Based on the properties of these two components, the biodiesel stream was chosen as the continuous phase, while the water was chosen as the dispersed phase. In column extractors, the phase with the lower viscosity (lower flow resistance) is generally chosen as the continuous phase. Also, the phase with the higher flowrate can be dispersed to create more interfacial area and turbulence. In addition, the height of the extraction column cannot exceed the height of the trailer, 2.75 m.  B I OD I E S E L  ~IN MOTION  FINAL REPORT  24 An ethanol-water-ester mixture ternary phase diagram was used to model the biodiesel- water equilibrium. Using the phase diagram in Figure D.1-10, it was determined that there is one equilibrium stage.  Detailed calculations for the determination of column height and diameter are presented in Appendix D.2-5. These calculations assume column operation at 50% flooding velocity to ensure maximum performance. The height of the extraction column was determined to be 2.53 m. The diameter of the column was determined to be 0.21 m. This is within the design constraint of 2.75 ft. The material of construction selected for the extraction column is stainless steel 304, which is compatible with all the components in the column.  4.7 Pumps The various pumps in all sections have been sized according to Sulzer Pump Selector. The selector requires various input parameters, such as the composition of the fluid, piping sizes, surface pressures of the tanks that are at the suction and discharge side of the pump, the elevation head both at the suction and discharge side, etc. See Appendix D.3 for complete pump specifications.  The fluid used in this case is ethanol because it has a very similar density as biodiesel and was easier to model on the pump selector. The temperature of the process fluid used to size the pump was taken to be 60 °C.  The inlet piping size was taken as 50 mm whereas the outlet piping size was taken to be 25 mm. It was observed that while sizing, the best possible configuration was obtained when we considered the outlet pipe to be smaller than the inlet piping. The tank surface pressure at both the suction and discharge was assumed to be 1 atm. This results in a large Net Positive Suction Head (NPSH) available and a small NPSH required. Due to this, the efficiency of the pump decreased. Nonetheless, the size of the pumps were sufficient for the required flow rates and applications.  B I OD I E S E L  ~IN MOTION  FINAL REPORT  25 The mass flow rates of the individual streams were converted to the volumetric flow rates by dividing the stream with the density of the most abundant material in the stream. The density of ethanol was used to model biodiesel because of the ease of modeling and availability of the necessary data.  Some of the volumetric flow rates obtained were very small, especially for Section 300. These flow rates were not sufficient for pump usage. Therefore, it has been suggested to disregard the entire set of initially present pumps, which have a very small volumetric flow rate at the suction side. Upon further research it was also found that it would not be efficient to include pumps in lines which have a very small volumetric flow rate. This would lead to cavitation which would ultimately damage the pump and would lead to expensive overhauling and maintenance costs. A secondary tank after each unit having a small flow rate can be added to store all the fluid. This will develop a sufficient volumetric flow rate to justify the inclusion of pumps in these lines.  The electric motor chosen was a High Torque – HT type induction motor that is energy efficient. It is manufactured by Crompton Greaves Ltd.5 A standard motor that is sized for one pump can be used for all pumps because of close proximity in the flow rates and the head developed. The same motor has a specific operating range and hence can be used for all the pumps. The metering pumps were selected from LMI catalogue.5 The pumps have a maximum flow output capacity of 10 GPM.  4.8 Piping The goal of this section is to select the most appropriate size and material of piping for the main streams in the mobile biodiesel plant. Four piping materials were considered: PVC (Poly Vinyl Chloride), CPVC (Chlorinated PVC), Carbon Steel, and Stainless Steel 304. Appendix D.4 describes each piping material. The costs for different materials of construction of piping vary widely from different sources depending on the supplier, and the additional cost of fittings, welding, and installation can easily be more than ten times the basic cost for the pipe. The factors considered when choosing the piping material B I OD I E S E L  ~IN MOTION  FINAL REPORT  26 were based on the material’s collective ability to handle the process conditions, such as temperature and pressure, as well as chemical compatibility.  The pipes were sized according to the maximum flow rate that occurs in their respective streams. A basic 1" inner diameter schedule 40 pipe can handle the volumetric flow rate and pressure stresses for all streams, and thus it is suitable for most circumstances in this plant. Because of its strength, a schedule 10 will suffice for stainless steel 304. The complete pipe material and size selection for all streams in the process is shown in Table D.4-1.  4.9 Plant Layout The biodiesel production plant is contained in a 40 foot Hicube trailer7, mounted on the back of a flat bed 18-wheeler truck. The trailer’s external dimensions are 12.192 m long, 2.438 m wide, and 2.896 m high; the internal dimensions are 12.024 m long, 2.353 m wide, 2.692 m high. Figure D.5-1 in Appendix D.5 shows a diagram of the plant contained inside the trailer.  The front end (1.5 m in length) of the trailer will serve as the control room. This section is separated from the rest of the trailer. Entrance to the control room is via a side door located on the driver’s side of the truck.  The remaining 10.692 m length of the trailer houses the biodiesel plant .The equipment is arranged such that the reactant and product tanks are located at the rear end of the truck, for ease of filling/emptying. The rear panel of the trailer opens outward as a set of doors. The trailer is roughly divided into four sections: pre-treatment, main reaction, purification, and reactant and product storage. The equipment is arranged sequentially to follow the flow of the biodiesel production process. The entrance to the plant is on the passenger side of the truck, midway down the length of the trailer.  B I OD I E S E L  ~IN MOTION  FINAL REPORT  27 Since the plant is constrained to a restricted space, the equipment is arranged 40 cm apart. The current trailer design presents limitations in manoeuvrability around the plant. To maximize space, equipment was stacked where possible. For each distillation column, its respective pump, reboiler, and condenser were stacked directly adjacent to it. The pumps for each of the storage tanks, mixers, and reactors were placed directly beneath each respective unit.  To contain any spills or leaks, catch basins were placed beneath each major piece of equipment. Four safety vents were placed on the upper perimeter of the trailer to release any hazardous methanol fumes should a leak occur. Refer to Figure D.5-2 through D.5.5 for different views of the complete plant layout.   B I OD I E S E L  ~IN MOTION  FINAL REPORT  28 5.0 Environmental Assessment The environmental impact assessment is concerned with the necessary actions required to minimize the environmental impact of the waste streams from the biodiesel production process. The biodiesel production process creates two waste streams: glycerol, and wastewater (containing large quantities of methanol, soap, and sodium sulphate, and trace amounts of sodium hydroxide). The compositions of the waste streams were examined and compared to environmental regulations to determine the appropriate actions required for disposal. This section will also include the secondary effects due to the biodiesel plant being mobile, and the HAZOPs study which was performed for Section 200 of the process.  5.1 Environmental Assessment of Wastewater The wastewater from the biodiesel production facility originates from the washing of the biodiesel in the extraction column and from the methanol distillation column (D401). The composition of the wastewater is summarized in Table E.1. According to the Sewer Use Bylaw No.164 for the GVRD, several specifications are required to be met prior to discharging the wastewater. The specifications are summarized and compared to the wastewater values in Table E.2.  To discharge the wastewater, the sulphate, soap, and methanol concentration must be reduced, along with the pH. To reduce sulphate concentrations, (which exceeds the maximum level specified by the GVRD by 359 mg/L), the sulphate may be treated by either precipitating with barium ions (at a low pH), or through anaerobic digestion. The pH can be reduced through the addition of an acid, such as HCl. Methanol, which is flammable, odourous, and poisonous, is present in the wastewater at approximately 42% by weight and therefore must be treated prior to discharge as it is a “prohibited waste”. The methanol concentration could be reduced to approximately 5% by weight, if the bottoms from D401 were recycled back to the waste methanol tank; however, the methanol would still need to be removed from the wastewater to meet discharge regulations. Methanol can be removed by anaerobic digestion, where bacteria consume methanol as a substrate. The BOD of this soap, which is soluble in water, is unknown, B I OD I E S E L  ~IN MOTION  FINAL REPORT  29 and would need to be determined by means of experimental methods. Since the concentration of soap would be 7820 mg/L, the BOD will be very high, and would need to be reduced. BOD reduction can be accomplished by anaerobic digestion.  For sewer discharge, the most efficient treatment method would be anaerobic digestion, which would remove the sulphates, methanol, soap, and BOD in the wastewater. For anaerobic digestion, the pH would first need to be neutralized, through the addition of an acid. Anaerobic digestion would require another reactor, and a clarifier to gravitationally separate the sludge from the effluent. As the biodiesel plant is skid-mounted, the treatment of the wastewater by anaerobic digestion would not be feasible due to space limitations. The wastewater will therefore have to be collected over the duration of the week, and will disposed of at a treatment facility capable of processing it. Likely, there will be a cost for disposal.  5.2 Environmental Assessment of Glycerol Glycerol is produced as a by-product in the main transesterification reaction. Approximately 248 kg of glycerol is produced in one week, which will contain amounts of biodiesel, unreacted methanol, sodium hydroxide, and soap, (which are not included in the mass balance). The impurities will likely be present after the hydrocyclones, since the separation is not 100% efficient.  The glycerol would have to be purified to greater than 90% for pharmaceutical use. This would involve a neutralization step, and the separation of excess methanol, and salts through a washing step.  Due to space limitations of our facility, it was decided that the glycerol by-product will not be purified, instead, the glycerol will be sent, at a cost, to a specialty waste facility for proper purification.  5.3 Environmental Assessment of Secondary Effects The biodiesel production process is based on the concept of bringing the mobile plant to the source of the waste vegetable oil. The negative environmental impact of gasoline consumption, exhaust, and road erosion (to a lesser effect) are consequently unavoidable, but can be minimized through proper logistical route planning. Optimizing the B I OD I E S E L  ~IN MOTION  FINAL REPORT  30 accessibility (and cost) of the reactants will most likely help to determine the best logistical plan.  The locations of processing will typically be next to the source of WVO (restaurants, cruise ships, etc.), therefore the mobile biodiesel manufacturing facility is not expected to cause any additional damage to the property, natural environment, or wild life. Due to the possible methanol vapour emissions into the environment, the locations of nearby air intake systems should be identified prior to process start up. Noise pollution may restrict the operation of the facility at certain times. In the case that noise abatement is recommended, installation of attachable sound barriers may be considered.  5.4 HAZOPs Section 200, the main transesterification reaction section, was chosen as the subject of the HAZOPs study because of its importance to the biodiesel plant. To perform the hazard analysis, a “hazard matrix” was constructed for each stream, and each unit operation. For each stream or unit operation, the process parameters such as flows, pressures, and temperatures were examined to determine possible deviations which could lead to ultimate hazards. For each deviation, the HAZOPs study identified all the possible causes for that deviation. The consequences for each deviation were then listed, and recommendations were made to minimize the effect or to prevent the consequence. Common recommendations from the HAZOPs study included the installation of high and low alarms (to warn the operator of minor deviations), and high-high and low-low alarms, (to respond to a significant deviation which would result in a health or safety hazard). The causes, consequences, and recommendations for streams and unit operations are presented in Appendix E.       