UBC Undergraduate Research

Expanding the UBC Farm Market Bloomquist, Margaret; Chan, Tyler; Gray, Jason; O'Brien, Colleen; Lai, Mia; Takizawa, James; Wong, Vivian 2007-04-13

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 Expanding the UBC Farm Market Scenario 1, AGSC 450 2007   By: Group 26 - Margaret Bloomquist, Tyler Chan, Jason Gray, Colleen O’Brien, Mia Lai, James Takizawa, Vivian Wong For: Liska Richer Class: AGSC 450 Due: April 13th, 2007   UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA Table of Contents 1. ABSTRACT ............................................................................................................................. 4 2. INTRODUCTION..................................................................................................................... 5 2.1 Problem Statement for expansion of the UBC Farm Market ........................................... 5 2.2 The UBCFM in the context of the Broader Food System................................................ 5 2.3 Scope for Expansion....................................................................................................... 7 2.4 Group reflection to the Vision Statement of the UBCFS Project ..................................... 8 3. METHODOLOGY ...................................................................................................................10 3.1 Data analysis .................................................................................................................12 4. FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION ..............................................................................................13 4.1 Vendor Survey results and Discussion ..........................................................................13 4.2 Vendor survey bias ........................................................................................................14 4.3 Consumer Survey Findings............................................................................................14 4.4 Consumer Survey Discussion........................................................................................17 4.5 Consumer Survey Bias ..................................................................................................17 5. FARMERS MARKET REGULATIONS ...................................................................................18 5.1 Existing UBC Policy and Farm Market Expansion .........................................................18 5.2 Health Regulations and Farm Market Expansion...........................................................19 5.3 Vendor Policy.................................................................................................................21 5.4 Proposed Vendor Regulations .......................................................................................22 6. MARKET LOGISTICS ............................................................................................................24 6.1 Market Operation ...........................................................................................................24 6.2 Layout of the UBC Farm Market ....................................................................................25  2 6.3 Parking ..........................................................................................................................26 6.4 Transportation................................................................................................................26 7. EDUCATION ..........................................................................................................................27 8. RECOMMENDATIONS ..........................................................................................................28  TABLE of APPENDICES APPENDIX A...................................................................................................................................32 APPENDIX B...................................................................................................................................33 APPENDIX C ..................................................................................................................................34 APPENDIX D ..................................................................................................................................35 APPENDIX E...................................................................................................................................36 APPENDIX F...................................................................................................................................37 APPENDIX G ..................................................................................................................................39    3 1. ABSTRACT  The University of British Columbia Food System Project (UBCFSP) is an ongoing collaborative effort between AGSC 450 students, project collaborators and partners to build a more sustainable UBC Food System.  Our group investigated the feasibility of expanding the UBC Farm Market (UBCFM) to include a variety of vendors.  Expansion of the market aims to address a problem of excess demand for UBCFM products while enhancing and re-localizing the UBC food system.  Our research methodology involved Community Based Action Research (CBAR).  To determine the desirability of a UBCFM expansion, we surveyed both potential and current customers from the UBC community as well as local producers of cheese, meats, seafood, garlic and mushrooms.  Of the 540 customer responses received, the majority originated from UBC undergrads (37.8%), followed by UBC indirect-affiliates (18.0%), UBC alumni (15.4%), University residents (14.8%), UBC staff members (13.3%), UBC graduate students (12.8%), unspecified (7.2%), and UBC faculty or instructors (6.3%).  Customer responses indicate a keen desire for access to local fresh produce and cheeses at the UBCFM. There is little desirability, or indifference, for certain products and services such as: meat/seafood, baked goods, prepared foods, crafts, massages, barbeques, and face paintings. Two of ten vendor respondents, Windy Acres (garlic) and Goat’s Pride Dairy (high quality goat cheeses and fresh eggs), are interested to join the UBCFM in the 2007 season.  Both vendors could fill market niches at the UBCFM.  Also included in this report are the policies and insurance issues regarding UBCFM expansion.  Based on a plethora of survey results and research, we have included a set of recommendations for UBCFM expansion, including vendor regulations, market layout, and potential educational opportunities for customers at the markets.  We highly recommend that the UBCFM expand slowly in the short term to allow for adaptive management. Page 4 2. INTRODUCTION  The University of British Columbia Food System Project (hereinafter called UBCFSP) is an ongoing collaborative effort to evaluate the ‘food-print’ of UBC’s food system, to identify barriers to change, and to seize opportunities to increase the sustainability of the UBC food system.  In this paper, we outline one of the many strategies of the UBCFSP, namely, the expansion of the UBC Farm Market; an effort to re-localize the campus food system.  The demand for locally produced food is growing in Vancouver and throughout cities across North America (Halweil, 2002).  Prime examples of this are the growth in both the number and annual sales from Vancouver farmers’ markets administered by Your Local Farmer’s Market Society (YLMFS) (Roberta LaQuaglia, Personal Communication, AGSC 450 Lecture, March 14, 2007).  This trend has also been reflected by the growth of the UBC Farm Market (UBCFM) over the last six years.  Currently, the demand for UBCFM products exceeds supply.  As such, the farm management has expressed an interest in expanding the market to include a variety of vendors - particularly local BC vendors supplying meats, eggs, cheeses, and dairy products – to supplement the farm’s output of fruits, vegetables, honey, and eggs (Amy Frye, Personal Communication, AGSC 450 Lecture, March 14, 2007). 2.1 Problem Statement for expansion of the UBC Farm Market  The UBC Farm management requires further information regarding 1) the level of interest among BC vendors to join the UBCFM, 2) the demand for UBCFM products among the UBC community, and 3) the feasibility of expansion. 2.2 The UBCFM in the context of the Broader Food System  The desire to expand the UBCFM comes out the recognition of the unsustainable nature of the global food system of which the UBC food system is a microcosm.  Mirroring the larger system, Page 5 the campus food supply chain mostly delivers food of negligible nutritional quality, which is shipped in from afar to sustain a large urban population.  