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Marketing Applications: UBC Sustainability Office Aguilera, Claudia; Chia-Jen Chang, Serena; Yuen Na Ko, Debbie; Lam, Sharon; Lee, Jolie; Zhang, Jenny 2005-04-04

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  Comm 468 – 201 Marketing Applications April 4th, 2005           Final Report: UBC Campus Sustainability Office     Claudia Aguilera Debbie Yuen Na Ko Jenny Zhang Jolie Lee Serena Chia-Jen Chang Sharon Lam   TABLE OF CONTENTS  1.0 BACKGROUND INFORMATION ON CSO ...................................................................................... 1 2.0 OBJECTIVES......................................................................................................................................... 2 3.0 DEFINING THE 4 P’S........................................................................................................................... 3 3.1 PRODUCT (SERVICE)............................................................................................................................. 3 3.2 PRICE.................................................................................................................................................... 3 3.3 PLACE/DISTRIBUTION........................................................................................................................... 3 3.4 PROMOTION/ COMMUNICATION ........................................................................................................... 4 4.0 SWOT ANALYSIS................................................................................................................................. 4 4.1 STRENGTHS .......................................................................................................................................... 5 4.2 WEAKNESSES ....................................................................................................................................... 5 4.3 OPPORTUNITIES .................................................................................................................................... 6 4.4 THREAT ................................................................................................................................................ 6 5.0 COMPETITION..................................................................................................................................... 7 6.0 EXTERNAL ANALYSIS....................................................................................................................... 7 6.1 BARRIERS TO ENTRY............................................................................................................................. 7 6.2 POWER OF SUPPLIERS ........................................................................................................................... 7 6.3 POWER OF PROSPECTS .......................................................................................................................... 8 6.4 RIVALRY .............................................................................................................................................. 8 6.5 SUBSTITUTES........................................................................................................................................ 8 7.0 ACTION PLAN & RECOMMENDATIONS ...................................................................................... 9 7.1 RESEARCHES CONDUCTED ................................................................................................................... 9 7.1.1 Field Research ............................................................................................................................. 9 7.1.2 Websites Analyses: Partners...................................................................................................... 11 7.1.3 Websites Analysis: CSO............................................................................................................. 12 7.2 THE IMPORTANCE OF A UNIQUE AND CONSISTENT VISUAL IDENTITY ................................................ 13 7.2.1 Current Situation & Problem Identification .............................................................................. 13 7.2.2 Solution and Benefits ................................................................................................................. 14 7.2.3 Sustainability, the New Trend .................................................................................................... 15 7.3 STUDENTS SUSTAINABILITY DAY IN 2004.......................................................................................... 15 7.3.1 General Description................................................................................................................... 15 7.3.2 Behind the Scene........................................................................................................................ 16 7.3.3 What Happened.......................................................................................................................... 17 7.3.4 Future Plan ................................................................................................................................17 7.3.5 Acknowledgement Prior to the Event......................................................................................... 17 7.3.6 To Increase Participation .......................................................................................................... 18 7.3.3 Games for the Upcoming 2005 .................................................................................................. 20 7.4 ANALYSIS OF PROMOTION/COMMUNICATION TOOLS ......................................................................... 21 7.4.1 Example of the Most Recent On-Campus Campaign ................................................................. 21 7.4.1 What about CSO? ...................................................................................................................... 22 7.5 PERFORMANCE MEASUREMENTS & ENHANCEMENTS ........................................................................ 23 8.0 RESOURCES AND BUDGET ............................................................................................................ 24 9.0 CONTINGENCY PLAN...................................................................................................................... 25 APPENDIX ................................................................................................................................................. 26  01.0 Background Information on CSO The UBC Campus Sustainability Office (CSO) was established in 1998 after UBC signed the Halifax Declaration and the Talloires Declaration in 1997. Please refer to Exhibit 1 in Appendix for further details of the Halifax Declaration and Talloires Declaration. Both declarations promised to spread the ideas of sustainability around the world. Despite the on-going discussion of the meaning of sustainability, UBC defined it as ‘the synergy between ecological, economic, and societal goals’1 and to meet the needs of both the present and the future.    CSO is guided by the principles represented in the Borromean Rings (as shown in the right), which is also the current logo of CSO. The three rings should always be locked together, and if one of any three rings is removed, the entire structure, i.e. the sustainability concept, falls apart.   CSO has also established various partners on campus and these partners are: SENSE, WasteFree UBC, UBC Waste Management, UBC Trek Program Centre, and Health, Safety and Environment. The partners strive to promote the same goal as CSO—to provide a sustainable future in UBC. Specifically, SENSE (Student Electronic Network for Sustainability Education) is a website that provides an overview of UBC courses and programs as well as their relationship to sustainability. WasteFree UBC encourages students to bring reusable containers (e.g. coffee mug) to UBC food outlets by giving a $0.15 discount to the purchase. UBC Waste Management provides both waste management services and waste reduction education to UBC campus community through the coordination of recycling, composting and litter reduction initiatives. UBC Trek Program Centre is involved with promoting sustainable ways of selecting the transportation options that reduce the air pollution in the long run. Lastly, Health, Safety and Environment is concerned with the integration of a safe, healthy and clean surroundings in UBC.                                                    1 UBC Campus Sustainability Office. What is Sustainability. Retrieved March 10th, 2005, from http://www.sustain.ubc.ca/definition.html  12.0 Objectives  The objective of this marketing plan is to increase the students’ awareness of the CSO, and to encourage them to work together with CSO to achieve a sustainable future in UBC. In other words, higher awareness may contribute to an increase in students’ involvements with CSO and daily sustainability-related activities. Examples of such activities can include reducing unnecessary consumption of resources such as recycling of paper, turning off lights when leaving the classroom, using own mugs or containers instead of plastics or paper plates/cups, etc. The CSO hopes that through the increased awareness, students will be more conscious and more willing to participate in these environmental friendly activities in the long term.  As the general awareness and involvement increases, this will in return lead to higher presence and influence of CSO on campus.   The following aspects will be the focus of this marketing plan with the objective of increasing students’ awareness of CSO:  1) Development of a consistent and unique visual identity.  The association of the visual identity to the organization is vital for a non-profit organization. Furthermore, CSO does not offer any physical product nor can the benefits of its practices be realized in the short term. Thus, it is arguable that an identifiable and unique visual identity is essential to the success of CSO. In addition, having such visual identity will strengthen CSO’s presence as it acts as a consistent symbol in partners’ websites and other locations. 2) Students Sustainability Day is a special event that was hosted in October last year for the first time on campus. The event, which provides opportunities to interact with students in a more prominent manner, serves as a strong marketing tool for promoting the concept of sustainability. 