B I OD I E S E L  ~IN MOTION  FINAL REPORT  31 6.0 Economic Assessment 6.1 Cost Implementation An estimate of the implementation cost was obtained by calculating the sum of all materials and labour expenses. For the estimate to hold true, the working environment must first be safe in order to operate. Safety devices such as ventilation items are not included in the economical analysis.  The total equipment capital cost is $141,941. Installation cost is assumed to be 35% of the capital cost, except for pumps as it is assumed to be 20% of the capital cost due to easier installation based on industrial approximations. The trailer cost is assumed to be $25000 ($18000 for the trailer plus $7000 for customized modifications). Piping cost is estimated to be 10% of the capital cost as this is a mobile plant and pipe length would be minimal as compared to industrial sized plants. Instrumentation cost is estimated to be 20% of the capital cost as there are some complex automated sequencing requirements in the pre-treatment section, which would require extra costs to implement not to mention programming requirements as well.  The Total Capital Investment (TCI) is estimated to be $296,417, which is the start-up cost of the Biodiesel In Motion production plant. This amount includes all proper over-run costs, such as the 5% contingency fund, and a 10% working capital.  6.2 Production Cost Based on Weekly production rate of 3000L of biodiesel per week. The raw materials used in the production stage include: methanol, sulphuric acid, and sodium hydroxide, with methanol being the primary reactant. Although the purification stage does extract and return a major portion of used methanol, some methanol is lost. The average tranesterification reaction consumption rate of methanol is 20% by volume of biodiesel produced, this equates to 30L per batch. With additional methanol lost in the glycerol and waste streams, an additional 5% by volume is adjusted. This equates to 53.3 L of methanol per batch or 1066L per week of methanol. Three litres of sulphuric acid B I OD I E S E L  ~IN MOTION  FINAL REPORT  32 and 9.3 kg of sodium hydroxide are required per week; therefore, the average weekly cost of raw materials used is approximately $378.55.  Utility cost is estimated to be 62.4 kWh per batch which results in a weekly power consumption of 1284 kWh. At the current BC Hydro rate of 0.067$/kWh, the total utilities cost is 86$ per week.  Labour costs for two operators working 40 hours per week each at $20/hr is $1600 per week. There are estimates for a weekly maintenance cost of $200 and $100 for miscellaneous supplies required on a weekly basis. This brings the total production cost for the week to $2365.  The production rate of biodiesel is 3000L per week, and according to the current diesel price of $0.92/L, a weekly revenue of $2760 is realized. This provides a net profit of $395 per week and is estimated to be a profit of 13 cents per litre of biodiesel produced. With the production rate of 156,000L biodiesel annually, a profit of $20563 each year is realized. By considering the initial Total Capital Investment of $296,417, this equates to a Return on Investment (ROI) of 6.94%, and the biodiesel production plant will break even at approximately 14.4 years.  The resulting Return on Investment of 14.4 years seems quite high for such a mobile plant. The exploration of cost cutting on Total Capital Investment results in few recommendations. The implementation of a glycerol purification process at an off-site location to purify the glycerol by-product could result in additional revenue for the production process. The implementation of an additional wastewater process would also reduce our wastewater disposal costs. As the major portion of our expenses for the plant is based on high equipment capital costs, there is the possibility of reducing the capital cost by employing used equipment for the biodiesel production plant. By conducting a complete analysis through further investigation of these alternatives, the Return On Investment could be significantly reduced; however, it will require additional ground site disposal facilities as the space of the mobile plant does not allow for such a facility. B I OD I E S E L  ~IN MOTION  FINAL REPORT  33 Please refer to Appendix F, Tables F-1 to F-9 for a break-down of the equipment costs and a summary of the total capital investment required. B I OD I E S E L  ~IN MOTION  FINAL REPORT  34 7.0 Conclusions and Recommendations The final design of the mobile biodiesel plant encompasses many elements ranging from the principles of Chemical Engineering to the basics of economics. The Chemical Engineering aspect of this design chose the transesterification reaction, the pre-treatment and the purification processes, while the economic element determined the feasibility of this design. Based on the economic analysis, this design will breakeven in 14.4 years; however, this may be reduced if alternative means of revenue were pursued, such as the purification and selling of the by-product, glycerol. Nonetheless, this design is profitable, with a profit of $20563 each year for a  production rate of 156,000 L biodiesel annually.  The following proposes several recommendations for groups who wish to continue this project.  Since many communities and government agencies have shown keen interest in biodiesel, it would be beneficial to assess the demand for a mobile unit in comparison to a permanent plant.  Although all necessary equipment has been fitted into the 40 foot trailer, there is minimal space for maintenance and repairs. Continuation of the project may focus on resizing the equipment so as to allow less head space and perform experiments to collect data that is specific to biodiesel, transesterification, and other species involved.  From an economic stand-point, additional revenue may be generated by purifying and selling the glycerol by-product or enhancing the methanol recovery to lower operational costs. Capital cost may be reduced with used equipment and obtaining government funding.  With greater exposure, this mobile plant will surely be a leap towards a feasible alternative fuel.  B I OD I E S E L  ~IN MOTION  FINAL REPORT  35 8.0 Nomenclature  Ac column cross sectional area C capacity parameter CD drag coefficient CPVC chlorinated polyvinyl chloride CS carbon steel °C degrees Celsius D tank diameter Di impeller diameter DP,50 droplet diameter DT column diameter FAME Fatty acid methyl esters φD volume fraction of dispersed liquid phase in column g acceleration due to gravity H tank height η viscosity HETS height equivalent to theoretical stage k2 proportionality constant Mc mass flow rate of continuous phase MD mass flow rate of dispersed phase µc viscosity of continuous phase µD viscosity of dispersed phase Ni impeller speed P power requirement PLC Programmable Logic Controller PVC Polyvinyl chloride ρ density ρc density of continuous phase ρD density of dispersed phase ρM density (volumetric mean) SS stainless steel σavg interfacial tension average σc interfacial tension of continuous phase σD interfacial tension of dispersed phase TAG triacylglycerol uc actual average velocity of the continuous liquid phase uD actual average velocity of the dispersed (droplet) liquid phase uo characteristic rise velocity for a single droplet ur average droplet rise velocity relative to the continuous phase Uc superficial velocity of the continuous liquid phase UD superficial velocity of the dispersed liquid phase WVO Waste Vegetable Oil V volume B I OD I E S E L  ~IN MOTION  FINAL REPORT  36 9.0 References 1. Branan, C.: “Rules of Thumbs for Chemical Engineers”, Gulf Publishing Company, 1998, 2nd ed.  2. Canakci, M. and Gerpen J., “Biodiesel Production from Oils and Fats with High Free Fatty Acids”, Amer. Soc. of Agr. Eng., 44 (6): 1429-1436.  3. Chancellor college Biodiesel Research-Biodiesel Properties    <http://www.chanco.unima.mw/physics/biodieselanaly.html>.  4. Chemical/material compatibility matrix <http://enviro.nfesc.navy.mil/ps/spillprev/appx_e_chem.pdf> January 26, 2005.  5. Cromption Greaves Ltd. <http://www.cglonline.com/products/industrial/htmotors_profile.htm>.  6. Du, W., Xu, Y. and Liu, W. “Lipase-catalyzed transesterification of soya bean oil for biodiesel production during continuous batch operation”, Journal of Biotechnology and Applied Biochemistry, (2003) 38: 103-106.  7. Export 911 Shipping Department <http://www.export911.com/e911/ship/dimen.htm#xDimension>.  8. Fabco Plastics Inc. <www.fabcoplastics.com>  9. Felder, M. R., and Rousseau, R. W.: ”Elementary Principles of Chemical Processes”, John Wiley & Co., 2000, 3rd ed.  10. Harvel Plastics Inc. <www.harvel.com>  11. Haynes, C. CHBE 481: Advanced Topics in Biological Engineering, Course Notes. University of British Columbia, Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering. 2004.  12. Ince, Erol, and S S. Kırbaslar. "Liquid–Liquid Equilibria of Water+Ethanol+Dibasic Esters Mixture (Dimethyl Adipate+Dimethyl Glutarate+Dimethyl Succinate)Ternary System." Separation Science and Technology 39 (2004): 3151-3162.  13.Lindley NL, Floyd JC. Piping Systems: How Installation Costs Stack Up. Chemical Engineering, January 1993, page 94-100.  B I OD I E S E L  ~IN MOTION  FINAL REPORT  37 14. Liquid-liquid Extraction. <http://vienna.che.uic.edu/teaching/che396/sepProj/Snrtem~1.pdf>.  15. LMI Chemical and Metering Pumps & Accessories <http://www.lmi-pumps.com/pumps-abc.htm>.  16.Luyben, William L. "Plantwide Dynamic Simulators in Chemical Processing and Control." New York, Marcel Dekker, Inc. 2002.  17. Ma, F. and Hanna, M. A., “Biodiesel production: A review” Bioresource Technology, (1999) 70: 1-15.  18. Mohseni, Madjid. “Energy Balance and Integration” CHBE 452/3/4 Lecture. November 9, 2004.  19.Patzer, R. and Norris, M., “Evaluate Biodiesel Made from Waste Fats and Oils”, 2002, Agricultural Utilization Research Institute, <http://www.mda.state.mn.us/ams/wastefatsauri.pdf>  20. Perry, R.H and Green, D.W. "Perry's Chemical Engineers' Handbook." 7th edition. USA, McGraw Hill, 1997.  21.Rietema, K. “Performance and Deisgn of Hydrocyclones” Chemical Engineering Science 15, 320,1961.  22. Seider, Seader, and Lewin. "Product and Process Design Principles." Second edition. USA, John Wiley and Sons, Inc. 2004.  23. Texloc Inc. <www.texloc.com>.  24. Tyson, K. “Brown Grease Feedstocks for Biodiesel”, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, 2002 Uni-Bell PVC Pipe Association <www.uni-bell.org>  25. Walas, S. M.: “Chemical Process Equipment. Selection and Design”, Butterworth- Heinemann, 1990, 1st ed.  26. Walas, S. M.: “Rules of Thumb. Selecting and Designing Equipment”, Chemical Engineering, March 1987.  27. Zhang, Y., et al. “Biodiesel production from waste cooking oil: 1. Process design and technological assessment”, Bioresource Technology (2003) 89: 1-16. B I OD I E S E L  ~IN MOTION  FINAL REPORT  38 Appendix A: Concept  Figure A-1. Esterification reaction. Triacylglycerols (TAG) reacts with methanol to produce fatty acid methyl esters (FAME, or biodiesel) B I OD I E S E L  ~IN MOTION  FINAL REPORT  39 Appendix B: Process Flow Diagrams and Piping and Instrumentation Diagrams    40 cover  41 000  42 000  43 100  44 100  45 200  46 200  47 300  48 300  49 400  50 400 B I OD I E S E L  ~IN MOTION  FINAL REPORT  51 Appendix C: Process Appendix C.1: Start-up, Shutdown and Emergency Procedures Table C.1-1. Start-up Procedures 1 Utilities  1) electricity  2) open cooling water  3) start computer start-up program: startupBiodiesel.exe  4) open water stream to extraction column E401  5) open steam to reboilers 2 Section 400: Solvent Recovery and Product Storage  1) start condenser C401 and reboiler H401  2) open product storage tanks  3) start distillation column D401 3 Section 300: Purification  1) start reboiler H302 and condenser C302 - check online  2) start R301 impeller  3) start extraction column E301 (feed)  4) start reboiler H301 and condenser C301 - check  online  5) start distillation column D301 (feed)  6) start distillation column D302 (feed) 4 Section 000: Reactant Preparations  1) start mixer M001  2) start inventory tanks 5 Section 100: Pre-treatment  1) start reboiler H101 and condenser C101 - check online  2) start distillation column D101 (feed)  3) open tank T101  4) open pretreatment reactor sequencing R101/R102/R103 (feed from T001) 6 Section 200: Transesterification Reaction  1) start inventory in reactor R201 and tank T201  2) open tank T201  3) feed reactor R201   B I OD I E S E L  ~IN MOTION  FINAL REPORT  52 Table C.1-2. Shutdown Procedures 1 Section 200: Transesterification Reaction  1) stop inventory in reactor R201 and tank T201  2) close tank T201  3) stop inventory in reactor R201 and tank T201 2 Section 100 Pre-treatment  1) close pretreatment reactor sequencing R101/R102/R103 (feed from T001)  2) close tank T101  3) shut-down distillation column D101 (feed)  4) shut-down reboiler H101 and condenser C101 - check online 3 Section 000: Reactant Preparations  1) shut-down inventory tanks  2) shut-down mixer M001 4 Section 300: Purification  1) shut-down distillation column D302 (feed)  2) shut-down distillation column D301 (feed)  3) shut-down reboiler H301 and condenser C301 - check  online  4) shut-down extraction column E301 (feed)  5) shut-down R301 impeller  6) shut-down reboiler H302 and condenser C302 - check online 