In the process, people are increasingly unhealthy while a large amount of waste is produced, either in terms of greenhouse emissions due to transport, packaging wastes and/or organic waste end products.  Globally, consumers are increasingly disconnected from their food sources (Halweil, 2002).  Although this problem is the result of many concurrent socio-economic forces that are moulded by a productionist paradigm, a fundamental support to the food system is cheap oil (Lang & Heasman, 2004; Pollan, 2006). Cheap oil affords agribusiness the ability to source foods from a global network of suppliers and utilize long term storage; it supports highly mechanized agricultural production systems and development of synthetic fertilizers and pesticides; and it allows consumers to travel ever increasing distances to large consolidated retailers while local business go under (Halweil, 2002; Pollan, 2006).  Because the relationship between food production, distribution, processing and retail is so heavily reliant on cheap oil, the dominant food system provides “cheap food” on the basis of externalized economic, ecological and social costs (Halweil, 2002).  Urbanization contributes to the disconnection between consumers and their source of food.  As urban sprawl continues, farming at the urban fringe becomes less profitable due to rising land values and distance between consumer and farm increases.  Ironically, even rural farming populations are increasingly disconnected from their food sources.  A market driven food system combined with production subsidies discourage local crop diversity and rural self-sufficiency (Halweil, 2002; Pollan, 2006).  Farmers’ markets, like the UBCFM, strive to reconnect local consumers and producers and to recreate a food system devoid of the unpleasant realities of the dominant food system. As Halweil (2002) points out, markets are one of the easiest ways to rebuild a local food system Page 6 because they operate “below the radar” of the conventional food system.  Markets create dependable socioeconomic partnerships where farmer income is increased and consumers benefit from access to nutritional fresh food and the reassurance that comes with knowledge of how ones food is produced.  Markets also promote the diversification of local production, which increases ecological resiliency of farms and is a further justification for the protection of local farmland (Halweil, 2002). 2.3 Scope for Expansion  As a group we have reached consensus that our approach to this project has been based on an ecocentric paradigm.  While we understand that decisions regarding market expansion must be economically and socially sound, we feel that all choices should reflect the highest degree of ecological consideration.  New vendors will preferably limit the ecological impact of the UBCFM. Their production practices, transportation distance, and ability to contribute an educational component to the Farm are important for maintaining the vision of the UBC Farm through a market expansion.  Our surveys of market demand were limited to the UBC community.  Looking any further a field was not considered the most ecologically responsible choice, as we would like to minimize the amount of travel distance between market and consumer.  Additionally, with the development of residential housing on UBC South Campus, it is expected that the local consumer base could increase substantially in coming years.  The UBCFM is therefore well suited to become an example of a cooperative and sustainable urban / agricultural interface (Mark Bomford, Personal Communication, AGSC 450 Lecture, March 14, 2007).  Also, based on discussions with Dr. Murray Isman, the Dean of the faculty of Land and Food Systems, and Amy Frye, the Marketing coordinator of the UBCFM, we feel that any future Page 7 expansion of the market should proceed in a stepwise fashion.  Short-term increases should be limited to 2-4 vendors so that UBCFM management has ample time to review the strengths and weakness of implementing change, reflect upon solutions and new strategies, and then move on. 2.4 Group reflection to the Vision Statement of the UBCFS Project  In general, our group is supportive of the vision statement of the UBCFSP; however, we have included a few suggestions for its improvement. The UBC Food System Project: 1) Must protect and enhance the diversity and the integrity of the natural ecosystem and resources that supports it  We easily support this statement as we understand that such a philosophy should guide any decisions regarding development on campus, and particularly the farm, because its proper functioning depends on sustainable management of a natural system.  As mentioned above, our collective ecocentric paradigm places “the integrity of the natural ecosystem and resources” as a primary priority.  Although often neglected in everyday issues, such philosophy is essential for both social and economic sustainability. 2) Relies on local inputs when possible, where inputs and waste are recycled and/or composted locally  As can be discerned from our proposed UBCFM regulations (see section 5.4) and the project scope (see section 2.3) we completely agree with this point. 3) ‘Is a secure system that provides food that is affordable, available, accessible, culturally, ethically and nutritionally appropriate, and safe and can adapt to changes’  Page 8 While we feel this statement is an excellent vision with regard to food security for the campus and the wider Vancouver communities, with regard to culturally appropriate food, we see potential for conflict with statement #1.  As noted by AGSC 450 Groups 15 & 28 (2006), many culturally appropriate foods - particularly fruits and vegetables originating from warmer climates - are difficult or impossible to produce locally and therefore require long-distance importation. Relying on importation of perishable foods can comprise an effort to preserve and protect the integrity of our shared global ecosystem.  That said, there is room for improvement and a vacant market niche for the local production of several staple cultural foods (Roberta LaQuaglia, Personal Communication, January 2007). We do, however, recognize the limitations of local food production due to seasonality: a more sustainable food system must limit imported foods as much as possible while increasing consumers’ education about winter food storage, food preserves, etc. 4) Nourishes the present generation to provide for healthy diets that do not compromise the food security of present or future generations.  We are in agreement with this guiding principle. 5) Nurtures feelings of community and promotes enjoyment of food around the food table.  We agree and feel that the UBC Farm is the best existing example of this vision on campus.  The UBCFM expansion is a good strategy to meet this vision given the future of a neighbouring community to the farm on south campus. 6) Fosters awareness, understanding and personal responsibility within the community of every component from production to disposal. Page 9 Through the use of educational tools, tours, and activities available during the UBCFM, we believe this can be accomplished (see sections 7 & 8).  A cyclical waste management system that is already in place at the UBC farm is sure to foster awareness about waste disposal. 7) Contains a balance of imported and local foods that come from socially and ecologically conscious producers to ensure long-term financial viability.  Referring back to statements 1 and 3, unless products are not possible to produce locally, we do not wish to support imported foods.  If financial sustainability of the UBC Food system requires the importation of foods, then perhaps a ‘friendly amendment’ to the vision statement could be put forward as to read something to the effect: “Strives to minimize reliance on imported food over time while maximizing opportunities for local production of culturally appropriate foods.” An added benefit of farmers markets is the keeping of money within the community (Halweil, 2002; Pollan, 2006). 8) Consumers, food workers and educators are made aware of the reciprocal impacts that the UBC food system has on surrounding food systems. This goal can be achieved through the use of educational tools, tours, and activities, which we recommended the market host: anyone who partakes in such activities should leave with an increased knowledge, as the products they have purchased and/or the event they participated in will help in the long-term social, economical, and ecological sustainability of the UBC Community. 3. METHODOLOGY  In assessing the feasibility of expanding the UBCFM, we utilized Community Based Action Research (CBAR) methodology, in accordance with the wider UBCFSP.  