3) Performance Measurement and Communication Tools. Performance measurements and communication tools are developed with the objective of increasing or improving the awareness of CSO.   23.0 Defining the 4 P’s  3.1 Product (Service) “The Campus Sustainability Office is here to promote, coordinate, and implement the most effective sustainability practices possible. By harnessing UBC's immense physical and intellectual resources, they are working to develop positive solutions for today's ecological challenges.”2In order to achieve this vision, CSO offers and coordinates a variety of programs to faculties, campus employees, and students to increase the awareness and participation of the sustainability concept. In other words, CSO does not offer any physical product but instead, the tools to coordinate and to help the university to achieve a sustainable future. Examples of such programs include the SEEDS (Social, Ecological, Economic Development Studies), Sustainable Energy Management Program, Green Buildings, Sustainability Coordinator Program, Sustainability Circles, Paper Reduction, TrekSTEP1, etc.    3.2 Price CSO operates as a non-profit organization and does not offer any physical products; thus, pricing is not applicable under this situation.   3.3 Place/Distribution The main responsibility of the CSO is to promote the notion of sustainability; hence, information is the primary ‘object’ that needs to be distributed. CSO has numerous handouts and program brochures in which it is available to the interested parties. It is therefore implied that the accessibility of the handouts or brochures is often limited to those who actively contact CSO to receive such information. Therefore the distribution system is not reaching its full potential. The budget limitation also contributes to the                                                  2 UBC Campus Sustainability Office. What we are doing. Retrieved March 10th, 2005, from http://www.sustain.ubc.ca/what.html   3number of handouts/brochures available. Furthermore, printing too much paper products does not align with the concept of sustainability. To mitigate such action, CSO utilizes recycled paper in all of its printings in order to minimize the environmental damage. CSO also uses the Internet as one of its channels to extend its reach to students as much as possible. The accessibility of CSO’s online presence is extended when the alliances’ of CSO provide an external link to CSO’s homepage. Lastly, CSO hosted a big event known as Students Sustainability Day last October and aims to make it becoming an annual event.    3.4 Promotion/ Communication  CSO is currently using many methods to promote their programs. For example, the October Students Sustainability Day uses websites, e-mails, posters, articles, word of mouth, and many more. (Details of this event are not provided here but later in the report as it is one of the focuses of this marketing plan). That is, CSO is using all the possible and budget-attainable tools to promote itself and its events. However the key problem with the current promotion tools, as mentioned before, is that it does not have a measurement system to evaluate the effectiveness of this strategy.   4.0 SWOT Analysis SWOT is abbreviation for strength, weakness, opportunity, and threat. It is an important tool that is commonly used to audit overall strategic position of a business and its environment. The role of SWOT analysis is to take the information from the environment and further separate it into internal and external issues.3 The following composes of the SWOT analysis performed for CSO.                                                  3 Tutor2uTM. Strategy-SWOT Analysis. Retrieved March 27th, 2005 from http://www.tutor2u.net/business/strategy/SWOT_analysis.htm  4 4.1 Strengths The CSO continues to introduce the concept of sustainability and easy executing practices which lead people to perceive CSO positively. In fact, the concept and the purpose of maintaining a sustainable environment in consideration of future needs would probably be easily accepted by most people today. Furthermore, by having various partners on campus such as Waste free UBC and UBC Waste Management to help advertise CSO through their external links, visitors are referred to CSO’s homepage. Similarly, the partners also help to increase the awareness of CSO when CSO is included in partners’ advertising prints or sponsorship lists. Additionally, CSO has numerous well-developed programs such as UBC SEEDS, Green Building projects, Sustainability Coordinator Program, etc. Most of these programs involve students and/or staff members acting as advocates for spreading CSO’s mission.   Moreover, CSO receives global recognition by other institutions around the world. UBC is the first and only university in Canada to receive the Green Campus Recognition from the U.S.-based National Wildlife Federation’s Campus Ecology Program. Also, CSO‘s initiatives were highlighted in various media outlets, including television shows, magazines, newspapers, and websites. Please refer to the Exhibit 2 for the list of media.  All of these actions help to promote CSO in the international arena.  4.2 Weaknesses Presently, there are no formal measurements to assess the actual performance of the Office. This is a weakness because without knowing the effectiveness of its strategies, improvements or modifications are hard to implement. In terms of students’ awareness of CSO, the current situation implies low acknowledgement. Additionally, CSO currently does not have a consistent and unique visual identity. Nevertheless, it has started to minimize this particular weakness by starting to label itself consistently as UBC Campus Sustainability Office. The layout of the CSO website is very confusing and navigationally  5unfriendly. This does not allow visitors to fully understand or learn about CSO, thereby, CSO forgoes its chance of maximizing its online presence.   Every year, CSO has an unsteady budget which is dependent on the amount of savings achieved in the previous year. Consequently, this can become a constraint on the sizes, approaches, and number of luncheons of certain campaigns. Conversely, this phenomenon is not unusual in this business and can be viewed as a motivation to better plan a campaign in order to control costs. Lastly, the reliance of volunteers for most of its programs can interfere with the promotional quality and consistency of the message sent out due to high turnover rates as well as lack of control over these volunteers.   4.3 Opportunities There are opportunities that the CSO could pursue as the interest among global general population in environmental-friendly and healthy activities increases in recent years. This will allow CSO to attract attention from people easier since being sustainable and preserving resources are a trend nowadays. Also, as mentioned previously, CSO can utilize its partners’ websites as another channel for promoting itself. The advantage is that the partners are promoting and supporting a similar goal as CSO. Hence, the demographics refereed through partners may be segmented into a higher profile than the general population. Similarly, campus stores such as SPROUTS and Bike-coop which are students-run organizations supporting healthy and environmental-friendly concepts provide additional interactive points where CSO could gain exposure.   4.4 Threat The major threat for CSO is competition for students’ awareness from other UBC organizations and activities. Details of such competition will be discussed further in the following sections.     65.0 Competition In terms of competition for students’ awareness or attention, CSO does not have specific direct or indirect competitors relating to its field; that is, any organization competes with CSO for students’ attention act as obstacles for CSO to achieve its objectives. For example, AMS and various clubs on campus could all be regarded as competitors. This does not restrict to on-campus organizations. Also, issues at home may cluster a students’ mind, therefore, taking up the available ‘space’ for new information. Furthermore, many of these rivals are within the same strategic cluster as CSO; i.e., having similar, if not, the same vision and goals as CSO. On the other hand, these particular competitors (i.e., those in the same strategic cluster) may help to increase the degree of awareness of CSO through their promotions because they serve as free advertisements and exposures for the same concept in which CSO supports — sustainability.   6.0 External Analysis Because the most suitable analytical model for accessing the nature of competition of CSO is Michael Porter’s Five Forces, the external analysis will be analyzed using this particular model. Please refer to Exhibit 3 for detailed explanation of Porter’s Five Forces.   6.1 Barriers to entry Barriers to entry are moderate to high as there is minimal need, if any, for another organization to share such coordination as CSO does. Moreover, there are already other similar organizations such as WasteFree UBC, UBC Waste Management, and etc. which are working toward similar goals.    6.2 Power of Suppliers The power of suppliers is low since CSO, beside its partners, is the only major organization on campus in charge of all the activities related to sustainability.  7Additionally, there are no physical supplies needed in supporting sustainable activities; hence, one can even suggest that there are no suppliers at all.   6.3 Power of Prospects Prospects are all who are involved in UBC activities due to their usage of natural resources. Thus, CSO is dependent on these users’ consciousness and actions when consuming resources. That is, CSO has no power to directly control the behavior of any individual. Furthermore, the prospects are surrounded by numerous organizations which are all fighting for their attention. Thus, the power of prospects is extremely high.   6.4 Rivalry  The competition is high because there are many organizations and entities competing for students’ awareness on campus. Sub-categorization of the competitors is not applicable as mentioned in the previous competition section. Again, examples of rivals may be AMS, other UBC organizations, student clubs, etc. Furthermore, the stake is higher for CSO as it does not offer any physical products or service, thereby decreasing the attractiveness of CSO.   6.5 Substitutes The power of substitutes is high. Similar to rivalry, there are many substitutes, which cannot be sub-categorized, offered with low switching costs.   