5 Section 400: Solvent Recovery and Product Storage  1) shut-down distillation column  2) close product storage tanks  3) shut-down condenser and reboiler 6 Utilities  1) close steam to reboilers  2) close water stream to extraction column E401  3) shut-down computer shut-down-up program: shut-downBiodiesel.exe  4) close cooling water  5) electricity   Table C.1-3. Emergency Procedures Case Methanol Spill  1A) methanol flow HHA/LLA  triggers: shut-down electricity - see Trip Matrix  1B) visual inspection: manual electrical shut-down button - see Trip Matrix Case Explosion  1) shut-down electricity - see Trip Matrix  2) call Fire Department    B I OD I E S E L  ~IN MOTION  FINAL REPORT  53 Table C.1-4. Trip Matrix B I OD I E S E L  ~IN MOTION  FINAL REPORT  54 Appendix C.2: Aspen Simulation Results            Figure C.2-1. First Treatment Aspen Distillation Column Unit D101             Figure C.2-2. Second Treatment Aspen Distillation Column Unit D101 101A 112A 110A D101 103B 112B 110B D101 B I OD I E S E L  ~IN MOTION  FINAL REPORT  55 Table C.2-1. First Treatment Aspen Simulation Results for D101                                Design Stream ID 101A 112A 110A From D101 D101 To D101 Phase LIQUID VAPOR LIQUID Substream: MIXED Mole Flow kmol/hr   TRIOL-01   .3170148 5.09512E-6   .3170097   METHA-01   6.233285   6.230409 2.87527E-3   SULFU-01 1.42647E-3 8.4645E-16 1.42647E-3   METHY-01   .1069740 7.4210E-16   .1069740   WATER   1.023440   .9891443   .0342953   OLEIC-01 9.93747E-3 8.1934E-19 9.93747E-3 Mass Flow kg/hr   TRIOL-01   280.7005 4.51147E-3   280.6960   METHA-01   199.7279   199.6358   .0921297   SULFU-01   .1399076 8.3020E-14   .1399076   METHY-01   31.71712 2.2003E-13   31.71712   WATER   18.43755   17.81971   .6178406   OLEIC-01   2.807005 2.3144E-16   2.807005 Mass Frac   TRIOL-01   .5261195 2.07462E-5   .8880818   METHA-01   .3743518   .9180345 2.91485E-4   SULFU-01 2.62230E-4 3.8177E-16 4.42647E-4   METHY-01   .0594476 1.0118E-15   .1003484   WATER   .0345576   .0819447 1.95476E-3   OLEIC-01 5.26120E-3 1.0643E-18 8.88096E-3 Total Flow kmol/hr   7.692077   7.219559   .4725183 Total Flow kg/hr   533.5300   217.4600   316.0700 Total Flow cum/hr   .8783212   1749.580   .4263466 Temperature K   333.1500   295.3334   374.1280 Pressure N/sqm 1.01325E+5   10132.50   10132.50 Vapor Frac        0.0   1.000000        0.0 Liquid Frac   1.000000        0.0   1.000000 Solid Frac        0.0        0.0        0.0 Enthalpy J/kmol -3.1418E+8 -2.0666E+8 -1.3740E+9 Enthalpy J/kg -4.5296E+6 -6.8610E+6 -2.0541E+6 Enthalpy Watt -6.7130E+5 -4.1444E+5 -1.8034E+5 Entropy J/kmol-K -2.8610E+6  -95844.25 -4.3149E+7 Entropy J/kg-K  -41247.50  -3181.979  -64506.49 Density kmol/cum   8.757704 4.12645E-3   1.108296 Density kg/cum   607.4429   .1242927   741.3452 Average MW   69.36098   30.12095   668.9053 Liq Vol 60F cum/hr   .6183614   .2691601   .3492013 B I OD I E S E L  ~IN MOTION  FINAL REPORT  56 Table C.2-2. Second Treatment Aspen Simulation Results for D101                                Design Stream ID 103B 112B 110B From D101 D101 To D101 Phase LIQUID VAPOR LIQUID Substream: MIXED Mole Flow kmol/hr   TRIOL-01   .3170091 4.86042E-6   .3170042   METHA-01   12.67822   12.66793   .0102808   SULFU-01 4.75008E-3 4.1193E-16 4.75008E-3   METHY-01   .1119426 6.5848E-17   .1119426   WATER   .0392760   .0381743 1.10172E-3   OLEIC-01 4.96864E-3 2.7756E-20 4.96864E-3 Mass Flow kg/hr   TRIOL-01   280.6954 4.30366E-3   280.6911   METHA-01   406.2374   405.9080   .3294192   SULFU-01   .4658857 4.0402E-14   .4658857   METHY-01   33.19027 1.9524E-14   33.19027   WATER   .7075696   .6877217   .0198478   OLEIC-01   1.403477 7.8402E-18   1.403477 Mass Frac   TRIOL-01   .3883982 1.05845E-5   .8879820   METHA-01   .5621107   .9982980 1.04214E-3   SULFU-01 6.44646E-4 9.9365E-17 1.47386E-3   METHY-01   .0459253 4.8017E-17   .1049993   WATER 9.79064E-4 1.69140E-3 6.27897E-5   OLEIC-01 1.94199E-3 1.9282E-20 4.43998E-3 Total Flow kmol/hr   13.15616   12.70611   .4500481 Total Flow kg/hr   722.7000   406.6000   316.1000 Total Flow cum/hr   1.143051   3012.871   .4152808 Temperature K   333.1500   288.9729   378.7986 Pressure N/sqm 1.01325E+5   10132.50   10132.50 Vapor Frac        0.0   1.000000        0.0 Liquid Frac   1.000000        0.0   1.000000 Solid Frac        0.0        0.0        0.0 Enthalpy J/kmol -2.7760E+8 -2.0146E+8 -1.4243E+9 Enthalpy J/kg -5.0535E+6 -6.2957E+6 -2.0279E+6 Enthalpy Watt -1.0145E+6 -7.1106E+5 -1.7806E+5 Entropy J/kmol-K -1.7746E+6 -1.1135E+5 -4.5284E+7 Entropy J/kg-K  -32305.40  -3479.708  -64472.67 Density kmol/cum   11.50969 4.21728E-3   1.083720 Density kg/cum   632.2551   .1349543   761.1717 Average MW   54.93244   32.00034   702.3694 Liq Vol 60F cum/hr   .8608280   .5116498   .3491782 B I OD I E S E L  ~IN MOTION  FINAL REPORT  57  302 306 322 D301 NaOH was not taken into account NaOH is present in such small amount. Also soap was not taken into account since Aspen in missing the component sodium oleate. Both NaOH and soap were simlated as water The distillate rate was reduced from 25.69 kg/hr to 23 kg/hr to achieve a bottoms temperature  of 65.3 C  Figure C.2-3. Aspen Distillation Column Unit D301       315 323 326 D302 Assume that the temperature of cooling water is 40 C. Temperature from bottoms of D310 is 105 C. Temperature of H2SO4 is 40 C. Assume temperature in Neutralization reactor is 107 C. (stream heats up a little due to exothermic reaction.). Assume that in E301 that the temperature reached inside is the average of 40 and 107 C, which is 74 C. This will be the inlet temperature of the biodiesel entering D302   Figure C.2-4. Aspen Distillation Column Unit D302 B I OD I E S E L  ~IN MOTION  FINAL REPORT  58 Substream: MIXED 302 306 322 Mole Flow kmol/hr (FEED) (TOPS) (BOTTOMS)   TRIOLEIN 0.02377532 2.18E-08 0.0237753   METHANOL 0.86383158 0.70935607 0.15447551   H2SO4 0 0 0   M-OLEATE 0.46014918 6.00E-13 0.46014918   WATER 0.00776408 0.00195982 0.00580425   SALT 0.00237519 1.59E-35 0.00237519   GLYCEROL 8.08E-05 4.59E-14 8.08E-05   SOAP 0.04198377 0.01059764 0.03138613   NAOH 0.00977553 0.00246756 0.00730796 Mole Frac   TRIOLEIN 0.01686509 3.01E-08 0.03469052   METHANOL 0.61276146 0.97925808 0.22539509   H2SO4 0 0 0   M-OLEATE 0.32640817 8.28E-13 0.67140328   WATER 0.00550747 0.00270552 0.00846898   SALT 0.00168485 2.20E-35 0.00346564   GLYCEROL 5.73E-05 6.33E-14 0.00011794   SOAP 0.02978131 0.01462992 0.04579547   NAOH 0.0069343 0.00340644 0.01066305 Mass Flow kg/hr   TRIOLEIN 21.0518392 1.93E-05 21.0518199   METHANOL 27.6790296 22.7293005 4.94972912   H2SO4 0 0 0   M-OLEATE 136.431305 1.78E-10 136.431305   WATER 0.13987212 0.03530684 0.10456528   SALT 0.33738057 2.26E-35 0.33738057   GLYCEROL 0.00744451 4.22E-12 0.00744451   SOAP 0.75634945 0.19091949 0.56542996   NAOH 0.17610893 0.04445382 0.1316551 Mass Frac   TRIOLEIN 0.1128305 8.40E-07 0.12869487   METHANOL 0.14834993 0.98823046 0.03025889   H2SO4 0 0 0   M-OLEATE 0.73122411 7.73E-12 0.83403756   WATER 0.00074966 0.00153508 0.00063923   SALT 0.00180824 9.82E-35 0.00206248   GLYCEROL 3.99E-05 1.84E-13 4.55E-05   SOAP 0.00405376 0.00830084 0.00345661   NAOH 0.00094388 0.00193277 0.00080483 Total Flow kmol/hr 1.4097355 0.72438112 0.68535438 Total Flow kg/hr 186.579329 23 163.579329 Total Flow cum/sec 6.64E-05 0.00558859 5.99E-05 Temperature C 55 65.3253369 104.09236 Pressure atm 1 1 1 Vapor Frac 0 1 0 Liquid Frac 1 0 1 Solid Frac 0 0 0 Enthalpy J/kmol -421066059 -199967326 -592259137 Enthalpy J/kg -3181444.4 -6297937.2 -2481410.1 Enthalpy Watt -164886.6 -40236.821 -112752.05 Entropy J/kmol-K -1818178.7 -121065.56 -3437339.6 Entropy J/kg-K -13737.594 -3812.9395 -14401.549 Density kmol/cum 5.89624559 0.03600495 3.17960439 Density kg/cum 780.3716 1.14320217 758.903084 Average MW 132.350593 31.7512417 238.678461 Liq Vol 60F cum/sec 6.00E-05 8.02E-06 5.20E-05 *** ALL PHASES *** H J/kmol   TRIOLEIN -1.83E+09 -1.79E+09 -1.75E+09   METHANOL -235373915 -199109678 -229484688   H2SO4   M-OLEATE -709929681 -607189404 -680532419   WATER -283542452 -240455988 -279747049   SALT -1.33E+09  -1.32E+09   GLYCEROL -661765373 -573060320 -651387060   SOAP -283542452 -240455988 -279747049   NAOH -283542452 -240455988 -279747049 CP J/kmol-K   TRIOLEIN 1453055.1 1472628.82 1619855.79   METHANOL 111287.641 46843.6189 129971.756   H2SO4   M-OLEATE 566650.942 490308.83 630875.267 Table C.2-3. Aspen Simulation Results for D301 B I OD I E S E L  ~IN MOTION  FINAL REPORT  59 Table C.2-4. Aspen Simulation Results for D302  Substream: MIXED 315 323 326 Mole Flow kmol/hr (FEED) (TOPS) (BOTTOMS)   TRIOLEIN 0.02377529 1.33E-08 0.02377528   M-OLEATE 0.45794778 1.21E-09 0.45794777   WATER 0.00754462 0.0063807 0.00116392   GLYCEROL 8.08E-05 7.39E-12 8.08E-05 Mole Frac   TRIOLEIN 0.04858561 2.08E-06 0.04922747   M-OLEATE 9.36E-01 1.90E-07 9.48E-01   WATER 0.01541768 0.99999773 0.00240993   GLYCEROL 0.00016518 1.16E-09 0.00016737 Mass Flow kg/hr   TRIOLEIN 21.0518171 1.18E-05 21.0518054   M-OLEATE 135.778603 3.60E-07 135.778602   WATER 0.13591847 0.1149501 0.02096836   GLYCEROL 0.00744451 6.81E-10 0.00744451 Mass Frac   TRIOLEIN 0.1341104 1.02E-04 0.13420862   M-OLEATE 8.65E-01 3.13E-06 0.86561025   WATER 0.00086586 0.99989462 0.00013367   GLYCEROL 4.74E-05 5.92E-09 4.75E-05 Total Flow kmol/hr 0.48934853 0.00638071 0.48296781 Total Flow kg/hr 156.973783 1.15E-01 156.85882 Total Flow cum/sec 5.59E-05 5.43E-05 7.02E-05 Temperature C 74 100.228053 330.211392 Pressure atm 1 1.00E+00 1 Vapor Frac 0 1 0 Liquid Frac 1 0.00E+00 1 Solid Frac 0 0.00E+00 0 Enthalpy J/kmol -745968135 -239275792 -545114404 Enthalpy J/kg -2325473.7 -13280455 -1678405.5 Enthalpy Watt -101399.56 -424.09739 -73131.31 Entropy J/kmol-K -4788612.2 -3.69E+04 -4412288.4 Entropy J/kg-K -14927.973 -2047.3237 -13585.422 Density kmol/cum 2.43315708 0.03263928 1.91038179 Density kg/cum 780.510922 5.88E-01 620.45591 Average MW 320.781148 18.0171377 324.781105 Liq Vol 60F cum/sec 4.98E-05 3.20E-08 4.98E-05 *** ALL PHASES *** H J/kmol   TRIOLEIN -1.80E+09 -1.73E+09 -1.31E+09   M-OLEATE -698926718 -589359337 -506130168   WATER -282121041 -239272616 -251662580   GLYCEROL -6.58E+08 -568551614 -5.93E+08 CP J/kmol-K   TRIOLEIN 1518891.83 1592418.24 2255138.93   M-OLEATE 591568.173 531208.01 912463.45   WATER 76291.5605 34030.3895 221341.472   GLYCEROL 209515.905 133518.413 300906.419 Enthalpy J/kmol -421066059 -199967326 -592259137 Enthalpy J/kg -3181444.4 -6297937.2 -2481410.1 Enthalpy Watt -164886.6 -40236.821 -112752.05 Entropy J/kmol-K -1818178.7 -121065.56 -3437339.6 Entropy J/kg-K -13737.594 -3812.9395 -14401.549 Density kmol/cum 5.89624559 0.03600495 3.17960439 Density kg/cum 780.3716 1.14320217 758.903084 Average MW 132.350593 31.7512417 238.678461 Liq Vol 60F cum/sec 6.00E-05 8.02E-06 5.20E-05 *** ALL PHASES *** H J/kmol   TRIOLEIN -1.83E+09 -1.79E+09 -1.75E+09   METHANOL -235373915 -199109678 -229484688   H2SO4   M-OLEATE -709929681 -607189404 -680532419   WATER -283542452 -240455988 -279747049   SALT -1.33E+09  -1.32E+09   GLYCEROL -661765373 -573060320 -651387060   SOAP -283542452 -240455988 -279747049   NAOH -283542452 -240455988 -279747049 CP J/kmol-K   TRIOLEIN 1453055.1 1472628.82 1619855.79   METHANOL 111287.641 46843.6189 129971.756   H2SO4   M-OLEATE 566650.942 490308.83 630875.267 B I OD I E S E L  ~IN MOTION  FINAL REPORT  60  401 403 402 D401  Figure C.2-5. Aspen Distillation Column Unit D401                     B I OD I E S E L  ~IN MOTION  FINAL REPORT  61 Table C.2-5. Aspen Simulation Results for D401 Heat and Material Balance Table Stream ID 401 402 403 From D401 D401 To D401 Phase LIQUID LIQUID LIQUID Substream: MIXED Mole Flow kmol/hr   METHANOL   10.99551   1.933650   9.061863   WATER   .5578598   .3153802   .2424796   SOAP 8.66330E-4 8.66330E-4 4.1321E-15   H2SO4        0.0        0.0        0.0   WVO        0.0        0.0        0.0   NAOH        0.0        0.0        0.0 Mass Flow kg/hr   METHANOL   352.3200   61.95834   290.3617   WATER   10.05000   5.681662   4.368338   SOAP   .2100000   .2100000 1.0016E-12   H2SO4        0.0        0.0        0.0   WVO        0.0        0.0        0.0   NAOH        0.0        0.0        0.0 Mass Frac   METHANOL   .9717028   .9131664   .9851785   WATER   .0277180   .0837385   .0148214   SOAP 5.79183E-4 3.09506E-3 3.3985E-15   H2SO4        0.0        0.0        0.0   WVO        0.0        0.0        0.0   NAOH        0.0        0.0        0.0 Total Flow kmol/hr   11.55424   2.249897   9.304343 Total Flow kg/hr   362.5800   67.85000   294.7300 Total Flow l/min   8.019761   1.502700   6.588709 Temperature C   60.00000   66.72768   64.93227 Pressure atm   1.000000   1.000000   1.000000 Vapor Frac        0.0        0.0        0.0 Liquid Frac   1.000000   1.000000   1.000000 Solid Frac        0.0        0.0        0.0 Enthalpy J/kmol -2.3726E+8 -2.4126E+8 -2.3556E+8 Enthalpy J/kg -7.5606E+6 -8.0001E+6 -7.4362E+6 Enthalpy Watt -7.6148E+5 -1.5078E+5 -6.0880E+5 Entropy J/kmol-K -2.2471E+5 -2.1507E+5 -2.2514E+5 Entropy J/kg-K  -7160.823  -7131.704  -7107.356 Density kmol/cum   24.01202   24.95394   23.53608 Density kg/cum   753.5137   752.5345   745.5431 Average MW   31.38069   30.15694   31.67661 Liq Vol 60F l/min   7.563701   1.398978   6.164723  B I OD I E S E L  ~IN MOTION  FINAL REPORT  62 Appendix C.3: Heat Integration Tables and Pinch Analysis Equations  Table C.3-1. Heat Exchanger Stream Data Stream Ti Tf mCp Q Ti* Tf* Main Component mass balance (oC) (oC) kW/K KW (oC) (oC)   MeOH C1A 006A 18.00 40 0.1323 2.9106 23 35   C1Bx 006B 18.00 40 0.2633 5.7922 23 35 MeOH/NaOH C3 008 18.00 40 0.0007 0.0156 23 