Writings in Action Research (Stringer, 1999) informed our CBAR methods.  Other literature review included previous Page 10 AGSC 450 UBCFSP student reports, course material and other texts on the topic of food system sustainability.  At this stage in the UBCFSP, our role in CBAR is to gather further preliminary information about the feasibility of expanding the UBCFM.  We realize that our research is one cycle in the process of CBAR.  According to Stringer’s ‘action research routine’ we are fulfilling the ‘look’ and ‘think’ stages, the results of which will inspire an “act” stage in the near future (Stringer, 1999).  We are hopeful that our efforts will instigate future CBAR cycles to guide UBCFSP partners and collaborators in the development of more strategies (such as this one) to fulfill the vision of UBCFSP.  Our group’s main data collection included two surveys: a UBC community consumer survey and a local vendor survey.  All ‘scenario 1’ groups collaborated in the preparation, dissemination and analysis of these surveys.  We chose surveys as the best means to gather research from multiple stakeholders given our time constraints and because well-designed surveys are convenient to analyze.  Additional data collection included informal discussion and email correspondence to determine UBC vendor policies, farm management criteria, and farmers’ market policies of Your Local Farmers Market Society (YLFMS). Some groups we communicated with included the Alma Mater Society (AMS), Classroom Services, YLFMS, Murray Isman (Dean of the Faculty of Land and Food Systems) and the UBC Farm.  All parties shared knowledge about the feasibility of UBCFM expansion.  A vendor survey was drafted by a subgroup consisting of members from each of the five ‘scenario 1’ working groups.  The survey consisted of 8 questions intended to determine the willingness of vendors to join an expanding UBCFM and under which conditions they would be most likely to attend (see the vendor survey in Appendix A).  Based on Amy Frye’s (2007) Page 11 suggestions, target vendors included local producers of cheese, meat, seafood, eggs, garlic and mushrooms.  The survey was initially e-mailed to thirteen vendors and involving convenience sampling.  The breakdown of vendors by commodity included 4 cheeses, 5 meats, 1 garlic, 1 mushroom coop, and 1 seafood vendor (see list of vendors in Appendix C).  If after a period of 6 days, no response had been received from a vendor, they were surveyed by telephone. The vendor subgroup had intended to contact a larger number of vendors, but this was contingent upon timely receipt of a list of vendors from Roberta LaQuaglia of YLFMS.  Roberta did, in fact, graciously produce a list of vendors that were turned away from YLFMS due to limited market space; however, it was received on April 04, 2007, which was too late to be useful this year. The list provides an opportunity to future AGSC 450 students to access this information from YLFMS (see Appendix D). A consumer survey was disseminated electronically through Survey Monkey™ over a period of one week to the following groups: UBC students, UBC Farm customers, UBC Farm volunteers, others (Cathleen Nichols’ & Carol Travis’ email lists, the UBC Food Society, and Sprouts), and University Neighbourhoods Association (UNA). The survey utilized non-bias, random sampling (see Appendix E). 3.1 Data analysis  Vendor data was analyzed qualitatively by coding written and spoken responses into groupings.  Survey questions 1 and 3 were exceptions because they involved “yes” and “no” answers, which could be analyzed using percentage response rates.  Also, survey bias was considered in determining the reliability of data. Page 12 Consumer data was analyzed based on the distribution of response rates among 540 respondents.  Further, response rates from individual groups within the UBC Community listed above were analyzed for trends.  Also, bias was considered in determining the reliability of data. 4. FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION 4.1 Vendor Survey results and Discussion  Of the thirteen vendors contacted, ten (77%) responded.  Unfortunately, two responses, from Greenhill Acres and Moonstruck Organic Cheese, were not accompanied by informed consent. The remaining eight replies did include informed consent (see Appendix B).  From a total of ten respondents, two (20%) vendors, Goat’s Pride Dairy and Windy Acres (garlic), indicated a desire to join the market during its present schedule on Saturdays from 9 – 1 pm.  The eight others (80%) explained that their inability or disinterest to join the market was due to long traveling distance (cited twice), labour shortage (cited twice) and/or prior commitments to other farmers markets (cited five times).  However, three (38%) of the ‘no’ respondents expressed an interest for the market if it were rescheduled to another day or time. Two vendors, Greenhill Acres (without consent) and Wildseafoods, showed interest in joining the market if it were held Saturday afternoon (e.g. 3 – 7 pm) following the YLFMS Trout Lake Farmers Market.  Little Qualicum Cheeseworks would be keen to sell at the UBCFM if it were held on Sundays (see Appendix B).  Seven out of ten respondents answered question 8 regarding the cost of a stall at the UBCFM.  Of those seven, six (86%) agreed to a stall fee between $25 and $30.  Frostbauer Natural Food Farm felt that a $20 fee was more appropriate.  Although only two positive vendor responses were obtained, it is an encouraging start given the likelihood and feasibility of a slow, short-term increase in the number of vendors at Page 13 UBCFM (Amy Frye, Personal Communication, AGSC 450 Lecture, March 14, 2007). Fortunately, Goat’s Pride Dairy is not only a producer of fine cheeses, but also of free range eggs which are badly needed at the UBCFM (ibid).  Similarly, Windy Acres can supply garlic, which is also in high demand (ibid).  The respondents who would consider joining the market if it were held late Saturday afternoon could easily be disregarded as this is not an ideal time of day for shopping for many customers.  Additionally, mid-summer heat is highest during those daylight hours and could present issues for maintaining high produce quality. 4.2 Vendor survey bias  While the vendor survey did get a fairly high response rate (77%), there could be have significant bias associated with the administration of the survey by telephone.  Several subgroup members administered the survey leaving much room for individual interpretation.  Also, question eight may have yielded biased results inherent in contingency valuation, whereby; respondents’ willingness to pay in a survey is often in excess of their final commitments. 4.3 Consumer Survey Findings Of the five UBC community groups surveyed (see section 3), 540 responses were compiled from all groups. The majority of respondents were UBC undergrads (37.8%), followed by UBC indirect-affiliates (18.0%), UBC alumni (15.4%), University residents (14.8%), UBC staff members (13.3%), UBC graduate students (12.8%), unspecified (7.2%), and UBC faculty or instructors (6.3%) (Figure 1).  Page 14 37.8% 18.0% 15.4% 14.8% 13.3% 12.8% 7.2% 6.3% 0.0% 5.0% 10.0% 15.0% 20.0% 25.0% 30.0% 35.0% 40.0% 1 Categories Pe rc en t r es po ns e pe r r es po nd en t UBC undergraduates UBC indirect- affiliates UBC alumni University residents UBC staff UBC graduates other UBC faculty or instructors  Figure 1.  Percent distribution of respondent-types among all groups  When asked about the acceptability of local but non-organic products at the UBCFM, more than 80% of respondents in each group responded in support.  Further, 64% of total respondents feel that organic certification is only somewhat to not important: UBC students are the most inclined to not require certification, and UBC Farm customers show mixed opinions. Despite this, 83% and 77% of total respondents feel it is very to extremely important for foods to be free of pesticides and genetic modification: respectively the UBC Farm volunteers showed most support at 90% and 87%, while UBC students showed the least support at 58% and 42%. In terms of a definition of ‘local food’, 79% of all respondents agree that having products grown in the Lower Mainland and BC is very to extremely important. In contrast, half (53%) of total respondents think it is somewhat to not important to have foods directly from UBC farm: particularly, 60% of others, and 44% of UBC Farm volunteers. The trend for fresh local foods is reflected by 74% to 96% of respondents in each group showing much interest in having produce at the farmers market: all groups are 90% or greater, except others (83%) and UBC students (74%). Page 15 Generally all respondents are neutral in terms of having meat and seafood at the UBCFM: 55% and 46% of total respondents are not interested mildly interested in having meat and seafood, respectively. However, the highest response rate is 62% for UNA respondents who are somewhat to very interested in having seafood at the UBC Farm Market. As for having crafts and services at the UBCFM, 61%, and 53% of total respondents are mildly to not interested, respectively.  