Overall, the environment in which CSO lies does not look attractive. As the analysis shows, many factors pose barriers to the goal that CSO wishes to obtain—increase its awareness among the student body.    87.0 Action Plan & Recommendations The action plan revolves around the three objectives mentioned in the beginning of the report, which are 1) development of a consistent and unique visual identity; 2) focus on the Students Sustainability Day; and 3) develop performance measurement and communication Tools.  Moreover, researches are conducted in order to examine and understand the current situation of CSO’s presence.  7.1 Researches Conducted The purpose of the following researches is to examine the physical and online presence CSO has on campus. These presences tie in with the establishment of CSO’s awareness and recommendations for further exploiting these avenues are also provided.   7.1.1 Field Research  A field research was conducted in the week of February 7th, 2005 where buildings on campus were visited. The objective of this research was to see the extension CSO has around campus through its friendly reminder stickers which also acts as advertisements. The stickers are shown below and are often found in washrooms as well as any light switches inside the building, commonly in classrooms. Note that due to the fact that the field researchers are female, it was not possible to enter men’s washrooms. Also, some rooms were not accessible because of the classes in session.        Unfortunately, the presence of CSO through these stickers is not as predominant as CSO had wished. This may be attributed to the fact that CSO relies on its volunteers in its Sustainability Coordinator Program and Residence Sustainability Coordinator Program to distribute these stickers in their area. The inconsistency of the distribution may also be caused by people peeling off the stickers, newly renovated rooms or buildings, usage of  9different reminders provided by the building, and the fact that the stickers shown above are most recently designed. (i.e., some older versions are still out there in various buildings). It is also acknowledged that the CSO stickers may add little, if any, value to the awareness of CSO. Nevertheless, they are still environmental friendly reminders that aid in CSO’s many objectives. The results indicate that there are many rooms for which the stickers can be placed. It is recommended that CSO mass distribute these stickers in the buildings. A possibility is perhaps having CSO’s employees go and distribute these stickers around campus which will only take approximately one day or two. If that is unachievable, perhaps gathering the volunteers and provide them new stickers to distribute, can overcome this problem.   Other than the search for stickers, opportunities for free-ride advertising through the partners were also exploited. Specifically, two partners were visited: SPROUTS and Bike-Coop. CSO is one of the proud supports and honor members for the start of SPROUTS, a full-time storefront in Student Union Building ran by students and volunteers. Bike-Coop is also a student-run organization dedicated to improving the UBC cycling environment. Both partners were chosen for visit because of their physical locations at the Student Union Building. The Student Union Building is a popular place for students to go during leisure times. Therefore it is assumed that these two partners could greatly increase the exposure of CSO. However, the results were not favorable. Despite the fact that SPROUTS had an honor member right next to its entrance, the list had ‘fainted’ to the fact that most words were unreadable unless at a close distance. Nevertheless, SPROUTS did have the corresponding sticker on its paper towel dispenser as well as by its light switch. As for Bike-coop, it was discovered that its location was hard to find and no sponsor lists existed. It is suggested that CSO approach these two student bodies and have them include the name and/or logo of CSO. By being one of the proud sponsors, CSO may share some admiration by the students, henceforth, increase its awareness. Detailed results of CSO’s stickers’ investigation and the two partners are shown in Table 1 in the Appendix. Please refer to Exhibit 4 for pictures taken during the investigation.   107.1.2 Websites Analyses: Partners Analyses of CSO’s partnering websites have also been conducted in the same period. The value of partnership lies in the fact that the external links which can directly lead back to CSO’s website. Thus, these links act as vehicles in increasing CSO’s awareness throughout campus. Another value-added gain for CSO is that by partnering with organizations that have related interests and/or goals, the majority of the referred visitors are segmented through this process. In other words, the particular group of visitors who browse the partners’ websites are likely to possess higher interest in the concept of sustainability.  Unfortunately, although majority of the partnering websites do contain referral links back to CSO’s website, there are plenty of problems which are listed below: • Inconsistent name identification. CSO is named differently almost across all its partnering websites. Examples include: Sustainability Office, UBC Sustainability Office, Campus Sustainability Office, or CSO (general visitors would not understand what CSO stands for, thereby forgoing the opportunity of attracting interested individuals). This relates to the important of a consistent and unique visual identity which will be described in the subsequent section.  • External link to CSO is lost in the maze-like website. Specifically, in order to find the referral external link to CSO, one would have to dig deeply within a partnering website. Often, the navigational map provided by the partners’ websites is not helpful. It is highly likely that many of the potential interested individuals will not find these referral links back to CSO. The researchers succeeded in finding these only because the goal was to find these links while fully aware of the varieties of names ‘given’ to CSO by its partners.     Here is a window of opportunity which CSO can utilize certain amount of publicity from its partners in order to increase its awareness. It is recommended that CSO talk to its partners to at least maintain a single, consistent visual identity among its partners. This can clear up certain confusions for those who may not know CSO well. As for the design of the partners’ websites, there may not be much within CSO’s power to influence the  11placement of its referral links. If the partners are willing to re-organize its website in consideration for CSO, it is greatly advantageous.   7.1.3 Websites Analysis: CSO An analysis of CSO’s website was also performed. It is believed that a well-organized online presence is very important since the majority of university students use the web as a source to search information about the organization. A well-organized website will attract visitors, therefore, retaining visitors’ interest in further exploring of the website. Thus, having a good online presence may also aid the increase of CSO’s awareness.   In terms of CSO’s website design, it is suggested to re-organize the layout of its website so to improve the navigation ease. Specifically, the internal navigational links can sometimes be very confusing when an individual is searching for specific information. For example, in search of past projects that CSO had done, it is hard to figure out under which section the projects is located under. Many times, the section titles are ‘meaningless’ for those visitors. In other words, some of the titles are organizational ‘jargons’ in which only those who worked with these programs can understand and/or relate to such labeling. Once the correct section is found (under UBC SEEDS section), the further sub-categorizations further increase the state of confusion when the sought-after project qualifies more than one of the category headings.   It is also recommended that CSO improve the efficiency of its homepage utilization. For example, CSO does not maximize its ‘prime estate’ area on its homepage. The ‘prime estate’ is the area which first appears to an individual without having the individual to scroll further down to see the rest of the information. This is where an organization should maximize its potential. By providing interesting and relevant information, it will entice visitors to scroll down and learn more of the websites’ contents. As for CSO’s, approximately half of this ‘prime estate area’ is occupied by the CSO’s current logo. It is good to have the logo of CSO on top as it confirms to the visitors that he/she has entered the correct website; however, a lot more information could have been provided in that  12area to further increase his/her interest in CSO. A good example of an eye-catching element is the real time reports of ‘UBC consumptions and resources saved’ provided on CSO’s homepage. These real time reports are very well-designed and are related to what CSO is trying to accomplish. Yet, as shown in Exhibit 5, only a small fraction of the report is visible in this ‘prime estate’ area. Thus, the disadvantage of forgoing the half of the ‘prime estate’ to the logo means diminishing CSO’s first and most important chance of attracting visitors to further learn about CSO. Additionally, having CSO’s vision statement in the very bottom of the page is not very attention-grabbing since a visitor may have moved on to a different page before he/she sees it. Moreover, vision statements are vital for an organization since, when well-defined, they allow one to understand what the organization is about, where it is going, and how it is getting there. It is common practice to either dedicate an entire page for the vision statement or at least display it in a more ‘important’ location. In summary, it is recommended that CSO re-organize the design, layout, and naming of some its titles in its website in order to attract visitors to further discover CSO aided by reduced mental transaction costs.    7.2 The Importance of a Unique and Consistent Visual Identity  7.2.1 Current Situation & Problem Identification CSO currently employs the Borromean Rings to represent the concept of sustainability officially. The reason that the Borromean Rings are used is because not only it is the well-known logo for the concept of sustainability which stands for “[h]umanity has the ability to make development sustainable-to ensure that it meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs” as defined by The World Commission on Environment and Development4, it also holds sentimental values for CSO as it was given to the Director of CSO when CSO first started. Although using this logo allows people to directly associate the CSO with the concept of sustainability, it does not allow the CSO to be identified as an individual entity.  