35 Water C4 010 18.00 40 0.1559 3.4299 23 35 Glycerol/BioD H1 204 60.00 30 0.0848 2.5432 55 35 Glycerol H2 305 55.00 25 0.0069 0.2073 50 30 Methanol H3 403 67.00 20 0.0258 1.2124 62 25 Methanol/Water H4 402 65.00 20 0.1093 4.9203 60 25 WVO H5 110A 100.85 65 0.0003 0.0092 96 70 Biodiesel H6 322 130.00 40 0.0782 7.0355 125 45 Water H7 323 100.25 15 0.0001 0.0120 95 20 Biodiesel H8 326 323.98 20 0.0907 27.5762 319 25 *NOTE: Dark font signifies cold streams, gray font signifies hot streams B I OD I E S E L  ~IN MOTION  FINAL REPORT  63 Table C.3-2. Shifted Temperatures and Ranks Stream Ti Tf Ti* Tf* mCp Main Component mass balance (oC) (oC) (oC) (oC) Rank ordered kW/K MeOH C1A 006A 18.00   23   18 0.1323         40   35 10 0.132301 MeOH/NaOH C3 008 18.00   23   19 0.00071         40   35 11 0.00071 Water C4 010 18.00   23   20 0.155907         40   35 12 0.155907 Glycerol/BioD H1 204 60.00   55   7 0.084774         30   35 13 0.084774 Glycerol H2 305 55   50   8 0.006911         25   30 14 0.006911 Water H3 402 67   62   5 0.025796         20   25 17 0.025796 Methanol/Water H4 403 65   60   6 0.109339         20   25 15 0.109339 WVO H5 110A 100.85   96   2 0.0003         65   70 4 0.0003 Biodiesel H6 322 130.00   125   1 0.0782         40   45 9 0.0782 Water H7 323 100.25   95   3 0.0001         15   20 21 0.0001 Biodiesel H8 326 323.98   319   0 0.0907         20   25 16 0.0907  Stream Ti Tf Ti* Tf* mCp   mass balance (oC) (oC) (oC) (oC) Rank ordered kW/K C1Bx 006B 18   23   12 0.263283       40   35 6 0.263283 *NOTE: Since there are two cycles for stream 005 at different times, the cycle with higher mCp value is used to ensure enough heat is supplied into the stream  B I OD I E S E L  ~IN MOTION  FINAL REPORT  64 Table C.3-3. Temperature Interval Heat Balance Ranks Tintervals CP deltaTintervals CPH-CPC deltaHint  (oC)  (oC) kW/K kW 0 319 0.0907 1 125 0.0782 193.98 0.0907 17.5940 2 96 0.0003 29.15 0.1689 4.9234 3 95 0.0001 0.6 0.1692 0.1015 4 70 0.0003 25.25 0.1693 4.2748 5 62 0.0258 8 0.1690 1.3520 6 60 0.1093 2 0.1948 0.3896 7 55 0.0848 5 0.3042 1.5208 8 50 0.0069 5 0.3889 1.9447 9 45 0.0782 5 0.3959 1.9793 10 35 0.1323 10 0.3177 3.1768 11 35 0.0007 0 0.1316 0.0000 12 35 0.1559 0 -0.1552 0.0000 13 35 0.0848 0 0.0711 0.0000 14 30 0.00691065 5 0.0222 0.1108 15 25 0.10933904 5 -0.0629 -0.3146 16 25 0.0907 0 0.0186 0.0000 17 25 0.02579604 0 0.0649 0.0000 18 23 0.1323 2 -0.2888 -0.5776 19 23 0.00071024 0 0.1316 0.0000 20 23 0.15590682 0 -0.1552 0.0000 21 20 0.0001 3 0.0001 0.0004  B I OD I E S E L  ~IN MOTION  FINAL REPORT  65 Table C.3-4. Energy Flow Between Intervals Temperature delta H Initial Pass Final Pass (oC) kW Q (kW) Q (kW) 319   0 37.3677 125 17.5940 -17.5940 19.7737 96 4.9234 -22.5174 14.8503 95 0.1015 -22.6189 14.7488 70 4.2748 -26.8938 10.4739 62 1.3520 -28.2458 9.1219 60 0.3896 -28.6354 8.7324 55 1.5208 -30.1562 7.2115 50 1.9447 -32.1009 5.2668 45 1.9793 -34.0801 3.2876 35 3.1768 -37.2569 0.1108 30 0.1108 -37.3677 0.0000 ← PINCH 25 -0.3146 -37.0531 0.3146 23 -0.5776 -36.4755 0.8922 20 0.0004 -36.4760 0.8918 Assumptions: 1.Heat capacity is constant over the range of initial and final temperatures 2. deltaTmin = 10 oC B I OD I E S E L  ~IN MOTION  FINAL REPORT  66                      Figure C.3-1. Heat Exchanger Network B I OD I E S E L  ~IN MOTION  67 Equations for Heat Integration and Pinch Analysis 1 intint 1,, 1int min , * min , * min , * min , * *)( 2 2 2 2 +−= ∆−=∆ −=− −=∆ = ∆+= ∆−= ∆−= ∆+= + + jj HC TT PHPC jpjpPP jj pp fchotstreamf ihotstreami fcoldstreamf icoldstreami HHQ TCCH CCCC TTT CmC TTT TTT TTT TTT & B I OD I E S E L  ~IN MOTION  FINAL REPORT  68 Appendix D: Equipment Design and Specifications Appendix D.1: Tables and Figures   Figure D.1-1. Mobile Biodiesel Production Plant               Figure D.1-2. Schematic of Waste Vegetable Oil Storage Tank T001   B I OD I E S E L  ~IN MOTION  FINAL REPORT  69 DISTRIBUTOR   SUPPORT PLATE 4'' 14''4'' 9.84''   4'' 6’8” 8’8”             Figure D.1-3. Schematic Diagram of Transesterification Reactor R201                  Figure D.1-4. Schematic of Methanol-Water Distillation Tower D401  B I OD I E S E L  ~IN MOTION  FINAL REPORT  70     Figure D.1-5. Berl Packing1        Figure D.1-6. Trough Type Distributor  Figure D.1-7. Hydrocyclone Correlations Between Separation Characteristics, Cyclone Diameter and Cyclone Throughput if a Gas Core is Present  1 http://www.chinachemicalonline.com/packing/grainde_packing3.asp  B I OD I E S E L  ~IN MOTION  FINAL REPORT  71 Biodiesel  + Salts + Soap Water Pure Biodiesel  Water + Soap + Salts                 Figure D.1-8. Schematic Diagram of a Hydrocyclone             Figure D.1-9. Schematic Diagram of Extraction Column E301 B I OD I E S E L  ~IN MOTION  FINAL REPORT  72             Figure D.1-10. Water-Ethanol-Ester Mixture Ternary Diagram              Figure D.1-11. HETS as a Function of Diameter vs. Interfacial Tension  B I OD I E S E L  ~IN MOTION  FINAL REPORT  73 Table D.1-1. Tank Design Specifications Tank # Liquid Volume (L) Tank H:D ratio Percent Fill (%) Tank Volume (m3) Tank Diameter (m) Tank Height (m) Vessel Material of Construction T001 3583 1 70 5.12 1.9 1.9 Carbon Steel  AISI 1020 T002 3 2 70 0.004 0.1 0.3 Stainless Steel AISI 316 T003 3281 1.1 70 5.21 1.8 2.0 Carbon Steel AISI 1020 T101 346 2 70 0.49 0.7 1.4 Stainless Steel AISI 304 T201 188 2 70 0.27 0.6 1.1 Stainless Steel AISI 304 T401 482 1 70 1.32 1.2 1.2 Carbon Steel AISI 1020 T402 4875 1 70 4.56 1.8 1.8 Polyethylene  ― T403 197 2 70 0.28 0.6 1.1 Carbon Steel AISI 1020 T404 3586 1 70 5.12 1.9 1.9 Carbon Steel AISI 1020  Table D.1-2. Reactor Design Specifications Reactor # Liquid Volume (L) Tank H:D ratio Percent Fill (%) Tank Volume (m3) Tank Diameter (m) Tank Height (m) Vessel Material of Construction R101 860 2 70 1.23 0.9 1.8 Stainless Steel AISI 304 R102 860 2 70 1.23 0.9 1.8 Stainless Steel AISI 304 R103 860 2 70 1.23 0.9 1.8 Stainless Steel AISI 304 R201 224 2 70 0.32 0.6 1.2 Stainless Steel AISI 304 R301 207 2 70 0.30 0.6 1.1 Carbon Steel AISI 1020 M001 43 2 70 0.06 0.34 0.68 Stainless Steel AISI 316  Table D.1-3. Reactor Impeller Design Specifications Reactor # Type of Impeller Diameter of Impeller (m) Width of Impeller (m) Length of Blade (m) Impeller Placement (above bottom of tank) (m) Width of Baffles (m) Power required for turbine (W) Density of fluid (kg/m3) Rotational Speed of Impeller (rpm) R101 Rushton Turbine 0.31 0.06 0.08 0.61 0.09 847 840 237 R102 Rushton Turbine 0.31 0.06 0.08 0.61 0.09 847 840 237 R103 Rushton Turbine 0.31 0.06 0.08 0.61 0.09 847 840 237 R201 Rushton Turbine 0.20 0.04 0.05 0.39 0.06 221 885 314 R301 Rushton Turbine 0.19 0.04 0.05 0.38 0.06 204 875 321  B I OD I E S E L  ~IN MOTION  FINAL REPORT  74 Table D.1-4. Physical Properties of Glycerol and Biodiesel Glycerol:   Biodiesel: Viscosity (kg/m.s), η 1.49 Density (kg/m3), ρ 879 Density (kg/m3), ρ 1.26E-03 Viscosity (kg/m.s),η 4.40E-03 dp,50 , Diameter (m) 1.00E-04 to 1.00E-03 Kinematic viscosity 2 (avg) (m2/s) 5.00E-06 Mass flow rate (kg/hr) 198.81 Pressure Drop (Pa) 100   2 Chancellor college Biodiesel Research-Biodiesel Properties   < http://www.chanco.unima.mw/physics/biodieselanaly.html> B I OD I E S E L  ~IN MOTION  FINAL REPORT  75 Appendix D.2: Sample Calculations  Appendix D.2-1 Reactor and Storage Tank Design Calculations For the reactors, the height to diameter ratio was chosen as 2:1. Therefore, the diameters and heights were determined using the following equations:  3 4 R VD π=  (1) where D is the diameter (m), V is the tank volume (m3), and R is the H/D factor. The height H is given by:  RDH ×=  (2) The power requirement in Watts was found by the following equation:  VLW kWHpGal kWWLGalVHpP )/985.0( /341.11000 /1000/26417.05 =× ×××=  (3) where V is the volume in liters.  Given the power requirements, the impeller speed (Ni in rpm) was found using the correlation given by Haynes (2004):  3 5 2 i i Dk PN ρ=  (4) where k2 is a proportionality constant (5 for Rushton turbines), ρ is the average fluid density, and Di is the impeller diameter.  B I OD I E S E L  ~IN MOTION  FINAL REPORT  76 ( ) ( ) ( )[ ] o T V water V Methanol PPT Gf T LL L LOH L LOH L P L G LG LGLGLG LLPG lOH f E HETPNhtPackedheig P P DDD Uf GD f f TableF G LF FFFY ffF gYU ⋅= = ∗−∗≥ ⎥⎥⎦ ⎤ ⎢⎢⎣ ⎡ ∗∗Π∗∗ ∗= ∗= ⎥⎦ ⎤⎢⎣ ⎡∗−∗+−= = ⎟⎟⎠ ⎞ ⎜⎜⎝ ⎛∗= ∗−∗−∗−−= ⎥⎦ ⎤⎢⎣ ⎡ ∗∗∗∗= α ρ µµ ρ ρ ρ ρρ ρ ρ µρρ ρ 3010 3600 4 96.0)( 6313.06776.28787.0)( 1.14 ln007544.0ln1501.0ln0371.17121.3exp )()( 1 2/1 19.0 2 )()( 1 5.0 32 5.0 )( 22 2 Appendix D.2-2 Distillation Column D401 Design Calculations  EQUATIONS FOR PACKED TOWER DESIGN   (5)  (6)   (7)  (8)  (9)   (10)   (11)   (12)   (13)              B I OD I E S E L  ~IN MOTION  FINAL REPORT  77 SAMPLE CALCULATIONS                 Calculating the height of packing (HETP) in the distillation column D401 Since the two major species to be separated is methanol and water, the calculation is performed assuming a binary distillation between methanol (A), and water (B). The Schmidt number of each of the species ScL,A = 2174 )/1016.2()/756( .10355 2103 6 ,, , =∗∗ ∗=∗ − − smmkg sPa D LABAL AL ρ µ  ScL,B = 19.2 )/1016.2()/2.983( .104668.0 2103 6 ,, , =∗∗ ∗=∗ − − smmkg sPa D LABBL BL ρ µ  ScL = 10882 19.22174 2 ,, =+=+ BLAL ScSc     ( ) ( ) ( )[ ] fthtPackedheig ftHETP ftD f f aloxsaddleenepolypropylftgenepallrinpolypropylftF F Y sftU T L L P LG f 0.6 5.0 0.13 123.4 63.3 967.14 0.1 82.0 360007.099.67.0 768.6494 7851.0346976.096.0)( 50465.1 69033.46 34134.596313.0 69033.46 34134.596776.28787.0)( )int(3.39)(54 00891.0 69033.46 07.0 768.649 5837.149 255.000891.0ln007544.000891.0ln1501.000891.0ln0371.17121.3exp /99.6 7851.050465.13.39 1 07.0 34134.592.320831.0 5.0 19.0 2 511 5.0 32 5.0 =∗= == = =⎥⎦ ⎤⎢⎣ ⎡ ∗∗Π∗∗ ∗= =∗= =⎥⎦ ⎤⎢⎣ ⎡∗−∗+−= == =⎟⎠ ⎞⎜⎝ ⎛⎟⎠ ⎞⎜⎝ ⎛= =∗−∗−∗−−= =⎥⎦ ⎤⎢⎣ ⎡ ∗∗⎟⎠ ⎞⎜⎝ ⎛∗∗= −− α µ ρ B I OD I E S E L  ~IN MOTION  FINAL REPORT  78 In the enriching section L’ = sm kg ms hr hr kg D L c 222 383.0)25.0( 4 3600 164.67 )( 4 =∗∗= ππ L The correlation for 1 in berl saddle HtL = m sPax smkgScL L L 303.01088 .1044.3 /383.000129.0'00129.0 5.0 28.0 4 228.0 =∗⎟⎟⎠ ⎞ ⎜⎜⎝ ⎛∗=∗⎟⎟⎠ ⎞ ⎜⎜⎝ ⎛∗ −µ In the exhausting section sm kg ms hr hr kg D LL c 222 76.0)25.0( 4 3600 15.134 )( 4' =∗∗== ππ The correlation for 1 in berl saddle m sPax smkgScLH L L tL 368.01088.1044.3 /99.000129.0'00129.0 5.0 28.0 4 228.0 =∗⎟⎟⎠ ⎞ ⎜⎜⎝ ⎛∗=∗⎟⎟⎠ ⎞ ⎜⎜⎝ ⎛∗= −µ The height of the packing in the tower mHHNtLZZZ tLtLexhaustingenriching 01.2)368.0303.0(3)( =+∗=+∗=+=    B I OD I E S E L  ~IN MOTION  FINAL REPORT  79 Appendix D.2-3 Heat Exchanger Design Calculations  The following sample calculations are for the shell and tube heat exchanger of condenser C401. The heat exchanger duty Q is estimated on the basis of:   ( ) BBpBAApAlmtd TcmTcmTAUFQ ∆−=∆=∆= ‚‚  (14) Correction factor F for the mean logarithmic temperature difference (∆T)lmtd:  63.0 103.65 1045 1‚1‚ 1‚2‚ =− −= − −= wm ww TT TT P  (15)   01.0 19.42304 42.1599 ‚ ‚ =⋅ ⋅= = wpw mpm cm cm R  (16)   Thus, ( ) 98.0‚ == RPFF  for a 1-2 S&T heat exchanger.  ( ) ( ) ⎭⎬ ⎫ =−=∆ =−=∆ 3.550.103.65 3.200.453.65 2 1 T T   ( ) ( ) ( )( ) ( )[ ] [ ] C TT T T Tlmtd °=−= ∆−∆=∆ ∆ ∆ 92.34 ln 3.203.55 ln 3.20 3.55 12 1 2  (17) Wall material: Carbon Steel 304, W Km wh 241076.11 −⋅= . From references it is found:  Km W wall h f h f hU 200185.03500 10002.01076.10002.0 6000 1 1111 4 2 21 1 =++⋅++= ++++= −  (18)  Thus, Km WU 2540= B I OD I E S E L  ~IN MOTION  FINAL REPORT  80 Table 1: Summary of Heat Transfer and Fouling Coefficients  Heat Transfer Coefficient h Fouling Coefficient f [unit] [W/(m2K)] [(m2K)/W] 1. H2O (liq) 6000 0.0002 2. Light Organics (cond.) 3500 0.0002 Required heat exchanger area A:  ( ) sqftm TUF QA lmtd 07.5393.4 92.3598.0540 1078.93 2 3 ==⋅⋅ ⋅−= ∆=  (19) Selected: ftinDO 083.00.1.. ==  outer diameter tubing, which is equivalent to the total tube length Lt  ft D ALt 5.203 083.0 07.53 =π= π=  (20) Selected: two tube pass, triangular geometry:  ftL 6=   ftinDIShell 83.010.. ==   32  . =tubesofNo Thus, verifying acceptable ratio: 2.783.06 == ftftDL , which is acceptable. Determining the pressure drop: Dh = 1.1028 PtDt − Dt  Hydraulic diameter for square pitch B = 0.83 ft  Distance between baffles E = 0.25in ⋅ 0.083 ftin = 0.0208 ft  Distance between tubes Ds = 10in = 0.83 ft  Shell diameter As = DsBCPt  Flow area Gs = Ý m As  Flow velocity s = 1.0  Specific gravity N = 16 Number of baffles where: L N( ) Ds = 6 ft 16( ) 0.83 = 0.45 ∈ 0.2,1.0[ ] - ok! Re = DhGsµ  Reynolds number B I OD I E S E L  ~IN MOTION  FINAL REPORT  81 f = 0.0121Re−0.19, 300 < Re < 106  Friction factor ∆P = fGs 2Ds N +1( ) 5.22 ⋅1010 sDh  Pressure drop. 25% segment baffles.  Insertion of know values in design equations yields: Re = 0.0828 ⋅ 24390 2.424 = 829 < 2300 f = 0.0121⋅ 829( )−0.19 = 0.00337 ∆P = 0.00337 ⋅ 24390( ) 2 0.83( ) 17( ) 5.22 ⋅1010 ⋅1.0 ⋅ 0.0824 = 0.0066 psi = 0.046kPa  The pressure loss is acceptable.       