In contrast, 65% of total respondents are somewhat to very interested in having baked goods.  Similarly, 64% for all respondents are somewhat to very interested in having prepared foods.  Although baked goods and prepared foods show some desirability, 77% of total respondents are somewhat to very interested in having cheese. The majority of respondents (81.9% on average) per group indicate that they are willing to pay a higher premium for local products: UNA and UBC Farm Customers/Volunteers rank highest at 85.7% and 84.1%, respectively.  Half (45%) of respondents (especially UBC Farm customers/volunteers) think that convenience is not a factor at the farmers market; however 79% of UBC Students and 63% of others think that it is very to extremely important, respectively. Respondents (average 48%) feel that having a variety of foods at the farmers market is not to somewhat important.  In terms of the available quantity of products at the UBCFM, half (49%) of total respondents feel that is not to somewhat important. Generally, respondents are willing to have local and fresh products at the expense of price, quantity, variety, and convenience. All groups support (average 68.4% response rate) having the farmers market on Sundays from 9am to 2pm; however, this response could be heavily biased as the current Saturday timeslot was not an option in the question regarding market scheduling. Out of 25 written comments, 10 mention that Saturday is best for them, while others are unsure, indifferent, or prefer different times on the weekend or weekdays. Page 16 Half of respondents (49%) show interest in having activities at the farmers market (barbeques, face painting, etc), while 44.8% show no interest, and 5.9% of respondents do not state a preference. Specifically, there is support from 58.9% of UBC Farm volunteers and 40% of others, whereas 52.7% of UBC Farm customers and 52.6% of students are not in support. 4.4 Consumer Survey Discussion  Overall, responses indicate that having local (but not necessarily organically certified) and fresh products (especially produce and cheese) at the UBCFM are much desired. Respondents are willing to pay premium for more sustainable or local products, and feel that local products should not be limited to the UBC Farm but to the Lower Mainland or BC.  Despite lack of support for organic certification, respondents show strong support for products that are free of pesticides and genetic modification. There is little to some desirability, or indifference, for certain products and services such as: meat/seafood, baked goods, prepared foods, crafts, massages, barbeques, and face paintings. Respondents show support for the UBCFM to be held on Sunday; however, due to the aforementioned bias it is strongly recommended that it remain held on Saturdays, at least until more reliable data is collected. 4.5 Consumer Survey Bias All groups to which the survey was distributed, except the UBC students group, consist of several respondent-types (UBC undergraduates, UBC indirect-affiliates, University residents, etc.). Some groups have a similar distribution of respondent-types, such as between others, UBC Farm volunteers, and UBC Farm customers; thus, different response rates between groups may not be significant. Presenting results on a per respondent-type basis would have provided a more distinct comparison; however this was not possible due to the analysis limitations of Survey Monkey™. Page 17 Therefore, the analysis of all 540 respondents from all groups, as is done here, may be more significant and reliable.  In terms of the survey format, respondents may have committed the Central Tendency error, which states that responses were focused in the midrange of two extremes (i.e. between not important and very important), as they may have wanted to avoid expressing a strong opinion (Agriculture & Agri-Food Canada, 1991).  Also, the order in which questions were presented may have caused respondents to provide similar answers to subsequent questions (Proximity error), or may have led respondents to provide a particular answer because the question appeared to be logically associated to another question (Logical error) (ibid, 1991). For instance, respondents were asked to rank the importance of twelve criteria in a single tabular-formed question (Q5 in Appendix E) – the twelve criteria being in such close proximity and showing logical association could have caused the aforementioned Proximity and Logical errors. The content of survey questions may have caused bias.  In particular, respondents were asked which market days would be best for them; it offered all days of the week except for Saturday (Q7 of Appendix E).  As mentioned above, written comments suggested keeping Saturday as the current market day: had it been included, more respondents may have selected it, rather than Sunday.  Moreover, the survey question in regard to the desirability of activities at the UBCFM may not have adequately provided enough information for respondents to provide a reliable answer; the question only listed barbeques and face paintings as examples. 5. FARMERS MARKET REGULATIONS 5.1 Existing UBC Policy and Farm Market Expansion  After communicating with the Alma Mater society, who administer the rental of tables and space to vendors during events at the Student Union Building, we were directed to Classroom Page 18 services who explained that the Faculty of Land and Food Systems and the UBC Farm are the regulating bodies for vendor policies affecting the UBCFM expansion (AMS, Personal Communication, January 2007; Classroom Services, Personal Communication, January 2007).  UBCFM expansion is unaffected by UBC Campus and Community Planning’s development permits.  Development permits are required for new or temporary buildings, but not for fences or sheds, nor for the temporary table set-ups required of the UBCFM expansion (UBC Campus & Community Planning, 2006).  AGSC 450 Group 15 (2006) revealed that permission from the Dean of Land and Food Systems is a necessary step in the policy framework to orchestrate a market expansion.  Under the condition that our expansion proposals support the UBC Farm’s vision, the Dean of the Faculty of Land and Food Systems, Dr. Murray B. Isman has granted permission for an initial, small-scale expansion of the UBCFM (Dr. Murray Isman, Personal Communication, March 4, 2007).  However, permission is contingent on periodic evaluations of the ecological and financial viability of the market as it expands in the years to come.  Dean Isman noted that evaluations must consider the effects of increased waste production and recycling, health regulations, parking issues, and profitability (ibid).  He was assured that those issues, and more, were being addressed in this project (see Appendix G for a copy of email correspondence indicating both Dean Isman’s permission and Mark Bomford’s confirmation that UBCFM expansion is integral to the vision of the farm). 5.2 Health Regulations and Farm Market Expansion Health regulations enforced by the Vancouver Coastal Health (VCH) Authority will affect the method in which foods are prepared for and sold at the UBCFM; their purpose is to ensure that foods being sold do not pose a threat to consumer health. Page 19 Organizers, and vendors who are selling prepared, higher risk foods and preparing foods at the market are required to abide by the Guidelines for Special Events Organizers and Guidelines for Construction & Operation of a Temporary Food Booth (BC Association of Farmers’ Markets, 2007c).  The guidelines state that organizers and vendors must have at least Foodsafe Level I certification, and that organizers submit to VCH a list of all vendors 14 days prior to the UBCFM, as well as a site map indicating the location of food vendors and sinks (VCH, 2005; VCH, 2003). Vendors will have to submit an application for a Temporary Special Event Food Permit 14 days prior to attending the market – failure to meet this deadline results in a $30 late fee (VCH, 2006). Vendors who are serving produce or lower risk home-prepared foods must adhere to the Farmers’ Market Guidelines, but will not require any permits (Bill McIntyre, Personal Communication, March 13, 2007).  