For                                                  4 UBC Campus Sustainability Office. What is Sustainabilit? Retrieved March 10th, 2005 from http://www.sustain.ubc.ca/definition.html   13example, UBC forestry is incorporating the Borromean Rings in some of its brochures in attempt to associate forestry with sustainability. This places the office in a disadvantage if students see the CSO logo on a poster but mistakenly associate it with the forestry or other entities. In other words, CSO loses the potential awareness it could have gained.  Thus, it is vital for CSO to modify its current logo in order to have an individual entity associated with it.  7.2.2 Solution and Benefits  In order to build awareness of the CSO and its mission of sustainability, having a unique and consistent visual identity is necessary. For this reason, it is suggested that CSO modify its current logo. Such modification for a consistent and unique visual identity will allow CSO to exploit opportunities such as those discussed previously in the website analysis of its partners. It is important to acknowledge that CSO has started to have a consistent labeling where it will be known from now on as “UBC Campus Sustainability Office”. This mitigates against problems identified in the previous section where partners have different names associated with CSO.  In order to ease the process for establishing a consistent presentation of CSO, the logo should be readily available as well as in different formats such as gif, jpg, bmp, etc. for the partners to advertise on their websites. This availability of the logo in different formats will decrease the resistance to changes on website as it could be done easily.  In addition, a distinctive visual identity of the Office will allow CSO to be better identified in its events and programs such as the Students Sustainability Day in October (which will be discussed next). Furthermore, a picture tells a thousand words; people seem to recognize and/or recall graphical images better than wordings. For example, when one sees the golden arches, one can easily identify it with McDonalds. Although comparing CSO with McDonalds may seem a bit far stretched, but the point is that having a unique visual identity associated with the organization is vital. As previously mentioned, CSO is competing with various rivals for students’ awareness. Therefore, it is  14essential for CSO to design a unique visual identity that is consistently presented so it could be easily recognized and associated with CSO by students. Once developed, there is a great potential to gain more awareness of students. Please refer to Exhibit 5 in the Appendix which various potential designs of the visual identity are provided. It is recommended that CSO implement a consistent and unique visual identity by September 2005, the time when a new school year starts. This will allow CSO to have enough time to consider this issue and reorganize before majority of old and new students return to UBC.  7.2.3 Sustainability, the New Trend The growth potential of CSO’s recognition is further supported by the increasing interest with the concept of sustainability in recent years. This is a great opportunity for CSO since the general public is becoming more environmentally-conscious. As a result, the objective of increasing students’ awareness of the CSO can be further attained.  7.3 Students Sustainability Day in 2004  7.3.1 General Description CSO started its first Students’ Sustainability Day in October, 2004. The objectives of this event were to raise awareness of sustainability, to gain more presence to students on campus through interactivity, and to solidify relationships with other sustainability supporting groups through networking.  In particular, in hosting this event, CSO wished to gain experiences and momentum for the subsequent annual Student Sustainability Days. Subsequently, as the Student Sustainability Day continuously grow and become an annual event, the contact the event establishes with student body helps to increase the awareness of CSO.    157.3.2 Behind the Scene The Sustainability Day was organized by Miss. Laura Madera, CSO’s Communications Assistant. The planning of the 2004 Students Sustainability Day began in July when the event sprung up during a meeting. From then on, CSO sent out more than 200 emails to potential participants in the event. The list incorporated those organizations which CSO had worked with, heard about, or referred by other organizations. The e-mail contained general information about the event, a registration form, and reasons for hosting the event. CSO would then follow-up over the phone with those who registered in order to confirm again. The organizations that participated in Students Sustainability Day 2004 composed of both on- and off- campus organizations who held similar mission as CSO.  Although organizations ran by students were also e-mailed, the response rates were low due to the fact that most students were on summer vacation in July. One interesting thing was that one particular organization, which was not from CSO’s e-mail list, was very interested to participate in the Students Sustainability Day and contacted CSO. That organization heard about the event through word-of-mouth from those contacted organization. This demonstrated the power of word-of-mouth in which CSO could take advantage of as the Students Sustainability Day grows.   CSO also advertised through certain UBC portals’ homepages. There were no webcast e-mails since no public list were available. Nevertheless, CSO gave out press releases and articles a month ahead of the event and posted advertising posters only in the poster boxes reserved by Alma Mater Society of UBC (AMS). Posters can easily get out of control as well as having a short ‘lifespan’ as it can be posted-over easily by other posters. By limiting posters only to those AMS authorized window showcases, the post-over rate is dampened. However, there are other events in which the AMS supports; therefore, the posters started only two weeks prior to the event and limited in volume. This supports the concept of sustainability which governs CSO. Ubyssey, the official students’ newspaper on campus, also did articles promoting the day. In general, the advertising was done pretty well.    167.3.3 What Happened The event took place right outside of the Students Union Building. On the day of the event, CSO had a banner up on the Student Union Building in order to attract attention. CSO also had a banner sprung up for itself among approximately thirty participants such as David Suzuki Foundation, National Wild Life Foundation, Checker Head, etc. CSO worked closely with AMS. For example, AMS not only donated several gifts, but also provided the stage equipments, assisted in seeking donations through mass-calling, and provided barbeque for the day. Many businesses had also donated several gifts such as fitness program passes, ski passes, etc. These gifts were given out in the end for winners of various competitions. In promoting the sustainability concept, the barbeque would be free for those who brought their own tupperwares. The original budget for the 2004 event was $CDN 4,000 and CSO had just exceed the budget by approximately $CDN 1,000.  Nevertheless, CSO was not disappointed with such budget violation. Please refer to Exhibit 7 for pictures of the Students Sustainability Day provided by CSO.   7.3.4 Future Plan As the concept of sustainability increases and the Students Sustainability Day becomes more prominent, CSO hopes that AMS will take it on as an annual event while CSO can support and help to organize it. Furthermore, there are currently specialists lobbying the government for making October the official sustainability month. If that succeeds, it increases the importance of the Student Sustainability Day. Likewise, with UBC holding the event, this aids the lobbyists which further increase the importance of sustainability. Similarly, as the importance of sustainability day increase through the processes described above, it will help to increase the awareness of CSO among students.   7.3.5 Acknowledgement Prior to the Event One of the main focuses of communication strategy is to increase the awareness of the event before it occurs. It is recommended that CSO maintains its current communication strategy. CSO should also try to get on more campus organizations’ websites in order to promote the event. Furthermore, CSO have left out a critical market for promotion—the  17residents. The Residence Sustainability Coordinator Program employs student volunteers and mimics the Sustainability Coordinator Program in promoting sustainable actions and behavior. Hence the promotion of Student Sustainability Day can be enhanced having the residence sustainability coordinators talk to the residents. Also, as mentioned by many residents interviewed, posters do have an effect in getting attention: in the hallways, at the entrance, and on the way to the cafeteria. There are plenty of opportunities where CSO posters can gain attention. Thus, having residence sustainability coordinator promoting through word-of-mouth at residences in addition posters advertising the event can really increase students’ awareness of the event as well as CSO who is responsible for the event.   The location of the event acts as a double-edge sword. Hosting the event right outside of Student Union Building allows the attracted passer-bys to join the event. Conversely, this makes measuring the effectiveness of the promotional techniques difficult. Nevertheless, it is possible for CSO to contact students for a focus group or survey on discovering the success of the promotion tools.   7.3.6 To Increase Participation In order increase the participation, it is recommended that CSO strive to minimize the length of the confirmation period. For example, CSO can set to have a confirmation call two or three days after the invitation e-mails are sent. The purpose for the phone call is to confirm whether the organization has received the e-mail and had the e-mail been sent to the right person. Moreover, it is also a great time to answer any questions the organization may have. Please refer to Exhibit 8 for a sample skit which the calling person can use. CSO can also increase participation of those on-campus organizations by lobbying AMS to include the Sustainability Day in the AMS agenda which is distributed to students every September. This is foreseeable because other similar non-profit organizations have done it. For example, Pride UBC has had their Proud Day included in the AMS agenda.     