B I OD I E S E L  ~IN MOTION  FINAL REPORT  82 Appendix D.2-4 Hydrocyclone Design Calculations  Design Equations used for Standard Liquid-Liquid Hydrocyclones:  ( ) ⎟⎟⎠ ⎞⎜⎜⎝ ⎛ ∆×⎟⎟⎠ ⎞ ⎜⎜⎝ ⎛ ∆= ηη ρ tpdY 2 50  (21)  ( ) ⎟⎟⎠ ⎞ ⎜⎜⎝ ⎛ ∆×⎟⎟⎠ ⎞⎜⎜⎝ ⎛×= ρη ρ tpDX  (22) Assumptions: 4.0 34.0/ 28.0/ 5/ ≅= = = ≅ DI De Db DL  Sample Calculations: For Glycerol droplet diameter 50%, dp,50 = 0.001 m: ( ) ( ) 44.4545 ./0044.0 ./100 ./0044.0 /326.1879001.0 23250 =⎟⎟⎠ ⎞ ⎜⎜⎝ ⎛×⎟⎟⎠ ⎞ ⎜⎜⎝ ⎛ −−×=⎟⎟⎠ ⎞⎜⎜⎝ ⎛ ∆×⎟⎟⎠ ⎞ ⎜⎜⎝ ⎛ ∆= smkg smkg smkg mkgEmpdY tηη ρ  The value Y is corresponding to about X=1.6E+05 Hence, ftmD mkg Pa smkg mkgDEX 79.737.2 /879 100 ./0044.0 /87956.1 3 3 ==⇒ ⎟⎟⎠ ⎞ ⎜⎜⎝ ⎛×⎟⎟⎠ ⎞ ⎜⎜⎝ ⎛×==  mDL 87.11537.25 =×=×= mDI mDe mDb 95.04.037.24.0 81.034.037.234.0 66.028.037.228.0 =×=×= =×=×= =×=×=   B I OD I E S E L  ~IN MOTION  FINAL REPORT  83 Appendix D.2-5 Extraction Column Design Calculations  Design Considerations The operating temperature is not critical in the extraction process. It is only dependent upon the streams entering the extraction column. The biodiesel feed stream enters the column at 85 °C; the water enters the column at 40 °C. The extraction column is assumed to operate isothermally at an average of these two inlet stream temperatures, at 63 °C. The operating pressure is assumed at isobaric at 1 atm. This is well below the vapour pressure of the solution, ensuring that the vapour phase will not appear and interrupt liquid equilibrium. Isobaric conditions are beneficial to the phase stability of the system. The density difference between the water and biodiesel is large enough such that the water (heavier solvent) will flow downward, and the biodiesel (lighter component) will flow to the top of the column. The concentration gradient, coupled with the higher affinity that the solutes have for water over biodiesel, drives the mass transfer, allowing the solutes to be extracted from the biodiesel and dissolved into the water, leaving the biodiesel relatively solute free. The density difference aids in the complete separation between water and biodiesel.  Viscosity is also valuable in the determination of what type of system to use for extraction. Components having a high viscosity cannot be used in packed columns. Since biodiesel has a high viscosity of 880 Pa⋅s (water has a viscosity of 1.129 Pa⋅s at 63 °C), a packed column was not used.    B I OD I E S E L  ~IN MOTION  FINAL REPORT  84 Design Conditions Dispersed (light) Phase: Water Continuous (heavy) Phase: Biodiesel  Flow rates determined from mass balance: UD = 41.75 m/s = 136.9688 ft/s UC = 43.77 m/s = 143.6041 ft/s MD = 0.0420 kg/s = 151.0484 kg/h MC = 0.0503 kg/s = 181.1195 kg/h  Fluid properties obtained from Perry’s Handbook: ρD = 995 kg/m3 = 0.995 g/cm3 ρC = 870 kg/m3 = 0.870 g/cm3 µD = 0.000384 Pa = 8.0156 x 10-6 lbfs/ft2 µC = 0.004882 Pa = 0.0001020 lbfs/ft2  Surface tension: σD = 63.375 mN/m = 0.004342 lbf/ft  http://hyperphysics.py-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/surten.html#c3 σC = 31.33 mN/m = 0.002147 lbf/ft Lange’s Handbook, at 25°C σavg = 47.3525 mN/m = 0.003245 lbf/ft the average surface tension between the dispersed and continuous phase was used in place of interfacial tension due to the lack of data  At σavg, using Figure D.1-, HETS as a function of diameter was determined by assuming a linear relationship and calculating the equation of the line.  3/138.98.135.4716.08.116.0 8.1)1016.0(4.3 16.0 300 6.04.3 TD HETSxy mxybbmxy m ==+⋅=+= =⋅−=−=→+= =− −=  B I OD I E S E L  ~IN MOTION  FINAL REPORT  85 ( ) // 3 3 // 2 2 3 3 %50 3 3 3 33 %50 32 3 3 3 3250.86999.03764.93764.9 6999.03847.04 4 3847.0 0423.33 7129.12 )( 7129.123146.35 87 1195.181 995 0484.151 0423.33360001837.0 2 1)( 01837.006619.03.0)( 06119.0 87.00001020.0 )87.0995.0(002147.001.0 01.0 3.0 729.0 995.0 87.0 1195.181 0484.151 ftftHETS D HETS tension linterfacia average the using 10 Figure from column of height gDeterminin ftft A D diameter gDeterminin ft h ft h ft UU Q A area  sectionalcross gDeterminin h ft m ft m kg h kg m kg h kg MMQ flowrate volumetric Total h ft h s s ftUU flooding 50% atvelocity  lSuperficia s ft s ftUU velocity flooding al superficigDeterminin s ft cm g ft slb cm g ft lb u velocity rise sticcharacteri Determing u UU ratio flow phase the and 9 Figure Using cm g cm g h kg h kg M M U U ratio flow Phase Uu column the ofcapacity  total the gDeterminin C velocityfloodingCD total C C C D D total velocityfloodingCD fCD f f CC C O O fDC D C C D C D D D D =×=⇒= =⋅== ==+= =× ⎟⎟ ⎟⎟ ⎠ ⎞ ⎜⎜ ⎜⎜ ⎝ ⎛ +=⎟⎟⎠ ⎞ ⎜⎜⎝ ⎛ += =×⋅=+ =×=+ = ⋅ −⋅⋅ =⋅ ∆⋅⋅= =+ =×=×= = ππ ρρ ρµ ρσ ρ ρ φ    (23)    (24)    (25)    (26)    (27)    (28)    (29)     (30)    (31)   (32) B I OD I E S E L  ~IN MOTION  FINAL REPORT  86 Appendix D.3: Pump Specifications Table D.3-1. Centrifugal Pump Specifications Pump ID Speed (rpm) Type of Liquid Density @ 20C (kg/cub.m) Vol Flow Rate (cub.m/hr) NPSHa (m) NPSHr (m) Total Head (m) Type/Size Diameter (mm) Efficiency Power (kw) P201 1120 Ethanol 789 1.52 23.1 2.88 8.55  APP-C 11-32 283902 205 16.7 0.157 P104 1120 Ethanol 789 12 23.1 1.5 6.08 APP-C 11-40 283903 185 58.9 0.254 P101 840 Ethanol 789 0.67 23.1 1.67 5.08 APP-O 22-32 288449 215 6.1 0.114 P103 840 Ethanol 789 0.61 24.1 1.67 5 APP-O 22-32 288449 215 5.5 0.113 P401 840 Ethanol 789 0.5 24.1 1.67 5 APP-O 22-32 288449 215 5.5 0.113 P403 840 Ethanol 789 0.8 23.1 1.67 5.08 APP-O 22-32 288449 215 6.1 0.114 *NOTE: All pumps in Table are single-stage centrifugal pumps. Material of Construction: Stainless Steel Schedule 40. Suction and Discharge pressures were assumed at 1 atm. Pump manufacturer: Sulzer Pumps.  Table D.3-2. Pump Design Parameters Pump ID  Shut-off head (m) Shut-off dp (kpa) BEP Max Power (kW) Test Speed           Min Max P201 6.73 0.497 60.9% @16.1 cum/hr 0.342 @ 22 cum/hr 400 3490 P104 20.5 1.52 65.1% @ 24.1 cum/hr 1.51 @ 31.4cum/hr 400 3600 P101 5.1 0.377 33.2% @ 7.28 cum/hr 0.344@ 11.1 cum/hr 400 3540 P103 5.1 0.377 33.2%@ 7.28 cum/hr 0.201 @ 9.1cum/hr 400 3540 P401 5.1 0.377 33.2% @ 7.28 cum/hr 0.344@ 11.1 cum/hr 400 3540 P403 5.1 0.377 33.2% @ 7.28 cum/hr 0.344@ 11.1 cum/hr 400 3540 * NOTE: Pumps P102, P301, P302, P303, P304, and P402 were not sized since the volumetric flowrates were too small to achieve an efficient pump sizing. B I OD I E S E L  ~IN MOTION  FINAL REPORT  87 Table D.3-3. Metering Pump Specifications Flow rate  Max Output Flow Rate Max Output Pressure Stroke/Min Max Current Pump ID GPM Manufacturer Type GPM Psi  Amps P001 1.58 LMI Mseries - 13 10 120 120 3.05 P002 0.0003351 LMI Mseries - 13 10 120 120 3.05 P003 0.0007881 LMI Mseries - 13 10 120 120 3.05   The motor sized can be applied to both the centrifugal and metering pumps since the flowrates of the pumps are quite similar: Manufacturer: Compton Greaves – Htmotor Supply Voltage: up to 6600 V Ouput: 100 – 1250 kW IEC Frame Size:  315 – 450 Supply Frequency: 50 & 60 Hz Number of poles: 4 Type: Squirrel Cage Mounting: Horizontal Foot Mounted B I OD I E S E L  ~IN MOTION  FINAL REPORT  88 Appendix D.4: Piping Data and Specifications  PVC (Poly Vinyl Chloride) 1120, Type I  Density: 1.039 g/m3 Temperature Limits: -18 to 60 C Pressure Limits (1" ID): 30.6 atm @ 23 C, 6.7 atm @ 60 C for schedule 40  42.8 atm @ 23 C, 9.4 atm @ 60 C for schedule 80 Cost Estimates: ~$0.50 / foot from Fabco for basic 1" inner diameter pipe  $7002 (56% carbon steel) - 2" ID 400 ft complex system installation  $5875 (86% carbon steel) - 2" ID 500 ft straight run installation Suppliers: Fabco Plastics, Surrey, BC (604-882-1564)  Harvel Plastics, Inc  Chemical Corrosion: - Not recommended for high concentrations of sulphuric acid (98% at 50 C) or sodium hydroxide (50%) - Not recommended for sulphur salts - May be damaged by ketones, aromatics, and some chlorinated hydrocarbons  CPVC (Chlorinated PVC) 4120, Type IV, Grade I  Density: 1.52 g/m3 Temperature Limits: -18 to 99 C Pressure Limits (1" ID): 30.6 atm @ 23 C, 6.12 atm @ 60 C for schedule 40  42.8 atm @ 23 C, 8.58 atm @ 60 C for schedule 80 Cost Estimates: ~$1.02 / foot from Fabco for basic 1" inner diameter pipe  $7822 (63% carbon steel) - 2" ID 400 ft complex system installation  $6638 (97% carbon steel) - 2" ID 500 ft straight run installation Suppliers: Fabco Plastics, Surrey, BC (604-882-1564)  Harvel Plastics  Chemical Corrosion: - Not recommended to handle vegetable oils or diesel fuels - May be damaged by ketones, aromatics, and some chlorinated hydrocarbons    B I OD I E S E L  ~IN MOTION  FINAL REPORT  89 Carbon Steel, schedule 40  Density:  7.84 g/m3 Temperature Limits: Not a factor Pressure Limits: Not a factor Cost Estimates: $12480 - 2" ID 400 ft complex system installation  $6853 - 2" ID 500 ft straight run installation Suppliers: Bartle and Gibson Inc, Port Coquitlam, BC (604-941-7318)  Chemical corrosion: - May embrittle when handling alkaline or strong caustic fluids - May be damaged when exposed to high aqueous acid solutions under extreme T-P conditions - May deteriorate when piping material is exposed to hydrogen sulfide   Stainless Steel 304, schedule 10  Density: 8.03 g/m3 Temperature Limits: Not a factor Pressure Limits: Not a factor Cost Estimates: $14140 (113% carbon steel) - 2" ID 400 ft complex system installation  $8153 (119% carbon steel) - 2" ID 500 ft straight run installation  May be up to 1.6 times that of carbon steel Suppliers: Bartle and Gibson Inc, Port Coquitlam, BC (604-941-7318)  Chemical corrosion: - Although it resists all rusting, it will tarnish when it comes into contact with oxidizing acids - Improper selection or application of thermal insulation may result in stress-corrosion cracking when exposed to media such as chlorides and other halides   B I OD I E S E L  ~IN MOTION  FINAL REPORT  90 Table D.4-1. Pipe Material and Size Specifications Stream* Flow Rate Major Components Temp Recommended Rationale   US gal/min vol% C Pipe Material and Size 001 1.58 85% TAG, 10% FFA, 5% Water 65 CS 1" S40 PVC/CPVC not recommended since temp > 60C, organic material 001S N/A 100% Steam/Water ~100 CS 1" S40 CPVC not recommended since temp may be > 100C 002S N/A 100% Steam/Water 50-90 CS 1" S40 CPVC not recommended since temp may be > 100C 002 minute 100% H2SO4 18 CPVC 1/8" to 1" S40 CS not recommended since 100% Acid, SS also appropriate 005 2.26 100% Methanol 18 PVC 1" S40 011 minute 100% NaOH 18 CPVC 1/8" to 1" S40 CS not recommended since 100% Base, SS also appropriate 008 minute 90% Methanol, 10% NaOH 18 CPVC 1/8" to 1" S40 PVC is a little riskier, high concs of acid due to accident a concern 009 0.668 100% Water 18 PVC 1/2" to 1" S40 No problem for all materials 103B 3.786 60% Methanol, 36% TAG 60 SS 1.25" to 1.5" S10 CS may work, but high concs of acid due to accident is a concern 104B 4.977 99.9% Methanol 65 CS 1.5" S40 CPVC possible, but temp may go above 100 C from a distill column 109B 2.027 88% TAG, 11% BioD 202 CS 1" S40 CS ok as long as acid concentration is low 108 0.762 88% TAG, 11% BioD 65 CS 1" S40 203 1.822 69% BioD, 16% MeOH, 10% TAG 60 CS 1" S40 PVC/CPVC not recommended since temp > 60C, organic material 305 0.0433 100% Glycerol 55 CPVC 1/8" to 1" S40 307 1.917 84% BioD, 12% TAG 104 CS 1" S40 318 1.84 87% BioD, 12.8% TAG 330 CS 1" S40 316 0.702 95% Water, 4% Methanol 70 CS 1" S40 CPVC ok as long as long as no biodiesel goes in this pipe 317 minute 99.9% Water 100 CS 1/8" to 1" S40 CPVC not recommended since temp is > 100C 306 0.128 99% Methanol 65 CPVC 1/8" to 1" S40 405 3.598 98% Methanol, 1% Water 65 CPVC 1.25" to 1.5" S40 402 0.371 92.9% Methanol, 6.8% Water 67 CPVC 1/2" to 1" S40 403 1.636 99% Methanol, 1.2% Water 65 CPVC 1" S40 B I OD I E S E L  ~IN MOTION  FINAL REPORT  91 Appendix D.5: Plant Layout  The plant was drawn to scale using AutoCAD. The pipes have been removed from the views of the plant layout for ease in visibility.      Figure D.5-1. Plant contained in a 40 ft. trailer   B I OD I E S E L  ~IN MOTION  FINAL REPORT  92  Figure D.5-2. Isometric view of plant             Figure D.5-3. View of plant from driver's side of truck  B I OD I E S E L  ~IN MOTION  FINAL REPORT  93               Figure D.5-4. View of plant from passenger side of truck        Figure D.5-5. Top view of plant B I OD I E S E L  ~IN MOTION  FINAL REPORT  94 Appendix E: Environmental Assessment Table E-1. Wastewater Composition Component Mass (kg) Mass Fraction Water 3134.8 0.6952 Methanol 1339 0.2969 Sodium Hydroxide 1 0.0002 Sodium Sulfate 9 0.0020 Soap 25.6 0.0057 Total 4509.4 1.00000  Table E.2. Related Sewer Use Bylaw Specifications for Sewer Discharge3  Biodiesel Wastewater For Sewer Discharge Sulfate Concentration (mg/L) 1859 1500 pH 11.9 5.5-10.5 Wt% Methanol 42 no flammables, no odours, no poisons Soap Concentration (mg/L) 7820 no specification BOD (mg/L) unknown 500  3 Greater Vancouver Sewerage and Drainage District: Sewer Use Bylaw No. 164. Bylaw introduced July 31, 1991, and last amended July 28, 2000. http://www.gvrd.bc.ca/sewerage/pdf/SewerUseBylaw164.pdf  B I OD I E S E L  ~IN MOTION  FINAL REPORT  95 Table E.3. HAZOPs for Stream 007 PROJECT NAME: BIODIESEL IN MOTION DATE: FEBRUARY 8, 2005 SECTION: TRANSESTERIFICATION REACTION SECTION 200 REFERENCE DRAWING: P&ID SECTION 200 Stream Process Parameters Deviations  Possible Causes Consequences Action required 007 Flow More Valve failure/fully open Possible upset in downstream Turn off pump P004    Flow control failure Pressure buildup in R201 Install HA    Flow control sensor failure R201 overflow Regular maintenance and calibration    Operator failure High pH in R201 Operator training    Pressure buildup in M001 Longer draining time of R201 Check differential pressure across valve during routine maintenance     Increase solution volume in R201 Fail-closed mechanism     Reverse flow 008, 108, and 007     Reduced stirring rate     Increased reaction rate     Higher solution temperature. R201 temperature too high      Pipe damage Stream Process Parameters Deviations  Possible Causes Consequences Action required 007 Flow Less Valve failure/closed R201 pH not reached Install LA    Flow control failure Reaction rate reduced Regular maintenance    Flow control sensor failure Downstream process backed-up Operator training    Operator failure Tank temperature reduced Inspection prior to startup    Low pressure