The guidelines suggest that only those foods deemed as lower risk foods shall be prepared at home; lower risk foods do not support the growth of pathogenic bacteria, whereas higher risk foods support the growth of pathogenic bacteria such as E. coli and salmonella (BCAFM, 2007c). At the point of sale, lower risk home-prepared food vendors should clearly display a warning to consumers which states that “[their] food has been prepared in a kitchen that is not inspected by a regulatory authority” (BCAFM, 2007c, p.  3). Hand wipes are adequate for sanitizing hands for vendors of whole fruits/vegetable; however, home-prepared food samples and portioned produce require a source of water (minimum 5 gallons) and soap for hand and utensil cleaning. Portioning of samples at home prior to the market is recommended (BCAFM, 2007c). Vendors of higher risk foods (shell eggs and raw meat, poultry and fish) must gain approval from VCH by submitting the Sale of Food at Temporary Food Markets application (BCAFM reference) 30 days prior to the market (BCAFM, 2007c).  In particular, regulation requires vendors of raw meat, poultry, and seafood to sell only pre-packaged frozen and labelled products Page 20 with the packaging date, vendor’s contact information, frozen storage information, and product and processor’s name.  Sale of any thawed and subsequently refrozen meats will be prohibited; thus they must remain in a frozen solid state at the market (ibid).  Egg vendors are required to sell uniform (crack-/leak-free) and clean (feces-/feather-free) eggs and crates. They shall be kept at 4oC from the farm/processor to the consumer, and must be labelled with the farm/processor name and the packaging and sale date (ibid).  Lastly, the guidelines suggests that a market manager be appointed to ensure that the above regulations are followed, that all vendors (except produce vendors) complete the SFTFM application, and are able to produce a letter of approval from VCH (ibid). 5.3 Vendor Policy All BC farmers markets are registered as non-profit organizations (NPO). There are two ways of registering as a non-profit organization: non-incorporated or incorporated (Group 15, 2006). There are numerous benefits of becoming a NPO, including a tax-deductible status, being able to apply for grants / funding and issuing tax-deductible receipts. All NPOs can be incorporated either federally or provincially, depending on their goals. The benefits and costs of incorporation are discussed thoroughly by AGSC 450 Group 15 (2006).  The UBC Farm must obtain its own insurance policy to cover officers, employees and the board of governors of the NPO, as well as personal liability.  The UBC Farm is presently insured by UBC policy and current vendors are considered to be part of the farm’s education aspect, and thus are covered.  New vendors will require their own, or need to purchase UBC insurance coverage. There are two recommended ways for the UBCFM to acquire insurance. Once the UBCFM has acquired status as an NPO, it can become an “Associate Member” of the BCAFM.  Under this status, the UBCFM will receive up to $2,000,000 in coverage at an annual cost of $325 (BCFMA, Page 21 2007).  The alternate method is to purchase individual liability insurance as well as governor and manager insurance. The rates for this are dependant on the package the UBCFM chooses, but all are more costly than the rates offered by BCAFM.  Also, the rates for NPO insurance have risen steadily over the last few years, making this option less favourable (Harris, 2005).  To decide which option to pursue, the board of directors must review initial start up costs of finding an independent insurer against having to abide by regulations of the BCAFM and pay their associated transaction costs. 5.4 Proposed Vendor Regulations We have developed a set of regulations to facilitate a smooth and efficient expansion of the UBCFM.  Regulations will benefit the farm, vendors and customers alike. In developing these regulations we drew from ideas presented by Roberta LaQuaglia of YLFMS and other sources. Currently, the UBCFM charges a $5 stall fee (Mark Bomford, Personal Communication, AGSC 450 Lecture, March 14, 2007).  Based on the results from the vendor survey, we suggest that UBC Farm Management increase this fee to $25.  Notwithstanding a fee increase, vendors must bring their own table.  This practice is the norm at other farmers markets and the UBCFM does not have enough tables to supply all vendors if the numbers increase.  Additionally, a higher fee will be required to cover the cost of vendor insurance.  Currently, the UBCFM is reselling apples and fruit from the Okanagan to meet their customers’ demand.  New vendors should not be allowed the reselling of any goods, but UBCFM should continue buying these goods through Discovery Organics, at least in the short term.  We believe it is more sustainable for Discovery Organics to pool large orders of produce, rather than having many small farmers each driving down to sell directly at the market.  If some farmers in the Page 22 Okanagan were to carpool, it could be an alternative, but currently, buying from Discovery Organics is the best choice for the farm.  We have devised regulations pertaining to vendor inclusion at the UBCFM based on the UBCFSP vision statement and our concept of sustainability. 1. Vendors are only considered if they reside in BC.  Those vendors operating closest to the UBCFM should have priority over those based further a field. 2. It is required that the vendor be a producer or family member. This regulation is intended to promote social sustainability at the event.  Customers at the UBCFM will have a chance to meet and discuss with farmers growing their food, which is one of the many benefits of shopping at a farmers market. 3. The UBCFM will include a majority (55-60%) of vendors selling organic produce.  Albeit, we do recognize that a non-organic vendor is equally capable of farming in a sustainable way. However, if a non-organic vendor requests inclusion, he/she must disclose production practices. 4. Seniority should be given to existing vendors, as the UBC Farm has already formed a relationship with them and they have a customer base at the UBC Farm Market. 5. Vendors cannot leave the market early even if they have sold all their products; this would not be good for the appearance of the UBCFM.  Farmers are welcome to leave and come back, but cannot pack up their table until the end of the market.  At the end of the day, it would be beneficial to collect vendor daily sales reports. The UBCFM initiated this last season, so they do have an idea of how much money is flowing through the market in one day (Amy Frye, Personal Communication, AGSC 450 Lecture, March 14, 2007). This could be used to give potential vendors an idea of the volume of the UBCFM, how much to bring, and how much to expect in sales. Page 23 6. MARKET LOGISTICS 6.1 Market Operation The UBCFM has been in operation since 2001. The UBCFM relies on 1.5 hectares of market garden land and an additional 4 hectares has potential for agricultural use (Group 28, 2006). Currently, there are 7 vendors regularly at the market: Mayan group, Sprouts, Just Abundance & Beyond Nutrition, Moody Bees, UBC Honey Bee Project, Artist in Residence and Urban Aboriginal Community Kitchen Garden Project (Amy Frye, Personal Communication, AGSC 450 Lecture, March 14, 2007).  UBCFMs are open from 9 am to 1 pm every Saturday between June and early October (ibid).  Long line-ups and products running out quickly indicate the popularity of the market. Consumer survey respondents indicate a desire for an extension of the UBCFM operating hours by one hour (i.e. 2pm). This could be beneficial, provided produce doesn’t run out early. There is also consumer (68%) demand for a Sunday market.  While the UBCFM management has considered changing the market to Sunday, we feel that maintenance of a Saturday schedule is preferable to accommodate present customers and the two vendors interested in joining the market (see section 4.1). Also, the initiation of a YLFMS Kitsilano market in 2007 could a pose customer conflict. Page 24  Area C: 10 stalls Area AArea B: 2 large stalls Harvest Hut   6 w a c b c (e S a foFigure 2. Proposed layout for an expanded UBCFM.2 Layout of the UBC Farm Market In hopes of accommodating more vendors and a quicker flow of customers at the UBCFM e have created a modified layout of the UBCFM incorporating ideas from AGSC 450 groups 15 nd 28 (2006) (Figure 2).  The UBCFM could be separated into 3 main areas.  Area A, is a 50m² overed space attached to the ‘Harvest Hut’, and is best suited for the display of UBC produce and aked goods (as it is presently used).  