18With increased participation, it inversely can attract more attention, thus awareness, due to the share size of the event. This can also strengthen the power of word of mouth for which can also help to increase students’ awareness of CSO. However, it is important to acknowledge that, although this may be in CSO’s advantage, it may not be achievable due to the budget constraint. Furthermore, there is also the consideration of the capacity of the location. It may not be possible to host a larger event outside of Student Union Building if the theme for this year if carnival. A timeline is also done and shown below. It is recommended that CSO follow, or, at least tailor to a timeline similar below: CSO sent out email to potential participants CSO gave out press release, articles at least 1 month prior to eventCSO posted advertising posters 2 weeks prior to eventCSO Sustainability Day Follow-up phone calls Planning on Sustainability Day August September October July    197.3.3 Games for the Upcoming 2005 As Miss. Laura Madera indicates, the theme for Students Sustainability Day 2005 is carnival style where there can be more interactivity with students. Although this may be subject to change, the following are programs designed with sustainability in mind:  1. Recycling Fun The participant is faced with different types of garbage in which some are recyclable. Under the given time, perhaps 30 seconds or 1 minute, the participant has to sort out those that are recyclable and place them in the proper bins provided. Please refer to Exhibit 9A for a visual aid of the suggested game.   2. Get in the Rings A large banner of the Borromean Rings can be laid on the ground and participants may have three throws. If the throw goes into within any one of the three rings, depending on which, whether it is economy, ecology, or society, the participant will have to name one related behavior which ties to sustainability under that concept. If, however, the participants land within all three rings (the part where the three rings overlap), he/she has to name three related behavior of each and gain a bigger price in the end. Of course, there should be hints provided by that game booth that will help participants to answer the question. The objective is to have participants learn about sustainability while having fun. Please refer to Exhibit 9B for a visual aid of the suggested game.  3. Sticker Hunt Like the card game ‘Fishing’, matching cards will be place faced down and mixed up. The diagrams can be images related to sustainability such as the Borromean Rings, recycling bins, or CSO logo. Two participants can race head to head with the first one who gets three pairs win. It can also be that each participant takes his/her turn instead of racing under time. In order to be the true winner, the participant has to explain how the three items in the card relate to sustainability. Please refer to Exhibit 9C for a visual aid of the suggested game.   204. Scrambling  Under the chosen theme (saving electricity, reducing waste, etc.), participants will have to fish out the theme-related object(s) from a big oatmeal pot. Due to the consideration of the size of the objects and cleaning process, it is recommended that different colored marble be used in replacement of big objects. Again, participant can go solo which he/she would be then timed, or the participant may go head-to-head with another. Whichever situation, solo or pair, the one with the most qualified marbles (matches the theme chosen) wins. Again, the prize will be rewarded when the winner says one to three behaviors related to the chosen theme. Please refer to Exhibit 9D for a visual aid of the suggested game.  5. Recycled Paper Challenge Similar to the Pepsi Challenge, the participant will be given two sheets of paper or paper napkin. Only one of the two is recycled. If the two kinds of paper or napkin look evidently different, it is suggested to blindfold the participant. It is up to the participant to determine which one is recycled. If correct, he/she may be rewarded and it can be up to the participant’s discretion whether or not to share the difference between normal and recycled paper/paper napkin.   7.4 Analysis of Promotion/Communication Tools 7.4.1 Example of the Most Recent On-Campus Campaign The most recent campaign was done by Pride UBC as it celebrated its recent 25th anniversary in the week of February 7th, 2005. This was chosen due to the fact that it was the most recent event held by a non-for-profit organization just like CSO.   The celebration of Pride UBC’s 25th anniversary was first announced through web e-mails as well as promotion on Pride UBC’s homepage. The celebration week started as a rainbow flag (symbol of Pride) risen on Monday, February 7th, 2005 at the flagpole located near the Student Union Building. There was also a banner put up during that week on the Student Union Building which further advertised the events. Moreover,  21rainbow flags were also posted across Main Mall and on buildings such as the Main Library and Brock Hall where it was explicit and evident to the student body. Additionally, a special edition done by Ubyssey before the start of the celebration where it had specific timeline and details of each individual event went on for the whole week. During that time period, there were booths set up by the organization within the Student Union Building everyday of that week where majority of UBC students gather together during free times, especially during lunch periods. Lastly, as the celebration week ended, Ubyssey did another article on the success of the event as its front page attraction. These promotional techniques were successful as it did attract our attention and many of the student body whom were interviewed. Please see Exhibit 10 for pictures of the events that took place during Pride Week.   7.4.1 What about CSO? As previously mentioned, CSO utilizes many similar techniques for promoting its Students Sustainability Day last year. It is therefore recommended that CSO continues to practice these communication tools. The minor differences lie in the fact that CSO did not have flags up around campus nor had a booth inside the Student Union Building. However, since the Student Sustainability Day is a one-day event, it may not be cost-effective to employ such advertising method. The budget constraint is applicable to both Pride UBC and CSO as both are non-for-profit organizations currently attracting a small number of students. The advantage CSO had over Pride UBC is that the event is something physical and bigger in size. Locating right outside of the Student Union Building as well as the gathering of numerous organizations allow CSO to attract bigger attention at once to those who were either just passing by or there purposely.   As for on-going promotional concerns, CSO has most of its brochures available in the office. However, placing the brochures in the office does not increase CSO’s interactivity or reach of more students because those who actually visit the office are those who have already been aware of the office. In other words, this does not allow CSO to gain awareness through utilizing different potential channels. For example, CSO may place  22some brochures at SPROUTS or at AMS office where researchers found various other brochures from different organizations. Therefore, brochures should be widely distributed and be placed in areas around the campus to gain higher exposure where CSO can reach its ‘critical market’; i.e., places where sustainability-related topics or programs may be found.   7.5 Performance Measurements & Enhancements In terms of measuring the effectiveness of the promotional efforts and the general awareness of the students, a survey is designed which CSO may use as a measuring tool. Please refer to Exhibit 11 in the Appendix for the sample of the survey. It should be noted that the survey was designed in February. The survey may not be applicable as the circumstances change. When that is the case, CSO is free to modify the survey if it desires.  Another tool developed that can be used in enhancing the advertising efficiency of CSO’s advocates is the poka-yoke device.  Poka-yoke is a Japanese term meaning mistake-proofing. A poka-yoke is essentially any mechanism that either prevents a mistake from being made or makes the mistake obvious at a glance. This was pioneered by Shigeo Shingo is one of the industrial engineers at Toyota and has been credited with creating and formalizing Zero Quality Control (ZQC), an approach to quality management that relies heavily on the use of poka-yoke devices. 5 In the case of CSO, the use of poka-yoke device will essentially act as a reminder list in which will aid CSO’s advocates such as UBC Imagine leaders to promote CSO as well as act in a sustainable manner such as recycle bottles, pizza boxes, etc during the day. Such list can also be modified for other purposes. For example, another could easily be designed or modified for CSO’s volunteers. Please refer to Exhibit 12 in the Appendix for the poka-yoke sample.                                                   5 Six Sigma. A brief tutorial on Mistake-proofing, Poka-yoke, and ZQC. Retrieved on March 14th, 2005 from http://www.isixsigma.com/offsite.asp?A=Fr&Url=http://www.campbell.berry.edu/faculty/jgrout/tutorial.html  238.0 Resources and Budget As mentioned previously, students’ awareness of the CSO can possibly be strengthened through limited posting of posters, sustainability stickers, and brochures around the campus. However, it is important to note that the weakness of poster usage is its high ‘post-over’ rate. Furthermore, posters are only practical and cost effective for a specific event, such as the advertising of Students Sustainability Day.  Efficiency in the usage of money is optimal especially when there is no budget for CSO. Hence, it is ideal for CSO staffs to construct detailed plans ahead of time in order to increase student awareness with minimal spending. Additionally, CSO is a non-for-profit organization and this project constitutes as a social marketing campaign. There are no financial figures to calculate for the future as they are not obtainable currently. However, the average expected resources and budget needed for such advertising are provided in the following table:   Average Unit Cost of a Color Poster*  $1.52 Brochures  $0.76 color, 1-sided;  $1.52 color, 2 double-sided, additional $0.02 for folding and there are no volume discounts Stickers ** 14 stickers per sheet, size 4’ x 1.33’; $6.99 for the first sheet and each additional sheet will be $1.99 each.     