in M001 MeOH, NaOH spill Ventilation installed    Plugged pipe Health hazard Implementation of absorbing material to avoid leaks to ground B I OD I E S E L  ~IN MOTION  FINAL REPORT  96    Plugged P004 Fire hazard    Pipe breakage Corrosion of exterior surface     Environment contamination Stream Process Parameters Deviations  Possible Causes Consequences Action required 007 Flow No Valve closed R201 pH not reached Install check valve    Flow control failure No reaction Regular maintenance    Flow control sensor failure Downstream process backed-up Operator training    Operator failure Tank temperature reduced    Empty M001 MeOH spill NaOH spill Previous HAZOP address M001    Plugged pipe Health hazard    Plugged P004 Fire hazard  Inspection prior to startup    Pipe breakage Corrosion of surfaces Ventilation and absorbing material installed     No reaction     Pump cavitation     Environment contamination Stream Process Parameters Deviations  Possible Causes Consequences Action required 007 Flow Reverse Pressure buildup in R201 R201 pH not reached Install LA    Plugged pipe Reaction rate reduced Regular maintenance. Inspection prior to startup    Operator failure Downstream process backed-up Operator training    Pump damage Tank temperature reduced Stream Process Parameters Deviations  Possible Causes Consequences Action required 007 Pressure High Valve failure/fully open Possible upset in downstream Same precautions as for 007 flow deviations    Flow control failure Pressure buildup in R201    Flow control sensor Pipe breakage B I OD I E S E L  ~IN MOTION  FINAL REPORT  97 failure    Operator failure Pump damage    Pressure buildup in M001     Plugged pipe Stream Process Parameters Deviations  Possible Causes Consequences Action required 007 Pressure Low Valve failure/fully open Possible upset in downstream Same precautions as for 007 flow deviations    Operator failure MeOH may partial vaporized    Leak in pipe Pipe breakage    Plugged pipe Pump cavitation    Pumps fails Stream Process Parameters Deviations  Possible Causes Consequences Action required 007 Temperature High Excessive heating Increase pressure Install HA + thermo couples    Weather Pipe melt Ventilation installed    Operator failure MeOH boil Operator training    Temperature control failure in H004 Pump damage Regular maintenance    Temperature sensor failure in H004 Viscosity decrease Install throttle    Valve V014 fails and open Higher temperature in R201 Stream Process Parameters Deviations  Possible Causes Consequences Action required 007 Temperature Low Not sufficient heating Reduced pressure Install LA + thermo couples installed    Weather  Regular maintenance    Operator failure  Operator training    Temperature control failure in H004     Temperature sensor Viscosity increase B I OD I E S E L  ~IN MOTION  FINAL REPORT  98 failure in H004    Valve V014 fails and close Reduced temperature in R201 Stream Process Parameters Deviations  Possible Causes Consequences Action required 007 Concentration More base   Not applicable (operation at maximum solubility) Stream Process Parameters Deviations  Possible Causes Consequences Action required 007 Concentration Less base No supply of base to M001 See less NaOH concentration R201 Maintain adequate supply      Operator training Stream Process Parameters Deviations  Possible Causes Consequences Action required 007 Concentration No base No supply of base to M001 See no NaOH concentration R201 Maintain adequate supply      Operator training Stream Process Parameters Deviations  Possible Causes Consequences Action required 007 Concentration Additional component Additional component(s) supplied in M001 See R201 See M001    Operator failure  Operator training   B I OD I E S E L  ~IN MOTION  FINAL REPORT  99 Table E.4. HAZOPs for Stream 008 PROJECT NAME: BIODIESEL IN MOTION DATE: FEBRUARY 8, 2005 SECTION: TRANSESTERIFICATION REACTION SECTION 200 REFERENCE DRAWING: P&ID SECTION 200 Stream Process Parameters Deviations  Possible Causes Consequences Action required 008 Flow More Valve failure/fully open Possible upset in downstream Turn off pump P003    Flow control failure Pressure buildup in R201 Install HA Fail-closed mechanism    Flow control sensor failure R201 overflow Regular maintenance and calibration.    Operator failure Methanol vaporize Operator training     Longer draining time of R201 Install high flow alarm     Increase solution volume in R201 Check differential pressure across valve during routine maintenance     Reverse flow 008, 108, and 007     Reduced stirring rate     Increased reaction rate     Higher solution temperature. R201 temperature too high      Pipe damage Stream Process Parameters Deviations  Possible Causes Consequences Action required 008 Flow Less Valve failure/closed Reaction rate reduced Install LA    Flow control failure Downstream process backup Regular maintenance    Flow control sensor failure Tank temperature reduced Operator training    Operator failure MeOH spill Inspection prior to startup    Plugged pipe Health hazard Ventilation installed    Plugged P003 Fire hazard  Implementation of absorbing material to avoid leaks to ground B I OD I E S E L  ~IN MOTION  FINAL REPORT  100    Pipe breakage Methanol vaporize Stream Process Parameters Deviations  Possible Causes Consequences Action required 008 Flow No Valve closed No reaction/little reaction Install check valve    Flow control failure  Regular maintenance    Flow control sensor failure Downstream process backup Operator training    Operator failure Tank temperature reduced    Empty T004/T003 MeOH spill/Vaporize Refer to Hazop for T003/T004    Plugged pipe Health hazard Inspection prior to startup    Plugged P003 Fire hazard  Ventilation and absorbing material installed    Pipe breakage Explosion    Pump failure Cavitation   Stream Process Parameters Deviations  Possible Causes Consequences Action required 008 Flow Reverse Pressure buildup in R201 Reaction rate reduced Install LA    Plugged pipe Downstream process backup Regular maintenance and inspection prior to startup    Pump damage Tank temperature reduced Operator training    Operator failure Stream Process Parameters Deviations  Possible Causes Consequences Action required 008 Pressure High Valve failure/fully open Possible upset in downstream Same precautions as for 008 flow deviations    Flow control failure Pressure buildup in R201    Flow control sensor failure Pipe breakage    Operator failure Pump damage    Pressure buildup in T003 B I OD I E S E L  ~IN MOTION  FINAL REPORT  101    Plugged pipe Stream Process Parameters Deviations  Possible Causes Consequences Action required 008 Pressure Low Valve failure/fully open Possible upset in downstream Same precautions as for 008 flow deviations    Operator failure MeOH may be partially vaporized    Leak in pipe Pipe breakage    Plugged pipe Pump cavitation    Pumps fails Stream Process Parameters Deviations  Possible Causes Consequences Action required 008 Temperature High Excessive heating Increase pressure Install HA + thermo couples    Weather Pipe melt Ventilation installed    Operator failure MeOH vaporize Operator training    Temperature control failure in H003 Pump damage Regular maintenance    Temperature sensor failure in H003 Viscosity decrease Install throttle    Valve V013 fails and open Higher temperature in R201 Stream Process Parameters Deviations  Possible Causes Consequences Action required 008 Temperature Low Not sufficient heating Reduced pressure Install LA + thermo couples installed. Install throttle control?    Weather Viscosity increase Regular maintenance    Operator failure Reduced temperature in R201 Operator training    Temperature control failure in H003 Reaction rate decreased    Temperature sensor failure in H003     Valve V013 fails and close   B I OD I E S E L  ~IN MOTION  FINAL REPORT  102 Table E.5. HAZOPs for Stream 108 PROJECT NAME: BIODIESEL IN MOTION DATE: FEBRUARY 8, 2005 SECTION: TRANSESTERIFICATION REACTION SECTION 200 REFERENCE DRAWING: P&ID SECTION 200 Stream Process Parameters Deviations  Possible Causes Consequences Action required Turn off pump Install high flow alarm 108 Flow More V113 failure/fully open Possible upset in downstream Check differential pressure across valve during routine maintenance Install HA    Flow control failure Pressure buildup in R201 Fail-closed mechanism    Flow control sensor failure R201 overflow Regular maintenance/ calibration    Operator failure Longer draining time of R201 Operator training     Increase solution volume in R201     Reverse flow 008, 108, and 007     Reduced stirring rate     Increased reaction rate     Higher solution temperature. R201 temperature too high.      Pipe damage     Increase in mass of unreacted treated WVO  Stream Process Parameters Deviations  Possible Causes Consequences Action required 108 Flow Less V113 failure/closed Reaction rate reduced Install LA    Flow control failure Downstream process backup Regular maintenance    Flow control sensor failure Tank temperature reduced Operator training    Operator failure Inspection prior to startup B I OD I E S E L  ~IN MOTION  FINAL REPORT  103     Plugged pipe  Ventilation installed    Plugged P003  Collection system    Pipe breakage   Stream Process Parameters Deviations  Possible Causes Consequences Action required 108 Flow No V113 closed No reaction Install check valve    Flow control failure Downstream process backup Regular maintenance    Flow control sensor failure Tank temperature reduced Operator training    Operator failure Pump cavitation Inspection prior to startup    Empty T101  Refer to previous HAZOP for T101    Plugged pipe  Ventilation    Pipe breakage  Stream Process Parameters Deviations  Possible Causes Consequences Action required 108 Flow Reverse Pressure buildup in R201 Reaction rate reduced Install LA    Plugged pipe Downstream process backup Regular maintenance and inspection prior to startup    Pump damage Tank temperature reduced Operator training    Operator failure Stream Process Parameters Deviations  Possible Causes Consequences Action required 108 Pressure High V113 failure/fully open Possible upset in downstream Same precautions as for 108 flow deviations    Flow control failure Pressure buildup in R201    Flow control sensor failure Pipe breakage B I OD I E S E L  ~IN MOTION  FINAL REPORT  104    Operator failure Pump damage    Pressure buildup in T101    Plugged pipe Stream Process Parameters Deviations  Possible Causes Consequences Action required 108 Pressure Low V113 failure/fully open Possible upset in downstream Same precautions as for 108 flow deviations    Operator failure Pipe breakage    Leak in pipe Pump cavitation    Plugged pipe    Pumps fails Stream Process Parameters Deviations  Possible Causes Consequences Action required 108 Temperature High Excessive heating in T101 Increase pressure Install HA + thermo couples and install throttle    Weather Pipe melt Ventilation installed    Operator failure Pump damage Operator training     Viscosity decrease Regular maintenance     Higher temperature in R201  Stream Process Parameters Deviations  Possible Causes Consequences Action required 108 Temperature Low Not sufficient heating in T101 Reduced pressure Install LA + thermo couples installed. Install throttle control?    Weather Viscosity increase Regular maintenance    Operator failure Reduced temperature in R201 Operator training     Reaction rate decreased     B I OD I E S E L  ~IN MOTION  FINAL REPORT  105 Table E.6. HAZOPs for Stream 201 PROJECT NAME: BIODIESEL IN MOTION DATE: FEBRUARY 8, 2005 SECTION: TRANSESTERIFICATION REACTION SECTION 200 REFERENCE DRAWING: P&ID SECTION 200 Stream Process Parameters Deviations  Possible Causes Consequences Action required 201 Flow More Valve failure/fully open T201 overflow Check differential pressure across valve during routine maintenance    Flow control failure Pipe damage Regular maintenance/ calibration.    Flow control sensor failure  Operator training    Operator failure    Pressure buildup in R201  Stream Process Parameters Deviations  Possible Causes Consequences Action required 201 Flow Less Valve failure/closed Downstream process backup Install LA    Operator failure MeOH/biodiesel/glycerol leak Regular maintenance    Low pressure in R201  Operator training    Plugged pipe P201 cavitation    Pipe breakage MeOH/biodiesel/glycerol leak Inspection prior to startup     Health hazard Ventilation installed and implementation of absorbing material     Fire hazard     Corrosion of exterior environment     Exterior ground contamination Stream Process Parameters Deviations  Possible Causes Consequences Action required 201 Flow No Valve closed R201 pH not reached Install check valve    Operator failure Downstream process backup Regular maintenance B I OD I E S E L  ~IN MOTION  FINAL REPORT  106    Empty R201 MeOH/biodiesel/glycerol leak Operator training    Plugged pipe Health hazard Inspection prior to startup    Pipe breakage Fire hazard  Ventilation and absorbing material installed     Corrosion of exterior environment     Exterior ground contamination     P201 cavitation Stream Process Parameters Deviations  Possible Causes Consequences Action required 201 Flow Reverse Pressure buildup in T201 Downstream process backup Install LA    Plugged pipe R201 overflow Regular maintenance and inspection prior to startup    Operator failure  Operator training    Pump P201 damage Stream Process Parameters Deviations  Possible Causes Consequences Action required 201 Pressure High Valve failure/fully open Possible upset in downstream Same precautions as for 201 high flow    Operator failure T201 overflow    Pressure buildup in R201 Pipe breakage    Plugged pipe Pump damage   Stream Process Parameters Deviations  Possible Causes Consequences Action required 201 Pressure Low Valve failure/fully open Possible upset in downstream Same precautions as for 201 less flow    Operator failure MeOH may partially vaporize    Leak in pipe Pipe breakage    Plugged pipe Pump cavitation     MeOH/biodiesel/glycerol spill B I OD I E S E L  ~IN MOTION  FINAL REPORT  107     Health hazard     Fire hazard     Corrosion of exterior environment Stream Process Parameters Deviations  Possible Causes  Consequences Action required 201 Temperature High See HAZOPS for R201 P201 Cavitation See HAZOPS for R201    Weather Pipe melt Ventilation installed    Operator failure MeOH vapour  Operator training     Pump damage/cavitation Regular maintenance Stream Process Parameters Deviations  Possible Causes Consequences Action required 201 Temperature Low See HAZOPS for R201 Reduced pressure Install LA + thermo couples installed. Install throttle control?    