Area B, adjacent to Area A, is approximately 50m2 and ould used be for one or two larger vendors that need space for both their produce and equipment .g. frozen meats and seafood vendors who require a refrigerated truck adjacent to their stall). hould there be no large vendors attending, this area shall be assigned to new smaller vendors on  first-come basis.  Area C, a level grassy area opposite the road to the harvest hut, could be used r up to 10 small stalls. Page 25 The vendor survey indicates that 2 vendors are prepared to join the UBCFM.  Unless more vendors are recruited in the short term, Area B is likely to accommodate all vendors.  Area C has enough room for vendors if the market continues to expand in the coming years. 6.3 Parking  A total of 8 cars can park in the main lot outside the UBC farm gate.  Currently, “overflow” parking is used on South Campus Road and accommodates approximately 40 cars. Assuming an expanded market will occur, additional traffic problems will have to be solved. The parking lots of Paprican, Triumf and BC Research could potentially ease overflow. If needed, permission to use these lots will have to be obtained.  While these lots are large, the exact number of cars that can hold is still unknown.  If we intend to expand the UBCFM, vendors will have first priority to use the parking areas nearest to the harvest hut (Mark Bomford, Personal Communication, AGSC 450 Lecture, March 14, 2007). 6.4 Transportation Since the UBC Farm is located in an underdeveloped area of UBC, the accessibility to UBC Farm is a potential barrier to the expansion the UBCFM.  Driving and cycling are primary sources of transportation to UBC Farm.  Bus and shuttle bus services, provided by TransLink and the Coast Mountain Bus, do not service areas near the farm (Figure 3). The Translink stops for buses 25, 41, 43, 49 and 480, are located at the intersection of Westbrook Mall and 16th Avenue. The shuttle bus stop is located at the intersection of Westbrook Mall and Hampton Place.  An additional 10-15 minute walk from the drop-off locations is necessary to reach the UBC Farm. The UBC Farm has contacted different organizations in the past to try and expand the current bus route to include a stop closer to, or at, the UBC farm. These requests were declined; the main reason being high operational costs. Page 26 The West End Market of YLFMS has successfully implemented a bicycle taxi service for seniors (Roberta LaQuaglia, Personal Communication, AGSC 450 Lecture, March 14, 2007). Perhaps a similar mode of transport form bus stops and overflow parking lots could facilitate customer movement too and from the market.  Figure 3: Route of UBC Community Shuttle Source: UBC TREK Program Centre. 7. EDUCATION  Education is one of the central roles of the UBC Farm’s mission (Land and Food Systems, 2006).  To achieve this end, UBC Farm Management attempts to incorporate educational opportunities into all farm activities, including Saturday markets.  When people attend the UBCFM, they are met with the unique experience of buying food on a working farm (Group 28, 2006).  They are able to go out into the field and see the produce growing, as well as talk to farmers that have harvested the produce.  Market goers can also gain Page 27 some hands on experience, and may have the opportunity to pick their own produce (ibid).  This offers a rare experience to urban dwellers.  To further the educational component of the UBCFM, we have the following suggestions. During the market, vendors are strongly encouraged to bring a one-page biography of their farm to display at their stall.  This way, customers can see how their food was produced. This may also serve as an ice-breaker for customers and vendors to discuss sustainable and humane production methods.  There is also potential for vendors and local cooks to do provide workshops highlighting recipes involving local, fresh, seasonal produce.  Customers could also be presented with seasonal recipe flyers; they are more likely to try something new having the knowledge of how to prepare it.  We believe having nutritional information displayed around the UBCFM would greatly contribute to the educational component of the markets.  Fortunately, interpretive signage is currently being produced for customers to be able to take self-guided tours around the farm.  A customer suggestion box could also provide feedback regarding changes they might want to see at UBCFM.  As education is a key component of the UBC Farm’s mission, we believe it is very important to continue to expand these educational resources at markets.  A larger market will also mean more exposure for the programs that are already being run at the farm, including their summer camp program (Group 28, 2006).  We understand that many of these suggestions require more volunteers than the farm currently has, but these can be goals that the UBC Farm can work towards as the market expands. 8. RECOMMENDATIONS          In conclusion, based on our findings and discussions, our group proposes some recommendations to help to expand the UBCFM and to provide guidance for future research: Page 28 • The UBCFM should begin expansion this year with the inclusion of Goats’ Pride Dairy (cheeses and eggs) and Windy Acres (garlic). • Future AGSC 450 classes should utilize the YLFMS list of vendors in Appendix D to recruit new UBCFM vendors. • Future vendor surveys conducted by AGSC 450 students should be standardized (i.e. limited to email correspondence or phone calls, not both). • The UBCFM Saturday schedule should be maintained to preserve the loyal consumer base and current UBCFM vendors.  A Saturday market will also reduce overlap and competition for customers with the new Kitsilano YLFMS farmers market beginning in June 2007. • The UBCFM should only sell local BC produce that is produced by sustainable farming methods. • The UBCFM should not be limited to certified organic vendors. • Implement educational events and information aforementioned in the education section (7.0) of this paper.  These will not only help the UBCFM to expand, but will also increase social sustainability by allowing visitors to gain further interest in the farm and community participation in the UBC Food System. • In the short term, the UBCFM should maintain present insurance policy for outside vendors.  In the long term, we suggest that the UBC Farm become a non-profit organization to qualify for BCAMF membership and insurance coverage ($325). Charging thirteen vendors at $25 each will cover this cost. • UBCFM expansion should occur in a stepwise fashion to allow for adaptive management regarding possible labour shortages, increased waste production, etc.  We suggest increasing the number of vendors by 2 to 4 every year as a short-term goal, with annual re-evaluation. Page 29 REFERENCES Agriculture & Agri-Food Canada.  (1991).  Laboratory Methods for Sensory Analysis of Food. Research Branch, 1864/E  AGSC 450 Group 15, 2006.  “Group15.” 4 Apr.  2007. <http://www.webct.ubc.ca/SCRIPT/agsc_450/scripts/serve_home>.  AGSC 450 Group 28, 2006.  “Group 28.” 4 Apr.  2007. <http://www.webct.ubc.ca/SCRIPT/agsc_450/scripts/serve_home>.  AMS Bookings, Bloomquist, Margaret.   (February, 2007).   Topic: Existing UBC Policy Affecting Outside Vendors.   Informal Discussion.  BC Association of Farmers’ Markets (2007a).  Constitutions and Bylaws.  Retrieved March 19, 2007, from http://www.bcfarmersmarket.org/web/aboutus/bylaws.htm  BC Association of Farmers’ Markets.  (2007b). Guideline for the Sale of Foods at Temporary Food Markets.  Retrieved February 24, 2007 from http://www.bcfarmersmarket.org/web/pdf/foodsaleguidelines07.pdf  BC Association of Farmers’ Markets (2007c).   New Health Regulations For Farmers’ Markets. Retrieved February 24, 2007 from http://www.bcfarmersmarket.org/web/pdf/foodsaleguidelines07.pdf  Canadian Food Inspection Agency.  (n.d.).  Meat Hygiene Manual of Procedures: Chapter 4. Retrieved April 04, 2007 from http://www.inspection.gc.ca/english/anima/meavia/mmopmmhv/chap4/4.10e.shtml Halweil, B.  (2002) Home Grown: The Case for Local Food and a Global Market.  Thomas Prugh  (Ed.) Worldwatch Paper 163.  Retrieve on April 4, 2007, from,  http://www.risc.org.uk/readingroom/case%20for%20local%20food.pdf Harris.  C (2005).  Canadian Underwriter, Canada’s Insurance and Risk Magazine.  Voluntary  Reaction.  Retrieved March 30, 2007 from  http://www.canadianunderwriter.ca/Issues/ISarticle.asp?id=162119&story_id=6663812142  6&issue=03012005&PC=&btac=no  Import – Definitions from Dictionary.com.  (2007).  Dictionary.com.  Retrieved on April 4, 2007, from http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/import  Lang, T., Heasman, M. (2004) Food Wars: The Global Battle for Mouths, Minds and Markets. Earthscan, London, Serling, VA.  Pollan, M.  (2006). The Omnivore’s Dilemma: A Natural History of Four Meals.  