Note: the costs for the printing materials (color poster, brochures, and stickers) are more expensive then usual due to the usage of recycled materials. All prices were given by Staples.  *There are different prices associated with different sizes; the largest size (11’x17’) was chosen for the color posters as it is the most expensive one. It is often easier to lower than to increase a budget. Additionally, there is no volume discounts associated with the different sizes.  ** CSO indicated that it still has stickers left, approximately 500 of each type of stickers in stock.    249.0 Contingency Plan In case the office is unable to introduce a unique visual identity, it should maintain its Borromean rings as its fundamental visual identity. However, CSO should make sure that the visual identity, along with its name, is at least consistent when presented on the website of its partners. This is an important aspect to be dealing with since having the logo associated with CSO is an important aspect for any non-for-profit organization.  CSO should also make certain that critical areas (e.g. Student Union Building) and residents have a certain amount of CSO posters during October’s Students Sustainability Days. October is the optimal time to post the posters due to the fact that the posters will have the function for both promoting the office as well as notifying students about the Student Sustainability Day. However, due to the high post-over rate of posters (i.e., short life span), CSO should maintain its current procedure in which the posters are posted only two weeks prior to the event. Similarly, CSO should only post within the authorized poster boxes provided by AMS. This will mitigate the post-over rates as well as the usage of large amount of posters. Sending campus-wide webcast e-mails may not be optimal as there are no public lists available to the organizations. Thus, if achieving more advertising spaces on other campus websites sites is not obtainable, CSO should at least try to have the access to the websites it advertised on last year.   25Appendix Exhibit 1: Detail of the Halifax Declaration and Talloires Declaration  THE HALIFAX DECLARATION  Human demands upon the planet are now of a volume and kind that, unless changed substantially, threatens the future well-being of all living species. Universities are entrusted with a major responsibility to help societies shape their present and future development policies and actions into the sustainable and equitable forms necessary for an environmentally secure and civilized world. As the international community marshals its endeavours for a sustainable future, focused upon the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development in Brazil in 1992, universities in all countries are increasingly examining their own roles and responsibilities. At Talloires, France in October, 1990, a conference of university presidents from every continent, held under the auspices of Tufts University of the United States, issued a declaration of environmental commitment that has attracted the support of more than 100 universities from dozens of countries. At Halifax, Canada, in December l991, the specific challenge of environmentally sustainable development was addressed by the presidents of universities from Brazil, Canada, Indonesia, Zimbabwe and elsewhere, as well as by the senior representatives of the International Association of Universities, the United Nations University and the Association of Universities and Colleges of Canada. The Halifax meeting added its voice to those many others worldwide that are deeply concerned about the continuing widespread degradation of the Earth's environment, about the pervasive influence of poverty on the process, and about the unsustainable environmental practices now so widespread. The meeting expressed the belief that solutions to these problems can only be effective to the extent that the mutual vulnerability of all societies, in the South and in the North, is recognized, and the energies and skills of people everywhere be employed in a positive, cooperative fashion. Because the educational, research and public service roles of universities enable them to be competent, effective contributors to the major attitudinal and policy changes necessary for a sustainable future, the Halifax meeting invited the dedication of all universities to the following actions: 1. To ensure that the voice of the university be clear and uncompromising in its ongoing commitment to the principle and practice of sustainable development within the university, and at the local, national and global levels.  2. To utilize the intellectual resources of the university to encourage a better understanding on the part of society of the inter-related physical, biological and social dangers facing the planet Earth. 3. To emphasize the ethical obligation of the present generation to overcome those current malpractices of resource utilization and those widespread circumstances  26of intolerable human disparity which lie at the root of environmental unsustainability. 4. To enhance the capacity of the university to teach and practice sustainable development principles, to increase environmental literacy, and to enhance the understanding of environmental ethics among faculty, students, and the public at large. 5. To cooperate with one another and with all segments of society in the pursuit of practical capacity-building and policy measures to achieve the effective revision and reversal of those current practices which contribute to environmental degradation, to South-North disparities and to inter-generational inequity. 6. To employ all channels open to the university to communicate these undertakings to UNCED, to governments and to the public at large.  7. Done at Dalhousie University, Halifax, Canada, the 11th day of December, 1991.  From December, 9-11, 1991, the presidents and senior representatives of 33 universities from 10 countries on 5 continents met in Halifax, Canada to take stock of the role of universities regarding the environment and development. They were joined by a number of senior representatives from business, the banking community, governments, and non governmental organizations. The meetings were sponsored by the International Association of Universities, the United Nations University, the Association of Universities and Colleges of Canada, and Dalhousie University, Canada, which also provided the detailed planning and secretariat support. The Halifax Declaration was released at the conclusion of the conference.  THE HALIFAX DECLARATION BACKGROUND From: Creating a Common Future: An Action Plan for Universities. Follow up to the Halifax Conference on University Action for Sustainable Development, December 9-11, 1991. Halifax : Lester Pearson Institute for International Development, Dalhousie University, 1992. University presidents and senior officials from universities, governments, the business community and NGOs from five continents met in Halifax, Canada in December, 1991 to discuss the role of universities in improving the capacity of countries to address environment and development issues. An important and somewhat similar process had been initiated at the Tufts European Centre in Talloires, France in October, 1990. It had become clear to the Halifax conference organizers that the UNCED meetings, planned for Rio de Janeiro in June 1992, must be widely seen to be a catalyst for serious efforts to steer the world towards sustainable development patterns. It was also clear that the university community must be challenged to re-think and to re-construct many of its traditional activities and frameworks in order to play a leadership role in a world at serious risk of irreparable environmental destruction.  27The conference was organized by the Association of Universities and Colleges of Canada, the International Association of Universities, the United Nations University, and Dalhousie University. Support was received from the Department of External Affairs and International Trade Canada, the Canadian International Development Agency, and the Province of Nova Scotia. Mr. Ivan Head, past President of the International Development Research Centre (IDRC) served as conference chairman. Among those delivering key-note addresses were the Hon. Jean Charest, Minister of the Environment, Canada; Professor Walter Kamba, President of the I.A.U. and Vice Chancellor of the University of Zimbabwe; and Mr. John Bell, chair of the Canadian Delegation to UNCED. In readiness for the conference at Rio, key papers from the conference are being published in a special issue of Higher Education Policy, the journal of the International Association of Universities. The detailed proceedings of the conference are being published by Dalhousie University and will be available, upon request, on May 1, 1992. Two essential outcomes of the Halifax conference:  A follow-up plan of action, as a basis for practical strategic plans for sustainable development -- details of which are now being refined and pursued by many of the universities represented in Halifax and by their 'converts'. Emphasis is to be placed on concrete actions at home as well as a vigorous and strategic use of world-wide networks. A Declaration, done at Halifax, which provides a general direction being pursued by the universities now involved. Emphasis is to be placed on education and training, on research and policy information, on far more weight on the value of inter-disciplinary work and on a pro-active role by universities for sustainable development. Those in attendance at the Halifax conference believe the UNCED process to be a critical step towards an environmentally sustainable future and pledge their support. They invite their colleagues in other universities and institutions to help ensure the long-term success of the UNCED challenge to create a sustainable and more equitable world.  More information may be available at http://www.iisd.org/educate/declarat/halifax.htm where the source of this information is gathered.   