Weather Viscosity increase Regular maintenance    Operator failure Pump damage (reduced efficiency) Operator training     Pipe blockage     Downstream process blockage    B I OD I E S E L  ~IN MOTION  FINAL REPORT  108 Table E.7. HAZOPs for Stream 201S PROJECT NAME: BIODIESEL IN MOTION DATE: FEBRUARY 8, 2005 SECTION: TRANSESTERIFICATION REACTION SECTION 200 REFERENCE DRAWING: P&ID SECTION 200 Stream Process Parameters Deviations  Possible Causes Consequences Action required 201S Flow More V206 fails and open Higher solution temperature Install HA R201 temperature too high Explosion See HAZOP for high temperature of R201 Stream Process Parameters Deviations  Possible Causes Consequences Action required 201S Flow Less V206 fails and close Overnight product compromised (only during cold weather) Install HA but no critical precautions necessary    Insufficient supply of steam from boiler Reduced reaction rate Stream Process Parameters Deviations  Possible Causes Consequences Action required 201S Temperature High Boiler malfunction See high temperature for R201 See HAZOP for high temperature of R201 Stream Process Parameters Deviations  Possible Causes Consequences Action required 201S Temperature Low Boiler malfunction See high temperature for R201 See HAZOP for low temperature of R201    Insufficient pipe insulation     B I OD I E S E L  ~IN MOTION  FINAL REPORT  109 Table E.8. HAZOPs for Stream 201WC PROJECT NAME: BIODIESEL IN MOTION DATE: FEBRUARY 8, 2005 SECTION: TRANSESTERIFICATION REACTION SECTION 200 REFERENCE DRAWING: P&ID SECTION 200 Stream Process Parameters Deviations  Possible Causes Consequences Action required Install HA 201WC Flow More V206 fails and open Low reaction temperature (See low temperature for R201) See HAZOP for low temperature of R201 Stream Process Parameters Deviations  Possible Causes Consequences Action required 201WC Flow Low V207 fails and close See high temperature of R201 See HAZOP for high temperature of R201    Pipe clogged    Filter clogged Stream Process Parameters Deviations  Possible Causes Consequences Action required Weather 201WC Temperature High Poor insulation See high temperature for R201 See HAZOP for high temperature of R201   B I OD I E S E L  ~IN MOTION  FINAL REPORT  110 Table E.9. HAZOPs for Stream 201WH PROJECT NAME: BIODIESEL IN MOTION DATE: FEBRUARY 8, 2005 SECTION: TRANSESTERIFICATION REACTION SECTION 200 REFERENCE DRAWING: P&ID SECTION 200 Stream Process Parameters Deviations  Possible Causes Consequences Action required Install HA Alarm 201WH Flow More V206 fails and open High reaction temperature (See High temperature for R201) See HAZOP for High temperature of R201 Stream Process Parameters Deviations  Possible Causes Consequences Action required 201WH Flow Low V206 fails and close See Low temperature of R201 See HAZOP for Low temperature of R201    Plug in the pipe    Filter clogged Stream Process Parameters Deviations  Possible Causes Consequences Action required 201WH Temperature Low Weather See Low temperature for R201 See HAZOP for low temperature of R201   B I OD I E S E L  ~IN MOTION  FINAL REPORT  111 Table E.10. HAZOPs for Stream 202 PROJECT NAME: BIODIESEL IN MOTION DATE: FEBRUARY 8, 2005 SECTION: TRANSESTERIFICATION REACTION SECTION 200 REFERENCE DRAWING: P&ID SECTION 200 Stream Process Parameters Deviations  Possible Causes Consequences Action required 202 Flow More Valve failure/fully open Possible upset in downstream Check differential pressure across valve during routine maintenance    Flow control failure Pipe damage Regular maintenance/ calibration.    Flow control sensor failure  Operator training    Operator failure  Install HA    Pressure buildup in T201 Stream Process Parameters Deviations  Possible Causes Consequences Action required 202 Flow Less Valve failure/closed Downstream process backup Install LA.    Flow control failure Pump damage/cavitation Regular maintenance.    Flow control sensor failure MeOH/biodiesel/glycerol spill Operator training.    Operator failure Health hazard Inspection prior to startup    Low pressure in T201 Fire hazard  Ventilation installed. Implementation of absorbing material to avoid leaks to ground.    Plugged pipe Corrosion of exterior environment.    Plugged P004 Exterior ground contamination    Pipe breakage  Stream Process Parameters Deviations  Possible Causes Consequences Action required 202 Flow No Valve closed Downstream process backup Regular maintenance    Flow control failure Pump damage/cavitation Operator training B I OD I E S E L  ~IN MOTION  FINAL REPORT  112    Flow control sensor failure MeOH/biodiesel/glycerol spill Inspection prior to startup    Operator failure Health hazard Ventilation and absorbing material installed    T201 empty Fire hazard    Plugged pipe Corrosion of exterior environment    Plugged P004 Exterior ground contamination    Pipe breakage Stream Process Parameters Deviations  Possible Causes Consequences Action required 202 Flow Reverse Pressure buildup in T201 Downstream process backup Install LA    Plugged pipe T201 overflow Regular maintenance. Inspection prior to startup    Operator failure  Operator training    Pump damage Stream Process Parameters Deviations  Possible Causes Consequences Action required 202 Pressure High Valve failure/fully open Possible upset in downstream Same precautions as for 202 flow deviation    Flow control failure Pipe breakage    Flow control sensor failure Pump damage    Operator failure MeOH/biodiesel/glycerol spill    Pressure buildup in T201 Health hazard    Plugged pipe Fire hazard     Corrosion of exterior environment. Stream Process Parameters Deviations  Possible Causes Consequences Action required 202 Pressure Low Valve failure/fully open Possible upset in downstream Same precautions as for 202 flow deviation    Operator failure MeOH may partial vaporized    Leak in pipe Pipe damage    Plugged pipe Pump cavitation    Pumps fails MeOH/biodiesel/glycerol spill B I OD I E S E L  ~IN MOTION  FINAL REPORT  113     Health hazard     Fire hazard     Corrosion of exterior environment Stream Process Parameters Deviations  Possible Causes Consequences Action required 202 Temperature High See HAZOPS for T201 Increase pressure Install HA + thermocouples. Install throttle    Weather Pipe melt Ventilation installed    Operator failure MeOH vaporize  Operator training     Pump cavitation Regular maintenance      Ensure Proper MOC of pipe Stream Process Parameters Deviations  Possible Causes Consequences Action required 202 Temperature Low See HAZOPS for T201 Reduced pressure Install LA + thermocouples installed. Install throttle control    Weather Viscosity increase Regular maintenance    Operator failure Pump damage (reduced efficiency) Operator training     Pipe blockage     Downstream process blockage    B I OD I E S E L  ~IN MOTION  FINAL REPORT  114 Table E.11. HAZOPs for Stream 202S PROJECT NAME: BIODIESEL IN MOTION DATE: FEBRUARY 8, 2005 SECTION: TRANSESTERIFICATION REACTION SECTION 200 REFERENCE DRAWING: P&ID SECTION 200 Stream Process Parameters Deviations  Possible Causes Consequences Action required 202S Flow More V210 fails and open Higher solution temperature. T201 temperature too high Install HA Alarm. See HAZOP for high temperature of R201     Explosion Stream Process Parameters Deviations  Possible Causes Consequences Action required 202S Flow Less V210 fails and close Overnight product compromised (only during cold weather) Install HA Alarm. No critical precautions necessary.    Insufficient supply of steam from boiler Stored product has no further reaction Stream Process Parameters Deviations  Possible Causes Consequences Action required 202S Temperature High Boiler malfunction Explosion See HAZOP for high temperature of R201     MeOH Vaporization     Viscosity Decrease Stream Process Parameters Deviations  Possible Causes Consequences Action required 202S Temperature Low Boiler malfunction Viscosity Increase  N/A    Insufficient pipe insulation    B I OD I E S E L  ~IN MOTION  FINAL REPORT  115 Table E.12. HAZOPs for Stream 203 PROJECT NAME: BIODIESEL IN MOTION DATE: FEBRUARY 18, 2005 SECTION: TRANSESTERIFICATION REACTION SECTION 200 REFERENCE DRAWING: P&ID SECTION 200 Stream Process Parameters Deviations  Possible Causes Consequences Action required 203 Flow More Valve V202 or V203 failure Overflow to T201 Turn off pump P201    Flow transmitter FT2105 or FT2107 failure Overflow to hydrocyclones HC301 and HC302, causing incomplete separation of glycerol. Close valve V202 and V203    Flow controller FC2105 or FC2107 failure Backflow to R201 and/or T201 Install high flow alarm (HA)    Pressure buildup in R201 or T201 Damage / bursting of pipe and/or fittings Regular maintenance/calibration    Operator failure Stream Process Parameters Deviations  Possible Causes Consequences Action required 203 Flow Less Valve V202 or V203 failure Pump damage Install LA    Flow transmitter FT2105 or FT2107 failure Loss of product, insufficient flow to hydrocyclone reducing efficiency Operator Training, emergency procedures    Flow controller FC2105 or FC2107 failure Fire hazard Regular maintenance of valves, pump, piping and fittings    Pipe streams 201, 202, or 203 plugged, leaking, or broken Health hazard Spill kits, spill equipment    Pump P201 failure, not calibrated Corrosion of exterior environment Stream Process Parameters Deviations  Possible Causes Consequences Action required 203 Flow  No Valve V202 and V203 closed Pump P201 damage Install LLA    Plugged or leaking pipe Downstream process backup Regular maintenance B I OD I E S E L  ~IN MOTION  FINAL REPORT  116    Operator failure Hydrocyclone H301 damage Operator Training    Damaged pump P201 No product Temporary pipe sealing material Stream Process Parameters Deviations  Possible Causes Consequences Action required 203 Flow Reverse Pressure buildup in T201 or HC301 Pressure buildup in R201, T201 Install LA    Plugged pipe Downstream process backup Regular maintenance    Operator failure Overflow in T201 Operator training    Pump damaged Hydrocyclone H301 damage Stream Process Parameters Deviations  Possible Causes Consequences Action required 203 Pressure High Valve V204 and V205 fail closed Possible upset in hydrocyclones / downstream process Same precautions as flow deviation 203    Valve V202 or V203 fail and open Increased pressure to in H301    Flow control failure Pump damage    Flow control sensor failure Pipe / fitting breakage    Pressure buildup in T201    Plugged pipe Stream Process Parameters Deviations  Possible Causes Consequences Action required 203 Pressure Low Valve V203 fails and opens Downstream process upset Same precautions as low flow deviation 203    Operator failure  Pump P201 cavitation    Leak in pipe    Plugged pipe    Pump fails Stream Process Parameters Deviations  Possible Causes Consequences Action required 203 Temperature High Excessive heating in R201 and/or T201 Increase pressure See HAZOP for low temperature of R201 B I OD I E S E L  ~IN MOTION  FINAL REPORT  117    Weather Viscosity decrease    Operator Failure Higher temperature to HC301, causing change in separation efficiency     Temperature control/sensor failure in R201 and/or T201 Piping / fitting melt    Valve V206 fails and open Pump damage Stream Process Parameters Deviations  Possible Causes Consequences Action required 203 Temperature  Low Insufficient heating in R201 and/or T201 Reduced pressure Install LA and Thermocouples. Install throttle control    Weather Viscosity increase Regular maintenance    Operator failure Reduced temperature in T201 Operator training    Temperature control/sensor failure in R201 and/or T201     Valves V206 fails and close     B I OD I E S E L  ~IN MOTION  FINAL REPORT  118 Table E.13. HAZOPs for Stream 204 PROJECT NAME: BIODIESEL IN MOTION DATE: FEBRUARY 18, 2005 SECTION: TRANSESTERIFICATION REACTION SECTION 200 REFERENCE DRAWING: P&ID SECTION 200 Stream Process Parameters Deviations  Possible Causes Consequences Action required 204 Flow More V202/V204 fail and open Overflow to HC301 Turn off pump P201    Flow control fail Back flow to R201 Install HA, alarm should recognize desired flow at time of operation    Flow control sensor failure Increased volume to HC301 Regular maintenance/calibration    Pressure buildup in T201 Pipe damage Stream Process Parameters Deviations  Possible Causes Consequences Action required 204 Flow Less V204 fails and