Penguin Press HC, Toronto, Ontario, Canada  Page 30 Stringer, E.  T.  (1999).  Action Research.  Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.  UBC Campus & Community Planning.  (2006).  Development Permits.  Retrieved April 01, 2007 from www.planning.ubc.ca/corebus/devperms.html  UBC Classroom Services, Bloomquist, Margaret.   (February, 2007).   Topic: Existing UBC Policy Regarding Vendors Outside the Student Union Building.   Informal Discussion.  UBCTrek.  (2002).  Research.  Retrieved April 02, 2007 from www.trek.ubc.ca/research/pdf/UBC_GHG_Emissions.xls  Vancouver Coastal Health (2003).  Guidelines for Construction & Operation of a Temporary Food Booth.  Retrieved February 24, 2007 from http://www.vch.ca/environmental/docs/food/Guidelines_TemporaryFoodBooth.pdf  --- (2005).  Guidelines for Special Events Organizers.  Retrieved February 24, 2007 from, http://www.vch.ca/environmental/docs/food/Guidelines_seo.pdf  --- (2006).  Temporary Special Event Food Permit.  Retrieved February 24, 2007 from, http://www.vch.ca/environmental/docs/food/food_permit.pdf    Page 31 Page 32  APPENDIX A Survey Questions for Vendors 1) Are you aware that the UBC Farm hosts a Farmers Market on Saturdays?  2) At the farmers markets you currently attend, how much of your produce are you able to sell? (Kg, fraction of total produce?)  3) Are you interested in coming out to the UBC Farmers Market to sell your products? Why or why not?   4) Presently, the UBC market is held on Saturdays from 9 am to 1 pm.  Does this time slot work for you? If not, what day would work best for you?  5) Which products and what volume do you estimate you could supply to the UBC Farmers market?  6) What is the size of the stall you are utilizing at the farmers market you are currently attending?    Small (6X7)? Medium (10X20)? Large (16X20)?  7) If there are volunteers available, would you be interested in having them help you during the market hours?  8) Do you think $25 - $30 is a reasonable starting rate to be a vendor at a farmer's market? APPENDIX B C onsent Vendor Q 1 Q 2 Q 3 W hy or why not Q 4 Q 5 Q 6 Q 7 Q 8 yes W indy Acres y 100% y y garlic perhaps other vegetables 10x30 yes yes (30$) yes G oat’s Pride Da iry at McLennon C reek n variable depending on product usua lly 50% turnover y yes (because they do not have m any outlets in  P oint G rey) O rganic goat cheeses and eggs 10X  20 yes yes yes L ittle  Q ua licum  Cheeseworks y 100% n Manybe the odd  week O ther m arke t com m itm ents, yes (if  he ld on  S unday) cheeses 10x10 yes yes yes W ildseafoods n extra  product a lways ava ilab le n O ther m arket com m itm ents, bu t like ly if  he ld  from  3-7  pm price  lis t w ill fo llow 10 X  10 ten t +  19 cube truck yes yes no G reenh ill Acres y 0.25 o f stock n O ther m arket com m itm ents, bu t like ly if  he ld  from  3-7  pm n/a n /a n/a n/a yes G oldw ing O strich  P roducts y 100% n short on labour and too fa r yes (if  they can sw ing it the  schedu le  is f ine) B eef ch icken and  tu rke t 10x10 no yes yes A m berco tt Acres n n/a n a lready a t pen ticton  on S aturday n n/a n /a n/a n/a yes Forsbauer Natura l Food Farm y 100% n short on labour and a lready a ttend 3  m arkets no  n /a n /a no 20$ no Moonstruck O rgan ic Cheese y a lways have extra  stock n no (costs and  tim e o f trave l m ake it too ha rd) n /a n /a n/a n/a yes S pecia lty Mushroom  G rowers Co-op y 100% n too  fa r, a lready a t Trout Lake no (No  bette r tim e because S undays w ill be  taken  up w ith  the  new  YLFMS on S undays and weekdays a re  una ttra tive to  m ost fa rm ers) n /a n /a n yes T otals 30 % no t aw are 20% yes 70% aw are 80% no 38% o f 'no ' respondents cou ld  change if  it held  on ano ther day Table 1: Sum m ary of R esults to  V endor survey  Page 33 APPENDIX C Vendor name Products Wanted Owners Tel: web site Little Qualicum Cheeseworks Cheese, eggs Clarke and Nancy Gourlay 604-854-6261 www.cheeseworks.ca Goat's Pride Dairy (formerly McLennan Creek) Cheese Peter Dykstra 604-854-6261 www.goatspride.com Moonstruck Organic Cheese Cheese Susan and Julia Grace 250-537-4987 www.moonstruckcheese.com Ridgecrest Dairies Ltd Cheese Dave Verdonk Tel: 604-820-4001 Pasture to Plate beef, lamb, pork, garlic, dried meat Jasmin and Felix Schellenberg, Barbara Schellenberg Tel: 604-254-6782 www.pasture-to-plate.com Forstbauer Natural Food Farm Meat, eggs, veg.,  Hans and Mary Forstbauer and Farmily www.forstbauer.com Goldwing Ostrich Products meat Bonnie and Ed Curtis Tel: 604-856-2888 www.goldwingostrichprod.com Greenhill Acres beef, pork, garlic, squashes Georges and Janice Uebelhardt Tel: 604-858-9917 www.greenhillacres.com Jay Springs Lamb Company lamb Chris & Jennifer Cunningham 250-573-3609 www.jayspringslamb.ca Iron Maiden Seafoods Seafood Gigi Egan www.wildseafoods.com Specialty Mushroom Growers Co-op (Richmond Specialty Mushroom Farms, Hui's Farm, Francis Mushrooms, Hidden Leaves Mushroom Farm, Mountainview Mushroom Farm) Mushrooms Peter Graystone 604-857-8959 www.specialtymushroom.net Ambercott Acres Dried fruit, crafts James Duperron and Kaaaly Levan 250-499-7097 Windy River Acres garlic Tim Robertson, Michelle Bodell 250-499-5285  Product list cow's milk cheese, fromage frais, cheese curds, free- run chicken eggs if available organic goat milk cheeses: feta, caprabella, capramonte, chevrotina, chevre, blue capri, blue caprina, yogurt, tomme de chevre certified organic cheeses made from the milk of our Jersery cows raw wholemilk cheddar cheese, panir, gouda, parmission frozen grass-fed beef, lamb, pork as well as dried and cured meat products eggs, vegetables and fruit including (but not limited to) artichokes, beans, beets, carrots, zucchini, squash - many varieties, corn, peppers, potatoes, blueberries, blackberries, plums, strawberries, raspberries. Frozen beef, blueberrry syrup and jam Frozen ostrich and beef, ostrich jerky and pepperoni, ostrich eggs, ostrich oil, oil soap, feather dusters and leather Beef, pork, garlic, pumpkins, gourds, potatoes, preserves, pickled veggies, lavender bundles and other lavender home fragrance accessories lamb - a variety of cuts including whole sides, sausages, roasts and chops (all frozen) Also wool and wool bedding rozen at sea salmon, tuna, shrimp, cod, octopus, squid, salmon roe and more vacuum sealed smoked salmon white button, oyster, portabella, crimini and shitake mushrooms ried fruit, dried vegetables, herb teas, apricot jam, hats and jewellery garlic - dried and green Page 34 APPENDIX  D A list of vendors supplied by Roberta LaQuaglia. These vendors were those which YLFMS could not accommodate. Business Name Name Address City/Prov Phone Bella Mushrooms Inc. Cong Tai Van 3342-232 St. Langley, BC C.M.A. Farms Stan & Maureen Donhuysen 6685 Sumas Prairie Road Chilliwack, BC 604-823-6255 Changing Strides Farm Judith Tjosvold 9436 - 184 St Surrey, BC 604-888-3270 Dominion Greenhouses Ronel McHenry 604.534.0850 cell 360.303.5870 Dorothy's Farm Rick Osoyoos, BC 250-619-3116 Dried Flowers by Judy Judy De Jager 4655 Community Street Yarrow, BC 604-823-6274 Evergreen Organics Shaun Schwartz 404 134 Abbott St Vancouver BC 604-689-0766 ext29 Farm House Natural Cheeses Deborah Aggasiz, BC 604-796-8741 Fragrant Flora Glenn Lewis RR22 - 3741 Sunshine Coast Hwy Roberts Creek, BC 1-604-885-6142 Fresh Off the Boat Mary Anne Charles 12843 Crescent Rd South Surrey, BC 604-538-9182 Garden Back to Eden Michael Allen 42385 Yale Road Chilliwack, BC 604-823-6693 , 604-823-4800 cel 604-768-8006 Katissa Poultry Chris 604-541-0007 Maggadean Farm Garlic Deborah Wilson 6002 Bella Vista Road Vernon, BC 250-542-0630 Nomad Cows Douglas Goertz & Marlene Freisen Box 301 Aldergrove BC 1-877-gr8 steak or 1604-807-5588 North Arm Farm Trish Sturdy 1888 Highway 99 Pemberton, BC 604-894-5379 Queen Charlotte Seafoods John Hunter/ Warren Bente 1144 East 22nd Avenue Vancouver, BC 604-723-5764 Rey-Nor Organics Deb Reynolds RR#1, S 10, C15 Cawston, BC Rocky Ridge Farm Ian Richardson 160 Coell-Jones Road Mara, BC 250-838-2221 Ross Farms Sue Ramsay and Doug Ross 18 Mile Squamish Valley Road, Box 482Brackendale, BC 604-898-2827 Sloping HIll Farm Bea Graf & Dirk Keller 350 Parker Road Qualicum Beach 250-752-0570 Smoothstone Bison Co. Dean & Brun Sawatzky 604-855-4208 Stone Gate Farm Alain LeBurel RR#1, Site 26, Compound 14 Oliver, BC 250-498-4284 Stone Gate Farm Alain LeBurel Oliver, BC phone not in service Suede hills Organic Farm Phil and Cindy Levington 250-682-1188 Sun  River Organics Daniela Basile 250-573-2394 The Saskatoon Patch Clifford & Evelyn Ask RR-3, S-25, C-4 Oliver, BC 250-498-3247 Thistledown Farms Anthea Benson 847 Pacific Drive Delta, BC 604-943-3308 Western Independent GreenhousesAlfred Kwan 6151 Thorn Avenue Burnaby, BC 604-521-3138 John Swadden 