Source: International Institute for Sustainable Development. Talloire Declaration. Retrieved March 27th, 2005 from http://www.iisd.org/educate/declarat/halifax.htm  28The Talloires Declaration:  University Presidents for a Sustainable Future We, the presidents, rectors, and vice chancellors of universities from all regions of the world are deeply concerned about the unprecedented scale and speed of environmental pollution and degradation, and the depletion of natural resources. Local, regional, and global air pollution; accumulation and distribution of toxic wastes; destruction and depletion of forests, soil, and water; depletion of the ozone layer and emission of "green house" gases threaten the survival of humans and thousands of other living species, the integrity of the earth and its biodiversity, the security of nations, and the heritage of future generations. These environmental changes are caused by inequitable and unsustainable production and consumption patterns that aggravate poverty in many regions of the world. We believe that urgent actions are needed to address these fundamental problems and reverse the trends. Stabilization of human population, adoption of environmentally sound industrial and agricultural technologies, reforestation, and ecological restoration are crucial elements in creating an equitable and sustainable future for all humankind in harmony with nature. Universities have a major role in the education, research, policy formation, and information exchange necessary to make these goals possible. The university heads must provide the leadership and support to mobilize internal and external resources so that their institutions respond to this urgent challenge. We, therefore, agree to take the following actions: 1. Use every opportunity to raise public, government, industry, foundation, and university awareness by publicly addressing the urgent need to move toward an environmentally sustainable future.  2. Encourage all universities to engage in education, research, policy formation, and information exchange on population, environment, and development to move toward a sustainable future.  3. Establish programs to produce expertise in environmental management, sustainable economic development, population, and related fields to ensure that all university graduates are environmentally literate and responsible citizens.  4. Create programs to develop the capability of university faculty to teach environmental literacy to all undergraduate, graduate, and professional school students.  5. Set an example of environmental responsibility by establishing programs of resource conservation, recycling, and waste reduction at the universities.  6. Encourage the involvement of government (at all levels), foundations, and industry in supporting university research, education, policy formation, and information exchange in environmentally sustainable development. Expand work with nongovernmental organizations to assist in finding solutions to environmental problems.   297. Convene school deans and environmental practitioners to develop research, policy, information exchange programs, and curricula for an environmentally sustainable future.  8. Establish partnerships with primary and secondary schools to help develop the capability of their faculty to teach about population, environment, and sustainable development issues.  9. Work with the UN Conference on Environmental and Development, the UN Environment Programme, and other national and international organizations to promote a worldwide university effort toward a sustainable future.  10. Establish a steering committee and a secretariat to continue this momentum and inform and support each other's efforts in carrying out this declaration.   More information may be available at http://www.iisd.org/educate/declarat/talloire.htm where the source of this information is gathered.   Source: International Institute for Sustainable Development. Talloire Declaration . Retrieved March 27th, 2005 from http://www.iisd.org/educate/declarat/talloire.htm 30Exhibit 2 – Media Coverage of CSO  null U.S.-based National Wildlife Federation’s Campus Ecology Yearbook null Victoria television station the New VI’s EnvirMental show null Business in Vancouver’s annual special edition on sustainable industries, Green Space magazine null Canadian Property Management magazine null University Manager magazine null Canadian Consulting Engineer.com null Vancouver-based David Suzuki Foundation website null U.S.-based University Leaders for a Sustainable Future resources listing null North American Sustainable Consumption Alliance website null U.S.-based Education for Sustainability Western Network website null Greater Vancouver Regional District case study book Sustainability in Action null Pollution Prevention World Information Network null Canadian Centre for Pollution Prevention’s database null Concordia University’s Canadian Campus Sustainability Assessment Report (Best Practices Section)  31Exhibit 3: Explanation of Michael Porter’s Five Forces  Porter explains that there are five forces that determine industry attractiveness and long-run industry profitability. These five "competitive forces" are  - The threat of entry of new competitors (new entrants) - The threat of s- The bargaiof buyers - The bargaof suppliers - The degree between existing competitors ubstitutes ning power ining power of rivalry   Threat of New EntrantsNew entrants to an industry can raise the level of competition, thereby reducing its attractiveness. The threat of new entrants largely depends on the barriers to entry. High entry barriers exist in some industries (e.g. shipbuilding) whereas other industries are very easy to enter (e.g. estate agency, restaurants). Key barriers to entry include - Economies of scale - Capital / investment requirements - Customer switching costs - Access to industry distribution channels - The likelihood of retaliation from existing industry players. Threat of SubstitutesThe presence of substitute products can lower industry attractiveness and profitability because they limit price levels. The threat of substitute products depends on: - Buyers' willingness to substitute - The relative price and performance of substitutes - The costs of switching to substitutes Bargaining Power of Suppliers (Suppliers are the businesses that supply materials & other products into the industry) The cost of items bought from suppliers (e.g. raw materials, components) can have a significant impact on a company's profitability. If suppliers have high bargaining power over a company, then in theory the company's industry is less attractive. The bargaining power of suppliers will be high when: - There are many buyers and few dominant suppliers - There are undifferentiated, highly valued products - Suppliers threaten to integrate forward into the industry (e.g. brand manufacturers  32threatening to set up their own retail outlets) - Buyers do not threaten to integrate backwards into supply - The industry is not a key customer group to the suppliers Bargaining Power of BuyersBuyers are the people / organisations who create demand in an industry The bargaining power of buyers is greater when - There are few dominant buyers and many sellers in the industry - Products are standardised - Buyers threaten to integrate backward into the industry - Suppliers do not threaten to integrate forward into the buyer's industry  - The industry is not a key supplying group for buyers Intensity of RivalryThe intensity of rivalry between competitors in an industry will depend on: - The structure of competition: for example, rivalry is more intense where there are many small or equally sized competitors; rivalry is less when an industry has a clear market leader - The structure of industry costs: for example, industries with high fixed costs encourage competitors to fill unused capacity by price cutting - Degree of differentiation: industries where products are commodities (e.g. steel, coal) have greater rivalry; industries where competitors can differentiate their products have less rivalry  - Switching costs: rivalry is reduced where buyers have high switching costs - i.e. there is a significant cost associated with the decision to buy a product from an alternative supplier - Strategic objectives: when competitors are pursuing aggressive growth strategies, rivalry is more intense. Where competitors are "milking" profits in a mature industry, the degree of rivalry is less - Exit barriers:when barriers to leaving an industry are high (e.g. the cost of closing down factories) - then competitors tend to exhibit greater rivalry.     Source: Tutor2uTM. Stratgey-Analyzing Competitive Industry Structure. Retrieved March 27th, 2005 from http://www.tutor2u.net/business/strategy/SWOT_analysis.htm   33Table 1: Summary of Field Research             MacLeod Electrical Engineering • No stickers on paper towel dispensers in women washrooms • Few turn-off light stickers in women washrooms but are not from CSO  • Since classes were going on, many rooms were not accessible CICSR — Computer Sciences • No stickers on paper towel dispensers in women washrooms • Few turn-off light stickers in women washrooms but are not from CSO  • The building was under reconstruction • Many lights were left on in rooms (no turn-off light stickers) Forest Sciences Centre (Forestry) • No stickers on paper towel dispensers in women washrooms • Stickers for paper towel were on silver paper towel dispensers (those built in the wall) but were not in use • No turn-off light stickers in women washrooms  • Efficient light bulbs were used in various rooms • Rooms not in use had their lights turned off Paper and Pulp Research  • Washrooms were not found (perhaps washrooms were located inside offices in which we didn’t have access to) • Use of efficient light bulbs Civil & Mechanical Engineering (CEME) • No stickers on paper towel dispensers in women washrooms • No turn-off light stickers in women washrooms  SPROUTS (located in SUB) • A list of honor members which had Brenda Sawada’s name on it (CSO-UBC SEEDS Program Coordinator) • Turn-off light stickers near the lights switch • A stand where it had various brochures (no CSO brochures)  • BIKE Co-op • UBC Farm • Stickers on paper towel dispensers next to the sink where employees wash their handsWomen Washroom (new one near the Arcade) located in SUB • No stickers on paper towel dispensers  • No turn-off light stickers  Women Washroom (1st floor, near Blue Chips) located in SUB • No stickers on paper towel dispensers  • No turn-off light stickers CSO’s sticker for paper towel dispensersCSO’s Turn-off light sticker  34Women Washroom (2nd floor by AMS) located in SUB • No stickers on paper towel dispensers  • No turn-off light stickers Women Washroom (2nd floor) located in SUB • No stickers on paper towel dispensers  • No turn-off light stickers Information Booth located in the 1st floor in SUB • Researchers asked “Where is CSO located?” • The first book only indicated that CSO is located within the Land and building Services • A second book was used to find the address of the Land and building Services • The staff at the booth