partially closed Pump damage Install LA, alarm should recognize desired flow at time of operation    Leak in pipe 204 Loss of product, insufficient flow to hydrocyclone reducing efficiency. Operator Training    Flow control sensor failure Fire hazard Regular maintenance    Low pressure in T201 Health hazard Pipe sealing equipment    Plugged pipe Corrosion of exterior environment    Leaking pipe Exterior ground contamination Stream Process Parameters Deviations  Possible Causes Consequences Action required 204 Flow  No V204  closed  Pump P201 damage Install LLA, alarm should recognize desired flow at time of operation    Plugged/leaking pipe Downstream process backup Regular maintenance    Operator failure HC301 efficiency affected Operator Training    Damaged pump P201  Pipe sealing equipment B I OD I E S E L  ~IN MOTION  FINAL REPORT  119 Stream Process Parameters Deviations  Possible Causes Consequences Action required 204 Flow Reverse Pressure buildup in P201 Pressure buildup in T201 Install LA, alarm should recognize desired flow at time of operation    Plugged pipe Downstream process backup Regular maintenance    Operator failure Overflow in T201 Operator training    Pump damaged Stream Process Parameters Deviations  Possible Causes Consequences Action required 204 Pressure High Flow control failure Possible upset in downstream process Same precautions as flow deviation 204    Flow control sensor failure Increased pressure to in HC301    Pressure buildup in T201 Pump damage    Plugged pipe Pipe breakage  Stream Process Parameters Deviations  Possible Causes Consequences Action required 204 Pressure Low Valve V203 failed and open Downstream process upset Same precautions as flow deviation 204    Operator failure  Pump P201 cavitation    Leak in pipe    Plugged pipe    Pump fails Stream Process Parameters Deviations  Possible Causes Consequences Action required 204 Temperature High Excessive heating in T201 Increase pressure See HAZOP for low temperature of R201    Weather Viscosity decrease Check MOC of pipe    Operator Failure Higher temperature to H301    Temperature control failure in T201 Pipe melt B I OD I E S E L  ~IN MOTION  FINAL REPORT  120    V206 fails and open Stream Process Parameters Deviations  Possible Causes Consequences Action required 204 Temperature  Low Insufficient heating in T201 Reduced pressure Install LA and Thermo couples. Install throttle control.    Weather  Regular maintenance    Operator failure  Operator training    Temperature control failure in T201     Temperature sensor failure T201 Viscosity increase    V206 fails and close Reduced temperature in T201   B I OD I E S E L  ~IN MOTION  FINAL REPORT  121 Table E.14. HAZOPs for Stream 205 PROJECT NAME: BIODIESEL IN MOTION DATE: FEBRUARY 8, 2005 SECTION: TRANSESTERIFICATION REACTION SECTION 200 REFERENCE DRAWING: P&ID SECTION 200 Stream Process Parameters Deviations  Possible Causes Consequences Action required 205 Flow More V203 fails and open Overflow to H301 Turn off pump P201    Flow control fail Back flow to R201 Install high flow alarm (HA)    Flow control sensor failure Increased volume to H301 Regular maintenance/calibration    Pressure buildup in T201 Pipe damage Stream Process Parameters Deviations  Possible Causes Consequences Action required 205 Flow Less V203 fails and close  Pump damage Install LA    V204 fails and open    Leak in pipe 205 Loss of product, insufficient flow to hydrocyclone reducing efficiency. Operator Training    Flow control sensor failure Fire hazard Regular maintenance    Low pressure in T201 Health hazard    Plugged pipe Corrosion of exterior environment    Pipe breakage Exterior ground contamination Stream Process Parameters Deviations  Possible Causes Consequences Action required 205 Flow  No Valve closed Pump P201 damage Install LLA    Plugged pipe Downstream process backup Regular maintenance    Operator failure Hydrocyclone H301 efficiency affected Operator Training    Damaged pump P201 Stream Process Parameters Deviations  Possible Causes Consequences Action required 205 Flow Reverse Pressure buildup in P201 Pressure buildup in T201 Install LA B I OD I E S E L  ~IN MOTION  FINAL REPORT  122    Plugged pipe Downstream process backup Regular maintenance    Operator failure Overflow in T201 Operator training    Pump damaged Stream Process Parameters Deviations  Possible Causes Consequences Action required 205 Pressure High  V204 fails and open Possible upset in downstream process Same precautions as high flow 205    Flow control failure Increased pressure to in HC301    Flow control sensor failure Pump damage    Pressure buildup in T201 Pipe breakage    Plugged pipe Stream Process Parameters Deviations  Possible Causes Consequences Action required 205 Pressure Low V204 failed and open Downstream process upset Same precautions as low flow 205    Operator failure  Pump P201 cavitation    Leak in pipe    Plugged pipe    Pump fails Stream Process Parameters Deviations  Possible Causes Consequences Action required 205 Temperature High Excessive heating in T201 Increase pressure See HAZOP for low temperature of R201    Weather Viscosity decrease    Operator Failure Higher temperature to HC301    Temperature control failure in T201      V210 fails and open Stream Process Parameters Deviations  Possible Causes Consequences Action required 205 Temperature  Low Insufficient heating in T201 Reduced pressure Install LA and thermocouples. Install throttle control. B I OD I E S E L  ~IN MOTION  FINAL REPORT  123    Weather Viscosity increase Regular maintenance    Operator failure Reduced temperature in T201 Operator training    Temperature control failure in T201     Temperature sensor failure T201     V210 fails and close    B I OD I E S E L  ~IN MOTION  FINAL REPORT  124 Table E.15. HAZOPs for Reactor 201 PROJECT NAME: BIODIESEL IN MOTION DATE: FEBRUARY 8, 2005 SECTION: TRANSESTERIFICATION REACTION SECTION 200 REFERENCE DRAWING: P&ID SECTION 200 Unit Process Parameters Deviations  Possible Causes Consequences Action required R201 Pressure High Malfunctioning of relief valve V202 Explosion Install HHA    High flow 007, 008, 108 MeOH boils See precautions for more flow of 007, 008, 108     Reaction rate decrease or increase Install pressure sensor     Level increase Unit Process Parameters Deviations  Possible Causes Consequences Action required R201 Pressure Low/None Malfunctioning of air intake valve Vacuum and consequently no downstream Install LA     MeOH vaporization Regular maintenance Unit Process Parameters Deviations  Possible Causes Consequences Action required R201 Temperature High Weather Explosion Install HA    V207 malfunctioning Reaction rate changes Regular maintenance    Temperature of 007, 008, 108 above design specifications MeOH vaporizes See HAZOP of high temperature of 007, 008, 108    V206 malfunction fail and open Viscosity increase Operator training    Cooling water in 201WC is too warm  See HAZOP for high temperature 201WC    Flow of 201WC too low  See HAZOP of low flow 007, 008, 108 Unit Process Parameters Deviations  Possible Causes Consequences Action required R201 Volumetric Level High Controller failure Overflow Install HA B I OD I E S E L  ~IN MOTION  FINAL REPORT  125    More flow of 007, 008, 108 Higher pressure Regular maintenance    V202 fails and close Higher temperature See HAZOP for high flow of 007, 008, and 108    Jacket and reactor vessels corrode Reaction rate changes Operator training     Contamination Unit Process Parameters Deviations  Possible Causes Consequences Action required R201 Concentration Low MeOH Low flow of 008 Reduced degree of conversion See HAZOP for low flow for 008    V017 fail and close Reduced reaction rate    Reduced purity of distillation product of D401  See HAZOP for D401 Unit Process Parameters Deviations  Possible Causes Consequences Action required R201 Concentration Low WVO Low flow of 108 Reduced degree of conversion See HAZOP for low flow for 108    WVO Sources not consistent Reduced reaction rate Unit Process Parameters Deviations  Possible Causes Consequences Action required R201 Concentration Low NaOH Low flow of 007 Reduced reaction rate See HAZOP for low flow for 007    Mixer M001 failure    Degraded/impure NaOH  Operator to ensure it is fresh. NaOH solution must be prepared ASAP    Operator error  Operator training Unit Process Parameters Deviations  Possible Causes Consequences Action required R201 Concentration High WVO High flow of 108 Reduced degree of conversion See HAZOP for high flow for 108    WVO Sources not consistent Reduced reaction rate B I OD I E S E L  ~IN MOTION  FINAL REPORT  126 Unit Process Parameters Deviations  Possible Causes Consequences Action required R201 Reaction Incomplete V202 fails and open  Lower degree of conversion Preventative    Impeller malfunctioning Downstream processes contaminated  Emergency storage tank      Operator to ensure it is fresh. NaOH solution must be prepared ASAP      Operator training   B I OD I E S E L  ~IN MOTION  FINAL REPORT  127 Table E.16. HAZOPs for Storage Tank 201 PROJECT NAME: BIODIESEL IN MOTION DATE: FEBRUARY 8, 2005 SECTION: TRANSESTERIFICATION REACTION SECTION 200 REFERENCE DRAWING: P&ID SECTION 200 Unit Process Parameters Deviations  Possible Causes Consequences Action required T201 Pressure High Malfunctioning of relief valve V211 Overflow Install HA    High flow 204  See HAZOP for more flow of 204      Install pressure sensor Unit Process Parameters Deviations  Possible Causes Consequences Action required T201 Pressure Low/None Malfunctioning of air intake valve Vacuum and consequently no downstream. Install LA     MeOH vaporization Regular maintenance Unit Process Parameters Deviations  Possible Causes Consequences Action required T201 Temperature High Weather Explosion Install HA    V210 malfunctioning Viscosity increase Regular maintenance    Temperature of 204 above design specifications MeOH vaporizes See HAZOP of high temperature of 204 Operator training Unit Process Parameters Deviations  Possible Causes Consequences Action required T201 Volumetric Level High Controller failure Overflow Install HA    More flow of 204 Higher pressure Regular maintenance    V203 fails and close Higher temperature See HAZOP for high flow of 204      Ventilation and collection system installed B I OD I E S E L  ~IN MOTION  FINAL REPORT  128 Appendix F: Economic Analysis Table F-1. Hydrocyclone Capital Cost Equipment Type Equipment ID Flow Rate (USGPM) Capital Cost ($) Installation Cost ($) Hydrocyclone HC 301 8 $1,240.00 $434.00 Hydrocyclone HC 302 8 $1,240.00 $434.00     Totals $2,480.00 $868.00 Table F-2. Tank Capital Cost Equipment Type Equipment ID Volume (m3) Capital Cost ($) Installation Cost ($) TANKS T001 5.12 $2,515.12 $880.29 TANKS T002 0.004 $29.13 $10.20 TANKS T003 5.21 $2,546.87 $891.41 TANKS T101 0.49 $928.66 $325.03 TANKS T201 0.27 $604.64 $211.62 TANKS T401 1.32 $947.76 $331.72 TANKS T402 4.56 $2,313.87 $809.85 TANKS T403 0.28 $310.34 $108.62 TANKS T404 5.12 $2,515.12 $880.29     Totals $12,711.51 $4,449.03  Table F-3. Heat Exchanger Capital Cost Equipment Type Equipment ID Capital Cost ($) Installation Cost ($) Condensers C101A $8,050.00 $2,817.50 Condensers C301 $8,050.00 $2,817.50 Condensers C302 $8,050.00 $2,817.50 Condensers C401 $8,050.00 $2,817.50 Reboilers H101A $9,300.00 $3,255.00 Reboilers H301 $9,300.00 $3,255.00 Reboilers H302 $9,300.00 $3,255.00 Reboilers H401 $9,300.00 $3,255.00   Totals $69,400.00 $24,290.00  Table F-4. Reactor Capital Cost Equipment Type Equipment ID Volume Capital Cost ($) Installation Cost ($) Closed Vessel Reactor R101 1.23 $5,000.00 $1,750.00 Closed Vessel Reactor R102 1.23 $5,000.00 $1,750.00 Closed Vessel Reactor R103 1.23 $5,000.00 $1,750.00 Closed Vessel Reactor R201 0.32 $2,500.00 $875.00 Closed Vessel Reactor R301 0.30 $2,250.00 $787.50     Totals $19,750.00 $6,912.50  Table F-5. Mixer Capital Cost Equipment Type Equipment ID Volume Capital Cost ($) Installation Cost ($) Mixer  M001 0.06 $2,300.00 $805.00  B I OD I E S E L  ~IN MOTION  FINAL REPORT  129   Table F-6. Pumps Capital Cost Equipment Type Equipment ID Capital Cost ($) Installation Cost ($) Single Stage - Centrifugal Pump  P101 $1,700.00 $340.00 Single Stage - Centrifugal Pump  P103 $1,700.00 $340.00 Single Stage - Centrifugal Pump  P104 $1,700.00 $340.00 Single Stage - Centrifugal Pump  P201 $1,700.00 $340.00 Single Stage - Centrifugal Pump  P401 $1,700.00 $340.00 Single Stage - Centrifugal Pump  P403 $1,700.00 $340.00 LMI - Mseries Metering Pump P001 $2,300.00 $460.00 LMI - Mseries Metering Pump P002 $2,300.00 $460.00 LMI - Mseries Metering Pump P003 $2,300.00 $460.00   Totals $17,100.00 $3,420.00  Table F-7. Distillation and Extraction Column Capital Cost Equipment Type Equipment ID Capital Cost ($) Installation Cost ($) Distillation Column D101 $4,200.00 $1,470.00 Distillation Column D301 $4,200.00 $1,470.00 Distillation Column D302 $4,200.00 $1,470.00 Liq/Liq extraction column E301 $1,400.00 $490.00 Distillation Column D401 $4,200.00 $1,470.00   Totals $18,200.00 $6,370.00  Table F-8. Direct and Indirect Cost Summary DIRECT COST Total Equiptment Capital Cost: $141,941.51 Total Installation Cost $47,114.53 Trailer Cost $25,000.00 Piping Cost $14,194.15 Instrumentation/Electrical Cost $28,388.30 Total Direct Cost $256,638.49 INDIRECT COST: Contingency $12,831.92   Table F-9. Total Capital Investment Summary FIXED CAPITAL INVESTMENT $269,470.41 Working Capital $26,947.04 TOTAL CAPITAL INVESTMENT $296,417.45 Start Up Cost 

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