3071 Stevens St. Abbottsford, BC 604-857-5750 Gail Fort #312-2559 PArkview Lane Port Coquitlam, Bc 944-1842 Francoise Giovannageli 6-1075 GILFORD ST. Vancouver, Bc 604-682-3420 Glen Thelin 10127 Gillanders Rd. Chilliwack, BC 604-794-7901 Dermoth Wensil P.O. Box 4187 Yarrow, BC 604-823-0154 Lynn Bose 16430-64th Ave. Surrey, BC 604-576-6338 Piotr Maryniak 1316 Sherman Street Coquitlam, BC 604-944-0935 Jason Calvert 1868 West Broadway Vancouver, BC 604-730-6889 / 604-250-8002 Donna Haworth 15702 84th Ave Surrey BC 604-599-5856 Jane Stanley 312- East 53rd Avenue Vancouver, BC 604-321-9333 Bonnie MacGilchrist 27618 56th Avenue Abbotsford, BC 604-856-6447 (or 0447) Carmelis Alpine Goat Cheese Artisan170 Timberline Road Kelowna, BC 250-764-9033 Jim Collier 1609 Trans Canada Highway Lytton, BC 250-455-0028 Ida Ayers 6182 Brodie Rd Delta, BC 604-946-2028 Brian Chalmers 604-856-3339 Sarah Mackin 2870 31st Avenue Ladner, BC 604-940-9483 Manny Sidhu 12494 96 A Avenue Surrey, BC 604-825-7009 John van der Dusen 17974 40th Avenue Surrey, BC 604-574-5798 e-mail bellamushrooms@shaw.ca childofafrica@hotmail.com schoggi@telus.net mcharles@telus.net chris@specialtychicken.com evergreenjade@hotmail.com dandm@telusmail.net trish@northarmfarm.com debreynolds@nethop.net rockyridgefarm@telus.net sr0904@telus.net slopinghill@shaw.ca deanbrun@shaw.ca pclev@axion.net basiles@telus.net kbose@telus.net piotrm@telus.net barmoro@shaw.ca sayers@telus.net westernb@shaw.ca  Page 35 APPENDIX E Survey Questions for Consumers  Q1 How often do you visit the UBC Farm Market between June and October? Q2 Which of the following do you consider yourself to be *Check all that apply*? Q3 Please indicate how interested you would be to purchase: Q4 Farmers markets promote local products, not all of which are organic.  Would you continue purchasing from the UBC Farm Market if other vendors were local but not organic? Q5 Please rate each of the following factors on how important they are when shopping at a farmer's market. Q6 Are you willing to pay a higher premium (e.g.  approximately 20 to 30% more) for higher quality, more sustainable, local and/or organic products? Q7 Our Farmer's Market is currently held on a Saturday.  We are considering changing the day of our Market in order to accommodate our vendors.  What other days (besides Saturday) would you like to come: *Please check all that may apply* Q8 Would you be interested in attending activities at the UBC Farm Market, such as barbeques, face painting, etc on a regular basis?  Page 36 APPENDIX F Summary of Total Survey Results Q1 % response # Responses/Total Frequently (attending more than two markets per month) 14.8% 80/540 Occasionally (attending one or two markets per month) 20.9% 113/540 Infrequently (attending five or less markets per annual Market season [Jun-Oct]) 47.4% 256/540 Other (please specify) 16.9% 91/540 Q2 % response # Responses/Total responses UBC undergraduates 37.8% 204/540 UBC graduates 12.8% 69/540 UBC staff 13.3% 72/540 UBC faculty or instructor 6.3% 34/540 UBC alumni 15.4% 83/540 University residents 14.8% 80/540 UBC indirect-affiliates 18.0% 97/540 other 7.2% 39/540 Produce 0.76% 4/528 0.95% 5/528 7.95% 42/528 89.96% 475/528 0.38% 2/528 Meat (beef, chicken, etc) 27.44% 138/503 19.28% 97/503 22.27% 112/503 28.43% 143/503 2.58% 13/503 Seafood 32.40% 162/500 23.20% 116/500 19.60% 98/500 22.80% 114/500 2.00% 10/500 Cheese 10.36% 54/521 11.71% 61/521 31.67% 165/521 45.30% 236/521 0.96% 5/521 Baked goods 10.94% 56/512 23.24% 119/512 33.40% 171/512 32.03% 164/512 0.39% 2/512 Prepared food (jams, sauces, ready-to-eat food, etc) 10.02% 51/509 25.74% 131/509 35.17% 179/509 28.68% 146/509 0.39% 2/509 Crafts (jewellery, pottery, card 26.51% 132/498 34.34% 171/498 26.71% 133/498 12.05% 60/498 0.40% 2/498 Services (coffees, smoothies, massage, etc) 23.90% 120/502 28.88% 145/502 28.09% 141/502 18.92% 95/502 0.20% 1/502 # Responses/Total responses # Responses/Total responses # Responses/Total responsesQ3 # Responses/Total responsesNot Interested N/AVery InterestedSomewhat InterestedMildly Interested # Responses/Total responses      Page 37  Convenience 5.24% 27/515 39.61% 204/515 36.89% 190/515 17.67% 91/515 0.58% 3/515 Quality/Freshness 0.00% 0/524 0.95% 5/524 25.38% 133/524 73.47% 385/524 0.19% 1/524 Unusual/diverse varieties 8.08% 42/520 40.38% 210/520 34.81% 181/520 16.15% 84/520 0.58% 3/520 Quantity from which to choose 6.54% 34520 41.92% 218/520 35.77% 186/520 15.38% 80/520 0.38% 2/520 Price 2.30% 12/521 42.42% 221/521 36.47% 190/521 18.62% 97/521 0.19% 1/521 In season 2.30% 12/522 21.26% 111/522 39.66% 207/522 36.21% 189/522 0.57% 3/522 Grown at the UBC Farm 9.92% 52/524 42.75% 224/524 27.86% 146/524 19.47% 102/524 0.00% 0/524 Grown in the Lower Mainland 4.04% 21/520 21.54% 112/520 43.85% 228/520 30.38% 158/520 0.19% 1/520 Grown in BC 2.50% 13/519 17.73% 92/519 35.65% 185/519 44.12% 229/519 0.00% 0/519 Free of pesticide residues 1.91% 10/523 13.58% 71/523 28.49% 149/523 55.45% 290/523 0.57% 3/523 Free of genetic modification 6.14% 32/521 16.31% 85/521 19.77% 103/521 57.20% 298/521 0.58% 3/521 Has organic certification 19.27% 100/519 45.09% 234/519 21.39% 111/519 13.87% 72/519 0.39% 2/519 # Responses/Total responses N/A # Responses/Total responsesExtermely Important # Responses/Total responses # Responses/Total responses # Responses/Total responsesQ5 Not Important Somewhat Important Very Important  Yes # Responses/Total responses No # Responses/Total responses N/A # Responses/Total responses Q4 80.3% 428/533 9.4% 50/533 4.7% 25/533 Q6 81.9% 431/526 14.6% 77/526 3.4% 18/526 Q8 49.2% 258/524 44.8% 235/524 5.9% 31/524 Monday: 3pm-7pm Tuesday: 3pm-7pm Wednesday: 3pm-7pm Thursday: 3pm-7pm Friday: 3pm-7pm Sunday: 9am-2pm Other (specify) Q7 33.3% 29.1% 36.2% 36.4% 43.4% 68.4% 8.7% # Responses/Total responses 173/519 151/519 188/519 189/519 225/519 355/519 45/519 Page 38 APPENDIX G From: Murray Isman <murray.isman@ubc.ca> Date: Apr 12, 2007 3:34 PM Subject: Re: Dean Permission for Expansion of the UBC Farm Market To: Margaret gove <margaretgovebloomquist@gmail.com>  Margaret: Sorry for your delay in responding to your previous message. To the extent that you are requesting my permission for the purposes of your AGSC 450 report, I certainly concur in principle. I say this because any actual expansion would require approval by Mark Bomford before any real action could take place, and in my brief exchange with him we agreed that issues of liability, safety, image, etc. need be fully explored. Both he and I certainly value the legwork you and your team have made toward that and. I think you can take this as my conditional permission.  Very best,  Murray  *Murray B. Isman, Dean *and Professor (*Entomology/Toxicology) *Faculty of Land and Food Systems tel: (604) 822-1219 University of British Columbia fax: (604) 822-6394 2357 Main Mall, Suite 248 murray.isman@ubc.ca Vancouver, BC, Canada V6T 1Z4 www.landfood.ubc.ca  At 09:46 PM 11/04/2007, you wrote:  April 11, 2007  Hello Dr. Isman, I am writing to request an email verfication of your conditional permission to expand the UBC Farm Market, as discussed previously. We would like to utilize your permission and segments of our discussion within our final report. As tomorrow is the final day of classes, your timely response will be much appreciated.  Thank you very much for your insightful words and for your time It was a pleasure to meet you.  Kind Regards,  Margaret Bloomquist & Jason Gray    On 4/5/07, Mark Bomford <mark.bomford@ubc.ca> wrote:  Hi Margaret,  This confirms that the staff and I at CSFS - UBC Farm are interested in expanding the number and variety of vendors at our Saturday markets to include third-party vendors.  Students in AGSC 450 have been tasked as a problem scenario to investigate the feasibility of such a desired expansion. In addition to operational considerations, the feasibility assessment includes consideration of potential regulatory and legal implications at both the UBC level and with government regulations.  Though we have a strong interest in growing the market and allowing more people to benefit from the farm, at this stage any expansion that would have regulatory implications must be considered carefully. If the AGSC 450 study comes to the conclusion that this expansion would have a net benefit to the UBC Farm, then a proposal would be reviewed by the farm advisory committee before being put into operation.  Mark  -- Mark Bomford Program Coordinator Centre for Sustainable Food Systems at UBC Farm t: 604.822.5092 f: 604.822.6839 mark.bomford@ubc.ca  UBC Faculty of Land and Food Systems #248-2357 Main Mall Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z4 www.landfood.ubc.ca/ubcfarm   Page 39

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