did not know what CSO does BIKE Co-op (located in SUB) • No clear signs of direction to the co-op • No mentioning of CSO Buchanan • Turn-off light stickers in women washrooms • No turn-off light stickers in lecture halls (Buchanan A) • No turn-off light in 2nd floor washroom (Buchanan B) • No stickers on paper towel dispensers in all washrooms in Buchanan C &D • No turn-off light stickers in AUS lounge  • No sticker on paper towel dispensers in washrooms in AUS lounge but all have turn-off lights stickers Chan Centre • No turn-off light stickers in women washroom • No sticker on paper towel dispensers in women washroom • Sticker on silver paper towel dispensers in men washroom Anthropology & Sociology  • No turn-off light stickers in seminar rooms • Sticker on paper towel dispenser in women washroom (1st floor) • No turn-off light stickers in women washroom (1st floor) Kenny (Psychology) • Sticker on one of paper towel dispensers in women washroom • No turn-off lights stickers in women washroom or some rooms Henry Angus • Sticker on one of paper towel dispensers in women washrooms (1st & 3rd floor) • No turn-off light stickers in women washroom • Some classrooms/lecture halls have turn-off light stickers, but some of those stickers are not from CSO David Lam Library • Sticker on one of paper towel dispensers in women washrooms (1st & 3rd floor) • No turn-off light stickers in women washroom Scarf (Education) • Some stickers on paper towel dispensers in women washrooms  35• Some turn-off light stickers in women washrooms • Most classrooms/lecture halls have turn-off light stickers, but most of those stickers are not from CSO Hebb Theatre • Sticker on paper towel dispenser in women washroom • Turn-off light stickers in women washroom  Chemistry • No sticker on paper towel dispenser in women washroom • No turn-off light stickers in women washroom • Most classrooms/ lecture halls did not have turn-off light stickers Hennings (Physics) • No sticker on paper towel dispenser in women washroom • No turn-off light stickers in women washroom • Most classrooms/ lecture halls did not have turn-off light stickers Walter C. Koerner Library • Most women washrooms have stickers on paper towel dispensers • Some women washrooms don’t have turn-off light stickers Woodward  • Sticker on paper towel dispensers in women washroom • Turn-off light stickers in women washroom 99 Chairs (by Henry Angus) • Sticker on paper towel dispensers in women washroom • Turn-off light stickers in women washroom Mathematics Annex • No sticker on paper towel dispenser in women washroom • No turn-off light stickers in women washroom Leonard S. Klinck (LSK) Building  • Sticker on paper towel dispenser in women washroom • No turn-off light stickers in women washroom   36Exhibit 4: Pictures Taken During the Week of Investigation        The MacMillan Pilot Project     37   The arrows points out where CSO could place their sticker as well as where there are examples of reminders provided by other entities rather than CSO    38 The Honorary Members list found at SPROUTS. As seen in the picture, the list has faded.          ecotrek, managed by CSO   39Exhibit 5: Snapshot of CSO’s Homepage (Prime Estate Area)   40Exhibit 6: Potential New visual Identity for CSO             41   42     43                                        44         45Exhibit 7: Pictures of the Students Sustainability Day Provided by CSO     46 47   48Exhibit 8: Sample Skit  Hello, _____ (name of the contact person at the invited organization) my name is (your name), I am calling from the UBC Campus Sustainability Office.  I am calling to confirm that whether you and your organization had received the invitation that we have send out about the Students Sustainability Day which will take place on (date).    If the response: Yes.  Thank you very much for you time, please remember that the deadline is (date). We are looking forward to hear from you. If you have any questions, feel free to (contact info).  If the response: No.   Maybe there is error in the mailing address, would you like me to send the information to you again? (Briefly explain about the Students Sustainability Day)       Yes—get the correct contact information, thank them and good bye.       No –thank them for their time and good bye          49Exhibit 9A:          Exhibit 9B:     The critical area. Get it in, win the biggest price!!!  50 Exhibit 9C:       Find the matching pair with the cards faced down!      Exhibit 9D:       51Exhibit 10: Pictures of the Pride UBC’s 25th Anniversary Celebration      Left: The rainbow flag risen near the Student Union Building on February 7th, 2005 initiating the celebration week of Pride UBC’s 25th anniversary  Right: Rainbow flags placed on posts throughout the Main Mall where most students pass by when walking to classes       Left: Booth set up within the Student Union Building near one of the main entrances  Right: Close-up of the booth   52   Left: A rainbow flag placed on Brock Hall (right across Student Union Building) Right: A rainbow flag placed on the clock tower in front of Main Library       Left: A banner placed on Student Union Building advertising the week Right: Another shot of the rainbow flag at the end of Main Mall near Rose Garden       Left: The special edition done by Ubyssey in celebrating the event Right: The cover article done by Ubyssey after the celebration week  53Exhibit 11: Sample of Survey  The purpose of this survey is to obtain students’ opinions towards environmental issues.  This survey is for academic purpose only and will be anonymous and confidential. Participants can terminate the survey at any point of time.     Please check the age group that you are in.  __Under 15 __16-20  __21-25 __26-30 __31-35 __36 and above  Please indicate your gender. __Male   __Female  Which Faculty are you in?   __Agricultural Science   __Graduate Studies __Applied Science    __Law   __Arts      __Medicine  __College of Health Disciplines   __Pharmaceutical Sciences __Dentistry      __Sauder School of Business __Education     __Science __Forestry  Which Year are you in? __1st  __2nd  __ 3rd  __4th  __Post graduate  On the scale 1-5, how do you weight your participation in UBC programs, events, clubs, etc. 1   2   3   4    5 Low participation                High participation  On a scale of 1-5, how often do you obtain information through the following resources?   Read campus wide e-mails 1   2       3    4        5 Never    Sometimes            Always  Approach information booths around campus 1   2       3    4        5 Never    Sometimes            Always            Attend information sessions 1   2       3    4        5 Never    Sometimes            Always     54Browse UBC official website 1   2       3    4        5 Never    Sometimes            Always            Attend campus speeches 1   2       3    4        5 Never    Sometimes            Always           Read posters around campus 1   2       3    4        5 Never    Sometimes            Always  How do you feel about actions such as recycling, energy savings, water savings, public transportation, etc.? 1     2                3    4                 5 Strongly                   Indifferent                     Strongly  Against                         Support  Please check the one(s) that you do. __Recycle Paper __Recycle Cans  __Reuse materials  __Reduce Waste __Energy Savings  __Water Savings  __Reduce Air Pollution (e.g. use public transit) __None of the above  How often do you participate in the environmental actions mentioned above?   1   2       3    4        5 Never    Sometimes            Always  Do you notice the signs such as           or                        __Yes   __No  If yes, do you know who produce those signs? ____________________________________________________  Do you know about UBC Campus Sustainability Office? __Yes   __No If yes, how did you know about this office? (Please check all that applies) __Imagine __Internet __Friends/Colleges __Posters __Campaigns __Work __Family __Faculty/ Staff  __Orientations  __Others (Please specify):  ____________________________________   55Do you know what does the Sustainability Office do? __Yes   __No If yes, please elaborate: _____________________________________________________________________  _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________         Please continue on the next page.  Thank you.  56The UBC Campus Sustainability Office   The Sustainability Office focuses in areas ranging from academic to waste reduction, thousands of campus community members are working towards a more sustainable future through a variety of creative initiatives in the fields of energy management, green buildings, paper reduction, waste reduction, alternative transport and many others.   After reading the above description of the Sustainability Office, on a scale of 1-5, how interested are you towards the office?           1  2  3    4      5 Not interested at all       Very Interested  On a scale 1-5, how likely are you going to participate the activities provide by the Sustainability Office in the future?           1  2  3    4      5 Very Unlikely        Very Likely  In the future which are the best methods to provide the information to you? (Please check all that applies). __Campus Wide E-mails __Information Booths  __Information sessions __Website   __Speeches   __Posters __Others (Please Specify)__________________________________  For our curiosity, have you heard about Fair Trade Coffee? __Yes __No  If yes, where did you heard about it? (Please specify.)  ___________________________________________  Do you know if UBC Food Service sells Fair Trade Coffee? __Yes __No   END OF SURVEY   Thank you for your participation.  Your effort is greatly appreciated.  If you have any questions or concerns, please contact us at (enter the appropriate e-mail address)  If you are interested and would like to learn more about UBC Sustainability Office, please visit www.sustain.ubc.ca.     57Exhibit 12: Sample of a Poka-Yoke list for UBC Imagine leaders   null Have you mention UBC Campus Sustainability Office and what it does?   null Did you remember to advertise the upcoming events?   null Did you remember to turn off the lights when you leave a classroom after a tour?   null Did you remember to remind students to recycle their pop cans in the correct bins?    null Did you remember to recycle the empty pizza boxes in the correct bins?   null Did you remember to remind students to throw away their own trash?   null Did you remember to pick up trashes if left on the ground by your students in the group?        58

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